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The International Journal of Engineering And Science (IJES)||Volume|| 2 ||Issue|| 1 ||Pages|| 01-09 ||2013||ISSN: 2319 – 1813 ISBN: 2319 – 1805 Computational Intelligence Based Technique in Optimal Overcurrent Relay Coordination: A Review M.H. Hussain1, I. Musirin2, S.R.A. Rahim3, A.F. Abidin4 1 School of Electrical System Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Perlis, Malaysia. 2 Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Selangor, Malaysia.--------------------------------------------------------Abstract:-------------------------------------------------------This paper presents an overview on optimal overcurrent relay coordination in protection system and protective relays.Efforts have been made to include all methods used for the coordination of overcurrent relays. It includes techniques, suchas Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Nature Inspired Algorithm (NIA) as well as other conventional methods used forovercurrent protection. A brief review is made on conventional methods while more prominence is given on the applicationof AI and NIA for the protection of overcurrent relays. This paper presents a review of previous works on optimalovercurrent relay and its relevant issues. Numerous papers have been reviewed for this purpose. In addition, the results ofthese techniques also provided in the respective references.Keywords— overcurrent relay coordination; protection system; protective relays; artificial intelligence; nature inspiredalgorithm---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Date of Submission: 30, November, 2012 Date of Publication: 05, January 2013---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------I. INTRODUCTIONN owadays, the modern society has come to depend In order to carry out power system protection main functions, protection must fulfill the followingheavily upon continuous and reliable availability of criteria; reliability, selectivity (discrimination),electricity and a high quality of electricity too [1]. sensitivity, stability and speed [6-15]. Besides ofApplications such as process industries, banking and power system protection requirements, protectivetelecommunication networking cannot function relays are the most important part in power system. Inwithout a reliable source of electric power. Thus, electrical engineering, a protective relay is a complexmaintaining a continuous supply of electricity is electromechanical apparatus, designed to calculateessential if electric supply fail to deliver. This is where operating conditions on an electrical circuit and trippower system protection becomes an important asset. circuit breakers when fault is detected. As the designerIn general, power system protection main functions or engineer of the system struggles with devising aare safeguard the entire system to maintain continuity system arrangement, the engineer simply cannot buildof supply, minimize damage and repair costs where it a system which will never fail regardless of anysenses a fault and ensure safety of personnel [2]. reasons. For designing the protective relaying,These requirements are necessary for early detection, understanding the fault characteristics is required.localization of faults and prompt removal of faulty Related to this, protection engineer should beequipment from service. Since power system conversant about tripping characteristics of variousdevelopments change its structure, the power system protective relays. The design of protective relayingprotection becomes very vital. The continuous of has to ensure that relays will be able to detectpower systems expansion with inconsistent increase of abnormal or undesirable conditions and then trip thetransmission loadability leads to protection systems circuit breaker to disconnect the affected area withoutwhich are required to perform with realibility and affecting other undesired areas. According tosecurity in the network [3-5]. statistical evidence, large numbers of relay tripping are due to improper or inadequate settings rather than to genuine faults [1].www.theijes.com The IJES Page 1
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Computational Intelligence Based Technique in Optimal Overcurrent Relay Coordination: A Review Overcurrent Protective relay is always critical device Relaysrather than the operating quality of automaticoperation such as auto-reclosing and monitoringequipment which collects data on the system. Theimportance of designing protective systems andconsidering different strategies are arising regularly Directional Protective Differentialdue to faults, overload, under-frequency and over- Relays Relays Relaysvoltage in power system. Such conditions causeinterruption to the supply and may harm equipmentconnected to the system. The faulted componentsmust be identified and isolated to guarantee the energy Distance Relays Pilot Relayssupply to the largest number of consumers as