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  • Anker, S. (2001). Real writing with readings: Paragraphs and essays for college, work, and everyday life. (2nd ed.). Boston: Bedford/St.Martin's.
  • Anker, S. (2001). Real writing with readings: Paragraphs and essays for college, work, and everyday life. (2nd ed.). Boston: Bedford/St.Martin's.
  • Anker, S. (2001). Real writing with readings: Paragraphs and essays for college, work, and everyday life. (2nd ed.). Boston: Bedford/St.Martin's. Photo of comedian Will Durst by Pat Johnson from the Will Durst-America's Top Political Satirist—The Thinking Man's Comic (2011) website: http://willdurst.com/Media.html
  • Anker, S. (2001). Real writing with readings: Paragraphs and essays for college, work, and everyday life. (2nd ed.). Boston: Bedford/St.Martin's. Illustration by Martin Whitmore from the cover of The Usual Error Book: Why We Don't Understand Each Other and 34 Ways to Make It Better (2008) by Pace and Kyeli at the website: http://usualerror.com/
  • Anker, S. (2001). Real writing with readings: Paragraphs and essays for college, work, and everyday life. (2nd ed.). Boston: Bedford/St.Martin's.
  • Anker, S. (2001). Real writing with readings: Paragraphs and essays for college, work, and everyday life. (2nd ed.). Boston: Bedford/St.Martin's.
  • Winterowd, W. R. & Murray, P. Y. (1985). English: Writing and skills. San Diego: Coronado Publishers.
  • Anker, S. (2001). Real writing with readings: Paragraphs and essays for college, work, and everyday life. (2nd ed.). Boston: Bedford/St.Martin's.
  • Winterowd, W. R. & Murray, P. Y. (1985). English: Writing and skills. San Diego: Coronado Publishers. Anker, S. (2001). Real writing with readings: Paragraphs and essays for college, work, and everyday life. (2nd ed.). Boston: Bedford/St.Martin's.
  • Winterowd, W. R. & Murray, P. Y. (1985). English: Writing and skills. San Diego: Coronado Publishers. Anker, S. (2001). Real writing with readings: Paragraphs and essays for college, work, and everyday life. (2nd ed.). Boston: Bedford/St.Martin's.
  • Winterowd, W. R. & Murray, P. Y. (1985). English: Writing and skills. San Diego: Coronado Publishers. Anker, S. (2001). Real writing with readings: Paragraphs and essays for college, work, and everyday life. (2nd ed.). Boston: Bedford/St.Martin's.
  • Winterowd, W. R. & Murray, P. Y. (1985). English: Writing and skills. San Diego: Coronado Publishers. Anker, S. (2001). Real writing with readings: Paragraphs and essays for college, work, and everyday life. (2nd ed.). Boston: Bedford/St.Martin's.
  • Angeli, E., Wagner, J., Lawrick, E., Moore, K., Anderson, M., Soderlund, L. ., . . . Keck, R. (2010, April 19). General format. Retrieved from Purdue OWL: APA Formatting and Style Guide website: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/
  • Angeli, E., Wagner, J., Lawrick, E., Moore, K., Anderson, M., Soderlund, L. ., . . . Keck, R. (2010, April 19). General format. Retrieved from Purdue OWL: APA Formatting and Style Guide website: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/
  • Angeli, E. (n.d). Sample APA paper. Retrieved from Purdue OWL: APA Formatting and Style Guide website: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/18/
  • Angeli, E., Wagner, J., Lawrick, E., Moore, K., Anderson, M., Soderlund, L. ., . . . Keck, R. (2010, April 21). Types of APA papers. Retrieved from Purdue OWL: APA Formatting and Style Guide website: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/12/
  • Angeli, E., Wagner, J., Lawrick, E., Moore, K., Anderson, M., Soderlund, L. ., . . . Keck, R. (2010, April 21). Types of APA papers. Retrieved from Purdue OWL: APA Formatting and Style Guide website: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/12/
  • Angeli, E., Wagner, J., Lawrick, E., Moore, K., Anderson, M., Soderlund, L. ., . . . Keck, R. (2010, April 19). General format. Retrieved from Purdue OWL: APA Formatting and Style Guide website: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/
  • Angeli, E., Wagner, J., Lawrick, E., Moore, K., Anderson, M., Soderlund, L. ., . . . Keck, R. (2010, December 2). In-text citations: The basics. Retrieved from Purdue OWL: APA Formatting and Style Guide website: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/02/
  • Angeli, E., Wagner, J., Lawrick, E., Moore, K., Anderson, M. Soderland, L, . . . Keck, R. (2010, June 6). APA Changes 6 th Edition. Retrieved from Purdue Online Writing Lab website: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/24/
  • Kennedy, X. J., Kennedy, D. M., & Muth, M. F. (2011). The Bedford guide for college writers. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's.
