Marriage & Poverty: Iowa
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Marriage & Poverty: Iowa

on

  • 336 views

Marriage is America's #1 weapon against childhood poverty. This presentation details the impact of marriage on the probability of child poverty in Iowa.

Marriage is America's #1 weapon against childhood poverty. This presentation details the impact of marriage on the probability of child poverty in Iowa.

Statistics

Views

Total Views
336
Views on SlideShare
336
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Adobe PDF

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    Marriage & Poverty: Iowa Marriage & Poverty: Iowa Presentation Transcript

    • Marriage: Iowa’s No. 1 Weapon Against Childhood PovertyHow the Collapse of Marriage Hurts Children and Three Steps to Reverse the Damage A Heritage Foundation Book of Charts • January 2012 Richard and Helen DeVos Center for Religion and Civil Society
    • Growth of Out-of-Wedlock Childbearing in Iowa, 1929–2010 Throughout most of Iowa’s PERCENTAGE OF CHILDREN BORN OUT OF WEDLOCKhistory, out-of-wedlock childbear-ing was rare. 40% When the federal government’s 34.2%War on Poverty began in 1964, 35%only 3.4 percent of children inIowa were born out of wedlock. 30%However, over the next fourdecades, the number rose rapidly.By 2010, 34.2 percent of births in 25%Iowa occurred outside of marriage. 20% 15%Note: Initiated by President LyndonJohnson in 1964, the War on Poverty 10%led to the creation of more than threedozen welfare programs to aid poorpersons. Government has spent $16.7 5%trillion on means-tested aid to the poorsince 1964. 0%Sources: U.S. Government, U.S. CensusBureau, and National Center for Health 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010Statistics. Chart 1 • Marriage and Poverty in Iowa heritage.org
    • Death of Marriage in Iowa, 1929–2010 The marital birth rate — the PERCENTAGE OF CHILDREN BORN TO MARRIED COUPLESpercentage of all births that occurto married parents — is the flip 100%side of the out-of-wedlock birthrate. Through most of the 20th cen- 90%tury, marital births were the normin Iowa. In 1964, more than 96percent of births occurred tomarried couples. 80% However, in the mid-1960s, themarital birth rate began to fallsteadily. By 2010, only 65.8 per- 70%cent of births in Iowa occurred tomarried couples. 65.8% 60%Note: In any given year, the sum of theout-of-wedlock birth rate (Chart 1)and the marital birth rate (Chart 2)equals 100 percent of all births. 50%Sources: U.S. Government, U.S. CensusBureau, and National Center for Health 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010Statistics. Chart 2 • Marriage and Poverty in Iowa heritage.org
    • In Iowa, Marriage Drops the Probability of Child Poverty by 88 Percent The rapid rise in out-of- PERCENTAGE OF FAMILIES WITH CHILDREN THAT ARE POORwedlock childbearing is a major 50%cause of high levels of child pov-erty in Iowa. Some 37.7 percent of single 40% 37.7%mothers with children were poorcompared to 4.5 percent of mar-ried couples with children. Single-parent families with 30%children are more than eight timesmore likely to be poor than fami-lies in which the parents are mar- 20%ried. The higher poverty rate amongsingle-mother families is due both 10%to the lower education levels ofthe mothers and the lower income 4.5%due to the absence of the father. 0% Single-Parent, Married,Two-Parent Female-Headed Families FamiliesSource: U.S. Census Bureau, AmericanCommunity Survey, 2007–2009 data. Chart 3 • Marriage and Poverty in Iowa heritage.org
    • In Iowa, Nearly One-Third of All Families with ChildrenAre Not Married Overall, married couples head70 percent of families withchildren in Iowa. Nearly one-thirdare single-parent families. Unmarried Families 29.8% Married Families 70.2%Source: U.S. Census Bureau, AmericanCommunity Survey, 2007–2009 data. Chart 4 • Marriage and Poverty in Iowa heritage.org
    • In Iowa, 75 Percent of Poor Families with Children Are Not Married Among poor families withchildren in Iowa, three-quartersare not married. By contrast,one-quarter of poor families withchildren are headed by marriedcouples. Married Families 24.9% Unmarried Families 75.1%Source: U.S. Census Bureau, AmericanCommunity Survey, 2007–2009 data. Chart 5 • Marriage and Poverty in Iowa heritage.org
