Marriage Poverty - Arkansas
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Marriage Poverty - Arkansas

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Marriage Poverty - Arkansas Marriage Poverty - Arkansas Presentation Transcript

  • Marriage:Arkansas’s No. 1 Weapon Against Childhood PovertyHow the Collapse of Marriage Hurts Children and Three Steps to Reverse the Damage A Heritage Foundation Book of Charts • 2012 Richard and Helen DeVos Center for Religion and Civil Society
  • Growth of Out-of-Wedlock Childbearing in Arkansas, 1929–2010 Throughout most of Arkansas’ PERCENTAGE OF CHILDREN BORN OUT OF WEDLOCKhistory, out-of-wedlock childbear-ing was rare. 50% In 1968, just four years after the 45.3%federal government began the Waron Poverty, only 11.6 percent of 40.8% 40%children in Arkansas were bornoutside marriage. However, overthe next five decades, the numberrose rapidly. By 2010, 45.3 percent 30%of births in Arkansas occurredoutside of marriage. National Arkansas 20%Note: Data on non-marital births inArkansas are unavailable between 1947and 1967. However, all states that dohave data for this period show a rapidgrowth in non-marital childbearing 10%from the mid-1960s on. The Arkansastrend during this period undoubtedlyparallels the national trend shown in thechart. 0%Sources: U.S. Government, U.S. CensusBureau, and National Center for Health 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010Statistics. Chart 1 • Marriage and Poverty in Arkansas heritage.org
  • In Arkansas, Marriage Drops the Probability of Child Povertyby 78 Percent The rapid rise in out-of- PERCENTAGE OF FAMILIES WITH CHILDREN THAT ARE POORwedlock childbearing is a major 60%cause of high levels of child pov-erty in Arkansas. Some 48.3 percent of single 50% 48.3%mothers with children were poorcompared to 10.5 percent of mar-ried couples with children. 40% Single-parent families withchildren are nearly five times 30%more likely to be poor than fami-lies in which the parents are mar-ried. 20% The higher poverty rate amongsingle-mother families is due both 10.5%to the lower education levels of 10%the mothers and the lower incomedue to the absence of the father. 0% Single-Parent, Married,Two-ParentSource: U.S. Census Bureau, American Female-Headed FamiliesCommunity Survey, 2007–2009 data. Families Chart 2 • Marriage and Poverty in Arkansas heritage.org
  • In Arkansas, Over One-Third of All Families with ChildrenAre Not Married Overall, married couples headabout two-thirds of families withchildren in Arkansas. Well overone-third are single-parentfamilies. Unmarried Families 36.4% Married Families 63.6%Source: U.S. Census Bureau, AmericanCommunity Survey, 2007–2009 data. Chart 3 • Marriage and Poverty in Arkansas heritage.org
  • In Arkansas, 70 Percent of Poor Families with Children Are Not Married Among poor families withchildren in Arkansas, about sevenin ten are not married. By contrast,only 29.8 percent of poor familieswith children are headed bymarried couples. Married Families 29.8% Unmarried Families 70.2%Source: U.S. Census Bureau, AmericanCommunity Survey, 2007–2009 data. Chart 4 • Marriage and Poverty in Arkansas heritage.org
  • In Arkansas, Few Unwed Births Occur to Teenagers Out-of-wedlock births are often PERCENTAGE OF OUT-OF-WEDLOCK BIRTHSconfused erroneously with teen BY AGE OF MOTHERbirths, but only 9.4 percent ofout-of-wedlock births in Arkansas Underoccur to girls under age 18. Age 18: By contrast, some 79 percent of 9.4%out-of-wedlock births occur to Ageyoung adult women between the 30–54:ages of 18 and 29. 12.1% Age 18–19: Age 17.6% 25–29: 20.6% Age 20–24: 40.3%Note: Figures have been rounded.Source: U.S. Department of Health andHuman Services, Centers for DiseaseControl and Prevention, 2008 NHSdata. Chart 5 • Marriage and Poverty in Arkansas heritage.org