  • Kennedy, X. J., Kennedy, D. M., & Muth, M. F. (2011). The Bedford guide for college writers. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's.
  • Kennedy, X. J., Kennedy, D. M., & Muth, M. F. (2011). The Bedford guide for college writers. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's.
  • Angeli, E., Wagner, J., Lawrick, E., Moore, K., Anderson, M. Soderland, L, . . . Keck, R. (2010, May 3). In-text citations: Author/authors. Retrieved from Purdue Online Writing Lab website: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/03/
  • Paris. (2011). Encyclopædia Britannica. Ultimate Reference Suite. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica.
  • Price, M. (n.d.) The St. Martin's Tutorial on Avoiding Plagiarism. Retrieved from http://bcs.bedfordstmartins.com/plagiarismtutorial/pages/bcs-main.asp?v=chapter&s=01000&n=00030&i=01030.01&o=|00040|00030|&ns=0.
  • Price, M. (n.d.) The St. Martin's Tutorial on Avoiding Plagiarism. Retrieved from http://bcs.bedfordstmartins.com/plagiarismtutorial/pages/bcs-main.asp?v=chapter&s=01000&n=00030&i=01030.01&o=|00040|00030|&ns=0.
  • Kennedy, X. J., Kennedy, D. M., & Muth, M. F. (2011). The Bedford guide for college writers. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's.
  • Kennedy, X. J., Kennedy, D. M., & Muth, M. F. (2011). The Bedford guide for college writers. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's.
  • Kennedy, X. J., Kennedy, D. M., & Muth, M. F. (2011). The Bedford guide for college writers. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's.
  • Kennedy, X. J., Kennedy, D. M., & Muth, M. F. (2011). The Bedford guide for college writers. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's.

Generating Ideas Generating Ideas Presentation Transcript

  • Generating Ideas
    • Generating Ideas: Prewriting Activities
    • Your goal?
      • Generate as many ideas as possible.
      • So, don't prejudge.
      • The purpose of prewriting is to
      • begin thinking about the
      • topic(s).
      • Later you will decide which
      • ideas are worth pursuing.
      • (Anker, 2001)
    • Th
    Write a 1,000 word research report… ? Three Questions to Begin… 1. What interests me? 2. What do I know about? 3. Is my topic specific? (Anker, 2001) and a fourth, question: What are the assignment requirements?
    • A Topic
    • Let's begin with a topic.
    • Pick TWO of the following:
      • Children [or Childhood]
      • An issue [at the university]
      • Leisure time
      • Environmental problems
      • Technology
      • An important new discovery
      • (Taken directly from Anker, 2001)
  • Brainstorming: Listing
  • Brainstorming: Clustering/Mapping
  • Brainstorming: Clustering/Mapping Memorable incident in my past. Bedtime stories. Falling off a slide. Getting braces taken off my teeth. Getting my first bike for Christmas. (cluster taken directly from Winterowd & Murray, 1985)
  • Brainstorming: Clustering/Mapping Memorable incident in my past. Bedtime stories. Falling off a slide. Getting braces taken off my teeth. Getting my first bike for Christmas. Age 9 Wanted a Schwinn brand. Surprise! Sheer exhilaration. Fancy Monarch brand. End of childhood. Felt older, more sophisticated. Dentist's office Cold Ugly Beige carpet with green trim. (taken directly from Winterowd & Murray, 1985)
  • Brainstorming: Clustering/Mapping
  • Brainstorming
  • Brainstorming
  • Brainstorming
  • Brainstorming: Discussion
  • Pentad: Asking Questions to Generate Ideas and Detail
    • 1. What is the action?