    • In Iowa, Few Unwed Births Occur to Teenagers Out-of-wedlock births are often PERCENTAGE OF OUT-OF-WEDLOCK BIRTHSconfused erroneously with teen BY AGE OF MOTHERbirths, but only 7.3 percent ofout-of-wedlock births in Iowa Underoccur to girls under age 18. Age 18: By contrast, some 79 percent of 7.3%out-of-wedlock births occur to Ageyoung adult women between the 30–54:ages of 18 and 29. 13.9% Age 18–19: 15.9% Age 25–29: 21.9% Age 20–24: 41.0%Note: Figures have been rounded.Source: U.S. Department of Health andHuman Services, Centers for DiseaseControl and Prevention, 2008 NHSdata. Chart 6 • Marriage and Poverty in Iowa heritage.org
    • Less-Educated Women Are More Likely to Give BirthOutside of Marriage Unwed childbearing occurs PERCENTAGE OF BIRTHS THAT ARE MARITAL OR OUT OF WEDLOCKmost frequently among thewomen who will have the greatest 100% Unmarried 5.4%difficulty supporting children by Mothersthemselves: those with low levels 90%of education. 34.4% 80% In Iowa among women who are 56.5%high school dropouts, about 65.4 70% 65.4%percent of all births occur outside 60%marriage. Among women who 94.6% Marriedhave only a high school diploma, 50% Motherswell over half of all births occur 40%outside marriage. By contrast, 65.6%among women with at least a 30%college degree, only 5.4 percent of 43.5%births are out of wedlock. 20% 34.6% 10% 0% High School High School Some College Mother’sSource: U.S. Department of Health and Dropout Graduate College Graduate educationHuman Services, Centers for Disease (0–11 (12 (13–15 (16+ levelControl and Prevention, 2008 NHS Years) Years) Years) Years)data.  Chart 7 • Marriage and Poverty in Iowa heritage.org
    • Both Marriage and Education Are Highly Effective in ReducingChild Poverty in Iowa The poverty rate of married PERCENTAGE OF FAMILIES Poverty Rate of Families bycouples with children is dramati- WITH CHILDREN THAT Single Education and Marital Statuscally lower than the rate for ARE POOR Married of the Head of Householdhouseholds headed by single 70%parents. This is true even whenthe married couple is compared to 60% 57.3%single parents with the same edu-cation level. 50% For example, in Iowa, the pov-erty rate for a single mother who 40% 36.8%has only a high school diploma is 33.5%36.8 percent, but the poverty rate 30%for a married couple familyheaded by an individual who, 20%similarly, has only a high school 15.4% 11.2%degree is far lower at 6 percent. 10% 6.0% 4.2% On average, marriage drops the 1.3%poverty rate by about 83 percent 0%among families with the same High School High School Some Collegeeducation level. Dropout Graduate College GraduateSource: U.S. Census Bureau, American Note: Virtually none of the heads of families in the chart who are high schoolCommunity Survey, 2005–2009 data. dropouts are minor teenagers. Chart 8 • Marriage and Poverty in Iowa heritage.org
    • Unwed Birth Rates Vary Strongly by Race in Iowa Out-of-wedlock childbearing PERCENT OF BIRTHS THAT ARE OUT OF WEDLOCKvaries considerably by race. 90% In 2008, 35.2 percent of birthsin Iowa occurred outside marriage. 8.3% 80% 77.1%The rate was lowest among non-Hispanic whites at nearly one inthree births (31.6 percent). Among 70%Hispanics, over half of births wereout-of-wedlock. Among blacks, 60%nearly eight out of 10 births were 50.8%to unmarried women (77.1 per- 50%cent). 40% 35.2% 31.6% 30% 20% 10%Source: U.S. Department of Health and 0%Human Services, Centers for Disease All Races White Hispanic BlackControl and Prevention, 2008 NHS Non- Non-data. Hispanic Hispanic Chart 9 • Marriage and Poverty in Iowa heritage.org
    • Growth of Unwed Childbearing by Race in Iowa, 1934–2008 Historically, out-of-wedlock PERCENTAGE OF CHILDREN BORN OUT OF WEDLOCKchildbearing has been somewhatmore frequent among blacks than 100%among whites. However, prior to 90%the onset of the federalgovernment’s War on Poverty in Black Non- 80%1964, the rates for both whites and Hispanicblacks were comparatively low. 77.1% 70% In 1964, not even one in thirty(3 percent) white children were 60%born outside marriage. By 2008, Hispanicthe number had risen to nearly 50% 50.8%one in three (31.6 percent). 40% In 1964, about one in four black White Non-children (23.1 percent) were born Hispanic 30%outside marriage. By 2008, the 31.6%number had risen to over three in 20%four (77.1 percent). 10% 0%Sources: U.S. Government, U.S. CensusBureau, and National Center for Health 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2008Statistics. Chart 10 • Marriage and Poverty in Iowa heritage.org
