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The International Journal of Engineering & Science is aimed at providing a platform for researchers, engineers, scientists, or educators to publish their original research results, to exchange new ...

The International Journal of Engineering & Science is aimed at providing a platform for researchers, engineers, scientists, or educators to publish their original research results, to exchange new ideas, to disseminate information in innovative designs, engineering experiences and technological skills. It is also the Journal's objective to promote engineering and technology education. All papers submitted to the Journal will be blind peer-reviewed. Only original articles will be published.
The papers for publication in The International Journal of Engineering& Science are selected through rigorous peer reviews to ensure originality, timeliness, relevance, and readability.

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    • The International Journal Of Engineering And Science (IJES) ||Volume||3 ||Issue|| 1||Pages|| 10-14||2014|| ISSN(e): 2319 – 1813 ISSN(p): 2319 – 1805 Skidded Distance V. Initial Velocity of Vehicle in Chain Accidents on Highways Robert M. Brooks1, Mehmet Cetin2 1 College of Engineering, Temple University, USA (Corresponding Author) 2 College of Engineering, Temple University, USA -----------------------------------------------------ABSTRACT----------------------------------------------------The objective of this study is to determine the influence of skidded distance on the initial velocity of the first vehicle in a chain accident on highways involving three vehicles. Regression analysis on the results of these variables was conducted. Excellent correlation coefficient was found for the relationship at α = 0.05 significance level. The influence of Skidded Distance on the Initial Velocity is shown by a quadratic equation (Initial velocity = -5E-05 Skidded distance 2 -0.05 Skidded Distance + 113.21) with R = 1. KEYWORDS: Accident Reconstruction, Chain Accident, Initial Velocity, Regression Analysis, Skidded Distance. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Date of Submission: 09 January 2014 Date of Acceptance: 20 January 2014 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- I. INTRODUCTION Accident reconstructing engineering is the planning, surveying, measuring, investigating, analyzing, and report making process on the intricate engineering details of how accidents occurred. The analysis and conclusions are based on the extensive application of fundamental principles of physics and engineering including Newton’s Laws of Motion [1] and First Law of Thermodynamics [2]. The first law of thermodynamics when applied to accidents states that the total energy before and after the accident will be the same. The input variables include roadway, vehicle, driver and environmental conditions. Accident reconstruction engineering studies can be utilized by the industry, city and state governments for modifying the structural facilities such as roads. The modifications may include obtaining improved friction factors, increased number of lanes and lane widths and better site distances. Vehicle manufacturers use the results of the studies for developing better designs of vehicles. Some of the recent vehicles may use event data recorder containing information on the speed of the vehicle before and at the time of the accident. Some manufacturers, such as GM and Ford, allow downloading the information from these boxes after an accident [3]. The results of the accident reconstruction studies are also used for producing better navigations aids to assist the drivers. In this study the guidelines of Accreditation Commission for Traffic Accident Reconstruction (ACTAR)[4] are used. There are