    • 2. Who are the actors?
    • 3. What is the scene?
    • 4. What is the method?
    • 5. What is the purpose?
  • APA Format
    • The following guidelines apply for an APA
    • style paper:
      • Include a page
      • header on the
      • top of every page .
      • The page header
      • is different on the
      • title page than on
      • the pages that
      • follow .
      • The header should
      • align with the left Title page header:
      • margin; the page Running head: TITLE OF YOUR PAPER
      • number should
      • align with the right All other pages:
      • margin TITLE OF YOUR PAPER (Angeli, et. al. 2010)
    Title page All other pages
  • APA Style
    • For a sample APA-style paper with notes
    • on formatting go to Course Documents on
    • BlackBoard (BB).
  • APA Style Papers: Literature Review
    • What is it?
      • "A literature review is a summary of what the
      • scientific literature says about your specific topic
      • or question" (Angeli, et. al., 2010) .
    • Why? When?
    • The literature demonstrates your familiarity with prior
    • research into the topic. Before you begin writing your
    • professor may ask you to write a literature review for this
    • purpose (Angeli, et. al., 2010).
    • Main Parts:
      • title page
      • introduction section
      • list of references
      • (possibly) abstract
  • APA Style Papers: Experimental Report
    • What is it?
      • A more complex form of APA format used to
      • present your original, social science research
    • Why? When?
    • "The structure follows the scientific method, but it also
    • makes your paper easier to follow by providing those
    • familiar cues that help your reader efficiently scan your
    • information for:
      • why the topic is important (covered in the introduction)
      • what the problem is (also covered in your introduction)
      • what you did to try to solve the problem (covered in your methods section)
      • what you found (covered in your results section)
      • what you think your findings mean (covered in your discussion section)" (Angeli, et. al., 2010)
  • Abstract
      • An abstract is a summary of the main points of your
      • research .
      • Abstract format/contents:
            • include the header at the top of the page,
            • first line, center the word "Abstract"
            • (upper and lower case, plain text—no bold,
            • italics, underlining, or quotation marks),
            • In block style (no indenting) write the
            • abstract, which should be between 150-250
            • words
            • At minimum the abstract includes: "research topic, research questions, participants, methods, results, data analysis, and conclusions" (this will differ for a literature review abstract) (Angeli, et. al.)
  • Properly Citing Sources
    • Some “rules” always remain true:
      • If you are quoting a source directly , always:
        • - Use quotation marks “ ”
        • - Indicate in the sentence whom you are quoting
      • If you are paraphrasing someone else’s idea , always:
        • - Acknowledge whose idea it is, use indicator words like “According to…” , “As ...... says” , “As reported by .......” , “...... says that”
        • - Although you are using your own words when when paraphrasing , you still need to cite the source of the information .
  • Properly Citing Sources
    • Always create a Reference page.
        • Indicate ALL the sources you used in your
        • paper
          • Directly quoted sourc
          • Sources that are summarized
          • (paraphrased)
      • To avoid accusations of plagiarism
      • every source used in the body of
      • the essay must be listed in the
      • Reference page .
  • In-text Citation: Ways to Cite Sources
    • Author of a Quote
      • Should be
        • Acknowledged directly before or after the quoted
        • or referenced material
        • Use words such as “ says ,” “ explains ,”
        • “ believes ,” “ thinks ,” “ argued ,” or “ demands .”