possible.Furthermore, time coordination among protective Fig. 1 Five types of Protective Relaysdevices such as protective relay and protective circuitbreaker are also essential. II. OVERCURRENT RELAY COORDINATION Primary devices, which is close to the fault Basically, overcurrent relay (OCR) is a typelocation should act first before backup devices which of protective relay which operates when the loadare located farther. The primary device must respond current exceeds a preset value. It has a single input into the fault as fast as possible. These primary devices the form of ac current. The output of the relay isand backup devices must be coordinated together and normally open-contact and can changes to closed statecoordination time interval (CTI) is the criteria to be when the relay trips. Relay has two settings whichconsidered for coordination [12]. It is predefined CTI commonly known as time setting and plug setting. Theand it depends on the type of relays. For function of time setting is to decide the operating timeelectromagnetic relays, CTI is 0.3 to 0.4s while for of the relay while plug setting decides the currentmicroprocessor based relay, CTI is 0.1 to 0.2s [12]. required for the relay to pick up.The backup devices should not act first unless the The overcurrent relay is widely used in manyprimary devices fails to operate. protection applications throughout power systems. In reference [16], fault analysis may be When a fault occurs, huge amount of current flowsdivided into two steps: a) determination of the which may damage power system components.maximum currents that components must endure and Therefore, overcurrent relay must de-energize theswitching devices must interrupt and b) coordination faulted line as soon as possible to protect the systemof circuit protection. As pointed in [1], the most from the faults. Overcurrent relay is used forvisible effect of a shunt fault is sudden built up of overcurrent protection, connected to a currentcurrent. So it is acceptable that the magnitude of transformer and calibrated to operate at or abovecurrent is considered with positive sign for the specific current level. When the relay operates, one orpresence of a fault. Therefore, the overcurrent more contacts will operate and energize a trip coil in aprotection is the most widely used form of protection Circuit Breaker (CB) and open the CB. Figure 2in distribution system [1, 7, 17-23]. Protection against illustrate the process frameworks of overcurrent relaycurrent was naturally the earliest protective system to on distribution system with its current setting andevolve. Generally, Figure 1 comprises five types of coordination time.protective relays which are overcurrent relays,directional relays, differential relays, distance relays Fault Short Overload Current Circuitand pilot relays. One of the mainly common protectiverelays used in power systems from various faults is theovercurrent relay. Current Transformer (CT) This paper presents the review of optimalovercurrent relay coordination. Numerous past workshave been critically and rigorously reviewed in order Relayto identify the gap within the current relevantresearches. From the exhaustive investigations, it isdiscovered that artificial intelligence based technique Circuit Breakeris a promising approach to accurately identify theoperating current coordination. Current Coordination Setting Distribution System Time System Protected Fig. 2 Illustration of overcurrent relay process frameworks on distribution systemwww.theijes.com The IJES Page 2
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Computational Intelligence Based Technique in Optimal Overcurrent Relay Coordination: A Review determine break points [33]. In the functional method, Overcurrent relays generally have current the constraints on the relay settings are formulated bysetting multipliers ranging from 50 to 200% in steps of a set of functional dependencies. Other topological25% which is referred to as plug setting (PS) [24-26]. analysis which is linear graph theory has beenPS for each relay is determined by two parameters; the extended to analyze all simple loops of the network inminimum fault current and the maximum load current both directions considering the minimum set of[24-26]. These devices provide fast operation at high breakpoints and so as the primary and backup relaycurrent and slow operation at low current and as the pairs. The solution found using this method is the bestfault current is a function of the fault location the of option settings considered but not optimal in anycoordination with other overcurrent devices is possible strict sense. Meaning that, the TSM or time dial[27]. The coordination of this protective relay is set up settings (TDS) of the relays are high. Furthermore,during the process of system design based on the fault due to the complexity of the system, trial and errorcurrent calculation. To clear faults properly within a approach and topological analysis are time consumingdefinite