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  • 1. Importance and Uses of Whale Vocalization Why use vocals and not the other senses?
  • 2.  Physical Needs Social Needs Identity Needs Practical Goals All in all to express ourselvesThe Need for Communication
  • 3.  Sight + Smell not effective underwater Sound is the key Large number of whale species use “sounds” to communicate  Adapted over time Produce large array of clicks, whistles, yells  Produce from larynx and phonic lips Put together = Whale “songs”Primary Whale Communication
  • 4.  Sight irrelevant underwater Vocalization important Other ways to attract mates:  Use of tail/flippers  Chasing  Male-male competition Sing “songs”  Humpback whale song is the most famous Oleson et al; 2007  Primary use -> during mating season  Sung by males  Blue whale songs increase during mating season Sexual Selection
  • 5.  Echolocation  Prey -> foraging  Predators  Each other Sung during migration  Keep groups of whales together  Blue, Fin, Toothed, Humpback whales  Ward off predatorsOther Uses
  • 6.  Regional acoustic differences  Blue, orca, sperm, humpback Interspecies Variation 9 different calls  4 in Pacific, 3 in Indian, 1 in Southern and 1 in Atlantic ocean Population boundaries Assess:  Population structure  Migration routes  Habitats  Behaviours  Evolutionary processesVocalization differences
  • 7.  Human interference Initially stop calling  Increase physical activity  Nudging, rubbing, chasing Adaptations  Increase frequency + amplitude  Increase call duration  Increase number of calls  Shifting times Clark; 2010 Foote et al; 2004Anthropogenic interference
  • 8.  Vocalization useful underwater  Sexual selection Various other purposes  Echolocation  Migration Regional acoustic differences Population boundaries EVOLUTION OF VOCALIZATION IS USEINFUL IN WHALESConclusion
  • 9. THANK YOU :D

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