Marriage Poverty - New Mexico
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Marriage Poverty - New Mexico

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Marriage Poverty - New Mexico Marriage Poverty - New Mexico Presentation Transcript

  • Marriage:New Mexico’s No. 1 Weapon Against Childhood Poverty How the Collapse of Marriage Hurts Children and Three Steps to Reverse the Damage A Heritage Foundation Book of Charts • 2012 Richard and Helen DeVos Center for Religion and Civil Society
  • Growth of Out-of-Wedlock Childbearing in New Mexico, 1929–2010 In 2010, 52.3 percent of births PERCENTAGE OF CHILDREN BORN OUT OF WEDLOCKin New Mexico occurred outside ofmarriage. This was the second high- 55% 52.3%est unwed birth rate in the nation. This was not always the case. 50%Before World War II, only fourpercent of children in New Mexico 45%were born outside marriage. As late 40.8%as 1980, the number was only 16 40%percent. However, over the last threedecades, unwed births in the state 35% Newhave skyrocketed, rising well above Mexicothe national average. 30% NationalNote: Data on non-marital births in New 25%Mexico are unavailable between 1943 and1979. However, all states that have data for 20%this period show rates which parallel thenational trend shown in the chart. In these 15%states, the non-marital birth rates remainedlow until the onset of the federal War onPoverty in the mid-1960s, and then began 10%to rise steadily. The New Mexico ratebetween 1943 and 1979 very likely paral- 5%lels the overall national trend. 0%Sources: U.S. Government, U.S. CensusBureau, and National Center for Health 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010Statistics. Chart 1 • Marriage and Poverty in New Mexico heritage.org
  • In New Mexico, Marriage Drops the Probabilityof Child Poverty by 75 Percent The rapid rise in out-of- PERCENTAGE OF FAMILIES WITH CHILDREN THAT ARE POORwedlock childbearing is a major 50%cause of high levels of child pov-erty in New Mexico. 45% 42.9% Some 42.9 percent of single 40%mothers with children were poorcompared to 10.6 percent of mar- 35%ried couples with children. Single-parent families with 30%children are four times more likely 25%to be poor than families in whichthe parents are married. 20% The higher poverty rate amongsingle-mother families is due both 15% 10.6%to the lower education levels of 10%the mothers and the lower incomedue to the absence of the father. 5% 0% Single-Parent, Married,Two-ParentSource: U.S. Census Bureau, American Female-Headed FamiliesCommunity Survey, 2007–2009 data. Families Chart 2 • Marriage and Poverty in New Mexico heritage.org
  • In New Mexico, Four in Ten Families with Children Are Not Married Overall, married couples headabout six in ten families withchildren in New Mexico. Four inten are single-parent families. Unmarried Families 40.1% Married Families 59.9%Source: U.S. Census Bureau, AmericanCommunity Survey, 2007–2009 data. Chart 3 • Marriage and Poverty in New Mexico heritage.org
  • In New Mexico, 70 Percent of Poor Families with ChildrenAre Not Married Among poor families withchildren in New Mexico, seven inten are not married. By contrast,only 29.6 percent of poor familieswith children are headed bymarried couples. Married Families 29.6% Unmarried Families 70.4%Source: U.S. Census Bureau, AmericanCommunity Survey, 2007–2009 data. Chart 4 • Marriage and Poverty in New Mexico heritage.org
  • In New Mexico, Few Unwed Births Occur to Teenagers Out-of-wedlock births are PERCENTAGE OF OUT-OF-WEDLOCK BIRTHSoften confused erroneously BY AGE OF MOTHERwith teen births, but only 9.7percent of out-of-wedlock Underbirths in New Mexico occur to Age 18:girls under age 18. 9.7% By contrast, some 75 percent Ageof out-of-wedlock births occur 30–54:to young adult women between 15.4%the ages of 18 and 29. Age 18–19: 15.7% Age 25–29: 21.4% Age 20–24: 37.8%Note: Figures have been rounded.Source: U.S. Department of Health andHuman Services, Centers for DiseaseControl and Prevention, 2008 NHSdata. Chart 5 • Marriage and Poverty in New Mexico heritage.org
