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Whitepaper explores the issue of how governments can help citizens feel that it is "safe to play" in the connected world. It discusses the issues of trust and privacy and sets out a simple framework …

Whitepaper explores the issue of how governments can help citizens feel that it is "safe to play" in the connected world. It discusses the issues of trust and privacy and sets out a simple framework to help the public sector tackles these complex issues.


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  • 1. S A F E T O P L A Y A TR U ST F R AM EW O R K F O R TH E CO N N ECTED R EP U B L IC A Point of View Gl o b a l Pu b l i c S e c t o r Pr a c t i c e I n t e r n e t B u s i n e s s S o l u t i o n s Gr o u p Ci s c o S y s t e m s PO ST-N O BE L FIN AL FE B0 8
  • 2. T A B L E O F C O N T E N T S EXECUTIVE SUMMARY IN TRO D UCTIO N : TH E TRUST D IL EMMA IN A CO N N ECTED W O RL D TH E F O CUS O F TH IS P AP ER UN D ERSTAN D IN G TH E RISK S O F TH E CO L L AB O RATIVE W EB What risks are we talking about? Sec u rity Identity manag ement Privac y H O W G O VERN MEN T AD AP TS TO TH E “ CO L L AB O RATIVE W EB ” T he signif ic anc e of risk alloc ation A d y nam ic sy stem linking risk alloc ation, c ontrol and ac c ountability R isk and its al l o c atio n Co ntro l Ac c o u ntab il ity TO W ARD S A SUSTAIN AB L E TRUST F RAMEW O RK F O R G O VERN MEN T: L ESSO N S F RO M TH E P RIVATE SECTO R U sing c ollaborativ e web c ap abilities to solv e c ollaborativ e web p roblem s G ood p ublic ad m inistration STRATEG IC RECO MMEN D ATIO N S F O R G O VERN MEN T O N L IN E SERVICES F air risk alloc ation C ontrol A c c ountability CO N CL USIO N S: K EY P RIN CIP L ES AN D CH ECK L IST Draft safe to play white paper P O S T -N O B E L DR A F T R M F E B 0 8 Pag e 2
  • 3. P rinc ip les Fair risk al l o c atio n Co ntro l Ac c o u ntab il ity C hec klist Draft safe to play white paper P O S T -N O B E L DR A F T R M F E B 0 8 Pag e 3
  • 4. EX E C U T I V E SU M M A R Y Th is paper sets o u t an appro ac h th at mak es it “safe to pl ay ” in th e w o rl d o f c o nnec ted g o vernment and po l itic s, a w o rl d w e h ave desc rib ed as th e “c o nnec ted repu b l ic ”. Th e paper: • Frames th e c entral c h al l eng e o f tru st as a fu nc tio n o f th e interac tio n b etw een th e w ay risk is al l o c ated, w h o c o ntro l s th e interac tio n and h o w ac c o u ntab il ity is defined and manag ed. • D emo nstrates th at th e netw o rk , as a pl atfo rm fo r c o mmu nic atio n and c o l l ab o ratio n, is a c entral el ement in th e respo nse to many o f th e tru st dil emmas th at it g enerates. Th ese tw o ideas are at th e h eart o f th is Po int o f V iew paper fro m th e Gl o b al Pu b l ic Sec to r prac tic e o f Cisc o ’s Internet Bu siness So l u tio ns Gro u p.1 Th ey pro vide a distinc tive perspec tive o n w ay s to b u il d tru st as th e inesc apab l e c o nditio n fo r g reater c itiz en eng ag ement w ith , and c o nfidenc e in, pu b l ic servic es and g o vernment pro g rams th at c o ntinu e to find new w ay s to h arness th e po tential o f th e c o l l ab o rative w eb . In th e pro c ess, it eng ag es th e disc u ssio n ab o u t k ey c o nstitu ent el ements o f th e tru st deb ate, inc l u ding identity manag ement, privac y and sec u rity . Th e paper ex pl ains w h y th is simpl e framew o rk h el ps to c u t th ro u g h so me o f th e c o nfu sio n and c o mpl ex ity in th e tru st deb ate as it impac ts th e pu b l ic sec to r. It al so u ses th e anal y sis as th e b asis fo r so me prac tic al , and so metimes pro vo c ative, su g g estio ns ab o u t k ey q u estio ns th at po l ic y mak ers sh o u l d b e ask ing as th ey c o nfro nt th e persistent do u b ts th at c itiz ens h arb o u r in th eir interac tio ns in th e c o nnec ted w o rl d in w h ic h th ey inc reasing l y no w l ive. INT R O D U C T I O N: T H E TR U ST D I L E M M A I N A C O NNE C T E D W O R L D Co nnec tedness is emerg ing as th e defining c h arac teristic o f o u r time. Th e ab il ity to sh are info rmatio n and ideas q u ic k l y , c h eapl y and inc reasing l y pervasivel y is h aving a pro fo u nd impac t o n o u r sense o f o u rsel ves, o u r instinc t fo r c o mmu nity and vo l u ntary ex c h ang e and o u r c apac ity to inno vate pro du c ts, servic es and ex perienc es. It’s no t th at b eing c o nnec ted is any th ing new in itsel f o r th at th e ab il ity to c o mmu nic ate and sh are h asn’t al w ay s b een c l o se to th e h eart o f th e h u man ex perienc e. Bu t th ere is so meth ing ab o u t th e intensity and reac h o f th e mo re densel y netw o rk ed l ives w e are c reating th at su g g ests so meth ing mo re th an simpl y an evo l u tio n. In w ay s th at w e c an b arel y desc rib e and o ften u nderstand even l ess, w e are c reating new po ssib il ities fo r o u r interac tio ns at h o me, at sc h o o l , at w o rk and in th e pl ac es and spac es in w h ic h w e l ive o u r l ives in c o mmo n. N o w h ere do th ese pro fo u nd and u nsettl ing c h ang es h ave as mu c h impac t as th ey do in g o vernment and th e pu b l ic sec to r. Co nfro nting th e c o nseq u ent po ssib il ities and risk s fo r pu b l ic po l ic y and th e desig n and del ivery o f pu b l ic servic es is, in many different w ay s, tax ing g o vernments aro u nd th e w o rl d. 1 T his paper was d ev eloped as a c on su ltin g proj ec t with I n form ation I n teg rity S olu tion s ( I I S ) , led b y M alc olm C rom pton an d R ob in M c K en z ie. I I S is an in tern ation al c on su ltin g prac tic e spec ializ in g in the prov ision of ad v ic e on id en tity m an ag em en t priv ac y an d tru st in the c on tex t of b etter c u stom er an d c itiz en serv ic e. Draft safe to play white paper P O S T -N O B E L DR A F T R M F E B 0 8 Pag e 4
  • 5. Cisc o ’s o veral l respo nse to th is c h al l eng e is framed b y a piec e o f th ink ing w e rec entl y u pdated as “Th e Co nnec ted R epu b l ic 2.0 ” o r TCR :2, w h ic h ex pl o res th e po tential o f tec h no l o g y no t j u st to impro ve pu b l ic servic e del ivery b u t to c h ang e th e very b u siness o f g o verning . We th ink th at ac tive and eng ag ed c itiz ens are at th e h eart o f th e transfo rmatio n o f th e pu b l ic sec to r. Th e new to o l s o f c o mmu nic atio n and c o l l ab o ratio n enab l ed and ac c el erated b y th e netw o rk , espec ial l y th e so c ial netw o rk w h ic h w e desc rib e as th e c o l l ab o rative w eb ( o ften c al l ed Web 2.0 ), empo w er c itiz ens and b ring th em to g eth er in new w ay s. Th e tec h no l o g y c o mb ines w ith , and to a l arg e ex tent is driving , a w ay o f th ink ing ab o u t h o w individu al s eng ag e w ith g o vernments th at is no t o nl y g o ing to pro du c e b etter, mo re respo nsive pu b l ic servic es, b u t al so stro ng er c o mmu nities. We are w itnessing tec h no l o g y -enab l ed c h ang e l ink ing to l arg er c o nc erns o f pu b l ic sec to r refo rm and demo c ratic renew al . In th is new enviro nment, eGo vernment is b ec o ming mo re c entral to w h at g o vernment itsel f is b ec o ming — o rc h estrating th e c reatio n o f pu b l ic val u e b y pu tting peo pl e and c o mmu nities at th e c enter o f respo nsive netw o rk s o f k no w l edg e, servic e, tru st, and ac c o u ntab il ity . We th ink th ere are th ree c h arac teristic s th at u nderpin th is c h ang ed enviro nment. Th ey w il l h ave a maj o r impac t o n th e w ay g o vernments o perate and th e w ay po l ic y mak ers mu st th ink . In th is new w o rl d: • Th e netw o rk b ec o mes an essential pl atfo rm fo r c o l l ab o ratio n and c reativity ; • Pu b l ic val u e is c reated as g o vernments “empo w er th e edg e” to mak e th e b est u se o f al l avail ab l e ex pertise and ex perienc e; • Harnessing th e “po w er o f u s” b ec o mes part o f a new pu b l ic po l ic y b u siness mo del to c reate k no w l edg e, so l ve pro b l ems and del iver b etter servic es. Th is is a mo del o f pu b l ic manag ement th at b u il ds o n, b u t mo ves b ey o nd th e l imits o f th e “new pu b l ic manag ement”. It is a mo del th at rel ies o n, and feeds, an eth ic o f h ig h tru st and o penness. It assu mes th at k no w l edg e, ex pertise, and insig h t are dispersed th ro u g h o u t c o mmu nities and at al l l evel s o f fo rmal and info rmal po w er. It assu mes th at th ere are new ty pes o f so c ial k no w l edg e and info rmatio n, fo rg ed and refined in th e interac tio ns b etw een c itiz ens, c o mmu nities and g o vernments th at w il l mak e a differenc e to th e c o mpl ex so c ial and ec o no mic pro b l ems w e are try ing to so l ve. Fro m th is perspec tive, o ne o f th e c entral task s o f g o verning — o ver and ab o ve th e endu ring o b l ig atio ns o f l aw and reg u l atio n, tax atio n and redistrib u tio n, and sec u rity — is to find w ay s to c o nnec t th at dispersed k no w l edg e and w isdo m in w ay s th at mak e a prac tic al differenc e to th e w ay po l ic ies are devel o ped and pro g rams are desig ned and del ivered. Th e c o l l ab o rative w eb is c h ang ing fo rever th e w ay g o vernments w o rk and b eh ave. Bu t w h il e it b ring s asto nish ing po ssib il ities, fo r many its po tential is c l o u ded b y u nc ertainty ab o u t th e sig nific ant risk s w ith w h ic h it c o mes pre-l o aded. Th e many prac tic al q u estio ns ab o u t w h eth er and h o w g o vernments sh o u l d eng ag e w ith its po ssib il ities h ave c o al esc ed into a persistent and po tential l y deb il itating do u b t — h o w c an w e b e su re th at it is “safe to pl ay ” in th is c o nnec ted w o rl d? Draft safe to play white paper P O S T -N O B E L DR A F T R M F E B 0 8 Pag e 5
