The development of science

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  • The Development of Science
    It’s about 400 years old
    It’s application of human thought, only about 150 years old
  • The development of science

    1. 1. The Development ofThe Development of ScienceScience Science is only about 400 yearsScience is only about 400 years old and itold and it’s application to human’s application to human thought is about 150 years oldthought is about 150 years old James MulloolyJames Mullooly
    2. 2. Empiricist FoundationsEmpiricist Foundations in 4in 4thth cen. BCcen. BC Aristotle (b. 384 BC) started theAristotle (b. 384 BC) started the empirical traditionempirical tradition Titus Lucretius Carus (94 BC)Titus Lucretius Carus (94 BC) wrote,wrote, The Nature of ThingsThe Nature of Things where he made a clearwhere he made a clear argument for empiricism.argument for empiricism.
    3. 3. Needs for Science inNeeds for Science in the 15th cen.the 15th cen. 1400s – European1400s – European Adventurers on the highAdventurers on the high seas motivated a need forseas motivated a need for tools (compass and sextant)tools (compass and sextant) andand technologies (technologies (systematicsystematic observations)observations) to make money and travel.to make money and travel. Motivates increased literacy and scientific thinking
    4. 4. ““Pressing” Needs in the 15th cen.Pressing” Needs in the 15th cen. By the end of theBy the end of the 1400s, all cities1400s, all cities had a presshad a press – 1517 Protestant1517 Protestant ReformationReformation Motivates increased literacy and scientific thinking 14551455 Gutenberg's PressGutenberg's Press
    5. 5. Systematic EmpiricismSystematic Empiricism in the 16in the 16thth cen.cen. Galileo GalileiGalileo Galilei (b. 1564) refuted(b. 1564) refuted the Ptolemaic geocentric (earththe Ptolemaic geocentric (earth centered) theory of the heavens.centered) theory of the heavens. Galileo developed the practice ofGalileo developed the practice of the experimentthe experiment and empiricaland empirical procedures.procedures.
    6. 6. Systematic RationalismSystematic Rationalism in the 16in the 16thth cen.cen. René DescartesRené Descartes (b. 1596)(b. 1596) wrote of this inwrote of this in Discourse onDiscourse on MethodMethod Francis BaconFrancis Bacon (b. 1561)(b. 1561) practiced induction and directpracticed induction and direct observation.observation.
    7. 7. ““Rational Empiricism”Rational Empiricism” in the 17in the 17thth cen.cen. Isaac Newton (b. 1643)–Isaac Newton (b. 1643)– start of the scientificstart of the scientific revolution at Cambridge,revolution at Cambridge, via the invention ofvia the invention of “the Calculus”.“the Calculus”. Developed theDeveloped the Hypothetico-DeductiveHypothetico-Deductive model.model.
    8. 8. Hypothetico-Deductive modelHypothetico-Deductive model CombinedCombined Empirical observation (GalileoEmpirical observation (Galileo’s Experiment)’s Experiment) withwith Deduction (Cartesian Reason)Deduction (Cartesian Reason) to maketo make Science as we know it today.Science as we know it today. Now: It does not matter where you get your ideas fromNow: It does not matter where you get your ideas from – DescartesDescartes’ ideas or Galileo’s observations’ ideas or Galileo’s observations Just that you have an idea and that you test it rigorously.Just that you have an idea and that you test it rigorously.
    9. 9. Science of Human Behavior?Science of Human Behavior? John Locke (1632) Friend ofJohn Locke (1632) Friend of NewtonNewton – He said that NewtonHe said that Newton’s’s observations of the stars could beobservations of the stars could be applied to humans.applied to humans. – But this was not done until overBut this was not done until over 100 years later.100 years later.
    10. 10. Science of the Social August Comte (b. 1798) invented the word sociology

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