  • Less-Educated Women Are More Likely to Give BirthOutside of Marriage Unwed childbearing occurs PERCENTAGE OF BIRTHS THAT ARE MARITALmost frequently among the OR OUT OF WEDLOCKwomen who will have the greatest 100% Unmarrieddifficulty supporting children by 15.6% 90% Mothersthemselves: those with low levelsof education. 44.2% 80% In New Mexico, among women 61.2%who are high school dropouts, 70% 71.5%about 71.5 percent of all births 60%occur outside marriage. Among 84.4% Marriedwomen who have only a high 50% Mothersschool diploma, three in five birthsoccur outside marriage. By con- 40% 55.8%trast, among women with at least a 30%college degree, only 15.6 percent 38.8%of births are out of wedlock. 20% 28.5% 10% 0% High School High School Some College Mother’sSource: U.S. Department of Health and Dropout Graduate College Graduate educationHuman Services, Centers for Disease (16+Control and Prevention, 2008 NHS (0–11 (12 (13–15 leveldata.  Years) Years) Years) Years) Chart 6 • Marriage and Poverty in New Mexico heritage.org
  • Both Marriage and Education Are Highly Effective in ReducingChild Poverty in New Mexico The poverty rate of married PERCENTAGE OF FAMILIES Poverty Rate of Families by WITH CHILDREN THAT Singlecouples with children is dramati- Education and Marital Status ARE POOR Marriedcally lower than the rate for house- of the Head of Householdholds headed by single parents. 70%This is true even when the married 66.2%couple is compared to single par- 60%ents with the same education level. For example, in New Mexico, 50%the poverty rate for a single 40.9%mother who has only a high 40%school diploma is 40.9 percent, 34.6%but the poverty rate for a married 30.2% 30%couple family headed by an indi-vidual who, similarly, has only a 20%high school degree is far lower at 14.1% 13.1%14.1 percent. 10% 6.3% On average, marriage drops the 2.3%poverty rate by around 71 percent 0%among families with the same High School High School Some College Dropout Graduate College Graduateeducation level.Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Note: Virtually none of the heads of families in the chart who are high schoolCommunity Survey, 2005–2009 data. dropouts are minor teenagers. Chart 7 • Marriage and Poverty in New Mexico heritage.org
  • Unwed Birth Rates Vary Strongly by Race in New Mexico Out-of-wedlock childbearing PERCENT OF BIRTHS THAT ARE OUT OF WEDLOCKvaries considerably by race. 100% In 2008 (the most recent yearfor which racial breakdown is 8.3% 90%available), more than half of allbirths (52.9 percent) in New 80% 77.6%Mexico occurred outside marriage.The rate was lowest among non- 70%Hispanic whites. Among that 60.5%group around three in ten births 60% 58.8%were non-marital. 52.9% 50% Among Hispanics, nearly six inten (58.8 percent) births were out 40%of wedlock. Among blacks, over 31.9%six in ten births (60.5 percent) 30%were to unmarried women.Among American Indians, nearly 20%eight in ten (77.6 percent) birthswere out of wedlock. 10% 0%Source: U.S. Department of Health andHuman Services, Centers for Disease All Races White Hispanic Black AmericanControl and Prevention, 2008 NHS Non- Non- Indiandata. Hispanic Hispanic Chart 8 • Marriage and Poverty in New Mexico heritage.org
  • Racial Composition of All Births and Out-of-Wedlock Birthsin New Mexico In New Mexico in 2008, some ALL BIRTHS OUT-OF-WEDLOCK BIRTHS56 percent of all births occurred toHispanics, 28.1 percent occurredto non-Hispanic whites, and 12.2percent occurred to AmericanIndians. Because Hispanics and Ameri-can Indians are more likely to havechildren without being married, 56.0% Hispanic 62.2%they account for disproportion-ately larger shares of all out-of-wedlock births. In New Mexico in 2008, 62.2percent of all non-marital birthswere to Hispanics, 18 percent wereto American Indian women, and 28.1% White Non- 17.0%17 percent were to white non- HispanicHispanic women. American Indian 18.0% 12.2%Source: U.S. Department of Health and 2.1% Asian/Other 1.0% 1.6% Black Non-Hispanic 2.0%Human Services, Centers for DiseaseControl and Prevention, 2008 NHSdata. Note: Figures have been rounded. Chart 9 • Marriage and Poverty in New Mexico heritage.org
