London and the low carbon economy


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Presentation by Martin Powell, LDA, director of projects on London and the low-carbon economy. September 2009.

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London and the low carbon economy

  1. 1. Low-Carbon London<br />Martin Powell<br />Director of Projects<br />
  2. 2. 2<br />Shaping Cities in a Complex World<br />Martin Powell <br />Director of Projects<br />September 2009<br />
  3. 3. 3<br />“the bank we can never bail out” <br /><ul><li>Editorial New Scientist 18 October 2008 </li></li></ul><li>Building a Great Global City<br /><ul><li>London is a dynamic, exciting city, a hub for business, a magnet for tourists, a stage for international sporting and cultural events and home to a diverse population.
  4. 4. London speaks over 300 languages and practices 14 different faiths.</li></li></ul><li>5<br />The London Development Agency<br />The LDA aims to improve the quality of life for all Londoners; working to create jobs, develop skills, and promote economic growth.<br />The LDA invests to deliver the Mayor’s vision for economic development in London: the Economic Development Strategy (EDS). We have three areas of focus: <br /><ul><li>Jobs – promoting business growth
  5. 5. Skills – providing the skills that employers need
  6. 6. Growth – developing and regeneration of communities</li></li></ul><li>6<br />Governance and funding<br />The London Development Agency (LDA) has an annual budget of £500m per year, and employs around 500 staff<br />It is accountable to the Mayor of London<br />Performance targets are set in consultation with the Mayor and agreed by the Secretary of State<br />
  7. 7. 7<br />Working relationships <br />We work with the 33 London Boroughs, sub-regional partnerships, Government departments and key partners from the voluntary, community, public and private sector. <br />The LDA is one of nine English Regional Development Agencies (RDAs) across the UK. We work with RDAs across England to ensure a wider co-operation, so that our regional work achieves a national impact. <br />
  8. 8. 8<br />Climate Change<br />Mayoral commitment to address the challenge of climate change, to improve the quality of London’s environment and to reduce London’s environmental footprint:<br />A strategic approach to environmental improvements in London presents both a challenge and an opportunity for London’s economy. <br />Key opportunities for the LDA include:<br /><ul><li>business case for environmentally responsible business practice
  9. 9. innovation in sustainable design for London
  10. 10. Investment in public realm improvements
  11. 11. New business opportunities and supply chain development in environmental innovation and technology</li></li></ul><li>9<br />London’s Energy Strategy<br />“There is still time to avoid the worst impacts of climate change, if we take strong action now.” <br />Stern Review, October 2006.<br />The energy hierarchy<br />Be lean – use less energy<br />Be clean – supply energy efficiently<br />Be green – use renewable energy<br />
  12. 12. 10<br />Challenges - eco footprint<br />Developed countries<br />Ecological Footprint and Human Development Index, 2003<br />Ecological Footprint (gha per capita)<br />Developing countries<br />Human Development Index<br />
  13. 13. 11<br />1 What kind of City <br />
  14. 14. 12<br />The 21st Century<br />
  15. 15. 13<br />Will effect the ways we live<br />
  16. 16. 14<br />Scale <br />50 % of the worlds population lives in cities<br />75% of the worlds energy are consumed by cities<br />80% of the world’s GHG are emitted by cities<br />source: Clinton Climate Initiative<br />
  17. 17. 15<br />By 2050 80% of the worlds population will be in cities<br />
  18. 18. 16<br /><ul><li>Cities are thrilling, exciting, creative, liberating, cruel and inhuman</li></li></ul><li>17<br />What kinds of city do we want<br />
  19. 19. 18<br />Mumbai - 34,000 people per km (sq) <br />
  20. 20. 19<br />London - 4500 people per km (sq) <br />
  21. 21. 20<br />Helsinki<br />Tallinn<br />Copenhagen<br />Calgary<br />Budapest<br />Beijing<br />Dalian<br />Raleigh-Durham<br />Xian<br />Barcelona<br />Shanghai<br />Austin<br />Chongqing<br />Suzhou<br />Delhi<br />Guangzhou<br />Mumbai<br />San José<br />Shenzhen<br />Bangalore<br />Porto Alegre<br />Cape Town<br />SE Queensland<br />Santiago<br />environment<br />economy<br />technology<br />Rising Urban Stars<br />
  22. 22. 21<br />
  23. 23. 22<br />
  24. 24. 23<br />
  25. 25. 24<br />
  26. 26. 25<br />2 Shaping our Obelisks <br />
  27. 27. 26<br />The London Plan <br />Compact City Principles<br /><ul><li> Well designed, compact, connected
  28. 28. Mix of uses
  29. 29. Integrated with public transport
  30. 30. Adaptable for change
  31. 31. Development on brownfield sites
  32. 32. Growth based on public transport
  33. 33. Development on a human scale</li></li></ul><li>27<br />The shaping of our Investment<br />LDA as landowner and developer<br />Over 70 sustainability standards to be met:<br /><ul><li> Energy Efficiency
  34. 34. Renewables
  35. 35. Water Use
  36. 36. Flooding and Surface Water
  37. 37. Open Space & Biodiversity
  38. 38. Materials
  39. 39. Waste & Recycling
  40. 40. Inclusive/Disability
  41. 41. Construction Practice</li></li></ul><li>28<br />Massive New Transport Investment<br />
  42. 42. 29<br />London’s heat load density distribution<br />(Source: The London Plan) <br />
  43. 43. 30<br />
  44. 44. 31<br />North West Passage 2007<br />
  45. 45. Hong Kong<br />Shanghai<br />London<br />NY<br />where we have to be by 2050<br />World CO2 emissions 2002<br />
  46. 46. 33<br />The Shapers for our interventions <br /><ul><li>Tight, ambitious targets set by the London Plan
  47. 47. Exemplar Sustainability Standards to be achieved
  48. 48. Alignment to Transport Investment
  49. 49. Head Load densities to be mapped
  50. 50. Culturally diverse city
  51. 51. A real urgency
  52. 52. A long way to go!