  • Less-Educated Women Are More Likely to Give BirthOutside of Marriage Unwed childbearing occurs most PERCENTAGE OF BIRTHS THAT ARE MARITALfrequently among the women who OR OUT OF WEDLOCKwill have the greatest difficulty sup- 100%porting children by themselves: those 8.1% Unmarriedwith low levels of education. 90% Mothers In the U.S., among women who 42.0% 80%are high school dropouts, about 65.2percent of all births occur outside 54.5% 70%marriage. Among women who have 65.2%only a high school diploma, well over 60%half of all births occur outside mar- 91.9%riage. By contrast, among women 50% Marriedwith at least a college degree, only Mothers 40%8.1 percent of births are out of wed- 58.0%lock. 30%Note: Specific data on out-of-wedlock 45.5%births and maternal education are not 20%available in Arkansas. However, the 34.8%pattern varies little between states. 10%Arkansas data will be very similar to thenational data presented in this chart. 0% High School High School Some College Mother’sSource: U.S. Department of Health and Dropout Graduate College Graduate educationHuman Services, Centers for Disease (0–11 (12 (13–15 (16+ levelControl and Prevention, 2008 NHS Years) Years) Years) Years)data.  Chart 6 • Marriage and Poverty in Arkansas heritage.org
  • Both Marriage and Education Are Highly Effective in ReducingChild Poverty in Arkansas The poverty rate of married PERCENTAGE OF FAMILIES Poverty Rate of Families bycouples with children is dramati- WITH CHILDREN THAT Single Education and Marital Statuscally lower than the rate for house- ARE POOR Married of the Head of Householdholds headed by single parents. 70%This is true even when the married 64.0%couple is compared to single par- 60%ents with the same education level. For example, in Arkansas, the 50%poverty rate for a single motherwho has only a high school 40.3% 40.0% 40%diploma is 40.3 percent, but thepoverty rate for a married couple 30% 26.8%family headed by an individualwho, similarly, has only a high 20% 16.1%school degree is far lower at 9.5percent. 10% 9.5% 7.2% On average, marriage drops the 1.9%poverty rate by around 76 percent 0%among families with the same High School High School Some Collegeeducation level. Dropout Graduate College GraduateSource: U.S. Census Bureau, American Note: Virtually none of the heads of families in the chart who are high schoolCommunity Survey, 2005–2009 data. dropouts are minor teenagers. Chart 7 • Marriage and Poverty in Arkansas heritage.org
  • Unwed Birth Rates Vary Strongly by Race in Arkansas Out-of-wedlock childbearing PERCENT OF BIRTHS THAT ARE OUT OF WEDLOCKvaries considerably by race. 90% In Arkansas, in 2008 (the mostrecent year for which racial break- 8.3% 80.3% 80%down is available), more than fourin ten births (44.6 percent)occurred outside marriage. The 70%rate was lowest among non-Hispanic whites: around one in 60%three births among white non- 50.1%Hispanic women were non- 50% 44.6%marital. Among Hispanics, half ofbirths were out-of-wedlock. 40%Among blacks, eight in ten births 33.8%were to unmarried women (80.3 30%percent). 20% 10% 0%Source: U.S. Department of Health andHuman Services, Centers for Disease All Races White Hispanic BlackControl and Prevention, 2008 NHS Non- Non-data. Hispanic Hispanic Chart 8 • Marriage and Poverty in Arkansas heritage.org
  • Growth of Unwed Childbearing by Race in Arkansas, 1929–2008 Historically, out-of-wedlock child- PERCENTAGE OF CHILDREN BORN OUT OF WEDLOCKbearing has been somewhat morefrequent among blacks than among 100%whites. However, prior to the onsetof the federal government’s War onPoverty in the 1960s, the rates forboth whites and blacks were com- 80.3%paratively low. 80% National – In 1968, 3.8 percent of white Blackschildren in Arkansas were born Arkansas –outside marriage. By 2008, thenumber had risen to more than one Blacks 60%in three (33.8 percent). Arkansas – In 1968, about one-third (33.4 Whitespercent) of black children in Arkan- National –sas were born outside marriage. By Whites2008, the number had risen to eight 40%in every ten (80.3 percent). 33.8%Note: Data on non-marital births in Arkansasare unavailable between 1947 and 1967.However, all states that do have data for this 20%period show a rapid growth in non-maritalchild-bearing from the mid-1960s on.TheArkansas trend during this period undoubtedlyparallels the national trend shown in the chart. 0%Sources: U.S. Government, U.S. CensusBureau, and National Center for Health 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2008Statistics. Chart 9 • Marriage and Poverty in Arkansas heritage.org
