Marriage Poverty - California


Published on

Published in: Education, Self Improvement
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Marriage Poverty - California

  1. 1. Marriage:California’s No. 1 Weapon Against Childhood PovertyHow the Collapse of Marriage Hurts Children and Three Steps to Reverse the Damage A Heritage Foundation Book of Charts • 2012 Richard and Helen DeVos Center for Religion and Civil Society
  2. 2. Growth of Out-of-Wedlock Childbearing in California, 1980–2010 In 2010, a record 40.5 percent PERCENTAGE OF CHILDREN BORN OUT OF WEDLOCKof children in California were bornoutside marriage. By contrast, in 50%1980, 21 percent of children in thestate were born outside marriage.The non-marital birth rate in thestate has risen substantially over 40% 40.5%the last three decades. California is unusual as it has nodata on non-marital births before1980. However, all states that do 30%have data for the earlier period Nationalshow rates which parallel thenational trend displayed in the Californiachart. In these states, the non- 20%marital birth rates remained verylow until the onset of the federalWar on Poverty in the mid-1960s,and then began to rise steadily. 10%The California unwed birth ratebefore 1979 very likely parallelsthe overall national trend. 0%Sources: U.S. Government, U.S. CensusBureau, and National Center for Health 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010Statistics. Chart 1 • Marriage and Poverty in California
  3. 3. In California, Marriage Drops the Probability of Child Povertyby 74 Percent The rapid rise in out-of- PERCENTAGE OF FAMILIES WITH CHILDREN THAT ARE POORwedlock childbearing is a major 35%cause of high levels of child pov- 32.5%erty in California. 30% Some 32.5 percent of singlemothers with children were poorcompared to 8.4 percent of mar- 25%ried couples with children. Single-parent families with 20%children are four times more likelyto be poor than families in whichthe parents are married. 15% The higher poverty rate amongsingle-mother families is due both 10% 8.4%to the lower education levels ofthe mothers and the lower income 5%due to the absence of the father. 0% Single-Parent, Married,Two-Parent Female-Headed FamiliesSource: U.S. Census Bureau, American FamiliesCommunity Survey, 2007–2009 data. Chart 2 • Marriage and Poverty in California
  4. 4. In California, One-Third of All Families with Children Are Not Married Overall, married couples headabout two-thirds of families withchildren in California. One-thirdare single-parent families. Unmarried Families 31.6% Married Families 68.4%Source: U.S. Census Bureau, AmericanCommunity Survey, 2007–2009 data. Chart 3 • Marriage and Poverty in California
  5. 5. In California, 61 Percent of Poor Families with Children Are Not Married Among poor families withchildren in California, about six inten are not married. By contrast,only 39 percent of poor familieswith children are headed bymarried couples. Married Families Unmarried 39.0% Families 61.0%Source: U.S. Census Bureau, AmericanCommunity Survey, 2007–2009 data. Chart 4 • Marriage and Poverty in California
  6. 6. In California, Few Unwed Births Occur to Teenagers Out-of-wedlock births are often PERCENTAGE OF OUT-OF-WEDLOCK BIRTHSconfused erroneously with teen BY AGE OF MOTHERbirths, but only 7.4 percent ofout-of-wedlock births in Califor- Undernia occur to girls under age 18. Age 18: By contrast, some 70 percent of 7.4%out-of-wedlock births occur toyoung adult women between theages of 18 and 29. Age Age 30–54: 18–19: 22.6% 12.8% Age 25–29: Age 23.9% 20–24: 33.3%Note: Figures have been rounded.Source: U.S. Department of Health andHuman Services, Centers for DiseaseControl and Prevention, 2008 NHSdata. Chart 5 • Marriage and Poverty in California
  7. 7. Less-Educated Women Are More Likely to Give BirthOutside of Marriage Unwed childbearing occurs PERCENTAGE OF BIRTHS THAT ARE MARITALmost frequently among the OR OUT OF WEDLOCKwomen who will have the greatest 100% 7.7% Unmarrieddifficulty supporting children by 90% Mothersthemselves: those with low levelsof education. 36.6% 80% In California, among women 50.9%who are high school dropouts, 70% 61.0%about 61 percent of all births 60%occur outside marriage. Among 92.3 % Marriedwomen who have only a high 50% Mothersschool diploma, about half of allbirths occur outside marriage. By 40% 63.4%contrast, among women with at 30%least a college degree, only 7.7 49.1%percent of births are out of wed- 20% 39.0%lock. 10% 0% High School High School Some College Mother’sSource: U.S. Department of Health and Dropout Graduate College Graduate educationHuman Services, Centers for Disease (0–11 (12 (13–15 (16+ levelControl and Prevention, 2008 NHS Years) Years) Years) Years)data.  Chart 6 • Marriage and Poverty in California
  8. 8. Both Marriage and Education Are Highly Effective in Reducing ChildPoverty in California The poverty rate of married PERCENTAGE OF FAMILIES Poverty Rate of Families bycouples with children is dramati- WITH CHILDREN THAT Single Education and Marital Statuscally lower than the rate for house- ARE POOR Married of the Head of Householdholds headed by single parents. 60%This is true even when the marriedcouple is compared to single par- 50.7%ents with the same education level. 50% For example, in California, thepoverty rate for a single mother 40%who has only a high school 33.6%diploma is 33.6 percent, but the 30%poverty rate for a married couple 23.4% 23.3%family headed by an individual 20%who, similarly, has only a highschool degree is far lower at 10.3 10.3% 10% 9.7%percent. 4.7% On average, marriage drops the 2.1%poverty rate by around 70 percent 0%among families with the same High School High School Some Collegeeducation level. Dropout Graduate College GraduateSource: U.S. Census Bureau, American Note: Virtually none of the heads of families in the chart who are high schoolCommunity Survey, 2005–2009 data. dropouts are minor teenagers. Chart 7 • Marriage and Poverty in California