  • 6. Th e answ er is ac tu al l y q u ite simpl e - o nl y if th e invitatio n to eng ag e is o n terms th at are w o rth y o f b eing tru sted. Bu t w h at do es “w o rth y o f tru st” real l y mean? Th is q u estio n h as b een th e su b j ec t o f mu c h deb ate amo ng c o mmentato rs o n th e info rmatio n ec o no my . Th e primary task o f th is paper is to c u t th ro u g h th is deb ate and pro vide a distinc tive frame w ith in w h ic h to th ink ab o u t tru st and h o w it g ro w s, o r c an b e destro y ed, in th e c o l l ab o rative w eb enviro nment. In seek ing to c reate tru st y o u need to l o o k at th ree areas: c o ntro l , fair risk al l o c atio n and ac c o u ntab il ity . Bu t it is no t any o f th ese el ements o n th eir o w n th at matters. Wh at mak es th em po w erfu l is th e w ay th ey interac t. Wh at w e’re su g g esting is th at th e w ay th ese th ree el ements w o rk to g eth er in a c o nstantl y c h ang ing pattern o f mu tu al infl u enc e and su ppo rt w il l pl ay a sig nific ant part in determining h o w safe peo pl e feel in a mo re o pen, c o nnec ted w o rl d. Addressing th ese fac to rs req u ires a c o mb inatio n o f b o th new and o l d strateg ies: max imiz ing th e u se o f th e ex c iting new to o l s th e c o l l ab o rative w eb itsel f u nderpinned b y o l d fash io ned g o o d pu b l ic administratio n o n th e o th er. T H E F O C U SO F T H ISP A P E R Co ntinu ing c o nc erns ab o u t tru st and sec u rity o ffer persistent o b stac l es to th e mo re rapid and c o mpreh ensive tak e u p o f o nl ine servic e del ivery and c itiz en eng ag ement in th e ‘ c o nnec ted repu b l ic ’ mo del o f g o verning , w h ic h is b ased o n mu c h w ider u se o f th e Internet and new netw o rk -enab l ed to o l s fo r c o mmu nic atio n and c o l l ab o ratio n. Th is paper o ffers so me ideas ab o u t h o w th at fu ndamental c h al l eng e o f tru st c an b e mo re effec tivel y deal t w ith as g o vernments emb rac e th e visio n, princ ipl es and so l u tio ns o f th e ‘ c o nnec ted repu b l ic ’. Fo r th e mo st part, th e paper c o nc entrates o n th o se interac tio ns b etw een g o vernment and c itiz ens th at invo l ve th e del ivery o f servic es and, to a l esser ex tent th e ex c h ang e o f ideas and o pinio ns as part o f a w ider demo c ratic c o nversatio n. It do esn’t fo c u s so mu c h o n th e impac t o f c h ang ing c o nc eptio ns and prac tic es o f tru st in th e c o ntex t o f g o vernment’s reg u l ato ry fu nc tio ns. With o u t try ing to ex pl o re th eir detail ed appl ic atio n in every po ssib l e setting , it is part o f th e paper’s arg u ment th at th e w ay in w h ic h it frames th e fu ndamental c h al l eng es o f tru st in a c o nnec ted w o rl d o ffer insig h ts ab o u t l ifting tru st l evel s and th en su staining th em th at are rel evant in al l o f th ese different c irc u mstanc es. Wh il e th e fo c u s o f th e paper remains o n th e rel atio nsh ip b etw een c itiz ens and g o vernment w ith in a new mo del o f g o verning , it inevitab l y to u c h es o n l arg er q u estio ns ab o u t h o w peo pl e and c o mmu nities respo nd to th e new demands and po ssib il ities o f a mo re c o nnec ted w o rl d. Part o f th e u nc ertainty w ith w h ic h th e paper is c o nc erned is ab o u t w h eth er g o vernments th emsel ves sh o u l d emb rac e th e c o nnec ted w o rl d o f Web 2.0 . Ano th er part o f th e u nc ertainty is ab o u t c itiz ens w o ndering if th ey , th eir info rmatio n and th eir privac y w il l b e safe as th ey inc reasing l y interac t w ith b u sinesses, w ith g o vernments and w ith eac h o th er in a mo re c o nnec ted w o rl d. Draft safe to play white paper P O S T -N O B E L DR A F T R M F E B 0 8 Pag e 6
  • 7. We b el ieve th at th ese tw o c o nc erns – h o w c itiz ens deal w ith g o vernment and h o w peo pl e l ive in a mo re c o nnec ted w o rl d – are tw o dimensio ns o f th e same q u estio n. N o t o nl y is it h ard to separate th o se issu es o u t, b u t in many w ay s th ey are interdependent. We th ink th e w ay th e paper reframes th e tru st issu es mo re g eneral l y o ffer insig h ts into b o th dimensio ns. Bu t th e princ ipal pu rpo se o f th e paper remains to stimu l ate th ink ing ab o u t h o w to impro ve th e tru st dimensio n o f th e c itiz en-g o vernment rel atio nsh ip. Final l y , a w o rd o f c au tio n. Th is paper is no t intended to b e a c o mpreh ensive o r definitive c o mpendiu m o n tru st in g o vernment. Its main fo c u s is o n so me aspec ts o f tru st in th e o nl ine w o rl d. Fo r ex ampl e, it do es no t seek to tac k l e direc tl y tru st issu es fac ing th e sig nific ant sec tio n o f th e po pu l atio n th at fo r a nu mb er o f reaso ns are u nw il l ing o r u nab l e to eng ag e w ith th e o nl ine w o rl d. O n th e o th er h and w e b el ieve th at th is paper’s insig h ts into tru st and h o w it is g ained may al so h ave so me rel evanc e fo r g aining tru st in th e o ffl ine w o rl d. U ND E R ST A ND I NG T H E R I SK S O F T H E C O L L A B O R A T I V E W E B Th e easiest w ay to c aptu re th e essenc e o f th e c o nnec ted w o rl d is to th ink o f th e rise o f so c ial netw o rk ing 2, inc l u ding M y Spac e, Y o u Tu b e, Fac eb o o k , L ink edIn, as w el l as b l o g s3, and w ik is4. Pl atfo rms o r appl ic atio ns pro viding th ese k inds o f featu res are so metime c al l ed “Web 2.0 ” We w il l c al l it th e c o l l ab o rative w eb . Pl atfo rms and appl ic atio ns o f th is k ind are o ften interac tive and enc o u rag e, indeed rel y o n, u sers th emsel ves to devel o p th eir o w n c o ntent. Th ey enab l e u sers to sh are info rmatio n and to fash io n and b enefit fro m a c o l l ec tive intel l ig enc e w h o se essenc e is c o l l ab o ratio n and c o -c reatio n. In o th er w o rds, instead o f insig h t, intel l ig enc e and au th o rity c o ming fro m ‘ th e to p’ o r ‘ th e c entre’, th ey are inc reasing l y pro du c ed b y th e same peo pl e w h o c o nsu me th em. M any o f th e new Web 2.0 appl ic atio ns mak e it easier to c o l l ec t and sh are intel l ig enc e o n u sers’ interests and b eh avio rs and to c reate val u e fro m th is info rmatio n. Go vernment in a c o l l ab o rative w eb enviro nment mak es u se o f al l th e new pl atfo rms to fac il itate impro ved servic e pro visio n and mo re respo nsive g o vernment, to enab l e peo pl e to estab l ish c o nversatio ns w ith g o vernment and to arrang e g o vernment servic es in a w ay th at su its th em rath er th an o n a tak e it o r l eave it b asis. Go vernment is no t o nl y a direc t servic e pro vider, o f c o u rse. It al so disc h arg es impo rtant ro l es inc l u ding pro viding fo r natio nal sec u rity , l aw enfo rc ement and reg u l atio n ab o u t w h ic h individu al s h ave l ittl e ( l eg al ) 2 A social network service focuses on building and verifying of online social networks for communities of people who share interests and activities, or who are interested in ex ploring the interests and activities of others, and which necessitates the use of software. M ost social network services are primarily web based and provide various ways for users to interact, such as chat, messaging, email, video, voice chat, file sharing, blogging, discussion groups, and so on. I n general, social networking services, such as M yS pace, F acebook and B ebo, allow users to create a profile for themselves. U sers can upload a picture of themselves and can often be “ friends” with other users. I n most social networking services, both users must confirm that they are friends before they are linked. 3 A blog is a user-generated W ebsite where entries are made in a j ournal format and displayed in reverse chronological order. B logs often provide commentary or news on a particular subj ect, such as food, politics, or local news; some function as personal online diaries. A typical blog combines tex t, images, and links to other blogs, W eb pages and other media related to its topic. T he agility for readers to leave comments in an interactive format is an important part of most early blogs. (S ource: http: / / en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/ B log) 4 A wiki is a W ebsite that allows visitors to add, remove, and otherwise edit and change content, typically without the need for registration. I t also allows for linking among any number of pages. T his ease of interaction and operation makes a wiki an effective tool for mass, collaborative authoring. (S ource: http: / / en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/ W iki) P erhaps the best-known ex ample is W ikipedia itself – an encyclopedia collectively produced by volunteer W eb users who supplement and edit each other’ s content. Draft safe to play white paper P O S T -N O B E L DR A F T R M F E B 0 8 Pag e 7
  • 8. c h o ic e even if th ey mig h t h ave c o nseq u enc es th at are adverse to th eir individu al interests. O u r fo c u s in th is paper is primaril y o n th o se areas w h ere servic es are pro vided to c itiz ens o ver w h ic h th o se c itiz ens h ave so me disc retio n. It do es no t pu rsu e in any detail th e different c h al l eng es o f a tru st mo del fo r servic es su c h as l aw and enfo rc ement and natio nal sec u rity . Ho w ever, w e mu st rec o g niz e th at c itiz ens’ aw areness o f th e imperatives o f th ese and o th er g o vernment ac tivities may h ave an impac t o n th eir w il l ing ness to tru st g o vernment in rel atio n to its direc t servic e pro visio n ac tivities. WHAT R ISK S AR E WE TAL K IN G ABO UT? Th ere are many risk s th at c o ntrib u te to , o r c an u ndermine, tru st in th e c o nnec ted w o rl d. Th ey inc l u de th o se rel ating to transac tio n fu l fil l ment, fo r ex ampl e. Bu t th is paper fo c u ses o n th e risk s th at w e b el ieve are c ritic al to th e w ay peo pl e th rive in th e c o l l ab o rative w eb enviro nment, b o th in th eir interac tio n w ith g o vernment and mo re w idel y in th eir interac tio ns w ith b u siness and w ith eac h o th er, b ec au se th e c o l l ab o rative w eb rel ies so h eavil y o n info rmatio n ab o u t peo pl e fo r its energ y . In th is paper w h en w e refer to risk w e are princ ipal l y fo c u sing o n th e risk s asso c iated w ith info rmatio n aspec ts o f sec u rity , identity manag ement and privac y . SECURITY 5 In th e ru sh to ex pl o it th e new c apab il ities o f th e c o l l ab o rative w eb , sec u rity issu es h