time, each protective relay has to coordinate and not optimal.with other protective relays located at all adjacent In cases where the distribution system hasbuses. Their coordination time is an important factor more than one connected source, directionalof the protection system design. Thus, the overall overcurrent relays turn out to be the convenienceprotection coordination is very complicated. choice. Birla et al. in [34], classified the previous Relay coordination problem is to determine works on directional overcurrent relay into threethe sequence of relay operations for each possible categories: curve fitting technique, graph theoreticalfault location so that the faulted section is isolated technique and optimization technique. The curvewith sufficient margins and without excessive time fitting techniques are used to determine the finestdelays [28]. This sequence selection is a function of function to represent data. The relay characteristic isnetwork topology, relay characteristics and protection modeled mathematically by polynomial form usingphilosophy [29]. In distribution system, the curve fitting techniques [35, 36]. Second category isovercurrent relay coordination problem can be defined graph theoretical techniques, were also reported inas constrained optimization problem. The objective in [37]. The system structure is utilized for analyzing thethe coordination problem of overcurrent relays is to information on minimum set of breakpoints, sequencedetermine the time setting multiplier (TSM) and plug for setting relay and all primary or backup relays andsetting multiplier (PSM) of each relay, so that the line directionality for directional relays. Figure 3overall operating time of the primary relays is below shows classical or conventional method usedminimized properly. Other authors aim is to determine for optimal overcurrent relay coordination.the TSM and pickup current setting for each relay, sothat the overall operating time of the primary relays isminimized. For optimal coordination, these parameters Conventional Methodshould fulfill all constraints under the shortestoperation time. Besides TSM, PSM and pickupcurrent setting, optimum method, objective function(OF), type of network either radial or interconnected Trial & Error Topological Analysisnetwork, non-linear relay characteristic proportional toTSM and PSM are to be important aspects for anoptimal coordination. Functional Graph TheoryIII. CONVENTIONAL METHODS VS OPTIMIZATION TECHNIQUES APPLICATIONS Fig.3 Conventional Method Approach Several methods have been proposed in thepast four decades since 1960s for the coordination of The optimization techniques generallyovercurrent relays. These methods can be classified overcome the conventional approach which relaysinto three classes which are trial and error, topological were arranged in a sequence before considered foranalysis method and optimization method [8-9, 16, 30- coordination [38] and due to its advantages, it32]. Trial and error approach was used but it has slow becomes popular among researchers. Furthermore,convergence rate as a result of large number of optimization techniques eliminate the need to find theiterations needed to reach a suitable relay setting [28, set of breakpoints.33]. To minimize the number of iterations required for Urdaneta et al. [39] was the first researcher tothe coordination process, a technique to break all the describe the application of the optimization theory inloops called breakpoint and locate the starting relays the coordination of directional overcurrent relay. Theat these points is recommended. Finding the values of TSM have been calculated using Linearbreakpoints is the significant part to initiate the programming (LP) model, simplex method for a givencoordination process. Topological methods which values of pickup current, Ip. In the optimizationinclude functional and graph theory are used to method, some researchers used non-linearwww.theijes.com The IJES Page 3
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Computational Intelligence Based Technique in Optimal Overcurrent Relay Coordination: A Reviewprogramming to solve the coordination problem but in [10, 44-45] also proposed Simplex, dual Simplexthese methods are complex and time consuming [40]. and two-phase Simplex methods to solve theThis is due to the non-linear programming approach, directional overcurrent relay problem in ring fedbased on the relay characteristic, TSM and Ip are distribution system. After proposed LP techniques andoptimized simultaneously. In [39], [41] and [42], the Big-M (penalty) method, proceeding paper in [46]relay coordination problem is formulated as mixed compared the four methods and it was shown thatinteger non-linear programming (MINLP) and is dual-Simplex method was better as compared tosolved by using General Algebraic Modeling System others. The authors did state that the number of(GAMS) software. However, the use of binary calculations per iteration