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Berlinwall
 

Berlinwall

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    Berlinwall Berlinwall Presentation Transcript

    • THE BERLIN WALL
    • Another Cold War crisis
      • Background
      • East – West rivalry
      • Berlin divided – contrast the two halves.
      WEST: Prosperous, helped by US, attracted people from the East. Seen by USSR as infection in the heart of Communist East Germany. EAST: Much less prosperous and under Communist control
    • What they wanted
      • The West
      • Prevent USSR from gaining control of East Germany
      • To see a united, democratic Germany
      • The East
      • Maintain control over E Germany
      • Make the West recognise it as an independent state
      • Stop the flood of refugees especially the skilled and professional ones – much needed in E Germany
    • Map
    • 1958-Soviet demands
      • West should:
      • Recognise GDR (East Germany)
      • Withdraw troops from West Berlin
    • Who’s this then?
    • Events of 1961
      • Khrushchev pressured new American President John F Kennedy (TV story!!!)
      • Demanded withdrawal of Western forces from West Berlin – Kennedy refused
      • July 23 – Flow of refugees from East to West = 1000 a day
      • July 25 – Kennedy repeats support for West Berlin and announced increase in arms spending
    • Events cont’d
      • 13-22 August – Khrushchev and East German govt. orders barbed wire barrier across Berlin, followed by a wall of concrete blocks
      • All of West Berlin encircled apart from access points
      • This was against the settlement reached after the Berlin Airlift (1949)
    • Results
      • Important results for Berlin, Germany and the Cold War
      • Berlin was divided, free access ended between East and West, many families split, many attempted to escape to the West-between 1961 and 1989, 86 people died trying to cross the Berlin Wall
    •  
    • Results cont’d
      • Kennedy accepted the Soviet action. He refused to use US troops to pull down the wall to avoid war.
      • Kennedy looked weak but West turned it into propaganda – why if Communism was so attractive was a wall needed?
      • 1963 – Kennedy visited West Berlin – pledged continued support – ‘ Ich bin ein Berliner’ (I am a Berliner) – famous speech
      • Khrushchev lost face by failing to remove the West from Berlin