ave o ften tak en a b ac k seat w ith th e resu l t th at th e risk s and vu l nerab il ities are o nl y g radu al l y b ec o ming u ndersto o d. We are disc o vering th at th e c o l l ab o rative w eb o pens u p w h o l e new o ppo rtu nities fo r th o se interested in mak ing misc h ief o r eng ag ing in c riminal ac tivity o n th e internet. Interac tive featu res b eing added to w eb sites and w eb servic es u sing new pro g ramming tec h niq u es pro vide a mu c h g reater “attac k su rfac e” th an b efo re. As o ne c o mmentato r 6 h as pu t it, “a traditio nal Web site is l ik e a h o u se w ith no w indo w s and j u st a fro nt do o r. An AJ AX Web site is l ik e a h o u se w ith a to n o f w indo w s and a sl iding do o r. Y o u c an pu t th e b ig g est l o c k s o n y o u r fro nt and b ac k do o rs, b u t I c an stil l g et in th ro u g h a w indo w .” Al so , at th e h u man l evel , so c ial netw o rk ing sites ex po se info rmatio n to many mo re peo pl e th an th o se to w h o m it w o u l d b e ex po sed in mo st o ffl ine perso nal rel atio nsh ips and th at info rmatio n c an easil y b e reu sed and redistrib u ted b y th ird parties.7 As aw areness o f th ese vu l nerab il ities rises, c itiz ens may b e inc reasing l y c o nc erned ab o u t eng ag ing w ith g o vernment initiated w eb servic es, partic u l arl y w h ere th ey are req u ired to pro vide sensitive perso nal info rmatio n. 5 W hen we worry about information security, we are concerned that an organiz ation or some other person to whom we have given information might not keep our information safe from unauthoriz ed or inappropriate access (whether internal or ex ternal). W e might also worry that somebody else might steal information directly from us via our computer. 6 S ee B illy H offman, q uoted in J oris E vers T he S ecurity R isk in W eb 2 .0 J uly 2 8 2 0 0 6 C N E T N ews http: / / news.com.com/ T he+ security+ risk+ in+ W eb+ 2 .0 / 2 1 0 0 -1 0 0 2 _ 3 -6 0 9 9 2 2 8 .html? tag= st.prev 7 www.z dnet.com.au/ news/ software/ print.htm? T Y P E = story& AT = 3 3 9 2 8 1 1 9 1 -1 3 0 0 6 1 7 3 3 t-1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 c Draft safe to play white paper P O S T -N O B E L DR A F T R M F E B 0 8 Pag e 8
  • 9. ID EN TITY M A N A G EM EN T Identity manag ement, o r th e need to ensu re th at w h ere nec essary o nl y k no w n and au th o riz ed individu al s g ain ac c ess to netw o rk s and sy stems and th e reso u rc es c o ntained in th em h as al so emerg ed as a maj o r risk . Up to th is po int mu c h o f th e c o l l ab o rative w eb h as devel o ped w ith o u t mu c h th o u g h t ab o u t w h eth er identity manag ement is needed and, if so , w h at k ind. We h ave tended to assu me th at peo pl e u sing th e tec h no l o g ies c an b e tru sted to do th e rig h t th ing . Ho w ever, safel y manag ing identities, real and virtu al , may b e mo re c entral to th e su c c ess o f th e c o l l ab o rative w eb in th e g o vernment enviro nment th an w e mig h t h ave al l o w ed. Fo r ex ampl e, rec ent inc idents in w h ic h a disg ru ntl ed ex -b o y friend pl ac ed fal se and demeaning info rmatio n o n h is ex -g irl friend’s pag e, and ano th er w h ere a fak e and defamato ry M y Spac e w eb pag e demeaned th e repu tatio n o f a po l itic ian8, are ex ampl es o f th e risk s u sers o f th ese sites inc reasing l y fac e. Bu t, so mew h at iro nic al l y , th ere is j u st as mu c h a risk o f o ver reac ting w h ic h c o u l d l ead to th e mistak e made b y many in th e Web 1 .0 enviro nment w h ic h w as to o ver-c o mpensate b y insisting o n identify ing peo pl e w anting to transac t o n th e internet even w h en th e o ffl ine eq u ival ent did no t req u ire it. Go vernments h ave fal l en into a simil ar trap b y devel o ping “R o l l s R o y c e” identity manag ement so l u tio ns c o vering al l g o vernment transac tio ns w h ic h h ave th en b een rej ec ted as to o ex pensive and to o intru sive fo r many o f th e every day l o w sec u rity interac tio ns peo pl e o r b u sinesses mig h t h ave w ith g o vernment. Besides th e o b vio u s risk s to perso nal privac y , o ver rel ianc e o n au th entic ating identity assertio ns al so c reates new sec u rity risk s. Th e u nintended c o nseq u enc e o f o ver rel ianc e o n identity as th e k ey to tru st essential l y is simpl y to inc rease th e val u e pro po sitio n b eh ind steal ing identities o r c reating fal se identities. PRIV A CY 9 Th e essenc e o f info rmatio n privac y risk is th at an o rg aniz atio n mig h t del ib eratel y u se, o r al l o w o th er peo pl e to see o r u se, info rmatio n in w ay s peo pl e neith er w ant no r ex pec t. A perso n’s identity is w h at l ink s to g eth er al l th e info rmatio n fl o w ing aro u nd th e internet ab o u t th at perso n. Th e tru st dil emma h ere is th at l ink ing perso nal info rmatio n c an b e b o th b enefic ial and h armfu l . It c an c reate val u e fo r individu al s and o rg aniz atio ns o perating in th e c o l l ab o rative w eb . O n th e o th er h and, th e risk c an b e u nw anted c o ntac t, disc riminatio n, emb arrassment o r even ph y sic al h arm. It may al so c au se peo pl e to c h ang e th eir b eh avio r in w ay s th at h ave u ndesirab l e c o nseq u enc es fo r w ider so c ial o u tc o mes. Th ey may avo id u sing th e w eb o r pro vide fal se info rmatio n even w h en it real l y matters. Th e o u tc o me o f su c h u ses may o r may no t b e w el l intentio ned. We c an see th e dil emma in mo re c o nc rete terms if w e l o o k at so c ial netw o rk ing sites. Wh il e th ese sites enab l e peo pl e to mak e c o nnec tio ns in ex c iting and b enefic ial new w ay s, th ey al so massivel y fac il itate c o nnec tio ns th at peo pl e do n’t w ant o r ex pec t. 8 www.smh.com.au/ news/ web/ mp-lashes-out-over-fake-myspace-profile/ 2 0 0 7 / 0 8 / 0 9 / 1 1 8 6 53 0 52 6 7 1 3 .html 9 P rivacy has other aspects not covered in this paper, including bodily privacy and territorial privacy. Draft safe to play white paper P O S T -N O B E L DR A F T R M F E B 0 8 Pag e 9
  • 10. E x ampl es o f u nex pec ted u ses inc l u de empl o y ers w h o sc an so c ial netw o rk ing sites as part o f an empl o y ment pro c ess and u niversity o ffic ial s w h o searc h fo r ph o to s o f stu dents to determine w h o may h ave tak en part in end o f term h ig h spirited party ing .10 Fac eb o o k is al so fac ing th e stark real ity o f th e c o nseq u enc es o f u nex pec ted u ses in th e pro test ab o u t its N ew s Feeds and M ini-Feeds aimed at k eeping every memb er ab reast o f every c h ang e in th e l ives o f l ink ed u p “friends”11. M o re rec entl y , th e same pro b l em emerg ed in an initiative b y al l 50 State Atto rney s-General in th e USA to ac c u se th e so c ial netw o rk ing site o f no t k eeping y o u ng u sers safe fro m sex u al predato rs and fail ing to respo nd to u ser c o mpl aints. Individu al s and servic e pro viders are o nl y j u st c o ming to terms w ith th e c o mpl ex w ay s th at peo pl e ex pec t to b e ab l e to c o ndu c t th eir so c ial l ives and th e diffic u l ty o f try ing to refl ec t, nu rtu re and enab l e th e su b tl eties o f so c ial rel atio nsh ips in th e o ff l ine w o rl d. A mo re su b terranean issu e y et to emerg e fo r u sers is an u nderstanding o f h o w info rmatio n ab o u t th eir interests and b eh avio rs is u sed b y so c ial netw o rk ing pl atfo rm pro viders, su c h as searc h eng ines, fo r pu rpo ses u nrel ated to th e fac il itatio n o f so c ial netw o rk s. We are al l l earning th e c o nseq u enc es in th e c o nnec ted w o rl d o f th e reminder th at “th ere is no su c h th ing as a free l u nc h ”. Citiz ens w eig h ing u p h o w to respo nd to th e spreading infl u enc e o f th e c o l l ab o rative w eb as a pl atfo rm fo r th eir interac tio ns w ith g o vernment are l ik el y to b ring to b ear th is k ind o f l earning w h en th ey dec ide h o w th ey sh o u l d respo nd. Th o se h aving ex perienc ed th e ro c k y ro ad o f ex po sing info rmatio n ab o u t th emsel ves in so c ial netw o rk ing c o ntex ts are u nl ik el y to emb rac e th e new g o vernment servic es w ith th e same naï ve enth u siasm o f th e earl y day s o f M y Spac e and Fac eb o o k . Add to th is mix persistent and pervasive fears o f “b ig b ro th er” resu l ting fro m inc reasing g o vernment su rveil l anc e in respo nse to terro rism and l aw enfo rc ement imperatives w e c an see th at g o vernments seek ing to emb rac e th e po tential o f th e c o l l ab o rative w eb may fac e sig nific ant o b stac l es. H O W G O V E R NM E NT A D A P T S T O T H E “C O L L A B O R A T I V E W E B ” Go vernments h ave to c o me to terms w ith th e risk s asso c iated w ith pro viding servic es in a c o l l ab o rative w eb enviro nment if th ey w ant to reassu re c itiz ens th at it is “safe to pl ay ”. Bu t w h ere to b eg in? Up to no w , th e fo c u s h as mainl y b een o n addressing w eak sec u rity and identity manag ement, u sing tec h no l o g y as th e main so l u tio n, and th en only from the point of view of the needs of the org a niz a tion. As th e paper ex pl ains l ater o n, th is is a fatal w eak ness th at h as to b e redressed in any su c c essfu l tru st reg ime. Th is fo c u s h as w idened to a mo re u ser c entric appro ac h w ith th e h el p o f anal y sis b y Cro mpto n ( 20 0 4)12 th e respo nse b y th e L o ndo n Sc h o o l o f E c o no mic s ( L SE ) to th e UK Identity Card pro po sal s13 and S ee eg “ F acebook privacy row hits O x ford U niversity” , T he D aily T elegraph U K , 1 8 J uly 2 0 0 7 1 0 www.telegraph.co.uk/ core/ C ontent/ displayP rintable.j html? x ml= / news/ 2 0 0 7 / 0 7 / 1 8 / nox ford1 1 8 .x ml& site= 5& page= 0 1 1 S ee eg R E : “ F acebook and the P olitics of P rivacy” , M otherJ ones.com, 1 4 S eptember 2 0 0 6 at www.motherj ones.com/ cgi-bin/ print_ article.pl? url= http: / / www.motherj ones.com/ interview/ 2 0 0 6 / 0 9 / facebook.html. S ee for ex ample “ P roof of I D req uired? G etting I dentity M anagement R ight” , O ffice of the P rivacy C ommissioner, 1 2 www.privacy.gov.au/ news/ speeches/ sp1 _ 0 4 p.pdf S ee “ T he I dentity P roj ect, an assessment of the U K I dentity C ards B ill and its implications” released I n J une 2 0 0 5 and related papers at 1 3 http: / / is2 .lse.ac.uk/ idcard Draft safe to play white paper P O S T -N O B E L DR A F T R M F E B 0 8 Pag e 1 0