many research studies on the application of accident reconstruction engineering principles. One of the most important one is that of Hurt’s [5]. Hurt found that motorcyclists needed to develop their capabilities on controlling skids and proper use of helmets significantly reduced head injuries. Hurt further found that out of all the turning movements, the left turners were the most involved ones in the accidents while turning in front of the oncoming motorcycles. II. SCOPE OF THE STUDY The study is limited to the accidents caused by negligent drivers of cars hitting the parked cars [6,7,8]. All the accidents caused elastic deformations only[9,10]. There are no significant plastic deformations [11,12]. III. METHODOLOGY C1 was travelling at certain speed, feet per second and skidded s feet before hitting C2. One half of the energy was transmitted from C1 to C2. C2 was travelling at certain speed, feet per second before the accident. C2 picked up the energy from C1 and hit C3. The weight ratios of C1/C2 and C2/C3 are noted. Again one half of the energy of C2 was transmitted to C3. The following equations were used. 1. The total product of mass and velocity of Car2 is equal to that of Car 3 as shown in the following equation. M2u2 = m3 u3 (2) Where, m2= mass of vehicle C2 and u2 is the velocity of C2. M3= mass of C3 and u3 = velocity of C3. 2. Deceleration was calculated by using Equation1. Final velocity was calculated by the following equation. www.theijes.com The IJES Page 10
    • Skidded Distance V. Initial Velocity Of Vehicle… (3) Where, u= initial velocity of the vehicle, ft/sec v=final velocity, ft/sec a= deceleration of the vehicle, ft/sec2 s= skidded distance, feet IV. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The following assumptions were made in this study [1] The energy lost in sound produced by the accident is negligible. [2] The energy lost in causing the slight angular movement of the vehicle is negligible. Professional engineering principles allow the application of the above two assumptions in the appropriate engineering calculations. Table I shows the Engineering Calculations for Mixed Variables for Case 1 through Case 5 for Determininig the Initial Velocity while Table II gives the Engineering Calculations for Mixed Variables for Case 6 thorugh 10 for Determininig the Initial Velocity. Engineering Calculations for Case 1 through Case 5; Case 6 through Case 10; and Case 11 through Case 15 for Determininig the influence of Skidded Distance on the Initial Velocity are given in Tables III, IV, and V respectively. The following regression relationship was found with statistically significant correlation coefficient for predicting the performance of the engineering variables. The relationship was significant at α = 0.05 significance level [13,14,15]. Fig. 1 shows the influence of Skidded Distance on the Initial Velocity. This relationship is described by a quadratic equation (Initial velocity = -5E-05 Skidded distance 2 -0.05 Skidded Distance + 113.21) with R = 1. Table I. Engineering Calculations for Mixed Variables for Case 1 through Case 5 for Determininig the Initial Velocity. Case 1 Case 2 Case 3 Case 4 Case 5 110.78 93.60 117.11 105.28 98.01 Weight Ratio, C3/C2 Velocity before the second accident, ft/sec Weight, pounds Car2 Weight, Pounds Weight Ratio, C2/C1 Velocity after the first accident, ft/sec 1.28 75 1.25 55 1.23 72 1.21 60 1.19 58 2300 2500 2700 2900 3100 1800 0.64 91.43 2000 0.61 96.50 2200 0.59 110.71 2400 0.62 109.43 2600 0.65 95.40 Velocity before the first accident, ft/sec Car1 Weight, pounds Final Velocity (after skidding, and before first accident) ft/sec Skidded Distance, ft Pavement Friction Deceleration, ft/sec2 Initial Velocity, ft/sec 38 36 45 42 48 2800 68.70 3300 73.33 3700 78.15 3900 82.99 4000 61.62 8 0.35 