    • The first time a source is mentioned, it is recommended to
    • use their f u l l n a m e and an indication of his or her
    • credibility . After the introduction use the surname (family name).
    • EXAMPLE:
    • From this foundation, Dr. Elliot Smith (2002) , an economist at
    • Milford University, argued that “humankind ought to be left to
    • follow its inborn inclinations, which were to sustain life and to
    • acquire goods (p. 5).
    • [ title/given name surname date signal word credibility ]
  • Direct Quotations : Quotation Marks and Commas
    • Smith (1998) says , “ What we require is a new method . ”
    • “ What we require is a new method , ” says Smith .
    • “ Thirty minutes later , ” Edelman said , “ subjects responded negatively . ”
    • Edelman said , “ Thirty minutes later subjects responded negatively . ”
    • “ Thirty minutes later subjects responded negatively , ” said Edelman .
    • [ surname comma quotation mark quote period ]
  • Direct Quotations: Quotation Marks without Commas (integrating a partial quote with your own words )
    • All are asked to “ help restore hope . ”
    • To “ help restore hope ” is what is asked of us .
    • Are we to accept Jefferson’s concept of “ a natural aristocracy among men ” ?
    • Is “ a natural aristocracy among men ” the Jeffersonian concept we are to accept ?
  • Ways to Cite Sources (Print)
    • EXAMPLE (Author with signal phrase):
    • According to Jones ( 1998 ) , “ Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time ”
    • (p. 199) .
    • EXAMPLE
    • (Author quote and writer's own material):
    • Jones ( 1998 ) found, “ Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time ” (p. 199) ; what implications does this have for teachers?
    • EXAMPLE (Author not named in signal phrase):
    • She stated , “ Students often had difficulty using APA style ” ( Jones , 1998 , p. 199 ), but she did not offer an explanation as to why .
    • [ surname date signal words quotation mark quote page numbers ]
  • Summary or Paraphrase
    • If you are paraphrasing an idea from another work,
    • you only have to make reference to the author and
    • year of publication in your in-text reference, but APA
    • guidelines encourage you to also provide the page
    • number (although it is not required).
    • Examples:
    • According to Jones ( 1998 ), APA style is a different citation format for first-time learners.
    • APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners ( Jones , 1998 , p. 199 )
    • [ surname date signal words paraphrase page numbers ] (Angeli, et. al., 2010)
    • Purdue OWL PDF p. 11.
  • Ways to Cite Sources (Print)
    • FURTHER EXAMPLE:
    • As noted by Smith (2010) Americans have sympathy for the
    • belief that “ public services are never better performed than
    • when their reward comes only in consequence of their
    • being performed, and is proportioned to the diligence
    • employed in performing them ” (pp. 678-679) .
    • [ surname date signal words quotation mark quote page numbers ]
  • Ways to Cite Sources (Print)
    • FURTHER EXAMPLE (When :
    • This process, Weigel (1986) rightly describes , as an
    • outgrowth of the selling of scarcity that “ has convinced
    • many Americans of the viability and moral necessity of
    • coerced, subsistence-wage labor through the workfare
    • and prison industries ” ( p. 21) .
    • [ surname date signal words quotation mark quote page numbers ]
  • Ways to Cite Sources (Webpage)
    • Unlike print sources, Internet sources may not be divided
    • into pages. Instead of using a page reference (p. or pp.)
    • you can refer to the paragraph where you found the
    • quotation using "para.", chapter number "chap. 2", or section
    • heading.
    • EXAMPLE:
    • “ The Purdue University Writing lab and Purdue Online
    • Writing Lab (OWL) assist clients in their development as
    • writers—no matter what their skill level—with on-campus
    • consultations, online participation, and community
    • engagement ” ( Purdue OWL, 2010 , "Mission" , para. 1 ) .
    • [ organization author date section quotation mark
    • quote paragraph number ]
  • Ways to Cite Sources (Webpage)
    • EXAMPLE:
    • Interval training encourages rotation between high-intensity spurts and “ active recovery, which is typically a less-intense form of the original activity ” ( Interval training , n.d. , chap. 2 ) .
