The human tongue

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Tongue is a muscular structure that has the organs of taste reception. The organs for sense of taste are the taste buds. Tongue is located inside the mouth and is an important muscle. It does not have any bones. It is reddish-pink in color. The main function of tongue is taste, help in chewing food, in swallowing food and speech.

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The human tongue

  1. 1. TheTongue
  2. 2. Tongue is a muscular structure that has the organs of taste reception. The organs for sense of taste are the taste buds. Tongue is locatedinside the mouth and is an importantmuscle. It does not have any bones.It is reddish-pink in color. The main function of tongue is taste, help inchewing food, in swallowing food and speech.
  3. 3. Human Tongue
  4. 4. Papillae Papillae contains taste bud (chemo- receptors), which helps us identify between different tastes of food. When we chew food, a portion of it dissolves in the saliva. This dissolved part of food comes in contact with thetaste buds and generates nerve impulses. These nerve fibres are known as microvilli. These nerve fibres carry messages to the taste center in the brain. Then brain perceives the taste.
  5. 5. Four Types Of Papillae-Foliate, Vallate andFungiform havetaste buds whichhelps in identifyingthe taste-Filiform helps inholding the food ( togrip the food inplace)
  6. 6. Tonsils AdenoidsThe main function of They help intonsils is to serve as fighting infectionsthe first line ofdefense in the immunesystem.
  7. 7. Types of Tonsils1. The palatine tonsils or simply referred to asthe tonsil- inbetween the anterior &posterior pillars of oropharynx2. The Nasopharyngeal tonsils or theadenoids- in the nasopharynx3. The tubal tonsils- near opening ofeustachian tubes.4. The Lingual tonsils- in the base of thetongue.5. Tonsillar patches in posterior pharyngealwall.
  8. 8. Frenulum linguae: It secures orholds the tongue in place inside themouth.Very small fibre-like or hair-likeprojections are present on the upperside of the tongue which connect withnerve fibres at the lower end of thetongue which lead to the brain.
  9. 9. Taste Buds-Are structures located on the surface of the tongue. They are embedded in the mucosa of the papillae of the tongue. The papillae are projections on the upper surface of the tongue.-Taste buds contain the receptors for taste
  10. 10. Structure of Taste Buds
  11. 11. There are about 3000 taste buds on the tongue of an adult person. There are four main tastes - sweet, salty, sour and bitter. These four main tastes arefelt by different portion of the tongue. The tip of our tongue senses salt and sweet. The taste buds at the sides detect sour taste. The rear portion of the tongue detect bitter taste.
  12. 12. Four Main Taste
  13. 13. Taste receptor cells or gustatory receptorsThey are spindle-shaped cells that are neurosensory. They have hairs on their free ends and on the other end, they have nerve fibres. They number 5-15 in each taste bud
  14. 14. Supporting cellsThey are columnar cells, numbering about 40 found between the taste receptor cells, supporting them.
  15. 15. Human Tongue Diseases
  16. 16. Oral CandidiasisCandidiasis is a fungal infection, which is mostly caused a yeast called Candida albicans. Other less common causative agents are Candida glabrata and Candida tropicalis. When it occurs on the mucous membrane of the mouth, it is known as oral candidiasis.The identifying symptoms are appearance of thick white or cream-colored deposits on the surface of tongue.
  17. 17. The infected tongue may appear red and a bit raised from the normal level. Oral candidiasis causes a burning sensation and a lot of discomfort. It is treated with antifungal drugs. The patient is asked to use this oral suspension to wash around the mouth and swallow. In some severe cases, the medicine may be administered intravenously on the tongue.
  18. 18. Leukoplakia Leukoplakia is a disease the involves the formation of a white spot or patch on themucous membrane in the mouth. The common mouth parts that develop leukoplakia are tongue, gums, etc. If not treated on time, leukoplakia may lead to cancer. The leukoplakia patches on tongue cannot beeasily scraped off. The common causes of it are smoking and chewing tobacco. Inmajority of the cases, this tongue disease is harmless. But seeking dental assistance is necessary to prevent cancer.
  19. 19. Keratosis PharyngisIt occurs when the protein of the hair or nails, called keratin, grows at the pharynx. This is a tongue disease which belongs to a group of those disease for which there is no treatment known till date. The identifying symptoms are pain at the back of the throat and difficulty in swallowing.
  20. 20. Quiz time
  21. 21. 1.) A muscular structure that has the organs of taste reception.2.) Its contains taste buds which helps us identify between different tastes of food.3-6.) Give the four types of Papillae7.) Serve as the first line of defense in the immune system.8.) Contain the receptors for taste9.) It secures or holds the tongue in place inside the mouth.10.) They are spindle-shaped cells that are neurosensory.

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