in dual-Simplex method isvariables to take into account the discrete pickup much less than the other three methods. However,currents, Ips increases the complexity of the Ezzedin et. al [9] did state that although LP techniquescoordination problem [34]. Due to the complexity of are simple and easily converge to optimal solutions,this technique, the coordination of overcurrent relays only values of TSM can be optimized but pickupis commonly performed by linear programming (LP) current, Ip has to be selected by experience of faulttechniques such as Simplex, dual Simplex and two- data and load. Generally, this is not the globalphase Simplex methods [25, 26, 31, 34, 41]. The optimum answer or solution of the problem. Hence,drawback of these techniques is that this is based on the use of these LP techniques has boundaries in terman initial guess and may be trapped in the local of low number of constraints.minimum [43]. In these methods, pickup current, Ipsettings are assumed to be known and the operation IV. ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE AND NATUREtime of each relay is considered as linear function of INSPIRE ALGORITHMits TSM or TDS. Nowadays, artificial intelligence (AI) and In [7], Big-M (penalty) method has been nature inspired algorithms (NIA) based optimizationproposed to find the optimum value of TMS of methods are applied to solve both overcurrent relaysovercurrent relays in which the PS are assumed to be and directional overcurrent relays coordinationknown and fixed. This method is based on the simplex problem. Different categories of Computationalalgorithm used to find optimum solution in linear Intelligence (CI) with different techniques areprogramming problem. It introduces artificial specifically categorized in Figure 4.variables in the objective function to get an initialbasic feasible solution known as IBFS. Bedekar et. al Computational Intelligence Evolutionary Swarm Physical Immune Fuzzy Systems Expert Systems Computation Intelligence Algorithms Algorithms Artificial Genetic Particle Simulated Immune Algorithm Swarm Annealing Systems Clonal Evolutionary Artificial Harmony Section Programming Bees Colony Search Algorithm Dendritic Differential Honey Bee Cultural Cell Evolution Algorithm Algorithm Algorithm Immune Genetic Firefly Memetic Network Programming Algorithm Algorithm Algorithm Fig 4. Computational Intelligence categories with different methods Some of the AI methods such as fuzzy logic linear formulation of the coordination problem. A newreported in [47] and recently expert system rules method for modeling overcurrent relay characteristicsconsideration in [38] have also been applied to solve curves based on a combined adaptive network andthis problem. In [38], the expert rules of previous fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) also was proposed inpapers are modified and weighted to determine the [48]. Overcurrent relay modeling was done usingpriority of constraints. With AI techniques, if linear ANFIS for two types of overcurrent relays (RSA20formulation is used, only TSM can be optimized but and CRP9) with different types to bring out thethe optimization of both relay settings requires non- optimal design.www.theijes.com The IJES Page 4
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Computational Intelligence Based Technique in Optimal Overcurrent Relay Coordination: A Review In [11-12, 31, 49-51] Genetic Algorithm In 2010, Barzegari et. al used Harmony(GA) was implemented successfully for optimal Search Algorithm (HSA) [8] leads better solutioncoordination overcurrent relay to overcome compared to GA and LP method. This HSA then ismiscoordination problem and minimizing the applied to developed a new Improvised Harmonyoperation time of relays. Singh et.al in [52] determine Search Algorithm (IHSA) to solve the optimalthe operating time of the relays using GA for both coordination of directional overcurrent relay problem.linear objective functions and non linear objective In same year, Rashtchi et. al proposed Honey Beefunctions. Some of the researchers come with better Algorithm (HBA) [20] which results in less TSM. Oneidea such as Razavi et. al [26] and Noghabi et. al [41] year later, Uthisunthorn et. al showed that in [56],to solve miscoordination problem both for continuous Artificial Bees Colony (ABC) can converge towardsand discrete TSM or TDS and improve the better solution slightly faster than PSO and Quasi-convergence of GA using Hybrid GA. Bedekar et.al Newton (BFGS). In the middle of 2012, Rodporn et. al[42, 53] contribute in finding global optimum values in [57] employed Differential Evolution (DE) to solveof TMS and PS using Hybrid GA with Non-Linear for solutions for optimal relay coordination. This DEProgramming (GA-NLP) method and proposed algorithm was originally developed from GA but theContinuous Genetic Algorithm (CGA) to minimize the structure is much simpler. Later, Amraee T in [58]operation time of relays and avoid the mal-operation