  • 11. M ic ro so ft’s K im Camero n’s set o f “L aw s o f Identity ” w h ic h mu c h mo re c l earl y al ig n w ith th e dy namic s o f th e c o l l ab o rative w eb ’s h y per-c o nnec tedness.14 Ho w ever, new th ink ing is needed to h el p u s tac k l e th e tru st dil emma. We h ave to start w ith risk and th e w ay it interac ts w ith c o ntro l and ac c o u ntab il ity as th e el ements o f a framew o rk th at w il l c u t th ro u g h th e u nc ertainty to o ffer a mo re ro b u st pl atfo rm fo r po l ic y and prac tic e. THE SIGN IFICAN CE O F R ISK AL L O CATIO N Th ere is a c ritic al issu e th at g o vernments are missing w h en th ey impl ement new pro j ec ts in th e c o nnec ted w eb enviro nment. Th at issu e is risk – h o w it is al l o c ated and h o w it impac ts c itiz ens. D raw ing o n th e w o rk o f M al c o l m Cro mpto n at Info rmatio n Integ rity So l u tio ns, th is new w ay o f th ink ing g o es to th e h eart o f c itiz en c o nc erns. Th e rel evanc e o f risk al l o c atio n h as inc reased as o rg aniz atio ns fo c u s mu c h mo re o n th eir o w n risk manag ement. Th is fo c u s is emerg ing mo re into w ider pu b l ic c o nsc io u sness, partic u l arl y as to o o ften, risk manag ement ha s not resu lted in redu c tion of a g g reg a te risk b u t ra ther rea lloc a ted the risk from the org a niz a tion to its employees, c lients or servic e u sers.15 In partic u l ar, c o nsu mers are sensing th at o rg aniz atio ns to o o ften manag e th eir risk s b y ex pec ting th eir c o nsu mers to b ear an inc reasing and inappro priate b u rden o f th e risk s asso c iated w ith c o nsu ming th eir servic es. Th ey are al so w ak ing u p to th e fac t th at servic e pro viders seek to h ide th is sh ift in risk b y c h ang ing th e c h annel th ro u g h w h ic h a u ser rec eives a servic e, fo r ex ampl e, w h en c l o sing fac e to fac e servic es and o pening c al l c enters o r o th er fo rms o f remo te c o ntac t inc l u ding o nl ine. R isk s inc l u de b eing l eft to manag e tec h nic al fail u res o r privac y and financ ial l o sses th ro u g h o nl ine sec u rity b reac h es. Fo r ex ampl e, sh ifting c u sto mers o nto an o nl ine servic e in o rder to redu c e c o sts o ften sh ifts a nu mb er o f risk s to th e c u sto mer. Th ese inc l u de sec u rity risk s, u nrel iab il ity risk s, and th e c o sts o f ac q u iring th e nec essary tec h no l o g y in o rder to b e ab l e to eng ag e w ith th e servic e o r, if th e c o sts are pro h ib itive, th e risk o f spending inc reased time in q u eu es in o rder to rec eive a fac e to fac e servic e. So me o f th ese risk s h ave b een o b vio u s to individu al s w h il e o th ers h ave o nl y emerg ed w h ere o rg aniz atio ns h ave b een fo rc ed to tel l peo pl e ab o u t th em, fo r ex ampl e, th ro u g h data b reac h l aw s. Th is trend to w ards sh ifting o f risk to individu al s and aw ay fro m o rg aniz atio ns is a maj o r fac to r in u ndermining tru st in th e c o nnec ted w o rl d. O u r anal y sis is su ppo rted b y researc h fu nded b y th e UK D epartment o f Trade and Indu stry w h ic h resu l ted in th e pu b l ic atio n o f th e “Tru stg u ide” repo rt16. Th e repo rt b reak s new g ro u nd w ith c o nsiderab l e po tential 1 4 K im C ameron developed these laws as revealed laws in the same sense as other natural laws such as N ewtonian mechanics were seen as revealed laws of nature. J ust as N ewton’ s laws were later seen as part of a wider framework, C ameron clearly countenances that the L aws of I dentity may later be seen as part of a wider framework. H e developed the L aws of I dentity in a collaborative blogging process over the months leading to their finalisation in M ay 2 0 0 5. T he L aws are online from M icrosoft websites and his own blog, www.identityblog.com/ ? page_ id= 3 54 1 5 S ee for ex ample, S M H , R oss G ittins O pinion, 3 1 J an 2 0 0 7 , (www.smh.com.au/ news/ opinion/ risky-business-but-not-for-the- boss/ 2 0 0 7 / 0 1 / 3 0 / 1 1 6 9 9 1 9 3 3 7 0 4 0 .html? page= fullpage); G overnor of the R eserve B ank of Australia, 2 0 0 6 B oyer L ectures (www.abc.net.au/ rn/ boyerlectures/ stories/ 2 0 0 6 / 1 7 6 9 9 0 5.htm) and internationally J acob S H acker, T he G reat R isk S hift, 2 0 0 6 O x ford U niversity P ress. 1 6 T rustguide: F inal R eport, O ctober 2 0 0 6 , H az el L acohee B T G roup C hief T echnology O ffice, R esearch & V enturing, S tephen C rane, H P L abs and Andy P hippen, U niversity of P lymouth, N etwork R esearch G roup, online at www.trustguide.org.uk. Draft safe to play white paper P O S T -N O B E L DR A F T R M F E B 0 8 Pag e 1 1
  • 12. to advanc e th e searc h fo r a ro b u st and prag matic pl atfo rm to l ift tru st and c o nfidenc e in th e c o nnec ted w o rl d. Th e researc h to o k a “c itiz en-c entric ” appro ac h to u nderstanding th e b el iefs and needs o f u sers in rel atio n to tru st, sec u rity and privac y in ICT mediated ac tivities. Fro m fac il itated fo c u s g ro u p disc u ssio ns, o ne c ro ss c u tting th eme emerg ed in th e researc h : “Wh il e an initial h y po th esis may b e th at peo pl e do no t eng ag e w ith o nl ine servic es b ec au se th ey do no t tru st th em, o u r finding s h ave sh o w n th at tru st is no t as sig nific ant a measu re as first th o u g h t. W ha t is more importa nt to u ndersta nd is tha t people a re willing to ta k e risk s online, a s long a s they a re informed, a nd it is c lea r how c onseq u enc es will b e a ddressed. Peo pl e u se spec ific servic es no t b ec au se th ey tru st th em, b u t b ec au se th ey in so me w ay pro vide a b enefit to th e individu al and th ey k no w th at if so meth ing g o es w ro ng , restitu tio n w il l b e made.”17 [ E mph asis added] Th e Tru stg u ide researc h pl ac es g reat emph asis o n edu c atio n and info rmatio n b ec au se it enab l es b etter-info rmed risk dec isio n mak ing . Individu al s eng ag e w ith servic es if th ey c an mak e an info rmed dec isio n ab o u t w h eth er it is w o rth th e risk to eng ag e. It c o nsiders a mo re edu c ated o nl ine so c iety is mo re l ik el y to b e w il l ing to u se servic es pro vided in no vel w ay s b ec au se k no w l edg e b ring s c o nfidenc e and c o ntro l . Th e Tru stg u ide researc h indic ates th at peo pl e are rig h tfu l l y sk eptic al ab o u t tec h no l o g y , b u t if empo w ered and al l o w ed to ex periment, th ey tend to ado pt so l u tio ns th at are so c ial l y b enefic ial . It advo c ates g iving individu al s th e c h anc e to l earn th ro u g h do ing . AD Y N AM IC SY STE M L IN K IN G R ISK AL L O CATIO N , CO N TR O L AN D ACCO UN TABIL ITY Th e ro l e o f risk in estab l ish ing tru st is b etter u ndersto o d if w e l o o k at h o w it interac ts w ith tw o o th er c o nc epts, c o ntro l and ac c o u ntab il ity . Wh en peo pl e say th ey do n’t tru st an o rg aniz atio n, it is l ik el y th at th ese are th e th ree th ing s th ey are ac tu al l y w o rry ing ab o u t even if th ey mig h t no t artic u l ate th eir c o nc erns in th ese terms. RIS K A N D ITS A L L O CA TIO N Servic e u sers b ec o me u neasy and feel th at th is is a g ame in w h ic h it is no t “safe to pl ay ” – if th ey do n’t k no w eno u g h ab o u t th e risk s o f u sing a servic e and h o w th e servic e h as defined and al l o c ated th e risk s th ey do k no w ab o u t. Th is u nease is reinfo rc ed if u sers g et a sense th at th ey are b eing ask ed to sh o u l der inc reasing l evel s o f risk su c h as w h en th e c h annel fo r servic e pro visio n c h ang es. CO N TRO L R isk s th ey are c o nc erned ab o u t inc l u de th at th ey w il l l o se c o ntro l o ver w h at h appens to info rmatio n ab o u t th em o r th at th ey h ave insu ffic ient c o ntro l o ver h o w th at info rmatio n is demanded, c o l l ec ted and sto red in th e first pl ac e. Th is sense o f l o ss o f c o ntro l is h eig h tened if th ey do no t u nderstand eno u g h ab o u t th e entity to w h ic h th ey g ive perso nal info rmatio n o r o th er entities th at may h ave c o ntro l o ver th e info rmatio n. 17 T r u s t g u id e p 1 Draft safe to play white paper P O S T -N O B E L DR A F T R M F E B 0 8 Pag e 1 2
  • 13. ACCO UN TA B IL ITY Final l y , and u nderpinning o th er u ser c o nc erns, is th e c o nc ern th at to o o ften o rg aniz atio ns, w ith w h ic h peo pl e interac t and w h ic h c o l l ec t and u se info rmatio n ab o u t th em, fail to demo nstrate fu l l ac c o u ntab il ity fo r th e w ay th ey manag e risk o r to ac c ept respo nsib il ity q u ic k l y and effec tivel y w h en risk s manifest th emsel ves as fail u res o r b reac h es. Wh il e o rg aniz atio ns manag e th eir fail u res w ith b u siness c o ntinu ity pl ans, th e eq u ival ent is o ften strang el y missing fo r o th er stak eh o l ders in a servic e pro visio n rel atio nsh ip, espec ial l y th e servic e u ser. L ac k o f a g o o d safety net fo r servic e u sers w h en fail u re o c c u rs is tantamo u nt to al l o c ating a dispro po rtio nate amo u nt o f risk to th e individu al , w h o is o ften l east ab l e to manag e, mitig ate o r b ear th at risk c o mpared w ith th e servic e pro vider. Th ese th ree fac to rs are sig nific ant b ec au se o f th eir interac tio n. In th at sense, th ey are interdependent: if y o u o nl y deal w ith issu es in o ne o r even tw o o r th e el ements, it’s l ik el y y o u w il l fail to impac t th e tru st dimensio n. So metimes th ey are c o mpl ementary ; at o th er times th ey are no t. A c o mmo n reac tio n to a perc eived inc reased in perso nal risk , fo r ex ampl e, is to demand inc reased perso nal c o ntro l . Ano th er ex ampl e is th e w ay g reater ac c o u ntab il ity c an b e u sed to redu c e risk sig nific antl y . E ac h c o mpo nent mu st b e addressed to ac h ieve rising l evel s o f tru st. A c c o u n ta b ility F a ir ris k a llo c a tio n Ri s i n g Tr u s t A“ s a f e t o p la y ” d iv id e n d C o n tro l If w e w ant to l ift tru st, w h ic h is c entral to l ifting th e tak e-u p o f o nl ine servic es and c itiz en eng ag ement w ith g o vernments mo re b ro adl y o n th e c o l l ab o rative w eb , th en po l ic y and prac tic e h as to k eep al l th ree o f th ese el ements in th e rig h t b al anc e. TO W A R D S A SU ST A I NA B L E T R U ST F R A M E W O R K F O R G O V E R NM E NT : L E SSO NS F R O M T H E P R I V A T E SE C T O R Bu t w h at h appens to th e tru st sy stem w e h ave o u tl ined h ere w h en a g o vernment emb rac es th e eth ic and po tential o f th e c o l l ab o rative w eb ? Is it appl ic ab l e to pu b l ic sec to r servic e pro visio n? Wh at impac t w il l it h ave o n o th er aspec ts o f pu b l ic administratio n and g o vernanc e? Draft safe to play white paper P O S T -N O B E L DR A F T R M F E B 0 8 Pag e 1 3
