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REDD+ and Wetlands

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  • 1. research for a sustainable futureREDD+ and wetlands: wetland human interactions and the need for robust science Max Finlayson Institute for Land, Water & Society Charles Sturt University, Australia Institute for Land, Water and Society
  • 2. research for a sustainable future REDD = Reducing Emissions fromDeforestation and Forest DegradationUnited Nations Framework Convention for Climate Change UNFCCCAlexander et al 2011. Restoration Ecology 19, 683-689. Institute for Land, Water and Society
  • 3. Forested wetlands Institute for Land, Water and Society
  • 4. Forested wetlands Institute for Land, Water and Society
  • 5. DeforestationSerious environmental problem in recenttimes - importance of tropical forests ingreenhouse effect and conservation1990-2005 forest area decreased by 13 millionhectares per year (FAO 2006) with majorconsequences for climate and biodiversityNow the second leading cause of greenhousegas emissions (after industrialisation) Institute for Land, Water and Society
  • 6. REDDIntroduced in 2005 at COP11 of UNFCCC toestablish a funding mechanism for reducingcarbon emissions and protecting forestsFund-based or market-based approach toassist developing countries meet emissionsobligations under the Clean DevelopmentMechanism - contribution of conservation,afforestation, and reforestation Institute for Land, Water and Society
  • 7. REDD Policy2007: Bali Action Plan - REDD expanded toinclude sustainable management of forestsand enhancement of forest carbon stocks= REDD+2008: UN-REDD / World Bank ForestCarbon Partnership Facility established tohelp developing countries build capacity,broaden stakeholder engagement, andprovide support for REDD+ readiness Institute for Land, Water and Society
  • 8. 2010 UNFCCCalmost unanimous agreement to crystallizethe REDD+ language to embrace- policy approaches and incentives oneducing emissions from deforestation andforest degradationand the role of conservation, sustainablemanagement of forests and enhancementof forest carbon stocks Institute for Land, Water and Society
  • 9. Dissent - opposition to using a market-basedapproach (carbon credits) to finance REDD+,delayed decision; continuing reliance onbilateral and multilateral funding – POLICYISSUE2008 & 2012 - Ramsar Convention – partiesexpect UNFCCC to take the lead on REDDeven when affecting forested wetlands –ANOTHER POLICY ISSUE Institute for Land, Water and Society
  • 10. 2010 Cancun AgreementsCreation of a Green Climate Fund andguidance/safeguards for potential REDD+donors/recipients during the “fast-startfinance” period post-2012 climate changeagreementsUntil financing & monitoring mechanismshave been agreed all potential REDD+projects will continue to remain outside theUNFCCC Institute for Land, Water and Society
  • 11. GoalPrimary goals of REDD+ are to reduceemissions and sequester carbon inforests, the 2010 Agreements includeactivities that also provide multiple co-benefits to biodiversity, ecosystemfunctions, and local and indigenouscommunities Institute for Land, Water and Society
  • 12. Implications for ForestedWetlandsSustainable management and enhancementof carbon stocks in forested wetlands (suchas mangrove, peatland, and bottomlandforests) could make relatively largecontributions to global emission reductionsin the long-term. Institute for Land, Water and Society
  • 13. Although only a small percentage of theworld’s forests, they are some of the mostproductive in terms of carbon storage as aresult of high above-ground biomass andcapacity to store carbon below-ground - above-ground biomass in mangroves is247.4t ha-1 (similar to tropical forests) whilecarbon burial averages 181.3 gC m-2 year-1 or atotal of 29.0 TgC year-1 (Alongi 2009). Institute for Land, Water and Society
  • 14. Amount of long-term carbon storagesuggests that REDD+ funding forconservation, management, andrestoration activities in forested wetlandscould reduce emissions and increaseglobal carbon storage, perhaps even morethan upland forests on a per hectarebasis. Institute for Land, Water and Society
  • 15. Tangible co-benefits of revitalizedmangrove forests extend to local andindigenous communities that depend ontheir goods and services (e.g. peat,timber, fisheries, water, storm/climateprotection? Institute for Land, Water and Society
  • 16. Future ChallengesIn practice, multiple objectives of REDD+(carbon, biodiversity, ecosystems, andcommunities) may not always besynergistic or complementary, and theremay be significant trade-offs.Lack of good governance is probablysingle greatest factor inhibiting theseseemingly natural synergies. Institute for Land, Water and Society
  • 17. social preferences when translated intoaction on the ground often fail to recognizethe connection between biodiversity,ecosystem services, and sustainabilitymarginalization and limited land tenurerights of local and indigenous communitiescan reduce stakeholder involvement andaccess to benefits Institute for Land, Water and Society
  • 18. Measuring, Reporting& VerificationTo be eligible for funding REDD+ activitiesneed to be cost-effective, would beotherwise unfunded, and able to verify long-term carbon sequestrationTechnical support needed for designing andimplementing REDD+ projects; carbon,biodiversity, ecosystem, and socio-economic indicators. Institute for Land, Water and Society
  • 19. Benefits to Local andIndigenous CommunitiesHow to safeguard the rights and land tenureof local and indigenous communities andacquire full participation as stakeholders inREDD+ activities…..Clear land tenure could be a component ofREDD+ strategies or action plans to reduceemissions and provide multiple co-benefitsto biodiversity, ecosystems, communities. Institute for Land, Water and Society
  • 20. The Convention on BiologicalDiversitySeeking information on safeguards forbiodiversity, including indicators to assessthe contribution of REDD+ to achievingobjectives of the Convention, and to assesspotential approaches to monitor impacts onbiodiversity from REDD+ and otherecosystem-based activities for climatechange mitigation. Institute for Land, Water and Society
  • 21. Summary - policyREDD+ has the potential to providefunding for forest restoration thatcontributes to climate change mitigation,sustainable management, and carbonstock enhancement.Has expanded beyond activities that affectcarbon budgets to include those thatenhance ecosystem services and deliverbenefits to biodiversity and communities. Institute for Land, Water and Society
  • 22. Summary - sciencePractical tools and guidance are requiredfor implementing restoration that cansequester carbon and improve theintegrity and resilience of forestecosystems, and mechanisms are neededto ensure that funding by internationaldonors reaches the communities andindividual Institute for Land, Water and Society
  • 23. Thank you Institute for Land, Water and Society

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