  53. 53. New Thinking</li></li></ul><li>34<br />The Big Obelisks<br />Olympics Park<br />Green Grid<br />Trees<br />Great Spaces <br />River Use<br />Green Enterprise District<br />District Heating<br />Zero Carbon Scheme<br />
  54. 54. 35<br />3 The Big Obelisks <br />
  55. 55. 36<br />6 July 2005<br />
  56. 56. 37<br />
  57. 57. 38<br />5 Olympic Legacy Venues<br />Legacy thinking from outset:<br /> Strategic Need<br /> Business Planning<br /> Financial Sustainability<br /> Environmental Sustainability<br /> Community Use<br /> High Performance Use<br /> Fully Inclusive<br />
  58. 58. 39<br />Evolution - 2013<br />
  59. 59. 40<br />
  60. 60. 41<br />
  61. 61. 42<br />
  62. 62. 43<br />The memory of the Games?<br />
  63. 63. 44<br />
  64. 64. 45<br />
  65. 65. 46<br />
  66. 66. 47<br />
  67. 67. 48<br />
  68. 68.
  69. 69. 50<br />
  70. 70. 51<br />
  71. 71. 52<br />
  72. 72.
  73. 73. 54<br />
  74. 74. 55<br />Zero Carbon development<br />A zero carbon development is one that achieves zero net carbon emissions from energy use on site, on an annual basis.<br />
  75. 75. 56<br />4 Going Green <br />
  76. 76. 57<br />London’s Carbon Footprint<br />8% of total UK CO2 emissions are from London, primarily from the domestic and commercial sectors<br />Improving thermal efficiency in London’s existing housing stock = 10% reduction in total CO2 emissions in London, and much greater reduction would come from increased energy efficiency in existing commercial buildings. <br />
  77. 77. 58<br />London is committed to playing its role<br />Today<br />2020<br />2025<br />2050<br />London Mayor’s Climate Change Target <br />UK Climate Change Act (2008)<br />European 20-20-20 Target (2009)<br /><ul><li>Reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by 60% below 1990 levels by 2025
  78. 78. Reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by 20% below 1990 levels by 2020
  79. 79. 20% increase in renewables
  80. 80. 20% cut in energy consumption
  81. 81. Reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by 80% below 1990 levels by 2050.</li></ul>The Mayor is committed to London becoming the greenest city in the world and to a city that becomes a world leader in improving the environment. <br />58<br />
  82. 82. 59<br />London has committed to ambitious carbon reduction targets<br />Profile of national targets and aspirations<br />Emissions profiles for an illustrative public sector building<br />Profile of London’s reductions to achieve 450ppm stabilisation<br />Profile of a BAU Projection for non-residential emissions to 20221<br />Today<br />15%<br />20%<br />26% by 2020 CCA 2008<br />Carbon emissions<br />BAU*<br />Desired national profile<br />Target for London = 60%<br />Desired London profile<br />Desired London profile<br />80% by 2050 CCA 2008<br />2020<br />2030<br />1990<br />2050<br />1DECC modelling for CCC. Sources: CCAP (2006) CCC (2008) * Extrapolation based on CCA trend to 2022 for non-residential buildings<br />
  83. 83. 60<br />Action at all levels<br />4. Influencing<br />3. Planning framework<br />2. Broader programmes<br />1. Our procurement<br />
  84. 84. 61<br />The climate change programmes<br />Energy Efficiency<br />Energy Supply <br />Waste<br />Transport<br />Low Carbon Economy<br />Adaptation <br />London Mayoral Strategies<br />London Plan (Autumn 2009)<br />Strategy<br />Climate change, mitigation and energy strategy<br />London Waste Strategies<br />(municipal & bsuiness<br />Economic Development Strategy<br />London Transport Strategy <br />Autumn 2009<br />Energy Master Planning <br />Homes Energy Efficiency Programme<br />Retrofit Academy<br />London Cycle Hire Scheme & Cycle Superhighways<br />LDA Owned Energy Supply Projects<br />London Waste and Recycling Board<br />Crystal Palace CHP<br />Building Energy Efficiency Programme<br />Low Carbon Buses <br />Park Royal Partnership<br />Green Enterprise District<br />London Thames Gateway Heat Network<br />Better Buildings Partnership<br />Electric Vehicle Delivery Plan<br />Green Jobs & Skills<br />Royal Albert Basin<br />Green500<br />Low Carbon GLA Fleet <br />Low Carbon Economy Action Plan<br />Delivery<br />Low Carbon Zones<br />LDA Contribution to Energy Supply Projects <br />Legible London <br />Olympic Fringe <br />Traffic flow smoothing<br />Underground, overground & DLR energy efficiency<br />London Green Fund<br />61<br />Influencing national policy / stakeholder management / communications<br />