  • 14. O n th e q u estio n o f tru st in g o vernment initiated servic es, th ere is c o nsiderab l e evidenc e to su g g est th at c itiz ens are j u st as c o nc erned ab o u t g o vernment servic es pro vided u sing new tec h no l o g ies as th ey are w h en servic es are pro vided b y private sec to r o rg aniz atio ns. Indeed th ere is reaso n to su spec t th at c itiz en c o nc erns c o u l d b e even g reater w h ere g o vernments are pro viding servic es fo r at l east th ree reaso ns: • th e l ac k o f reg u l ar c o ntac t c itiz ens may h ave w ith so me g o vernment servic es – w h ic h mak e it mo re diffic u l t fo r c itiz ens to l earn to tru st a servic e th ro u g h direc t ex perienc e; • th e l ac k o f c h o ic e c itiz ens may h ave in rel atio n to so me g o vernment pro vided servic es, fo r ex ampl e pay ing tax es, u pdating el ec to ral ro l l data, o r rec eiving essential h eal th , h o u sing o r w el fare servic es, w h ic h may diminish th e po w er o f c itiz en c o ntro l as a tru st mec h anism; • th e u niq u e po w er g o vernment h as in so c iety , inc l u ding th e ab il ity to pass l aw s th at pro vide fo r data sh aring b etw een its o th er ag enc ies o r o th er g o vernments, w ith reaso ns rang ing fro m l aw enfo rc ement and natio nal sec u rity to servic e del ivery impro vement o r po l ic y anal y sis w h ic h may g enerate “b ig b ro th er” fears in c itiz ens. It may b e th at th e tru st issu es appl y ing in th e pu b l ic sec to r enviro nment are different o nl y as a matter o f deg ree c o mpared w ith th o se o f private sec to r o rg aniz atio ns rath er th an fu ndamental l y different. We th ink ex perienc e in th e w ider c o l l ab o rative w eb c o ntex t c an pro vide insig h t into mak ing it “safe to pl ay ” fo r th e c itiz ens rec eiving eg o vernment servic es. R eframing th e tru st dil emmas c o nfro nting g o vernments as th e interac tio n b etw een b asic c o nc erns ab o u t c o ntro l , risk and ac c o u ntab il ity pro mpts so me fu ndamental q u estio ns. Th e answ ers sh o u l d g u ide po l ic y and prac tic e in th e desig n and del ivery o f servic es in th e c o l l ab o rative w eb enviro nment. So me o f th o se q u estio ns inc l u de: • Ho w sh o u l d th e risk s asso c iated w ith eng ag ing in g o vernment servic es in th e c o l l ab o rative w eb enviro nment b e defined, al l o c ated and manag ed? • Wh at spec ial appro ac h es to risk and its al l o c atio n mig h t b e nec essary in a c o ntex t w h ere c itiz ens h ave o nl y l imited o r no o ppo rtu nity to mak e c h o ic es ab o u t, o r ex erc ise c o ntro l o ver, th e servic es th ey rec eive o r th e manner in w h ic h th ey rec eive th em? • Ho w do w e ensu re th at g o vernments seek ing to impl ement th e k inds o f mo del s envisag ed in th e Co nnec ted R epu b l ic are ab l e to manag e new l y emerg ing risk s as th e c o l l ab o rative w eb evo l ves? O u r answ er to th ese q u estio ns b u il ds o n a fo u ndatio n th at c o mb ines prag matism w ith a stro ng and c o nfident emb rac e o f th e c entral featu res o f th e c o nnec tedness th at itsel f is c reating many o f th ese c o mpl ex tru st dil emmas in th e first pl ac e. Firstl y , w e ac c ept th at th e c o nnec tedness w e are w itnessing and ex perienc ing is an u ndeniab l e, u navo idab l e and irresistib l e ph eno meno n w ith w h ic h w e mu st c o me to terms. At th e same time, it is fu l l o f po tential fo r so c ial and ec o no mic devel o pment and a sense o f eng ag ement and empo w erment. It g ives g o vernments and c itiz ens th e c h anc e to sh are k no w l edg e and g ain th e b enefits o f th ink ing to g eth er. Draft safe to play white paper P O S T -N O B E L DR A F T R M F E B 0 8 Pag e 1 4
  • 15. Th is c o l l ec tive “intel l ig enc e” in b o th senses o f th e w o rd c an fu el inno vatio n and speed u p th e inno vatio n c y c l e to so l ve pro b l ems and c reate o ppo rtu nities. It h as g reat po tential to enh anc e demo c ratic pro c esses. Sec o ndl y , w e start fro m th e premise th at th e u ndeniab l e risk s inh erent in pro viding g o vernment servic es in a c o l l ab o rative w eb enviro nment are manag eab l e. Al l o w ing an irratio nal and ex treme respo nse to th e very real c o nc erns o n w h ic h th o se risk s are b ased is itsel f a risk . We sh o u l d no t assu me th at th e dang ers fo r privac y , sec u rity and identity manag ement are terminal . R ath er, th e tric k is to mak e th ese tru st dil emmas a friend and no t an enemy . Bu il ding ro b u st po l ic y and o peratio nal framew o rk s th at assu me th e need fo r h ig h standards o f tru st and ac c o u ntab il ity w il l no t o nl y diminish risk s and l ead to b etter po l ic y and pro g ram o u tc o mes b u t fu el th e fu rth er spread o f th e c o nnec ted w o rl d and its o ppo rtu nities. Th irdl y , w e th ink th at th at o ne o f th e k ey s to meeting th e tru st c h al l eng es po sed b y th e c o ntro l , risk al l o c atio n and ac c o u ntab il ity framew o rk l ies in o u r ab il ity to h arness th e instinc ts, val u es and th e c apab il ities o f th e c o nnec ted w o rl d to pro vide th e so l u tio ns w e need. Th e very featu res o f th e c o nnec ted w o rl d th at c an c reate risk c an al so pro vide th e pl atfo rm and to o l s fro m w h ic h so l u tio ns w il l evo l ve. Th e netw o rk ’s effec t as a pl atfo rm fo r c o nnec tio n, c o mmu nic atio n and c o l l ab o ratio n w il l b e as essential to manag ing th e risk s o f a th e c o l l ab o rative w eb as it is to enab l ing , and o ften ac c el erating , th e very c o nnec tedness th at g ives rise to th o se risk s in th e first pl ac e. Parado x ic al l y , th e netw o rk is as mu c h a part o f th e so l u tio n as it is a part o f th e pro b l em. Th e netw o rk , c o mb ined w ith a renew ed fo c u s o n do ing th e b asic s o f pu b l ic administratio n w el l , b ec o mes a c entral part o f th e so l u tio n. So th e arg u ment is th at: • th e mo ve to a mo re c o nnec ted w o rl d is inevitab l e and, w e b el ieve, o verw h el ming l y a g o o d th ing ; • even th o u g h its inh erent risk s are dau nting , th ey are manag eab l e; and • th e b est w ay to address th o se risk s is to b u il d th e c apab il ities o f th e c o nnec ted w o rl d into th e h eart o f th e w ay w e desig n and impl ement o u r respo nse. Wh il e th ese insig h ts frame th e tru st dil emma in th e ‘ c o nnec ted repu b l ic ’ in a w ay th at w e th ink w il l pro mpt b etter po l ic y and prac tic e, w e al so h ave to ac c ept th at th ere is no mag ic b u l l et answ er to th e q u estio ns w e h ave po sed. We k no w th at w h at w e set o u t h ere is no t g o ing to so l ve al l th e tru st pro b l ems th at g o vernments w il l enc o u nter as th ey c o me to terms w ith pro viding servic es in a c o l l ab o rative w eb enviro nment. We al so k no w th at a rang e o f appro ac h es and to o l s w il l b e needed. Th e appro ac h es w e o u tl ine h ere may need to b e b ac k ed u p b y l aw , o r fac il itated u sing tec h no l o g y . USIN G CO L L ABO R ATIV E WE B CAPABIL ITIE S TO SO L V E CO L L ABO R ATIV E WE B PR O BL E M S Tu rning b ac k th e tide is no t th e answ er to th e tru st dil emma. Go vernments w il l miss a maj o r o ppo rtu nity fo r renew al , b etter servic es and po l ic y impro vements if th ey do no t c apital iz e o n th e val u es, instinc ts and c apab il ities o f th e c o l l ab o rative w eb to h el p so l ve many o f th e tru st dil emma pro b l ems. L o o k ing at Draft safe to play white paper P O S T -N O B E L DR A F T R M F E B 0 8 Pag e 1 5