proposed seeker technique which capable of findingof the relays. Other optimization technique which is superior TDS or TMS and PMS settings in linear andreliable to solve optimization technique is non-linear model. A hybrid Nelder-Mead simplexEvolutionary Programming (EP). search method and Particle Swarm Optimization (NM- EP application in protection system was first PSO) recently proposed by Liu, A. and Yang, M.Tapplied by So et. al in 2000 but it has two problems; [59]. This method is used to improve the efficiency ofmiscoordination between relays and discrete TSM the PSO for rapid convergence, computation speedchanged to continuous [54]. Later, Zieneldin et. al, and feasibility.Mohamed et. al and Rathniam et. al proposed a To get a clear view on how the processmodified particle swarm optimization (PSO) to works, Figure 5 illustrates Intelligent Control &calculate the optimal relay settings [13, 28, 55]. Asadi Monitoring act as a “brain” with differentet. al [14] convinced that PSO can handle Computational Intelligence methods to determine anmiscoordination problems much better for both optimal results for overcurrent relays. Differentcontinuous and discrete TSM and PSM rather than EP methods that had been proposed by resepectiveand GA but Bashir et. al come out with a better authors or researchers with specific references forsolutions with less iteration compared to GA and LP overcurrent relays also were summarized in Figure 6.method as reported in [15]. Distribution System Bus A Bus B Bus C Source Zs CB CB IR,A IR,B CT E Relay RA CT Relay RB Load IL,A Trip Load IL,B Trip Load IL,C Fault Evolutionary Expert Systems Computation Intelligent Control & Monitoring Fuzzy Systems Swarm Intelligence Immune Physical Algorithms Algorithms Fig. 5 An illustration example of overcurrent relays for feeder protection with Intelligent Control & Monitoring in distribution systemwww.theijes.com The IJES Page 5
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Computational Intelligence Based Technique in Optimal Overcurrent Relay Coordination: A Review Computational Intelligence Linear Evolutionary Genetic Algorithm Non-Linear Swarm Differential Harmony Search Programming Programming [53] [11-20, 30, 48-51] Programming Intelligence Evolution [27, 56] [45] Improvised Continuous Simplex Two-phase Harmony Particle Artificial Genetic [43] Simplex Search Swarm Bees Algorithm dual [10] Algorithm [13, 14, Colony [52] Simplex [8] 54] [55] [44] Hybrid GA [40] Honey S Bees [25] GA-NLP [41] Fig. 6 Different methods that had been proposed by researchers for overcurrent relay coordinationV. NEXT FRONTIER Recently, different countries represented by DistributionUnited States of America and the European Union System Smart Gridpropose to build a flexible, clean, safe, economicaland friendly smart grid and regard the smart grid asthe future direction of the power grid [60-62]. This isdue to the expansion of power grid scale and Intelligent Systemconstruction of ultra high voltage (UHV) power grid Monitoring & Operationthat lead to short circuit increasing [63]. Thus, it willaffected the electrical equipment operations and thereliability of the system. In addition, the development Fig. 7 Integration between smart grid andof micro-grid technology also will cause problems distribution system with intelligent system monitoringsuch as coordinating of backup protections and multi- and operationway power flows. This will lead difficulties forconventional relay protection setting and operation VI. CONCLUSIONS[63]. Thus, with the studies of smart grid, the A comprehensive review on overcurrent relayovercurrent protection area is catching more attention. coordination have been done appropriately. Many Applying conventional methods to solve the methods and techniques are proposed andmatters related to power systems have been almost implemented for the past four decades and to meetreplaced by advanced schemes and technologies [64], present day requirements, mathematical tool such asnamely computational intelligence. With the AI and NIA based optimization methods seems to becharacteristics of smart grid such as enabling new reliable and fast. This is an effort to present author’sservices, markets, provide the power quality, works on the subject of techniques used in overcurrentoptimizing asset utilization and operating efficiency, relay coordination, the presence of oversight is boundhopefully it could bring a new dimension or next to be there. Future work is proposed here to improvefrontier in overcurrent protection research. Figure 7 the overcurrent relay coordination with the existenceillustrates the integration between smart grid and of smart grid. The author would like to apologize fordistribution system applications with intelligent any error or any oversight and hope that additionalsystem monitoring and operation. references will be discussed on this publication.www.theijes.com The IJES Page 6
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