  85. 85. 62<br />Why do we need to retrofit<br /><ul><li>The commercial and public sector is a significant contributor to London’s carbon dioxide emissions – mostly from heating and lighting</li></ul>36% Heating<br />26% lighting<br />11% catering<br />7% hot water<br />6% cooling<br />4% computing/IT<br />10% other<br />33%<br />38%<br />22%<br />7%<br />Public sector: Health 23%, Education 47%, Offices 30% <br />London emissions all sectors: 44.3m CO2 (t)<br />Commercial and public sector: 18m CO2 (t)<br />GLA (2006 & 2007)<br />
  86. 86. 63<br />Homes Energy Efficiency Programme<br /><ul><li>Two parallel streams: building up market using housing funds and LDA (next 1-2 years); launch new, large-scale, financed model (next 2-3 years)
  87. 87. Intensive joint working with London Councils/ boroughs on business case. Build on experience with schemes in london
  88. 88. £1b could treat nearly 1.8m homes and deliver 3mt of CO2 savings p.a.
  89. 89. 2,000+ jobs creation potential; “Retrofit Academy”
  90. 90. 1000 homes trialling “10 easy measures”; Autumn 5x1000 homes demonstrating business model; 2010/11 50-200,0000 homes demonstrate financed model</li></li></ul><li>64<br />Building Energy Efficiency Programme?<br /><ul><li>It is a cost neutral means to reduce energy bills and carbon footprint of your buildings</li></ul>Insulation<br />Building management technologies <br /><ul><li>Energy service companies (ESCOs) guarantee a set level of energy savings - therefore financial saving - over a period of years
  91. 91. This guarantees a future income stream to fund investment in improvements </li></ul>Cooling equipment<br />Low carbon heating<br /><ul><li>If all municipal buildings, schools, universities and hospitals were retrofitted, could save 1m tonnes CO2 and represents 2% of London’s CO2 emissions</li></li></ul><li>65<br />BEEP<br /><ul><li>GLA Building Energy Efficiency Programme
  92. 92. ESCO performance contracting model
  93. 93. Revolving fund
  94. 94. 25% CO2 reduction, £1m savings/year
  95. 95. Available to other public sector bodies by end 2009
  96. 96. Financing aims to remove up-front capital cost</li></li></ul><li>66<br />Green500 <br />Unique combination of carbon management service plus performance based annual awards <br />Focus is on continuous, practical improvement in the carbon footprint of the organisation (not goods/ services supplied)<br />Set a target, agree a plan, implement the plan, annual assessment<br />
  97. 97. 67<br />Better Buildings Partnership<br /><ul><li>Comprising major commercial property owners
  98. 98. Commits members to remove existing barriers
  99. 99. Leases
  100. 100. Agents
  101. 101. Valuation
  102. 102. Carbon benchmarks for all members on their London portfolios
  103. 103. Annual public awards by the Mayor for reaching the agreed benchmark</li></li></ul><li>68<br />Energy supply<br />London’s heat load density distribution<br />(Source: The London Plan) <br />Conversion of existing building stock to CHP / district heating<br /><ul><li>Installing or upgrading CHP units located within major hospitals and university campuses, and
  104. 104. Connecting districting heating networks serving the local community to these CHP unit
  105. 105. There are 37 NHS Acute Trusts and Foundation Trusts in London, and 21 major universities. Assuming:
  106. 106. if 50% of these schemes are implemented,
  107. 107. a C02 saving of up to 232,000 tonnes p.a. may be possible
  108. 108. Potential schemes are likely to be primarily located in the high heat load density areas of central London</li></li></ul><li>69<br />Decentralised energy<br /><ul><li>Targeting 25% of London’s energy supply from DE by 2025
  109. 109. Includes Barking power station CHP (renamed Thames Gateway Heat Network), aiming for first heat delivery in 2011
  110. 110. Three new areas of focus through LDA Decentralised Energy Delivery Team
  111. 111. London-wide energy masterplanning (2-year programme)
