Marriage & Poverty: Hawaii
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Marriage & Poverty: Hawaii

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Marriage is America's #1 weapon against childhood poverty. This presentation details the impact of marriage on the probability of child poverty in Hawaii.

Marriage is America's #1 weapon against childhood poverty. This presentation details the impact of marriage on the probability of child poverty in Hawaii.

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Marriage & Poverty: Hawaii Marriage & Poverty: Hawaii Presentation Transcript

  • Marriage: Hawaii’s No. 1 Weapon Against Childhood PovertyHow the Collapse of Marriage Hurts Children and Three Steps to Reverse the Damage A Heritage Foundation Book of Charts • January 2012 Richard and Helen DeVos Center for Religion and Civil Society
  • Growth of Out-of-Wedlock Childbearing in Hawaii, 1960–2010 Throughout most of Hawaii’s PERCENTAGE OF CHILDREN BORN OUT OF WEDLOCKhistory, out-of-wedlock childbear-ing was rare. 50% In 1964, when the federal gov-ernment began the War on Pov-erty, only 6.6 percent of children in 40.8%Hawaii were born outside mar- 40%riage. However, over the next five 37.8%decades, the number rose rapidly.By 2010, 37.8 percent of births inHawaii occurred outside of mar- 30%riage. NationalNote: Data on non-marital births in HawaiiHawaii are unavailable before 1960. 20%However, all states that do have datafor this period show rates that closelyparallel the national rate shown in thechart. In every state for which date isavailable the unwed birth rate was low 10%and flat up to the mid-1960s and thenbegan to rise rapidly. The Hawaiian ratebefore 1960 probably closely matchesthe national rate shown in the chart. 0%Sources: U.S. Government, U.S. CensusBureau, and National Center for Health 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010Statistics. Chart 1 • Marriage and Poverty in Hawaii heritage.org
  • In Hawaii, Marriage Drops the Probability of Child Povertyby 83 Percent The rapid rise in out-of- PERCENTAGE OF FAMILIES WITH CHILDREN THAT ARE POORwedlock childbearing is a major 30%cause of high levels of child pov-erty in Hawaii. 25.8% Some 25.8 percent of single 25%mothers with children were poorcompared to 4.5 percent of mar-ried couples with children. 20% Single-parent families withchildren are nearly six times more 15%likely to be poor than families inwhich the parents are married. The higher poverty rate among 10%single-mother families is due bothto the lower education levels of 4.5%the mothers and the lower income 5%due to the absence of the father. 0% Single-Parent, Married,Two-ParentSource: U.S. Census Bureau, American Female-Headed FamiliesCommunity Survey, 2007–2009 data. Families Chart 2 • Marriage and Poverty in Hawaii heritage.org
  • In Hawaii, Three in Ten Families with Children Are Not Married Overall, married couples headabout seven in ten families withchildren in Hawaii. Over three inten are single-parent families. Unmarried Families 30.7% Married Families 69.3%Source: U.S. Census Bureau, AmericanCommunity Survey, 2007–2009 data. Chart 3 • Marriage and Poverty in Hawaii heritage.org
  • In Hawaii, 68 Percent of Poor Families with Children Are Not Married Among poor families withchildren in Hawaii, abouttwo-thirds are not married. Bycontrast, only one-third of poorfamilies with children are headedby married couples. Married Families 31.8% Unmarried Families 68.2%Source: U.S. Census Bureau, AmericanCommunity Survey, 2007–2009 data. Chart 4 • Marriage and Poverty in Hawaii heritage.org
  • In Hawaii, Few Unwed Births Occur to Teenagers Out-of-wedlock births are often PERCENTAGE OF OUT-OF-WEDLOCK BIRTHSconfused erroneously with teen BY AGE OF MOTHERbirths, but only 5.9 percent ofout-of-wedlock births in Hawaii Underoccur to girls under age 18. Age 18: 5.9% By contrast, some 73 percent ofout-of-wedlock births occur toyoung adult women between the Ageages of 18 and 29. Age 30–54: 18–19: 21.1% 13.2% Age 25–29: Age 24.5% 20–24: 35.3%Note: Figures have been rounded.Source: U.S. Department of Health andHuman Services, Centers for DiseaseControl and Prevention, 2008 NHSdata. Chart 5 • Marriage and Poverty in Hawaii heritage.org
