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  1. 1. People Fighting for Change<br />REFORM<br />
  2. 2. Reform<br />To put or change into an improved form or condition<br />To amend or improve by change of form or removal of faults or abuses<br />To put an end to (an evil) by enforcing or introducing a better method or course of action<br />
  3. 3. Second Great Awakening<br />Revivals (meetings with hundreds of people) strengthened, or revived, people’s religious feelings.<br />First great era of reform.<br />Various types:<br />Health<br />Education<br />Prison and mental <br />institutions<br />Religious <br />
  4. 4. Abolitionist<br />Someone who wants to abolish, or end, slavery in the United States<br />Went a step further as women began to think about their own rights.<br />
  5. 5. Temperance<br />Means moderation<br />Crusade to stop the drinking of alcohol.<br />
  6. 6. Frederick Douglas<br />Born into slavery in Maryland, escaped to New York by posing as a free sailor.<br />Traveled the country speaking for the Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society.<br />
  7. 7. William Lloyd Garrison <br />Began The Liberator<br />Equal rights for blacks and whites<br />In some places The Liberator was burned and mail carriers refused to deliver it.<br />$5000 reward offered for his arrest<br />
  8. 8. Sarah and Angelina Grimke<br />Daughters of a wealthy South Carolina judge and plantation owner<br />Felt slavery was inconsistent with justice and humanity<br />Moved to the North so they could work against slavery.<br />First women to speak publicly for the abolitionist cause.<br />
  9. 9. Harriet Tubman<br />Felt she had a right to liberty or death and meant to have one of them, so she fled from the plantation in the middle of the night.<br />She headed for the house of a white woman who was helping escaped slaves.<br />Began her journey on the Underground Railroad.<br />
  10. 10. The woman gave her two slips of paper with names of families on route north who would help her. Her first “railroad tickets”<br />Traveled over 90 miles at night, through swamps and woodlands to freedom.<br />Went back and helped over 300 people escape<br />Thousands of dollars offered for her capture.<br />
  11. 11. Sojourner Truth<br />Born into slavery<br />Freed at age 30<br />At age 47 began speaking about the evils of slavery<br />Her name meant to travel telling the truth<br />Women’s rights convention in Akron, Ohio<br />
  12. 12. Lucretia Mott<br />Founder of the American Antislavery Society<br />Helped write a statement modeled after the Declaration of Independence that stated all men and women are created equal<br />
  13. 13. Elizabeth Cady Stanton<br />Worked with Lucretia Mott and held a meeting at her house<br />They decided to hold a convention to discus the “social, civil, and religious conditions and rights of women.<br />Over 240 people attended the convention in her hometown of Seneca Falls<br />
  14. 14. Seneca Falls Convention<br />World’s first women’s rights convention<br />Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions <br />Set agenda for women’s rights movement that followed<br />“We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men and women are created equal…”<br />-Elizabeth Cady Stanton, 1848<br />
  15. 15. Horace Mann <br />Common School Movement<br />Believed education was a way to fight poverty<br />School year extended<br />Established more high schools<br />Improved teacher training<br />
  16. 16. Other Reformers<br />Dorothea Dix<br />Attempted to reform prisons and insane asylums<br />Dr. Sylvester Graham<br />Invented graham crackers as an alternative to bread that had additives<br />