    • [ title date section quotation mark
    • quote paragraph number ]
    • n.d. = no date
  • Ways to Cite Sources In-text Multiple Authors
    • Two Authors:
    • List the names in the order they appear in the source .
    • Link the names with an ampersand ( & ); remember in the body of
    • your essay you should always spell the word "and" , only use the
    • ampersand for citations .
    • A group's cultural development enhances its chance for survival, providing both physical and psychological protection ( Anderson & Ross , 1998 ) .
    • [ authors ampersand date ]
    • (Kennedy, Kennedy, & Muth, 2011)
  • Ways to Cite Sources In-text Multiple Authors
    • Three Authors or More:
    • Three to Five Authors:
    • Include A L L t h e n a m e s in your FIRST reference .
    • In later references use only the first author and add et al. (et al.="and others").
    • Six or More Authors:
    • For all citations list the first author mentioned, plus et al.
    • The field of conservation biology has developed in response to the accelerating rate at which species are being lost ( Purves , Orians , & Heller , 1999 ). Purves et al. specifically explore the consequences of human activities in relation to this acceleration.
    • [ first author additional authors ampersand date et al. ]
    • (Kennedy, Kennedy, & Muth, 2011)
  • Unknown Authors and Corporate/Organization Authors
    • Unknown Author:
    • Use the TITLE as part of the signal phrase or the first one or two words of the title that convey meaning in parentheses .
    • Book and report titles are italicized or underlined .
    • "Article" , "chapter" , "web page" titles are in quotation marks ("") .
    • A similar study was done of students learning to format research papers ( "Using APA , " 2001 ).
    • According to the study "Using APA: A Guide to College Usage" ( 2001 ) a similar study was done of students learning to format research papers.
    • Eastern mothers tend to teach their children social norms and actions when teaching language; whereas, Western mothers tend to focus on object names ( Culture and Language , 2011 , pp. 48-49 ).
    • [ article/chapter/web page title book/report title date
    • signal phrase page(s) ]
  • Block Quotes
    • Quotations longer than
        • three lines or
        • 40 words
          • Should be indented
          • Do not require quotation marks
          • Should be double-spaced
          • Followed by a citation
      • Further information on in-text citation is available at
      • Purdue University’s OWL Writing Lab
      • “ In-Text Citations: The Basics” page at:
      • http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/02/
  • Block Quotes
    • The second key tenet of post-structuralism concerns the very existence of the human
    • subject. Traditionally, individuals have been seen as coherent entities possessing
    • qualities, such as initiative and will, as noted by Bush (1987):
      • The poststructuralist self is seen to be incoherent, disunified, and in effect
      • “ decentered,” so that…a human being is described as, for example, a mere
      • conveyor of unconscious mainstream ideologies, or as simply a “site” in which
      • various cultural constructs and “discursive formations” created & sustained by
      • the structures of power in a given social environment play themselves out.
      • (p. 4)
    • The final characteristic of post-structuralism is an emphasis not on the writer
    • of texts but the reader. The traditional notion of a literary “work” that has some sort
    I NDENT author/date page number/location on web page quotation over 40 words or three lines (indented as a block)
  • Quotes (Additions and Omissions)
    • If you are omitting something from a quote use ellipses , . . . , to
    • mark the text that has been omitted. Middle of the sentence
    • omission use three ellipses; end of the sentence omission use three
    • ellipses plus the period.
    • Here is the entire quote:
    • During the war Paris seems to have had a secondary role: a good warrior but inferior to his brother Hector and to the Greek leaders whom he faced. Menelaus would have defeated Paris in single combat, but Aphrodite rescued him, and the war continued. Near the end of the war, Paris shot the arrow that, by Apollo's help, caused the death of the hero Achilles.
    • We want to quote the green portions, but not the yellow portions.