  9. 9. Unwed Birth Rates Vary Strongly by Race in California Out-of-wedlock childbearing PERCENT OF BIRTHS THAT ARE OUT OF WEDLOCKvaries considerably by race. 80% In 2008 (the most recent yearfor which racial breakdown isavailable), over four in ten births 70% 68.0%(40.2 percent) in Californiaoccurred outside marriage. 60% The rate was lowest among 51.6%white non-Hispanics. Among that 50%group about one in four birthswere non-marital. 40.2% 40% Among Hispanics, about half ofbirths were to unmarried women. 30%Among black non-Hispanics, 24.1%about seven in ten births (68percent) were out-of-wedlock. 20% 10%Source: U.S. Department of Health and 0%Human Services, Centers for Disease All Races White Hispanic BlackControl and Prevention, 2008 NHS Non- Non-data. Hispanic Hispanic Chart 8 • Marriage and Poverty in California
  10. 10. Racial Composition of All Births and Out-of-Wedlock Births in California In California in 2008, some 52.1 ALL BIRTHS OUT-OF-WEDLOCK BIRTHSpercent of all births occurred toHispanics, 27.5 percent occurredto white non-Hispanics, 12.6percent occurred to Asians, and5.8 percent occurred to blacknon-Hispanic women. 52.1% Hispanic 67.0% Because blacks and Hispanicsare more likely to have childrenwithout being married, theyaccount for disproportionatelylarger shares of all out-of-wedlockbirths. In California in 2008, 67 percentof all non-marital births were to 27.5%Hispanics, 16.5 percent were to White Non-non-Hispanic white women, and Hispanic 16.5%9.8 percent were to black non-Hispanic women. Only 4.8 percent 12.6% Asian/ 4.8% Pacific Islanderof unmarried births occurred toAsian women. Black Non-Hispanic 9.8% 5.8% 2.0% American 1.9%Source: U.S. Department of Health and Indian/OtherHuman Services, Centers for DiseaseControl and Prevention, 2008 NHSdata. Note: Figures have been rounded. Chart 9 • Marriage and Poverty in California
  11. 11. Non-Married White Families Are Six Times More Likely to Be Poorin California Marriage leads to lower poverty PERCENTAGE OF FAMILIES THAT ARE POORrates for whites, blacks, and His-panics. 18% For example, in 2009, the pov-erty rate for married white families 16% 15.6%in California was 2.6 percent. Butthe poverty rate for non-married 14%white families was six times higherat 15.6 percent. 12% 10% 8% 6% 4% 2.6% 2% 0% Married Families Non-Married FamiliesSource: U.S. Census Bureau, AmericanCommunity Survey, 2007–2009 data. Chart 10 • Marriage and Poverty in California
  12. 12. Non-Married Hispanic Families Are Three Times More Likely to Be Poorin California In 2009, the poverty rate for PERCENTAGE OF FAMILIES THAT ARE POORHispanic married families in Cali-fornia was 12 percent, while the 35%poverty rate among non-married 33.0%families was nearly three timeshigher at 33 percent. 30% 25% 20% 15% 12.0% 10% 5% 0% Married Families Non-Married FamiliesSource: U.S. Census Bureau, AmericanCommunity Survey, 2007–2009 data. Chart 11 • Marriage and Poverty in California
  13. 13. Non-Married Black Families Are Five Times More Likely to Be Poorin California In 2009, the poverty rate for PERCENTAGE OF FAMILIES THAT ARE POORmarried black couples in Califor-nia was 5.4 percent, while the 30% 28.5%poverty rate for non-married blackfamilies was five times higher at28.5 percent. 25% 20% 15% 10% 5.4% 5% 0%Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Married Families Non-Married FamiliesCommunity Survey, 2007–2009 data. Chart 12 • Marriage and Poverty in California
  14. 14. Three Steps to Reduce Child Poverty through Marriage1) Provide information on the benefits of marriage in reducing child poverty and improving child well-being. Marriage is a highly effective institution which greatly decreases parental and child poverty while improving long-term outcomes for children. Conversely, the absence of marriage greatly increases welfare costs and imposes added burdens on taxpayers. Unfortunately, almost no information on these topics is available in low-income communities. This information deficit should be corrected in the following manner: • Explain the benefits of marriage in middle and high schools with a high proportion of at-risk youth; • Create public education campaigns in low-income communities on the benefits of marriage; and, • Require federally funded birth control clinics to provide information on the benefits of marriage and the skills needed to develop stable families to interested low-income clients.2) Reduce anti-marriage penalties in means-tested welfare programs.3) Promote life-goal-planning, marriage-strengthening, and divorce-reduction programs to increase healthy marriages and reduce divorce and separation.
  15. 15. The Family & Religion Initiative is one of 10 Transformational Initiatives making up The HeritageFoundation’s Leadership for America campaign. For more products and information related to this initiativeor to learn more about the Leadership for America campaign, please visit The Heritage Foundation is a research and educational institution—a think tank—whose mission is toformulate and promote conservative public policies based on the principles of free enterprise, limited gov-ernment, individual freedom, traditional American values, and a strong national defense. Our vision is to build an America where freedom, opportunity, prosperity, and civil society flourish. Asconservatives, we believe the values and ideas that motivated our Founding Fathers are worth conserving.As policy entrepreneurs, we believe the most effective solutions are consistent with those ideas and values. 214 Massachusetts Avenue, NE • Washington, D.C. 20002 • (202) 546-4400 •