B037309012
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The International Journal of Engineering & Science is aimed at providing a platform for researchers, engineers, scientists, or educators to publish their original research results, to exchange new ...

The International Journal of Engineering & Science is aimed at providing a platform for researchers, engineers, scientists, or educators to publish their original research results, to exchange new ideas, to disseminate information in innovative designs, engineering experiences and technological skills. It is also the Journal's objective to promote engineering and technology education. All papers submitted to the Journal will be blind peer-reviewed. Only original articles will be published.
The papers for publication in The International Journal of Engineering& Science are selected through rigorous peer reviews to ensure originality, timeliness, relevance, and readability.
Theoretical work submitted to the Journal should be original in its motivation or modeling structure. Empirical analysis should be based on a theoretical framework and should be capable of replication. It is expected that all materials required for replication (including computer programs and data sets) should be available upon request to the authors.

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  • 1. The International Journal Of Engineering And Science (IJES) || Volume || 3 || Issue || 7 || Pages || 09-12 || 2014 || ISSN (e): 2319 – 1813 ISSN (p): 2319 – 1805 www.theijes.com The IJES Page 9 Synthesis and Elastic Study in Cuo:La Nanofluid 1, George Varughese, 2, M Suma , 3, J. M Abraham , 4, A.S Kumar 1,2,3, Department of Physics, Catholicate College, Pathanamthitta, Kerala, India -689 645 4, SPAP,Mahatma Gandhi University,Kottayam,Kerala,India-686 560 ----------------------------------------------------ABSTRACT ------------------------------------------------------ Copper Oxide is an extensively studied group II-VI semiconductor with optical properties that permits stable emission at room temperature having immense application in sensors, field emission and photonic devices. CuO:La nano materials with an average particle size of 27-33 nm are synthesized by the reaction of copper nitrate in ammonia solution under hydrothermal conditions. XRD, SEM and EDS characterize the samples. The percentage of doping material is confirmed from the EDS spectra. The average crystal size of the prepared CuO nanopowder is determined by XRD. The Ultrasonic velocity and Compressibility have been measured in the CuO:La nanofluid and found 50 A0 KEY WORDS: A:Nanofluid B: Copper oxide C:Lanthanum D: Compressibility --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Date of Submission: 19 February 2013 Date of Publication: 25 July 2014 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- I. INTRODUCTION Copper Oxide is an extensively studied group II-VI semiconductor with optical properties that permits stable emission at room temperature having immense application in sensors, field emission and photonic devices [1-2]. It exhibits a wide variety of morphologies in the nano regime that can be grown by tuning the growth habit of the CuO crystal. Nano CuO can be used as gas sensors, optical switch, and magnetic storage media owing to its photoconductive and photochemical properties[3]. Nanoscaled CuO materials have applications in nanodevices [4]. Furthermore it is a promising semiconductor for solar cell fabrication due to its suitable optical properties. CuO nanoparticles has immense medical applications [5]. II. EXPERIMENTAL Synthesis and characterization CuO nanoparticles are prepared by chemical precipitation route from copper nitrate solution and ammonia. The powdered sample is doped with Lanthanum. The surface topography and microstructure were studied using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM). Dispersive X-ray Spectrum Analysis (EDX) was used to determine percentage composition of La in Cu. The compressibility of nanofluid was measured using ultrasonic interferometer. III. