Reform To put or change into an improved form or condition To amend or improve by change of form or removal of faults or abuses To put an end to (an evil) by enforcing or introducing a better method or course of action
Second Great Awakening Revivals (meetings with hundreds of people) strengthened, or revived, people’s religious feelings. First great era of reform. Various types: Health Education Prison and mental institutions Religious
Abolitionist Someone who wants to abolish, or end, slavery in the United States Went a step further as women began to think about their own rights.
Temperance Means moderation Crusade to stop the drinking of alcohol.
Frederick Douglas Born into slavery in Maryland, escaped to New York by posing as a free sailor. Traveled the country speaking for the Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society. Wrote a book about the horrors of slavery.
William Lloyd Garrison Began The Liberator Equal rights for blacks and whites In some places The Liberator was burned and mail carriers refused to deliver it. $5000 reward offered for his arrest
Sarah and Angelina Grimke Daughters of a wealthy South Carolina judge and plantation owner Felt slavery was inconsistent with justice and humanity Moved to the North so they could work against slavery. First women to speak publicly for the abolitionist cause.
Harriet Tubman Felt she had a right to liberty or death and meant to have one of them, so she fled from the plantation in the middle of the night. She headed for the house of a white woman who was helping escaped slaves. Began her journey on the Underground Railroad.
The woman gave her two slips of paper with names of families on route north who would help her. Her first “railroad tickets” Traveled over 90 miles at night, through swamps and woodlands to freedom. Went back and helped over 300 people escape Thousands of dollars offered for her capture.
Sojourner Truth Born into slavery Freed at age 30 At age 47 began speaking about the evils of slavery Her name meant to travel telling the truth Women’s rights convention in Akron, Ohio
Lucretia Mott Founder of the American Antislavery Society Helped write a statement modeled after the Declaration of Independence that stated all men and women are created equal
Elizabeth Cady Stanton Worked with Lucretia Mott and held a meeting at her house They decided to hold a convention to discus the “social, civil, and religious conditions and rights of women. Over 240 people attended the convention in her hometown of Seneca Falls
Seneca Falls Convention World’s first women’s rights convention Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions Set agenda for women’s rights movement that followed “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men and women are created equal…” -Elizabeth Cady Stanton, 1848
Horace Mann Common School Movement Believed education was a way to fight poverty School year extended Established more high schools Improved teacher training
Other Reformers Dorothea Dix Attempted to reform prisons and insane asylums Dr. Sylvester Graham Invented graham crackers as an alternative to bread that had additives