  • Racial Composition of All Births and Out-of-Wedlock Births in Arkansas In Arkansas in 2008, some 67 ALL BIRTHS OUT-OF-WEDLOCK BIRTHSpercent of all births occurred tonon-Hispanic whites, 19.7 percentoccurred to non-Hispanic blacks,and 10.7 percent occurred toHispanics. Because blacks and Hispanicsare more likely to have children 67.0% White Non- 50.7%without being married, they Hispanicaccount for disproportionatelylarger shares of out-of-wedlockbirths. Even so, the majority ofunwed births occurred to whitenon-Hispanic women. In Arkansas in 2008, 50.7 per-cent of all non-marital births were 35.5%to non-Hispanic whites, 35.5 19.7% Black Non-percent were to black non- HispanicHispanic women, and 12 percentwere to Hispanic women. 10.7% Hispanic 12.0% 2.6% Asian/Other 2.0%Source: U.S. Department of Health andHuman Services, Centers for DiseaseControl and Prevention, 2008 NHSdata. Note: Figures have been rounded. Chart 10 • Marriage and Poverty in Arkansas heritage.org
  • Non-Married White Families Are Six Times More Likely to Be Poorin Arkansas Marriage leads to lower poverty PERCENTAGE OF FAMILIES THAT ARE POORrates for whites, blacks, and His-panics in Arkansas. 40% For example, in 2009, the pov-erty rate for married white familiesin Arkansas was 5.4 percent. But 32.1%the poverty rate for non-married 30%white families was nearly six timeshigher at 32.1 percent. 20% 10% 5.4% 0% Married Families Non-Married FamiliesSource: U.S. Census Bureau, AmericanCommunity Survey, 2007–2009 data. Chart 11 • Marriage and Poverty in Arkansas heritage.org
  • Non-Married Black Families Are Four Times More Likely to BePoor in Arkansas In 2009, the poverty rate for PERCENTAGE OF FAMILIES THAT ARE POORmarried black couples in Arkansaswas 12.2 percent, while the pov- 60%erty rate for non-married blackfamilies was four times higher at48.6 percent. 50% 48.6% 40% 30% 20% 12.2% 10% 0% Married Families Non-Married FamiliesSource: U.S. Census Bureau, AmericanCommunity Survey, 2007–2009 data. Chart 12 • Marriage and Poverty in Arkansas heritage.org
  • Non-Married Hispanic Families Are Two Times More Likely to Be Poorin Arkansas In 2009, the poverty rate for PERCENTAGE OF FAMILIES THAT ARE POORHispanic married families inArkansas was 25.3 percent, while 60%the poverty rate among non-married families was two times 52.8%higher at 52.8 percent. 50% 40% 30% 25.3% 20% 10% 0% Married Families Non-Married FamiliesSource: U.S. Census Bureau, AmericanCommunity Survey, 2007–2009 data. Chart 13 • Marriage and Poverty in Arkansas heritage.org
  • Three Steps to Reduce Child Poverty through Marriage1) Provide information on the benefits of marriage in reducing child poverty and improving child well-being. Marriage is a highly effective institution which greatly decreases parental and child poverty while improving long-term outcomes for children. Conversely, the absence of marriage greatly increases welfare costs and imposes added burdens on taxpayers. Unfortunately, almost no information on these topics is available in low-income communities. This information deficit should be corrected in the following manner: • Explain the benefits of marriage in middle and high schools with a high proportion of at-risk youth; • Create public education campaigns in low-income communities on the benefits of marriage; and, • Require federally funded birth control clinics to provide information on the benefits of marriage and the skills needed to develop stable families to interested low-income clients.2) Reduce anti-marriage penalties in means-tested welfare programs.3) Promote life-goal-planning, marriage-strengthening, and divorce-reduction programs to increase healthy marriages and reduce divorce and separation.
  • The Family & Religion Initiative is one of 10 Transformational Initiatives making up The HeritageFoundation’s Leadership for America campaign. For more products and information related to this initiativeor to learn more about the Leadership for America campaign, please visit heritage.org. The Heritage Foundation is a research and educational institution—a think tank—whose mission is toformulate and promote conservative public policies based on the principles of free enterprise, limited gov-ernment, individual freedom, traditional American values, and a strong national defense. Our vision is to build an America where freedom, opportunity, prosperity, and civil society flourish. Asconservatives, we believe the values and ideas that motivated our Founding Fathers are worth conserving.As policy entrepreneurs, we believe the most effective solutions are consistent with those ideas and values. 214 Massachusetts Avenue, NE • Washington, D.C. 20002 • (202) 546-4400 • heritage.org