    • So,
    • During the war Paris seems to have had a secondary role: a good warrior but inferior to his brother Hector and to the Greek leaders whom he faced. . . . Near the end of the war, Paris shot the arrow that, by Apollo's help, caused the death of the hero Achilles.
  • Quotes (Additions and Omissions)
    • Sometimes when you take a quote out of its context , the
    • sentences and paragraphs that surround it, you need to
    • add additional words for clarity . If you add words to a quote
    • use brackets , [ ] , to show the words you have added.
    • EXAMPLE:
    • Peter Weiss (2003) observes that "examinations of bullet fragments [linked] the shootings" in the Washington, D.C., sniper case (23).
    • Here, the verb tense has changed from the original, "link",
    • which was a contemporary account of a crime. But by the
    • time of the essay this account is in the past.
    • (Adapted from Price, n.d.)
  • Quotes (Additions and Omissions)
    • If you add words to a quote use brackets , [ ] , to show the
    • words you have added.
    • EXAMPLE:
    • "In a most direct way, the Attorney General [John Ashcroft] had said that his critics were helping America's enemy; any questions the senators might have about his proposals had been preemptively labeled unpatriotic, even subversive" (Brooks, 2003, p. A5).
    • Who is the Attorney General?
    • In the original source it is clear; taken out of context it is not.
    • The information is added with brackets for clarity.
    • (Adapted from Price, n.d.)
  • References
      • Key questions before you begin :
      • To determine how to format the reference, ask:
      • Who wrote it?
      • What type of source is it?
      • (Kennedy, Kennedy & Muth, 2011).
      • All references mentioned in your paper (directly or in footnotes or endnotes) should be included in your References page .
      • The References should begin on a new page following the essay.
        • Always include the following information
        • about your sources:
          • Author Title Publisher
          • Date Page numbers (location for Internet)
  • References In general the format of Reference page citations is as follows: 1 st author 2 nd date 3 rd title of the book or article 4 th if needed title of magazine, newspaper, academic journal, Internet site 4 th or 5 th publisher and location (books) / issue and volume number (magazines and academic journals) / date of retrieval and internet address (Internet sites) 6 th if needed pages (magazines and books)
  • References: Basic Rules
    • Double space the reference page
    • Every line after the first should be indented 1.25 cm
    • (about 5 spaces) , like so:
    • Greenspan, A. (2002). Macroeconomic stability, financial
    • markets, & economic development . Retrieved
    • Oct 28, 2004, from http://www.federalreserve.gov/
    • List sources ALPHABETICALLY by authors' surnames
    • ( use the title of the source if there is no author ) in the
    • reference page (a, b, c order).
  • References: Basic Rules
    • Authors names are listed surname first , followed by
    • initials of the given names .
    • Since this is not the usual order in Western countries we
    • put a comma between the surname and given name initials . The
    • comma is not necessary in Eastern names , because the usual
    • order is unchanged .
    • Roland Barthes = Barthes , R.
    • Barthes , R. (1957). Mythologies . New York: Hill & Wang .
    • Liu Xiao Yan = Liu X.Y.
    • Liu X.Y. (2012). My Insane Husband. Shanghai: XTC Press.
    • More than one source with the same author name ? Then, list
    • those entries by date, earliest first . For example:
    • Barthes, R. ( 1957 ). Mythologies . New York: Hill & Wang.
    • Barthes, R. ( 1970 ). Empire of signs . New York: Hill & Wang.
    • Barthes, R. ( 1976 ). Alors la Chine? Paris: Bourgois.
    • Purdue OWL PDF: Capitalization rules p. 14
    • APA Style Resource Compendium: APA Reference Page Check List p. 50, APA Sample Entries p. 47
  • References: Basic Rules
    • Title rules:
      • Capitalize ALL major words in the titles of academic journals
    • J ournal of the A merican M edical A ssociation
    • A nnals of the A merican P sychological A ssociation
      • Titles of books, articles, Internet sites, chapters only have the FIRST WORD capitalized . With subtitles also capitalize the first word after the colon . Proper nouns should also be capitalized no matter where they occur in the title.