11.27 70 11 0.35 11.27 75 13 0.35 11.27 80 15 0.35 11.27 85 19 0.35 11.27 65 Car3 Velocity after the second accident, ft/sec Table II. Engineering Calculations for Mixed Variables for Case 6 through Case 10 for Determininig the Initial Velocity. Case 6 Car3 Velocity after the second accident, ft/sec Weight Ratio, C3/C2 Velocity before the second accident, ft/sec Weight, pounds Car2 Weight, Pounds Weight Ratio, C2/C1 www.theijes.com Case 7 Case 8 Case 9 Case 10 111.11 105.49 113.48 109.55 105.02 1.18 70 1.17 62 1.16 66 1.15 68 1.08 52 3300 3500 3700 3900 4100 2800 0.68 3000 0.70 3200 0.67 3400 0.68 3800 0.73 The IJES Page 11
    • Skidded Distance V. Initial Velocity Of Vehicle… Velocity after the first accident, ft/sec Velocity before the first accident, ft/sec Car1 Weight, pounds Final Velocity (after skidding, and before first accident) ft/sec Skidded Distance, ft Pavement Friction Deceleration, ft/sec2 Initial Velocity, ft/sec 96.91 50 101.48 53 109.81 55 95.32 39 114.41 58 4100 64.07 4300 67.64 4800 73.08 5000 76.60 5200 82.45 23 0.35 11.27 68 27 0.35 11.27 72 33 0.35 11.27 78 38 0.35 11.27 82 42 0.35 11.27 88 Table III. Engineering Calculations for Case 1 through Case 5 for Determininig the Relationship between Skided Distance and Initial Velocity. Case 1 Car3 Velocity after the second accident, ft/sec Weight Ratio, C3/C2 Velocity before the second accident, ft/sec Weight, pounds Car2 Weight, Pounds Weight Ratio, C2/C1 Velocity after the first accident, ft/sec Velocity before the first accident, ft/sec Car1 Weight, pounds Final Velocity (after skidding, and before first accident) ft/sec Skidded Distance, ft Pavement Friction Deceleration, ft/sec2 Initial Velocity, ft/sec Case 2 Case 3 Case 4 Case 5 112.71 112.45 112.20 112.09 111.88 1.00 60 1.00 60 1.00 60 1.00 60 1.00 60 2100 2100 2100 2100 2100 2100 0.68 105.42 2100 0.68 104.91 2100 0.68 104.39 2100 0.68 104.18 2100 0.68 103.77 40 40 40 40 40 3100 88.63 3100 87.94 3100 87.24 3100 86.96 3100 86.39 10 0.38 12.24 90 15 0.38 12.24 90 20 0.38 12.24 90 22 0.38 12.24 90 26 0.38 12.24 90 Table IV. Engineering Calculations for Case 6 through Case 10 for Determininig the Relationship between Skidded Distance and Initial Velocity. Case 6 Case 7 Case 8 Case 9 Case 10 111.78 11.67 111.41 111.14 110.87 1.00 60 1.00 60 1.00 60 1.00 60 1.00 60 2100 2100 2100 2100 2100 2100 0.68 103.56 2100 0.68 103.35 2100 0.68 102.82 2100 0.68 102.29 2100 0.68 101.75 Velocity before the first accident, ft/sec Car1 Weight, pounds 40 40 40 40 40 3100 3100 3100 3100 3100 Final Velocity (after skidding, and before first accident) ft/sec Skidded Distance, ft 86.11 85.82 85.11 84.39 83.66 28 30 35 40 45 Pavement Friction 0.38 0.38 0.38 0.38 0.38 Deceleration, ft/sec2 12.24 12.24 12.24 12.24 12.24 Initial Velocity, ft/sec 90 90 90 90 90 Car3 Velocity after the second accident, ft/sec Weight Ratio, C3/C2 Velocity before the second accident, ft/sec Weight, pounds Car2 Weight, Pounds Weight Ratio, C2/C1 Velocity after the first accident, ft/sec www.theijes.com The IJES Page 12
    • Skidded Distance V. Initial Velocity Of Vehicle… Table V. Engineering Calculations for Case 11 through Case 15 for Determininig the Relationship between Skidded Distance and Initial Velocity. Case 11 Car3 Velocity after the second accident, ft/sec Weight Ratio, C3/C2 Velocity before the second accident, ft/sec Weight, pounds Car2 Weight, Pounds Weight Ratio, C2/C1 Velocity after the first accident, ft/sec Velocity before the first accident, ft/sec Car1 Weight, pounds Final Velocity (after skidding, and before first accident) ft/sec Skidded Distance, ft Pavement Friction Deceleration, ft/sec2 Initial Velocity, ft/sec Case 12 Case 13 Case 14 Case 15 110.60 110.33 110.05 109.77 109.49 1.00 60 1.00 60 1.00 60 1.00 60 1.00 60 2100 2100 2100 2100 2100 2100 0.68 101.21 2100 