  • Less-Educated Women Are More Likely to Give BirthOutside of Marriage Unwed childbearing occurs most PERCENTAGE OF BIRTHS THAT ARE MARITALfrequently among the women who OR OUT OF WEDLOCKwill have the greatest difficulty sup- 100%porting children by themselves: those 8.1% Unmarriedwith low levels of education. 90% Mothers In the U.S., among women who 42.0% 80%are high school dropouts, about 65.2percent of all births occur outside 54.5% 70%marriage. Among women who have 65.2%only a high school diploma, well over 60%half of all births occur outside mar- 91.9%riage. By contrast, among women 50% Marriedwith at least a college degree, only Mothers 40%8.1 percent of births are out-of- 58.0%wedlock. 30% 45.5%Note: Specific data on out-of-wedlock 20%births and maternal education are not 34.8%available in Hawaii. However, the pattern 10%varies little between states. Hawaii datawill be very similar to the national data 0%presented in this chart. High School High School Some College Mother’s Dropout Graduate College Graduate educationSource: U.S. Department of Health and (0–11 (12 (13–15 (16+ levelHuman Services, Centers for DiseaseControl and Prevention, 2008 NHS data.  Years) Years) Years) Years) Chart 6 • Marriage and Poverty in Hawaii heritage.org
  • Both Marriage and Education Are Highly Effectivein Reducing Child Poverty in Hawaii The poverty rate of married PERCENTAGE OF FAMILIES Poverty Rate of Families bycouples with children is dramati- WITH CHILDREN THAT Single Education and Marital Statuscally lower than the rate for house- ARE POOR Married of the Head of Householdholds headed by single parents. 50%This is true even when the marriedcouple is compared to single par- 41.7%ents with the same education level. 40% For example, in Hawaii, the 34.2%poverty rate for a single motherwho has only a high school 30%diploma is 34.2 percent, but the 23.1%poverty rate for a married couple 20%family headed by an individualwho, similarly, has only a high 12.5% 12.4%school degree is far lower at 9.3 10% 9.3%percent. 3.9% On average, marriage drops the 1.4%poverty rate by around 79 percent 0%among families with the same High School High School Some Collegeeducation level. Dropout Graduate College GraduateSource: U.S. Census Bureau, American Note: Virtually none of the heads of families in the chart who are high schoolCommunity Survey, 2005–2009 data. dropouts are minor teenagers. Chart 7 • Marriage and Poverty in Hawaii heritage.org
  • Unwed Birth Rates Vary Strongly by Race in Hawaii Out-of-wedlock childbearing PERCENT OF BIRTHS THAT ARE OUT OF WEDLOCKvaries considerably by race inHawaii. 60% In 2008 (the most recent yearfor which racial breakdown is 49.5%available), 37.9 percent of births in 50%Hawaii occurred outside marriage.The rate was lowest among whites: 40.3%in that group about one in four 40% 37.9%births were non-marital. Among blacks, three in ten 29.7% 30%births were out-of-wedlock. 25.9%Among Asians (including nativeHawaiians), four in ten births wereto unmarried women. Among 20%Hispanics, about half were tounmarried women. 10% 0%Source: U.S. Department of Health and All Races White Black Asian/Native HispanicHuman Services, Centers for DiseaseControl and Prevention, 2008 NHS Non- Non- Hawaiiandata. Hispanic Hispanic Chart 8 • Marriage and Poverty in Hawaii heritage.org
  • Non-Married White Families Are Seven Times More Likely to Be Poorin Hawaii Marriage leads to lower poverty PERCENTAGE OF FAMILIES THAT ARE POORrates for whites, Asians, nativeHawaiians, Hispanics and blacks. 25% For example, in 2009, the pov-erty rate for married white families 20.6%in Hawaii was 2.8 percent. But thepoverty rate for non-married white 20%families was seven times higher at20.6 percent. 15% 10% 5% 2.8% 0% Married Families Non-Married FamiliesSource: U.S. Census Bureau, AmericanCommunity Survey, 2007–2009 data. Chart 9 • Marriage and Poverty in Hawaii heritage.org