  • 16. ex ampl es su c h as th e devel o pment o f O penID th ere is no do u b t th at th is is al ready h appening in th e private sec to r at an inc redib l e pac e, and th at th ere are l esso ns fo r g o vernment in h o w to do it. O penID is an appro ac h to identity fo r th e Web 2.0 w o rl d ( and b ey o nd) w h ic h is rapidl y g aining c redib il ity and tak e-u p. It is a dec entral iz ed, u ser-c entric UR L ( o r UR I) b ased identity pro to c o l . Th e UR L b ased appro ac h al l o w s u s to dec entral iz e th e b ro k ering o f o u r identity and to k eep o u r identity info rmatio n in th e pl ac e w e c h o o se. It do es aw ay w ith th e need fo r internet u sers to h ave mu l tipl e u ser names and passw o rds and to enter info rmatio n ab o u t th emsel ves every time th ey reg ister o n a new w eb site. Th e dec entral iz atio n ex ists o n a nu mb er o f l evel s: • Users c an h o st th eir identity o n any server th ey c h o o se, w ith o u t h aving to ask any b o dy fo r permissio n o r appro val ; th ey c an al so c h o o se to h ave it h o sted b y o ne o f th e g ro w ing nu mb er o f O penID h o sting servic es. • Servic e pro viders c an c h o o se fro m a variety o f so ftw are impl ementatio ns o ffered b y a variety o f vendo rs and O pen So u rc e pro j ec ts. • Th e O penID spec ific atio ns are devel o ped in an u nenc u mb ered, merito c ratic pro c ess th at is o pen to partic ipatio n b y any o ne w h o sh o w s u p. • Any o ne c an u se th eir o w n tec h nic al inno vatio ns w ith in th e O penID framew o rk , even if th ey repl ic ate, o r c o mpete w ith th e O penID spec ific atio ns th emsel ves.18 Th ese are attrib u tes th at speak direc tl y to th e val u es and eth ic o f th e c o l l ab o rative w eb . Th ey mak e it easier fo r u sers “at th e edg e” to mak e dec isio ns ab o u t manag ing th eir identity and to h arness th e po w er o f th e netw o rk to integ rate th e O penID c apab il ities w ith spec ific to o l s and tec h no l o g ies th at u sers th emsel ves add. Co ntro l , u neq u ivo c al l y , rests w ith peo pl e w h o u se and rel y o n th e sy stem and no t w ith th e sy stem itsel f. It is a so l u tio n th at is g aining c o nsiderab l e su ppo rt19. And it is a so l u tio n w h o se impac t is entirel y a fu nc tio n o f th e q u al ity and reac h o f th e c o nnec tio ns enab l ed b y th e netw o rk th at l ink s peo pl e, info rmatio n and servic es. Wh il e pro viding fo r u ser c entric c o ntro l and fac il itating dec entral iz atio n o f h o l ding s o f perso nal info rmatio n l o o k s l ik e a g o o d start, th ere remain sec u rity issu es and th e need fo r stro ng er identity au th entic atio n in so me c irc u mstanc es. Bu t w h at is different ab o u t O penID is th at it seems to pro vide a g o o d pl atfo rm to enab l e peo pl e to so l ve th o se o th er “real ” pro b l ems as w el l . It al so appears to transfo rm th e w ay perso nal info rmatio n is manag ed and transmitted w ith in separate and disc rete so c ial netw o rk spac es and, in do ing so , mig h t so l ve so me o f th e issu es o f u ser c o ntro l o ver perso nal info rmatio n w e h ave identified in th is paper. Th e dy namic and ever c reative o nl ine c o mmu nity is al ready seek ing to address th e pro b l em o f “so c ial netw o rk fatig u e” c au sed b y th e need to re-enter pro fil e info rmatio n fo r new servic es, to searc h and add ag ain th eir netw o rk c o ntac ts at eac h new servic es, to h ave to manag e y et ano th er l o g in/ passw o rd and 1 8 T he C ase for O penI D P hil B ecker 4 D ecember 2 0 0 6 , D igital I D W orld http: / / blogs.z dent.com/ digitalI D / ? p+ 7 8 D oesn’ t resolve to the story 1 9 “ C ardS pace / O penI D C ollaboration Announcement” , I dentityblog, 6 F ebruary 2 0 0 7 , www.identityblog.com/ ? p= 6 6 8 Draft safe to play white paper P O S T -N O B E L DR A F T R M F E B 0 8 Pag e 1 6
  • 17. h aving to reset no tific atio n and privac y preferenc es fo r eac h new servic e. It no w appears po ssib l e to h arness th e po w er o f O penID c o mb ined w ith so me mic ro fo rmats to mak e so c ial netw o rk ing mo re c o nvenient and to g ive u sers g reater c o ntro l o ver th eir info rmatio n. Th e g o al is to enab l e individu al s to c reate th eir o w n pro fil e th en mak e it po rtab l e and su b sc rib ab l e fro m any Web servic e. It al so intends to mak e th eir dy namic so c ial netw o rk ( s) po rtab l e and su b sc rib ab l e to new servic es w h il e sto ring th eir o w n ID in a do main o f th eir c h o o sing and u nder th eir c o ntro l . Th e ph il o so ph y u nderpinning th is appro ac h is th at: “. . .y o u r data is y o u rs. Y o u r identity is y o u rs. Web servic es are b l essed to g et y o u r attentio n and th ey sh o u l dn’t antic ipate o w ning , h o rding o r sl o w w al k ing ac c ess to o u r data and c o ntac t l ists.”20 It is no t h ard to imag ine th at th is so l u tio n c o u l d l ead to a c o nvenient standardiz ed fo rmat w ith w h ic h u sers b ec o me very famil iar and inc reasing l y adept to u nderstand and manag e th e risk s and ex ert th e l evel o f c o ntro l th ey are c o mfo rtab l e w ith . Ano th er emerg ing so l u tio n is Cl aimID . Wh il e o ne o f its servic es is to pro vide identities fo r O penID , ano th er is to g ive peo pl e g reater c o ntro l o ver th e c h arac ter o f th eir o nl ine identities. Based o n th e assu mptio n searc h eng ines do n’t al w ay s g ive an ac c u rate pic tu re ab o u t y o u to a pro spec tive empl o y er o r c u rio u s perso n, Cl aimID enab l es y o u to “c l aim” th e info rmatio n ab o u t y o u th at is o nl ine and to l ink it to y o u r name. It g ives peo pl e an easy w ay to find o u t w h at y o u c o nsider is and is no t ac c u rate info rmatio n ab o u t y o u . It enab l es peo pl e to c l aim so me po w er b ac k fro m searc h eng ines.21 Ano th er ex ampl e is Wik iSc anner, a respo nse to a c o nc ern ab o u t a l ac k o f transparenc y asso c iated w ith al teratio ns to Wik ipedia. R ath er th an req u ire u pfro nt identity au th entic atio n fro m th o se w h o c h ang e c o ntent, it searc h es th e c h ang e l o g s to identify th e o rg aniz atio n asso c iated w ith th e IP addresses rec o rded w ith c h ang es and th en u ses th e netw o rk to mak e th em pu b l ic . Part o f th e impac t is th at it c reates a k ind o f “name and sh ame” effec t o n b eh avio r. Bu t it al so enab l es peo pl e to assess th e ac c u rac y o f th e c o ntent th ey are reading . M u c h as th e b asic Wik ipedia mo del itsel f, th e so l u tio n rel ies o n th e c o l l ec tive intel l ig enc e and transparenc y o f a c o mmu nity o f u sers ab l e to q u ic k l y and easil y sh are info rmatio n and insig h ts ac ro ss a ro b u st netw o rk . It is ano th er ex ampl e o f th e attrib u tes o f th e c o l l ab o rative w eb pro viding th e fo u ndatio n fo r a so l u tio n to many o f th e diffic u l ties to w h ic h th ey g ive rise. R epu tatio n-b ased feedb ac k mec h anisms su c h as th o se u sed b y eBay al so h ave c o nsiderab l e po tential to address a nu mb er o f th e tru st issu es fac ed o n th e c o l l ab o rative w eb w o rl d w ith o u t o ver-w o rk ing th e need to rel y o n au th entic atio n o f identity assertio ns. N o t w ith o u t sig nific ant po tential risk s o f its o w n, th is rel ianc e o n th e c o mmu nity o f u sers to “sh are and c are” eno u g h to b e ab l e to fo rm its o w n “po l ic e” fu nc tio n c reates a fo rc e fo r o penness th at o ffers a po w erfu l antido te ag ainst th e l o ss o f privac y and sec u rity . So w h at is th e sig nific anc e o f th ese ex ampl es? Th e mo st b asic o b servatio n th ey reinfo rc e is th at, in o rder to fu nc tio n safel y and effec tivel y in a c o l l ab o rative w eb enviro nment, y o u h ave to th ink and ac t l ik e th e 20 S ee D esigning P ortable S ocial N etworks, 2 August 2 0 0 7 http: / / www.brianoberkirch.com/ 2 0 0 7 / 0 8 / 0 2 / designing-portable-social-networks/ and also http: / / blog.webreakstuff.com/ 2 0 0 7 / 0 8 / fix ing-social-networks/ 21 http: / / claimid.com/ about. Draft safe to play white paper P O S T -N O B E L DR A F T R M F E B 0 8 Pag e 1 7
  • 18. c o l l ab o rative w eb . If g o vernments fail to eng ag e w ith th e attrib u tes and instinc ts o f h y per-c o nnec tivity , th ey w il l find it h arder to c o u nter its real th reats and may , b y rel y ing o nl y o n o l d to o l s and attitu des, risk mak ing th e pro b l ems w o rse. Th e so o ner g o vernments start to u nderstand th is new w o rl d and c o me to g rips w ith b o th its po tential and its risk s, th e so o ner th ey w il l start to c raft th e rig h t mix o f po l ic y , reg u l atio n and o peratio nal b eh avio r mo re l ik el y to inc rease o ne w ith o u t fu el l ing th e o th er. Fail u re to start, and th en to su stain, th at j o u rney risk s l eaving g o vernment b adl y trail ing in th e fiel d o f effec tive tru st mo del s fo r servic e pro visio n in th e c o l l ab o rative w eb enviro nment. GO O D PUBL IC AD M IN ISTR ATIO N Go vernments c anno t ig no re g ro w ing c itiz en c o nc erns ab o u t tru st in pu b l ic servic es o ffered in and o n th e c o l l ab o rative w eb . Bu t w e k no w th at th e fac to rs affec ting c itiz en tru st in g o vernment are no t new . Th ey h ave a very l o ng h isto ry . In many c ases, th e pil l ars o f pu b l ic administratio n th at u nderpin demo c rac y h ave evo l ved o ver a l o ng perio d prec isel y to deal w ith th ese c o nc erns. We need to u nderstand th erefo re th at th e dy namic sy stem fo r g enerating tru st w e h ave o u tl ined w il l no t dispense w ith th e need fo r g o vernments to al so ensu re th at th e mo re traditio nal c o mpo nents o f pu b l ic administratio n and g o vernanc e c o ntinu e to b e appl ied to th is new w ay o f pro viding g o vernment servic es. To maintain a so l id fo u ndatio n o n w h ic h to b u il d c itiz en tru st, g o vernments mu st c o ntinu e to ask , and answ er w el l , su c h q u estio ns as: • Ho w are dec isio ns made? • Wh o is invo l ved and c o nsu l ted in dec isio n mak ing ? • Wh o needs to b e info rmed o f th e dec isio n? First, h o w are dec isio ns tak en? Th e c apac ity ex ists w ith th ese tec h no l o g ies to th ink ab o u t mo re transparent and ro b u st pro c esses fo r dec isio ns at al l l evel s o f an o rg aniz atio n. Th e ab il ity to empo w er th e fro nt-l ine staff th ro u g h info rmatio n to del iver perso nal iz ed and j o ined-u p servic es c an devo l ve dec isio n mak ing w ith in a pu b l ic ac c o u ntab il ity framew o rk , l eaving senio r manag ement to deal w ith strateg ic matters and po l ic y depl o y ment. Th e c h al l eng e h o w ever is to maintain c o nsistenc y and ac c o u ntab il ity and appro priate feedb ac k mec h anisms in th is new dec isio n mak ing enviro nment. With o u t appro priate mec h anisms, th e c itiz en c o u l d b e l eft b earing th e b ru nt o f “b u c k passing ” w h en th ing s g o w ro ng w ith peo pl e h ig h er u p th e l ine u nw il l ing to adh ere to dec isio ns made l o w er do w n if it do es no t su it th em, o r admit th at th ere are stru c tu ral rath er th an o ne-o ff pro b l ems. Sec o nd, w h o is invo l ved and c o nsu l ted in dec isio n mak ing ? Th e ab il ity to c o nsu l t o nl ine and eng ag e w ith a w ider c o mmu nity in w ay th at w as previo u sl y impo ssib l e c an b e po w erfu l in l eg itimiz ing o u tc o mes. A rec ent private sec to r ex ampl e il l u strates th e c o nseq u enc es o f no t l istening in th e fac e o f th ese new c apab il ities. Th e HSBC b ank c h ang ed its o verdraft o ffer to rec ent g radu ates. With in day s, a b ac k l ash o c c u rred th ro u g h a c o mmu nity emerg ing o n Fac eb o o k , c al l ing o n stu dents to b o y c o tt o r l eave HSBC. Th e b ank w as fo rc ed to reverse th e dec isio n th ro u g h th e po w er o f th e netw o rk . O f c o u rse, th e c h al l eng e to th e pu b l ic sec to r is to o verc o me th e pro b l em o f “l istening o nl y to th e l o u dest”. Draft safe to play white paper P O S T -N O B E L DR A F T R M F E B 0 8 Pag e 1 8