    • T he geography of thought
    • A tourist's guide to New York City
    • W ar and peace: A guide to Tolstoy 's masterpiece
    • I nterregnum: 1919-1940 (a chapter in an anthology)
      • Italicize or underline (italicization is the more modern way)
      • the titles of longer works (books and academic journals)
      • See the examples above.
      • DON'T put quote marks, italics, or underline shorter works
      • (journal articles, essays, etc.)
    • Anderson, J. (1996). Communication theory: Epistemological foundations. New York: Guilford.
    • Barthes, R. (1957). Mythologies . New York: Hill & Wang.
    • Barthes, R. (1970). Empire of signs. New York: Hill & Wang.
    • Barthes, R. (1976). Alors la Chine? Paris: Bourgois.
    • Brooks, P. & Schor, N. (2001). Roland Barthes: Twenty years after. The Yale Journal of
    • Criticism , 14 , 433-437.
    • Bush, H. (1995). Post-structuralism as theory and practice in the English classroom.
    • ERIC Digest , ED387794 , 1-7.
    • De Mente, B .L. (1997). NTC’s Dictionary of Japan’s cultural code words: The complete
    • guide to key words that express how the Japanese think, communicate, and
    • behave . Lincolnwood: NTC.
    • Goebel, R. (1993). Japan as western text: Roland Barthes, Richard Gordon Smith, and
    • Lafcadio Hearn. Comparative Literature Studies , 30 , 188-204.
    References
  • References: Newspapers, Magazines, Journals & the Internet
    • Greenspan, A. (2002). Macroeconomic stability, financial
    • markets, & economic development . Retrieved Oct 28,
    • 2004, from http://www.federalreserve.gov/boarddocs/
    • speeches.
    • Pfaff, W. (1995). A new colonialism? Foreign Affairs, 81 ,
    • 27-54 .
    • Farrell, C. (2004). Capitalism’s savior. Business Week,
    • 3878 , 20.
  • Citations: Newspapers, Magazines, Journals & the Internet
    • Schwartz, J. (1993, September 30). Obesity affects social
    • status. The Washington Post, pp. A1, A4.
    • Pogue, P. & Lee, V. (1999). Providing public access to the
    • shore: The role of coastal zone management programs .
    • Coastal Management , 27 , 219-237.
  • Citations with Missing Data: Newspapers, Magazines, Journals & the Internet
    • Schools of business: The top schools. (2006). U.S. News &
    • World Report , 140 , 60.
    • Roland Barthes (1915-1980) . (2002). Retrieved June 13, 2003,
    • from http://www.kirijasto.sci.fi/rabrtes.html .
    • Cycles and commitment. (2004) . Economist , 45 , 373 .
    • Showcasing China’s book industry to the world. (2007, Autumn).
    • That’s Shanghai , 18 .
    • Roland Barthes theories . Retrieved June 13, 2003,
    • from h ttp:// www.bartheinstitute.org/ ~tuttle/theory.html .
  • References: Basic Rules
    • Checklist for APA Style:
      • Have you started each entry with the appropriate
      • pattern for the author's name [ surname first, then initials ]?
      • Have you left spaces between the initials for each name?
      • [MacTavish, J. B. ]
      • Have you used "&" not "and," to add the last coauthor's name ?
        • [MacTavish, J. B. & Liu X.Y.]
      • Have you included the date in each entry?
      • Have you followed the sample pattern for the type of
      • source you have used?
      • [ See the various APA style references for patterns on how to format various types of sources ].
      • Checklist taken directly from Kennedy, Kennedy, & Muth, 2011
  • References: Basic Rules
    • Checklist for APA Style:
      • Have you used capitals and italics correctly for the various titles in your entries?
      • Have you included the conventional punctuation— periods, commas, colons, parentheses —in your entry?
      • Have you accurately recorded the name of the author title, publisher, and so on ? Have you checked the accuracy of dates, pages, and other numbers ?