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS Determination of particle Size from XRD Pattern. The X-ray diffraction studies were carried out to determine the size and structure of the nanoparticles of CuO.The XRD was compared with JCPDS file No:00-039-1498. The degree of crystallinity of nanoparticles increases with annealing temperature. The percentage of lattice contraction with annealing temperature can also be studied using X-ray diffraction pattern. Particle Size, can be calculated by the formula [6], Debye- Scherrer’s formula L = K λ / β cos θ. (1) K=0.89, λ the X-ray wavelength = 0.154095 nm, β the full wavelength at half maximum and θ the half diffraction angle. The crystal size of CuO:La nano particle calculated from FWHM was tabulated in Table 1. 3.2 XRD pattern of CuO:La at various temperatures
  • 2. Synthesis and Elastic study in CuO:La… www.theijes.com The IJES Page 10 Figs.1-2 The XRD pattern of CuO: La nanoparticle at 150o C and 200o C CuO-150 Operations: Smooth 0.150 | Background 0.000,1.000 | Import File: SAIFXR100429E-03(CuO-150).raw - Type: 2Th/Th locked - Step: 0.020 ° - Step time: 35.7 s - WL1: 1.5406 - kA2 Ratio: 0.5 - Generator kV: 40 kV - Generator mA: 30 mA - Antiscatte Lin(Counts) 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 2-Theta - Scale 5 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 CuO-200 Operations: Smooth 0.150 | Background 0.000,1.000 | Import File: SAIFXR100429E-04(CuO-200).raw - Type: 2Th/Th locked - Step: 0.020 ° - Step time: 35.7 s - WL1: 1.5406 - kA2 Ratio: 0.5 - Generator kV: 40 kV - Generator mA: 30 mA - Antiscatte Lin(Counts) 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000 11000 12000 13000 14000 15000 16000 2-Theta - Scale 5 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Table :1. Particle size measurements of CuO:La from XRD data Temp FWHM β x10-3 2θ θ Particle size (L) Nm 150 0.295 5.14 12.892 6.446 27 200 0.24 4.18 12.948 6.474 33 3.3 .Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) The SEM image of CuO:La nanoparticle under high magnification is shown below. Fig 3. SEM of CuO:La Nanoparticle
  • 3. Synthesis and Elastic study in CuO:La… www.theijes.com The IJES Page 11 Energy Dispersive Spectrum Analysis (EDS) EDAX or EDS of CuO:La nanoparticle is plotted using the recorder and the EDAX data is found as CuO 98.18 % and La 1.82 % Fig. 4. EDS spectra of CuO:La nanoparticle Compressibility measurements using ultrasonics Ultrasonic waves of known frequency (f) are produced by a quartz crystal fixed at the bottom of the cell of ultrasonic interferometer (Mittel Ent. Delhi). The wavelength of ultrasonic waves of frequency 2MHz is found out and tabulated in the table 2. Density of CuO nanofluid, ρ = 1.201×103 Kg/m3. Compressibility was measured using the formula β =1/ρv2 [7]. It was measured to be 50 A0. Table 2. Compressiblity measurement of CuO;La nanofluid using ultrasonics IV. CONCLUSION The size and crystal structure of CuO doped with lanthanum was studied using XRD. The XRD results indicated that the particle size of nano CuO doped with lanthanum is much small as compared to that of pure CuO and decreases with lanthanum loading.ie,. 27-33 nm. From XRD results it is clear that as temperature increases , particle size also increases.The SEM spectra was used to characterize the nano particle . From the EDAX analysis , the percentage of mass of elements are obtained . The ultrasonic velocity measured [7] by using ultrasonic interferometer in the CuO;La nano fluid to be 402 m/s and the compressibility was estimated as 50 Ao . Fluid Readings λ/2 Mean λ/2 V=f λ m/s Compressibility β =1/ρv2 A0 units CuO:La nanofluid 7.715 7.807 7.905 8.017 0.092 0.098 0.112 0.1006 402.4 50
  • 4. Synthesis and Elastic study in CuO:La… www.theijes.com The IJES Page 12 REFERENCES [1] V.A, Karpina, Crys. Res. Tech., 39 , 2004, 980 [2] A.L Efros and M Rosen., Annu.Rev.Mater.Sel. 36, 2003. 475 [3] B.D., Gates Yang Lei Q.,Wang Guozhong, and Zhang Lide, Chem.Phys.Letts., 409, 2005. 337. [4] K.K Nanda., F.E Kruis.and H. Hassan Phys.Rev.Lett. 89, 2002, 256103 [5] L. C Xu,., D.B.Love Wolfe and. G.M, Whitesides Annu.Rev.Mater.Res., 34, 2004, 339 [6] B.D., Cullity Elements of X-ray Diffraction, (Second Edition, Addison Wiley. Publishing Co 1978) [7] S.,Tarlok Banipal and Gagandeep Sehgal,Thermochimica acta, 262 , (1995), 175.