  • Non-Married Asian Families Are Three Times More Likely to Be Poorin Hawaii In 2009, the poverty rate for PERCENTAGE OF FAMILIES THAT ARE POORAsian married families in Hawaiiwas 2.7 percent, while the poverty 10%rate among non-married families 9.2%was three times higher at 9.2percent. 8% 6% 4% 2.7% 2% 0% Married Families Non-Married FamiliesSource: U.S. Census Bureau, AmericanCommunity Survey, 2007–2009 data. Chart 10 • Marriage and Poverty in Hawaii heritage.org
  • Non-Married Native Hawaiian Families Are Twice as Likely to Be Poorin Hawaii In 2009, the poverty rate for PERCENTAGE OF FAMILIES THAT ARE POORNative Hawaiian married familiesin Hawaii was 10.5 percent, while 25%the poverty rate among non-married families was two times 22.3%higher at 22.3 percent. 20% 15% 10.5% 10% 5% 0% Married Families Non-Married FamiliesSource: U.S. Census Bureau, AmericanCommunity Survey, 2007–2009 data. Chart 11 • Marriage and Poverty in Hawaii heritage.org
  • Non-Married Hispanic Families Are Five Times More Likely to Be Poorin Hawaii In 2009, the poverty rate for PERCENTAGE OF FAMILIES THAT ARE POORHispanic married families inHawaii was 5 percent, while the 30%poverty rate among non-marriedfamilies was five times higher at 26.0%26 percent. 25% 20% 15% 10% 5.0% 5% 0% Married Families Non-Married FamiliesSource: U.S. Census Bureau, AmericanCommunity Survey, 2007–2009 data. Chart 12 • Marriage and Poverty in Hawaii heritage.org
  • Non-Married Black Families Are 26 Times More Likely to Be Poorin Hawaii In 2009, the poverty rate for PERCENTAGE OF FAMILIES THAT ARE POORmarried black couples in Hawaiiwas 1 percent, while the poverty 30%rate for non-married black familieswas over 26 times higher at 26.1 26.1%percent. 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 1.0% 0% Married Families Non-Married FamiliesSource: U.S. Census Bureau, AmericanCommunity Survey, 2007–2009 data. Chart 13 • Marriage and Poverty in Hawaii heritage.org
  • Three Steps to Reduce Child Poverty through Marriage1) Provide information on the benefits of marriage in reducing child poverty and improving child well-being. Marriage is a highly effective institution which greatly decreases parental and child poverty while improving long-term outcomes for children. Conversely, the absence of marriage greatly increases welfare costs and imposes added burdens on taxpayers. Unfortunately, almost no information on these topics is available in low-income communities. This information deficit should be corrected in the following manner: • Explain the benefits of marriage in middle and high schools with a high proportion of at-risk youth; • Create public education campaigns in low-income communities on the benefits of marriage; and, • Require federally funded birth control clinics to provide information on the benefits of marriage and the skills needed to develop stable families to interested low-income clients.2) Reduce anti-marriage penalties in means-tested welfare programs.3) Promote life-goal-planning, marriage-strengthening, and divorce-reduction programs to increase healthy marriages and reduce divorce and separation.
  • The Family & Religion Initiative is one of 10 Transformational Initiatives making up The HeritageFoundation’s Leadership for America campaign. For more products and information related to this initiativeor to learn more about the Leadership for America campaign, please visit heritage.org. The Heritage Foundation is a research and educational institution—a think tank—whose mission is toformulate and promote conservative public policies based on the principles of free enterprise, limited gov-ernment, individual freedom, traditional American values, and a strong national defense. Our vision is to build an America where freedom, opportunity, prosperity, and civil society flourish. Asconservatives, we believe the values and ideas that motivated our Founding Fathers are worth conserving.As policy entrepreneurs, we believe the most effective solutions are consistent with those ideas and values. 214 Massachusetts Avenue, NE • Washington, D.C. 20002 • (202) 546-4400 • heritage.org