  112. 112. Technical and commercial centre of excellence including borough ‘SWAT team’
  113. 113. Part-financing for specific projects
  114. 114. Low Carbon Zones – prospectus launched May 2009, winning zones announced Autumn 2009</li></li></ul><li>70<br />Fuel-poverty needs to be addressed<br />Levels of Fuel-poverty* in London Boroughs, 2008<br />
  115. 115. 71<br />Energy Master Plan for London<br />
  116. 116. 72<br />Waste<br /><ul><li>£2b of £12b London’s energy consumption could be delivered through energy from waste
  117. 117. 3-year, £84m London Waste and Recycling Board fund-142 bids ranging from £5k to £10m; first disbursements expected September 2009</li></li></ul><li>73<br />Transport<br />Bike hire scheme May 2010; 12 ‘cycling superhighways’ by 2012<br />Full hybrid conversion of 8,000 vehicle bus fleet<br />LED traffic light conversion underway; street lights?<br />Securitising Underground electricity use?<br /><ul><li>Electric Vehicle Delivery Plan launched June 2009
  118. 118. Own fleet: Delivery Plan Autumn 2009, start procurement early 2010 (1,000+ ultra low carbon vehicles)
  119. 119. International EV procurement initiative with Clinton Foundation</li></li></ul><li>74<br />Local environment<br />10,000 new street trees<br />Air quality action plan by Summer<br />Range of urban realm improvements (Exhibition Road, shared space, etc)<br />10% increase in central London green space would stabilise temperatures over the next century<br />New London Plan including Green Grid extension, green roofs, further protection for green space<br />
  120. 120. 75<br />Low-carbon economy<br /><ul><li>Conservatively 10-15,000 jobs potential; £600m gross value added per annum – most jobs from retrofit
  121. 121. London USP: financial & business services, academic institutes, VC/cleantech funds
  122. 122. Opportunities created by Olympics include Olympic Legacy Plan, Green Enterprise District in Thames Gateway
  123. 123. £100m+ ringfenced for climate change/energy programmes (next 3 years)
  124. 124. Overarching public/private ‘London Green Fund’ being created</li></li></ul><li>The London Green Fund<br />
  125. 125. 77<br />,<br />With Government support<br />CO2 savings by measure<br />Annual million tonnes of CO2 saved (2025)<br />London on its own<br />6.2<br />6<br />4.5<br />4.4<br />4<br />3.0<br />2.8<br />2.5<br />2.2<br />2.1<br />1.8<br />1.8<br />1.7<br />1.7<br />2<br />1.7<br />1.5<br />1.5<br />1.4<br />0.9<br />0.9<br />0.4<br />0.4<br />0.3<br />0<br />Biomass & waste energy<br />PT infrastructure energy efficiency<br />Ground based aviation<br />Commercial/ industrial new build<br />Thermal efficiency<br />Behavioural change<br />Lighting and appliances<br />PT driver behaviour<br />Thermal efficiency<br />PT LCVs, biofuels<br />Cars behaviour change<br />On-site microgeneration<br />Staff behaviour change<br />Domestic new build<br />Road user charging<br />Freight measures<br />Cars biofuels & LCVs<br />Lighting and appliances<br />Building operations<br />National grid<br />CHP<br />New Build<br />Domestic<br />Commercial<br />Supply<br />Transport<br />
  126. 126. 78<br />5 The Beautiful City <br />
  127. 127. 79<br />
  128. 128. Potters Fields - Before<br />
  129. 129. Potters Fields - After<br />
  130. 130. 82<br />Emissions from Road Lighting<br />Estimated that UK has over 5 million road lighting points<br />CO2 Emissions for UK 2 million tonnes<br />London estimated to account for 12%<br />LED street lighting in London could save over 150,000 tonnes CO2 p.a.<br />
  131. 131. 83<br />Resource Efficiency<br />Press Office City of Munster, Germany<br />
  132. 132. 84<br />
  133. 133. 85<br />80 Litres<br />
  134. 134. 86<br />
  135. 135.
  136. 136. 88<br />Summary<br />London has set some challenging targets<br />A mix of Interventions is required to deliver these targets<br />Varying models of delivery is essential for success<br />Cities have the most to do and the most to gain<br />All cities are different but the challenges are the same<br />We can learn by replicating what is successful and finding the right delivery mechanism to enable action at scale!<br />
  137. 137. 89<br />Thank You!<br /><br />