0.68 100.66 2100 0.68 100.11 2100 0.68 99.55 2100 0.68 98.99 40 40 40 40 40 3100 82.92 3100 82.18 3100 81.44 3100 80.68 3100 79.92 50 0.38 12.24 90 55 0.38 12.24 90 60 0.38 12.24 90 65 0.38 12.24 90 70 0.38 12.24 90 Figure 1 Influence of Skidded Distance on the Initial Velocity V. CONCLUSIONS The following regression relationship was found with statistically significant correlation coefficient for predicting the performance of the engineering variables. The influence of Skidded Distance on the Initial Velocity is shown by a quadratic equation (Initial velocity = -5E-05 Skidded distance 2-0.05Skidded Distance + 113.21) with R = 1. Acknowledgments The Republic of Turkey, Ministry of National Education Scholarships is duly acknowledged for providing scholarship. www.theijes.com The IJES Page 13
    • Skidded Distance V. Initial Velocity Of Vehicle… REFERENCES [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] [15] Newton's Three Laws of Motion. http://csep10.phys.utk.edu/astr161/lect/history/newton3laws.html First Law of Thermodynamics. http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/thermo/firlaw.html Engber, D. The Ferrari That Split in Half. 2006. http://www.slate.com/articles/news_and_politics/explainer/2006/04/the_ferrari_that_split_in_half.html Accreditation Commission for Traffic Accident Reconstruction (ACTAR). http://www.actar.org/ Hurt, H. Jr. AMA Motorcycle Hall of Fame. http://www.motorcyclemuseum.org/halloffame/detail.aspx?RacerID=398 Brooks R. M.; Cetin M. Determination of the Influence of Vehicles Weight Ratio on the Initial Velocity Using the Accident Reconstruction Engineering Principles. International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering, Volume 3, Issue 3, ISSN: 2250-2459, S. No: 159, March 2013, pp. 927-931. Brooks R. M.; Cetin M. Determination of the Influence of Pavement Friction on the Initial Velocity Using the Accident Reconstruction Engineering Principles. International Journal of Engineering Inventions, Volume 2, Issue 6, e-ISSN: 2278-7461, pISBN: 2319-6491, S. No: 9, April 2013, pp. 63-68. Brooks R. M.; Cetin M. Determination of the Influence of Skidded Distance on the Initial Velocity Using the Accident Reconstruction Engineering Principles. International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences, Volume 15, Issue 3, EISSN: 2076-7366, ISSN: 2076-734X, S. No: 3, June 2013, pp. 225-229. Brooks R. M.; Cetin M. Pavement Friction V. Initial Velocity of Vehicle in Chain Accidents on Highways. International Journal of Engineering Inventions, Volume 3, Issue 2,S. No:5,e-ISSN: 2278-7461, September 2013, pp. 27-31. Brooks R. M.; Cetin M. Influence of Skidded Distance on the Initial Velocity of Vehicle in Chain Accidents at Intersections. International Journal of Modern Engineering Research, Volume 3, Issue 5, S. No:55, ISSN: 2249-6645, September-October 2013, pp. 2939-2943. Brooks R. M.; Cetin M. Influence of Pavement Friction on the Initial Velocity of Vehicle in Chain Accidents at Intersections. International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering, Volume 3, Issue 7, S. No: 2, ISSN 2250-2459, July 2013, page 10-15. Brooks R. M.; Cetin M. Influence of Vehicles Weight Ratio on the Initial Velocity of Vehicle in Chain Accidents at Intersections. International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences, Volume 17, Issue 2, S. No: 9, ISSN 2076-734X, EISSN: 20767366, November 2013, pp. 212-217. Navidi, W.Statistics for Engineers and Science. 3 rd edition. 2010. McGraw-Hill. Publishing Company. Scheafter, R. L.; Mulekar, M. S.; McClave, J. Probability and Statistics for Engineers. 5th edition. 2011. Brooks/Cole Cengage Leaning Publishing Co. Carlin, B.P.; Louis, T.A. Bayesian Methods for Data Analysis. 3rdedition. 2009. CRC Press. www.theijes.com The IJES Page 14