  • Non-Married Hispanic Families Are Three Times More Likely to Be Poorin New Mexico In New Mexico, marriage leads PERCENTAGE OF FAMILIES THAT ARE POORto lower poverty rates for Hispan-ics, American Indians, whites, andblacks. 45% For example, in 2009, the pov- 40% 38.7%erty rate for Hispanic marriedfamilies in New Mexico was 12 35%percent, while the poverty rateamong non-married Hispanic 30%families was more than three timeshigher at 38.7 percent. 25% 20% 15% 12.0% 10% 5% 0% Married Families Non-Married FamiliesSource: U.S. Census Bureau, AmericanCommunity Survey, 2007–2009 data. Chart 10 • Marriage and Poverty in New Mexico heritage.org
  • Non-Married American Indian Families Are Nearly Three TimesMore Likely to Be Poor in New Mexico In 2009, the poverty rate for PERCENTAGE OF FAMILIES THAT ARE POORmarried American Indian familiesin New Mexico was 15.3 percent, 45%while the poverty rate amongnon-married families was nearly 40% 38.2%three times higher at 38.2 percent. 35% 30% 25% 20% 15.3% 15% 10% 5% 0%Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Married Families Non-Married FamiliesCommunity Survey, 2007–2009 data. Chart 11 • Marriage and Poverty in New Mexico heritage.org
  • Non-Married White Families Are Seven Times More Likely to Be Poorin New Mexico In 2009, the poverty rate for PERCENTAGE OF FAMILIES THAT ARE POORmarried white families in NewMexico was 3.2 percent. But the 25%poverty rate for non-married white 22.4%families was seven times higher at22.4 percent. 20% 15% 10% 5% 3.2% 0% Married Families Non-Married FamiliesSource: U.S. Census Bureau, AmericanCommunity Survey, 2007–2009 data. Chart 12 • Marriage and Poverty in New Mexico heritage.org
  • Non-Married Black Families Are Four Times More Likely to Be Poorin New Mexico In 2009, the poverty rate for PERCENTAGE OF FAMILIES THAT ARE POORmarried black couples in NewMexico was 8.7 percent, while the 45%poverty rate for non-married blackfamilies was four times higher at 38.3% 40%38.3 percent. 35% 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 8.7% 5% 0% Married Families Non-Married FamiliesSource: U.S. Census Bureau, AmericanCommunity Survey, 2007–2009 data. Chart 13 • Marriage and Poverty in New Mexico heritage.org
  • Three Steps to Reduce Child Poverty through Marriage1) Provide information on the benefits of marriage in reducing child poverty and improving child well-being. Marriage is a highly effective institution which greatly decreases parental and child poverty while improving long-term outcomes for children. Conversely, the absence of marriage greatly increases welfare costs and imposes added burdens on taxpayers. Unfortunately, almost no information on these topics is available in low-income communities. This information deficit should be corrected in the following manner: • Explain the benefits of marriage in middle and high schools with a high proportion of at-risk youth; • Create public education campaigns in low-income communities on the benefits of marriage; and, • Require federally funded birth control clinics to provide information on the benefits of marriage and the skills needed to develop stable families to interested low-income clients.2) Reduce anti-marriage penalties in means-tested welfare programs.3) Promote life-goal-planning, marriage-strengthening, and divorce-reduction programs to increase healthy marriages and reduce divorce and separation.
  • The Family & Religion Initiative is one of 10 Transformational Initiatives making up The HeritageFoundation’s Leadership for America campaign. For more products and information related to this initiativeor to learn more about the Leadership for America campaign, please visit heritage.org. The Heritage Foundation is a research and educational institution—a think tank—whose mission is toformulate and promote conservative public policies based on the principles of free enterprise, limited gov-ernment, individual freedom, traditional American values, and a strong national defense. Our vision is to build an America where freedom, opportunity, prosperity, and civil society flourish. Asconservatives, we believe the values and ideas that motivated our Founding Fathers are worth conserving.As policy entrepreneurs, we believe the most effective solutions are consistent with those ideas and values. 214 Massachusetts Avenue, NE • Washington, D.C. 20002 • (202) 546-4400 • heritage.org