    • Racial Composition of All Births and Out-of-Wedlock Births in Iowa In Iowa in 2008, some 84.4 ALL BIRTHS OUT-OF-WEDLOCK BIRTHSpercent of all births occurred tonon-Hispanic whites, 4.4 percentoccurred to non-Hispanic blacks,and 8.3 percent occurred to His-panics. Because blacks and Hispanicsare more likely to have childrenwithout being married, they 84.4% White Non- 75.8%account for a slightly larger share Hispanicof all out-of-wedlock births. In Iowa in 2008, 75.8 percent ofall non-marital births were tonon-Hispanic whites, 9.7 percentwere to black non-Hispanicwomen, and 12 percent were toHispanics. Black Non- 9.7% 4.4% Hispanic 8.3% Hispanic 12.0%Source: U.S. Department of Health and 2.9% Asian/Other 2.5%Human Services, Centers for DiseaseControl and Prevention, 2008 NHSdata. Note: Figures have been rounded. Chart 11 • Marriage and Poverty in Iowa heritage.org
    • Non-Married White Families Are Ten Times More Likelyto Be Poor in Iowa Marriage leads to lower pov- PERCENTAGE OF FAMILIES THAT ARE POORerty rates for whites, blacks andHispanics. 30% For example, in 2009, the 27.0%poverty rate for married whitefamilies in Iowa was 2.7 percent. 25%But the poverty rate for non-married white families was tentimes higher at 27 percent. 20% 15% 10% 5% 2.7% 0% Married Families Non-Married FamiliesSource: U.S. Census Bureau, AmericanCommunity Survey, 2007–2009 data. Chart 12 • Marriage and Poverty in Iowa heritage.org
    • Non-Married Black Families Are Nearly Four Times More Likelyto Be Poor in Iowa In 2009, the poverty rate for PERCENTAGE OF FAMILIES THAT ARE POORmarried black couples in Iowa was13.6 percent, while the poverty 60%rate for non-married black familieswas nearly four times higher at 51.6%51.6 percent. 50% 40% 30% 20% 13.6% 10% 0% Married Families Non-Married FamiliesSource: U.S. Census Bureau, AmericanCommunity Survey, 2007–2009 data. Chart 13 • Marriage and Poverty in Iowa heritage.org
    • Non-Married Hispanic Families Are Three Times More Likelyto Be Poor in Iowa In 2009, the poverty rate for PERCENTAGE OF FAMILIES THAT ARE POORHispanic married families in Iowawas 12.2 percent, while the pov- 40%erty rate among non-marriedfamilies was three times higher at 35.8%35.8 percent. 35% 30% 25% 20% 15% 12.2% 10% 5% 0% Married Families Non-Married FamiliesSource: U.S. Census Bureau, AmericanCommunity Survey, 2007–2009 data. Chart 14 • Marriage and Poverty in Iowa heritage.org
    • Three Steps to Reduce Child Poverty through Marriage1) Provide information on the benefits of marriage in reducing child poverty and improving child well-being. Marriage is a highly effective institution which greatly decreases parental and child poverty while improving long-term outcomes for children. Conversely, the absence of marriage greatly increases welfare costs and imposes added burdens on taxpayers. Unfortunately, almost no information on these topics is available in low-income communities. This information deficit should be corrected in the following manner: • Explain the benefits of marriage in middle and high schools with a high proportion of at-risk youth; • Create public education campaigns in low-income communities on the benefits of marriage; and, • Require federally funded birth control clinics to provide information on the benefits of marriage and the skills needed to develop stable families to interested low-income clients.2) Reduce anti-marriage penalties in means-tested welfare programs.3) Promote life-goal-planning, marriage-strengthening, and divorce-reduction programs to increase healthy marriages and reduce divorce and separation.
    • The Family & Religion Initiative is one of 10 Transformational Initiatives making up The HeritageFoundation’s Leadership for America campaign. For more products and information related to this initiativeor to learn more about the Leadership for America campaign, please visit heritage.org. The Heritage Foundation is a research and educational institution—a think tank—whose mission is toformulate and promote conservative public policies based on the principles of free enterprise, limited gov-ernment, individual freedom, traditional American values, and a strong national defense. Our vision is to build an America where freedom, opportunity, prosperity, and civil society flourish. Asconservatives, we believe the values and ideas that motivated our Founding Fathers are worth conserving.As policy entrepreneurs, we believe the most effective solutions are consistent with those ideas and values. 214 Massachusetts Avenue, NE • Washington, D.C. 20002 • (202) 546-4400 • heritage.org