  • 19. Th ird, w h o needs to b e info rmed o f th e dec isio n? M any o f th e h ardest c h al l eng es in th e pu b l ic sec to r req u ire speedy and ac c u rate interac tio n ac ro ss internal b o u ndaries and al so w ith o th er o rg aniz atio ns o u tside g o vernment. An o b vio u s ex ampl e is th e pro tec tio n o f c h il dren at risk , req u iring c o -o rdinatio n b etw een edu c atio n, h eal th , so c ial c are, j u stic e and po l ic e, c h arities and o th ers. Th e po w er o f th e netw o rk as a pl atfo rm fo r enh anc ing th ese c o mpl ex interac tio ns h as sig nific ant po tential to mitig ate th e info rmatio n g aps and po o rl y info rmed j u dg ments b eh ind th e trag edies th at h ave o c c u rred in th e past w ith th ese diffic u l t c ases. Th e risk h ere is th at l az y so l u tio ns are ado pted th at drag mo re peo pl e into th e net o f info rmatio n sh aring th an need to b e. At w o rst, it c o u l d mean th at every o ne is treated as if th ey are a po tential ab u ser o f c h il dren w h en, in real ity , th e po tential perpetrato rs are a mu c h smal l er perc entag e. ST R A T E G I C R E C O M M E ND A T I O NS F O R G O V E R NM E NT O NL I NE SE R V I C E S We h ave emph asiz ed th e impo rtanc e o f risk and its impac t o n c itiz ens. We h ave al so ex pl ained its interdependenc e w ith c o ntro l and ac c o u ntab il ity . We c an no w ex pl ain h o w to u se th ese c o nc epts to ac h ieve tru st w h en pro viding g o vernment servic es, c o mb ining c o l l ab o rative w eb to o l s w ith prac tic es essential to g o o d pu b l ic administratio n. FAIR R ISK AL L O CATIO N Pro viders o f pu b l ic servic es are fail ing to rec o g niz e th at if th ey w ant to b e tru sted, th ey c anno t j u st manag e th eir o w n risk s. Th ey mu st al so c o nsider th e sig nific ant additio nal risk s th at th eir u sers fac e. Strateg ies c o u l d inc l u de: • Wh en c o mmissio ning a risk assessment fo r a new servic e, mak e su re th at it al so inc l u des servic e u ser risk s; • Wh en impl ementing c o ntinu ity pl ans b ased o n th at risk assessment, mak e su re th at th ey pro vide fo r c o ntinu ity fo r servic e u sers as w el l as th e servic e pro vider; • Pay ing partic u l ar attentio n to c itiz en risk w h ere individu al s h ave l imited direc t c o ntro l in rel atio n to a servic e; fo r ex ampl e, w h ere y o u ex pec t presentatio n o f identities b ac k ed b y h ig h integ rity enro l l ment, y o u sh o u l d al so address u ser risk and o ffer eq u al l y stro ng mu tu al au th entic atio n o f y o u r servic e b o th as a sig n o f respec t and as an additio nal sec u rity measu re fo r u sers; • Bu il ding in a User Impac t Assessment pro c ess as a standard step w h en devel o ping a new servic e. Th is c an h el p to identify c itiz en risk s th at are o ften o verl o o k ed and pro vide a framew o rk to c o nsider h o w to mitig ate o r al l o c ate th o se risk s; • Start w ith a stro ng presu mptio n th at th e servic e pro vider sh o u l d b ear th e risk partic u l arl y w h ere c itiz ens h ave l ittl e o r no c o ntro l o ver w h eth er, o r in w h at manner, th ey rec eive a servic e o r w h ere th e g o vernment, fo r w h atever reaso n is no t in po sitio n to b e as transparent as it mig h t b e. Draft safe to play white paper P O S T -N O B E L DR A F T R M F E B 0 8 Pag e 1 9
  • 20. CO N TR O L A k ey to manag ing c o ntro l in th e c o l l ab o rative w eb enviro nment is to tak e a u ser c entric appro ac h to servic e del ivery . Servic es as mu c h as po ssib l e sh o u l d mak e it easy fo r th e c itiz en to c h o o se h o w info rmatio n ab o u t th em is c o l l ec ted, u sed and disc l o sed. Bu t to mak e it effec tive and easy , w e h ave to mo ve aw ay fro m th e o l d fash io ned appro ac h es to c o ntro l w h ic h rel y o n u p fro nt info rmatio n and b u ndl ed c o nsents pro vided in a c o ntex t w h ere peo pl e c anno t u nderstand o r ab so rb th e info rmatio n, do no t u nderstand th e impl ic atio ns and c anno t c o nvenientl y mak e a real c h o ic e. Go vernment w il l h ave to b e mo re imag inative in g radu al l y h el ping c itiz ens to u nderstand h o w to ex erc ise th e k ind o f c o ntro l th ey seek . Strateg ies c o u l d inc l u de: • M o ving aw ay fro m pro viding a “o ne sto p sh o p” servic e th ro u g h o ne g o vernment po rtal , and instead enab l ing c itiz ens to b u il d th eir o w n pl atfo rms th ro u g h mash u ps and o th er c o l l ab o rative w eb to o l s. Th is g ives c itiz ens th at c apac ity to so l ve emerg ing tru st and risk issu es fo r th emsel ves, and minimiz e th e amo u nt o f info rmatio n c o l l ec ted ab o u t u sers; • Setting initial defau l ts fo r info rmatio n h andl ing to a “privac y respec ting ” o ptio n, fo r ex ampl e, setting th e defau l t at no t sh aring info rmatio n ac ro ss g o vernment ag enc ies and empo w ering th e u ser to spec ific al l y o pt in if th ey w ish to sh are info rmatio n in th is w ay ; • M ak ing it easier fo r u sers to c h ang e th ese setting s o nc e th ey u nderstand th e b enefits and risk s o f new w ay s o f c o nnec ting o r interac ting w ith g o vernment servic es. It is g o o d manners to assu me th at peo pl e w il l w ant as mu c h prac tic al ano ny mity and as l ittl e u nnec essary interac tio ns as po ssib l e. N o -o ne w ants to b e b o mb arded w ith messag es th at aren’t rel evant to th eir situ atio n; • Pro viding c itiz ens w ith th e c h anc e to ex periment in a safe enviro nment so th ey l earn th ro u g h do ing and g radu al l y ex erc ise g reater c o ntro l as th ey u nderstand and fu rth er g ro w to tru st th e new servic e; • Presenting info rmatio n and th e “o ppo rtu nity to c o nsent” at th e po ints in a pro c ess th at are mo st rel evant. Transparenc y is ano th er featu re th at fac il itates c o ntro l and tru st. Citiz ens are mo re l ik el y to tru st g o vernments th e mo re transparent th ey are ab o u t th e w ay th ey o perate. Th is is tru e to o fo r g o vernment ag enc ies and individu al g o vernment servic es. Citiz ens are ab l e to mak e b etter c h o ic es if th ey are fu l l y info rmed. Th ere is evidenc e th at c itiz ens may b e w il l ing to ex erc ise l ess direc t c o ntro l o ver th eir info rmatio n w h ere th ere is a stro ng c u l tu re o f transparenc y . Th is is b ec au se th ey c an b e mo re c o nfident th at th e g o vernment h as th e info rmatio n u nder pro per c o ntro l , and th at c itiz ens w il l k no w if th at is no t th e c ase. Th e stro ng h isto ry o f Freedo m o f Info rmatio n l aw s th at appl y in Sc andinavian c o u ntries, fo r ex ampl e, may b e part o f th e reaso n w h y c itiz ens in th o se c o u ntries h ave a mo re tru sting attitu de to th e natio nal identity c ard appro ac h . Go vernments mu st anal y z e w h at l evel s o f c o ntro l th ey c an and c anno t g ive to th eir c itiz ens w h en th ey pro vide a servic e and assess th e impl ic atio ns o f th at l evel o f c o ntro l . Wh ere g o vernments, fo r w h atever reaso n, mu st redu c e o r el iminate c itiz en c o ntro l o ver perso nal info rmatio n, th ey mu st b e aw are o f th is Draft safe to play white paper P O S T -N O B E L DR A F T R M F E B 0 8 Pag e 20
  • 21. po tential w eak ness in th e tru st sy stem and c o mpensate fo r it b y g iving g reater emph asis to risk identific atio n, al l o c atio n, and ac c o u ntab il ity in o rder to ac h ieve th e nec essary l evel s o f tru st in servic e u sers. As g o vernments adapt to so c ial netw o rk ing tec h niq u es to pro vide servic es, th ey w il l need to avo id th e pitfal l s into w h ic h many so c ial netw o rk ing sites th emsel ves h ave fal l en. Peo pl e ex pec t to b e ab l e to manag e th eir rel atio nsh ips in a w ay th at c l o sel y mirro rs th ey w ay th ey c o ndu c t th em in th e o ffl ine w o rl d. Th is means th at servic es u sing so c ial netw o rk ing pl atfo rms and c apab il ities w il l need to ensu re th at peo pl e are ab l e to h ave su b tl e and fine tu ned c o ntro l o ver th e rel atio nsh ips invo l ved in ac tu al l y del ivering th e servic e. Citiz ens w il l feel th ey h ave g reater c o ntro l if th ey are ab l e to start, devel o p and finish rel atio nsh ips in th e same w ay th at th ey do w ith real peo pl e in th e real w o rl d. Th is ph il o so ph y al so u nderpins appro ac h es b eing tak en in devel o ping identity manag ement tec h no l o g ies to fit w ith th e c o l l ab o rative w eb w o rl d ( fo r ex ampl e, th e appro ac h to identity manag ement tak en in M ic ro so ft’s CardSpac e initiative). ACCO UN TABIL ITY Ac c o u ntab il ity h as tw o main strands - g o o d g o vernanc e and an effec tive safety net. Go o d g o vernanc e is c ritic al to ensu re th at an o rg aniz atio n spel l s o u t c l earl y w h at it w il l do in terms o f al l o c atio n o f risk and c o ntro l , and very impo rtantl y , is ab l e to pro ve it is do ing w h at it said it w o u l d do . Go vernanc e mec h anisms are b est pro vided in a l ay ered appro ac h starting w ith internal manag ement metric s and feedb ac k b ac k ed u p b y to p manag ement. Go vernanc e mec h anisms sh o u l d al so inc l u de ex ternal ac c o u ntab il ity , fo r ex ampl e, to ministers, reg u l ato rs and c o ntinu o u s disc l o su re o b l ig atio ns. Strateg ies c o u l d inc l u de: • E x pl o ring w ay s to b u il d th e vo ic e and val u es o f c u sto mers into y o u r g o vernanc e mec