      • [no misspellings or misinformation]
      • Have you correctly typed or pasted in the [website URL, the digital object identifier (DOI) ] of an electronic source?
      • Have you split a long URL before a period or another punctuation mark or following a slash? Have you ended an entry without adding a final period after [an URL or DOI]?
      • Checklist taken directly from Kennedy, Kennedy, & Muth, 2011
  • References: Basic Rules
    • Checklist for APA Style:
      • Have you arranged the entries in alphabetical order [and date order]?
      • Cameron, L. T. (1998). At the gates. Philadelphia: Renford.
      • Cameron, L.T. (2002). Milkshakes are free. New York: Harper-
      • Collins.
      • Cameron, M. & Malik, T. The oeuvre of Lawrence Cameron.
      • Literary Theory, 50, 65-82.
      • Have you checked your final list of references against your text citations so that every source appears in both places ?
      • Checklist taken directly from Kennedy, Kennedy, & Muth, 2011
  • For Questions and More Information
    • Always consult with your teacher if you have any questions.
    • Reference a style guide
      • Chicago Manual of Style
      • The Elements of Style
    • Reference a Publication Manual
      • MLA (Used for English classes at SUFE)
    • Consult one of the numerous websites of universities and
    • other organizations:
    • OWL APA Formatting and Style Guide from Purdue University:
    • http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/
  • Practice Reference Answers #1
    • Bernstein, M. (2002). 10 tips on writing the living
    • web. A List Apart: For People Who Make
    • Websites, 149 . Retrieved from http://
    • www.alistapart.com/articles/writeliving
  • Practice Reference Answers #2
    • Calfee, R. C., & Valencia, R. R. (1991). APA guide to
    • preparing manuscripts for journal publication.
    • Washington, DC: American Psychological
    • Association.
  • Practice Reference Answers #3
    • Cummings, J. N., Butler, B., & Kraut, R. (2002). The
    • quality of online social relationships.
    • Communications of the ACM, 45 (7), 103-108 .
  • Practice Reference Answers #4
    • Barthes, R. (1970). Empire of signs . New York:
    • Hill & Wang.
  • Practice Reference Answers #5
    • Parker-Pope, T. (2008, May 6). Psychiatry
    • handbook linked to drug industry. The New York
    • Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com.
  • Practice Reference Answers #6
    • De Huff, E. W. (2010). Taytay’s tales: Traditional
    • Pueblo Indian tales. Retrieved from http://
    • digital.library.upenn.edu/women/dehuff/taytay/

    • taytay.html
  • Practice Reference Answers #7
    • Berndt, T. J. (1981). Effects of friendship on
    • prosocial intentions and behavior. Child
    • Development, 52, 636-643 .
  • Practice Reference Answers #8
    • Funk, R. & Kolln, M. (1998). Understanding English
    • grammar . Needham, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
  • Midterm Homework #4
    • Create an APA-style reference page
    • with:
            • at least 5 of your paper’s sources
            • (for the final you will need to include all of your sources)
            • page should be typed, double-spaced
            • follow APA format
            • (indent, alphabetize, APA style entries)
    • DUE next week at the beginning of class
  • Midterm Homework #4
    • Create an APA-style reference page
    • with:
            • at least 5 of your paper’s sources
            • (for the final you will need to include all of your sources)
            • page should be typed, double-spaced
            • follow APA format
            • (indent, alphabetize, APA style entries)
    • DUE next week at the beginning of class
  • Midterm Homework #4
    • Your page should look like this:
  • Creating a Reference Page: The Easy Way
    • http://citationcenter.net/
  • End of the Semester Schedule
    • Next Week, Tuesday, June 1 st:
    • Midterm 4 APA reference page due
    • Draft essays returned
    • Tuesday, June 8 th : Final essays due
    • Midterm 4 APA reference page returned
    • LAST CLASS: Sunday, June 13 th
    • Final essay reference page due