h anisms; • Using feedb ac k mec h anisms simil ar to eBay ’s au c tio n and rating sy stem in o rder to g ain c itiz en feedb ac k o n g o vernment initiated w eb servic es. Th is h el ps to eval u ate servic es and pro vide a stro ng inc entive fo r servic es to l ift th eir g ame in al l respec ts inc l u ding o n privac y , sec u rity and tru st mo re g eneral l y ; • R eg ard internal and ex ternal feedb ac k as an o ppo rtu nity to g enerate tru st, and c o nstantl y impro ve a servic e, rath er th an a th reat – do no t try to c o ntro l o r c enso r feedb ac k info rmatio n; • M ak e su re th at fro nt l ine staff c an frank l y and fearl essl y c o ntrib u te to th e c o nstant impro vements. Th is means a c l ear feedb ac k o r c o mment mo deratio n po l ic y w h ic h mig h t ex c l u de o ffensive, ac tio nab l e o r irrel evant material , b u t sh o u l d to l erate mo st o th er material , even if u nc o mfo rtab l e. Using th e new c apab il ities ero des th e stric t distinc tio ns, and institu tio nal divide, b etw een th o se w h o desig n, manag e and del iver pu b l ic servic es and th o se w h o c o nsu me th em. Th at do esn’t diminish th e endu ring respo nsib il ities o f g o vernment servic e ag enc ies fo r th e q u al ity , eth ic s and impac t o f th eir o w n w o rk . Bu t it do es su g g est a ric h er mix o f inpu ts to th e diffic u l t and o ften sensitive j u dg ments th at are th e fo c u s o f many g o vernanc e dec isio ns. Draft safe to play white paper P O S T -N O B E L DR A F T R M F E B 0 8 Pag e 21
  • 22. Identity , privac y and sec u rity fail u res w il l h appen reg ardl ess o f th e q u al ity o f th e edu c atio n, l eg al , tec h no l o g ic al o r g o vernanc e strateg ies in pl ac e. Th ese c an minimiz e th e c h anc e o f fail u re b u t do no t el iminate it. Al so , so me risk s are stil l emerg ing and so c anno t b e manag ed in advanc e. As th e Tru stg u ide researc h sh o w s, servic e u sers are inc reasing l y aw are th at no servic e o r sy stem is fo o l pro o f o r fail u re safe. Th erefo re k no w ing th ere are stro ng restitu tio n and safety net pro c edu res in pl ac e h as a po sitive impac t o n th e risk peo pl e perc eive. Strateg ies c o u l d inc l u de: • Having internal c o mpl aints h andl ing and tro u b l e sh o o ting th at is w el c o ming , easy to u se and avail ab l e o u tside o ffic e h o u rs if needed; • Having appro priate ex ternal mec h anisms as b ac k u p fo r h andl ing c o mpl aints th at c anno t b e settl ed internal l y ; • Starting fro m th e po sitio n th at th e c itiz en h as do ne th e rig h t th ing and ac ted respo nsib l y and in g o o d faith , u ntil th ere is c l ear evidenc e to th e c o ntrary ; • M ak ing u se o f c o l l ab o rative w eb pl atfo rms su c h as a w ik i o r b l o g to enab l e u sers w h o h ave ex perienc ed pro b l ems and so l ved th em to h el p eac h o th er th ro u g h info rmatio n ex c h ang e. Th is c o u l d b e th ro u g h a g o vernment pl atfo rm o r b y mak ing ex ternal sites th at do th is easil y referenc ed. R eg ardl ess o f th e appro ac h tak en, mec h anisms fo r mak ing it “safe to pl ay ” w h en eng ag ing in new servic es o r new servic e c h annel s w il l inevitab l y b ec o me o u t o f date, fo r ex ampl e, b ec au se o f new tec h no l o g y , o r b ec au se individu al b eh avio r c h ang es. Any framew o rk mu st th erefo re b u il d in means o f identify ing , u nderstanding and respo nding to su c h c h ang e. Th is w il l h el p individu al s feel th at it remains “safe to pl ay ” b ec au se th e su ppo rt th ey rec eive respo nds in a sy stematic and w el l th o u g h t o u t w ay w ith no maj o r time l ag s th at may o th erw ise l eave individu al s b earing an u nfair b u rden o f risk o nc e ag ain. Ano th er k ey el ement, th erefo re, is a tru st sy stem th at c an l earn, th riving in a c u l tu re o f sel f-k no w l edg e and adj u stment th at itsel f is enab l ed and ac c el erated b y th e u se o f netw o rk ed to o l s o f c o mmu nic atio n and c o l l ab o ratio n. Strateg ies c o u l d inc l u de: • N imb l e review and reg u l ato ry mec h anisms w h ere l eg isl atio n estab l ish es a b asic c o mpl ianc e framew o rk w h il e th e detail is l eft to ex pert standards setting , as o c c u rs in many sig nific ant indu stries; • Bu il t in, mo re serio u s and perio dic review mec h anisms, fo r ex ampl e, l eg al po l ic y review b o dies su c h as th e L aw R efo rm Co mmissio n in Au stral ia; • R apid respo nse to u ser feedb ac k th at identifies servic e impro vement, sec u rity w eak nesses o r even inc o rpo ratio n o f sh ared, u ser desig ned “spac es” w ith in g o vernment estab l ish ed so c ial netw o rk s; • Wo rk w ith th e fast-devel o ping ec o sy stem o f ex ternal c o mmerc ial and o pen-so u rc e so l u tio ns. Watc h o u t fo r w h at w o rk s. M o st pro po sal s w o n’t, and y o u do n’t w ant y o u rs to b e o ne o f th em. Draft safe to play white paper P O S T -N O B E L DR A F T R M F E B 0 8 Pag e 22
  • 23. CO NC L U SI O NS: KE Y P R I NC I P L E S A ND C H E C K L I ST At th e h eart o f th is appro ac h to th e tru st dil emmas inh erent in th e c o l l ab o rative w eb enviro nment is th e need fo r g o vernments to start th ink ing differentl y ab o u t th e po l ic y and o peratio nal mo del to pro du c e th e k inds o f tru st o u tc o mes th ey w ant. PR IN CIPL E S Th e appro ac h w e h ave ado pted in th is paper c an b e distil l ed into th e fo l l o w ing princ ipl es, pro viding a prac tic al g u ide fo r g o vernments as th ey ex pl o re new w ay s to b u il d h ig h tru st into al l dimensio ns o f servic e pro visio n. FA IR RIS K A L L O CA TIO N • Fo c u s o n risk fo r al l parties – inc l u ding th e c itiz en – identify , al l o c ate and b e c l ear and spec ific ab o u t w ay s to mitig ate it. Al ig n th e inc entives so risk is manag ed b y th o se b est ab l e and mo tivated to manag e it. In partic u l ar, l o o k after c itiz ens w h en th ey are il l -eq u ipped to l o o k after th emsel ves. • R eg u l arl y review risk setting s to mak e su re th ey evo l ve appro priatel y in l ine w ith th e dy namic natu re o f th e c o l l ab o rative w eb enviro nment. CO N TRO L • D o n’t h ide b eh ind c o nsent if th e servic e u ser h as no real c h o ic e. • Be prepared to pay g reater attentio n to mitig ating c itiz en risk s, ac c o u ntab il ity and a safety net w h ere direc t c itiz en c o ntro l is no t po ssib l e. • Give c itiz ens as many o ptio ns as po ssib l e ab o u t h o w th ey manag e th eir rel atio nsh ips in o nl ine w o rl d; mak e it po ssib l e fo r th em to c o ndu c t th em as th ey w o u l d in th e o ffl ine w o rl d if th ey w ish to . • E nc o u rag e a c u l tu re and prac tic e o f l earning ; real iz e th e b est so l u tio ns w il l emerg e fro m u ser ex perienc e and smal l , reg u l ar and inevitab l e sy stem adj u stments; enab l e peo pl e to u nderstand and disc o ver th e c apab il ities and risk s o f a new servic e g radu al l y and in a safe enviro nment; enc o u rag e adaptive so l u tio ns th at u til iz e th e “po w er o f th e edg e”. ACCO UN TA B IL ITY • Be prepared to b e mo re transparent. • Have stro ng internal and ex ternal au dit and review mec h anisms to demo nstrate tru stw o rth iness. • E nsu re th at th ere is a g o o d safety net fo r c itiz ens w h en servic e del ivery fail s th em in so me w ay . Credib l e restitu tio n ( fo r ex ampl e, fo r identify th eft) is w o rth mo re th an o ver-pro mising a fo o l pro o f, perfec t sy stem. • Th e netw o rk is part o f th e so l u tio n; u se c o l l ab o rative w eb strateg ies to so l ve c o l l ab o rative w eb pro b l ems. Co nnec tedness c an so l ve, at l east in so me measu re, th e pro b l ems it c reates. Draft safe to play white paper P O S T -N O B E L DR A F T R M F E B 0 8 Pag e 23
  • 24. CHE CK L IST Here are so me q u estio ns th at po l ic y mak ers and pro g ram desig ners c o u l d ask th emsel ves: D o y o u ag ree al l o c ating and manag ing risk , c o ntro l and ac c o u ntab il ity are th e k ey to ac h ieving tru st in servic e del ivery in th e c o l l ab o rative w eb enviro nment? Ho w do y o u c u rrentl y assess risk s w h en y o u are estab l ish ing a new servic e? D o y o u inc l u de th e risk s to servic e u sers in y o u r assessment? Wh o c u rrentl y b ears th e risk s asso c iated w ith y o u r servic e? Are th ey in th e b est po sitio n to b ear it? Are y o u r risk assessment mec h anisms “fu tu re pro o f”? Wh at w o u l d h appen if a servic e del ivery fail s fo r servic e u sers? Wh at pl ans do y o u h ave fo r deal ing w ith servic e fail u re? To w h at ex tent, as y o u try to b al anc e risk s, are y o u prepared to draw u po n th e val u es and insig h ts o f y o u r servic e u sers? D o y o u mak e th at easy to do and simpl e to manag e fro m th eir perspec tive? Is w al k ing aw ay fro m y o u r servic e a real istic o ptio n fo r an u nh appy servic e u ser? If no t, w h at o th er mec h anisms h ave y o u fo r g aining th eir tru st? Have y o u th o u g h t ab o u t th e to o l s th e c o l l ab o rative w eb g ives y o u to enh anc e c u sto mer c o ntro l , b etter manag e risk and pro vide fo r g reater ac c o u ntab il ity ? Are y o u prepared to b e h o nest and straig h t fo rw ard ab o u t th e g o al s and pu rpo ses o f th e servic e y o u are pro viding and th ey w ay y o u manag e c u sto mer info rmatio n to ac h ieve th o se pu rpo ses? Are y o u ro b u st eno u g h to rec eive, and pu b l ish w ith o u t c enso rsh ip o r spin, th e feedb ac k y o u rec eive th ro u g h c o l l ab o rative w eb mec h anisms su c h as b l o g s o r w ik is? In administering g o vernment servic es pro vided in a c o l l ab o rative w eb enviro nment, h ave y o u th o u g h t ab o u t, and eng ag ed y o u r u sers in disc u ssing , th ese q u estio ns: o Ho w are dec isio ns tak en? o Wh o is invo l ved in dec isio n mak ing ? o Wh o needs to b e info rmed o f th e dec isio n? Draft safe to play white paper P O S T -N O B E L DR A F T R M F E B 0 8 Pag e 24