Modalities for REDD+Reference Levels:Technical and Procedural Issues9 June 2011 SBSTA Side EventPrepared forThe Government...
Authors                   Arild Angelsen            Norwegian University of Life Sciences &                          CIFOR...
AcknowledgmentsPeter Aarup Iversen      Florence Daviet          Michael ObersteinerMarco Albani             Manuel Estrad...
Goals of the Report Describe the issues that UNFCCC negotiators need to address to develop modalities for REDD+ Reference ...
What are Modalities?  A set of requirements included in a decision  of the COP formulating rules, standards, or  terms of ...
Why Reference Levels Matter (1)Reference Levels/Reference Emission Levelsestablish business-as-usual (BAU) baselines again...
Why Reference Levels Matter (2)              Reference Levels/Reference Emission Levels              are also needed to de...
PrinciplesFor the Development   For the RLs Submittedof RL Modalities      for Adoption Environmental         Objectivity ...
Technical Issues Scope of REDD+ Historic Emissions and Removals  • Reference emission levels and forest reference    level...
Scope of REDD+ The full scope of REDD+ is covered by the three categories in the IPCC Good Practice Guidance framework • F...
Historic Emissions and Removals  Existing data in many countries are of limited value,  and new data will need to be colle...
Examples of Needed Data                                                   4. Identify drivers of forest                   ...
National CircumstancesForest Transition Stage      Drivers• Potential indicators:      • Commodity prices  deforestation t...
Linking RLs to Results-Based Finance Should the Compensation Baseline (CB) be set equal to, or adjusted from, BAU? Conside...
Procedural Issues UNFCCC Adoption of RLs Temporal Validity of RLs Subnational RLs Related Processes under the UNFCCC and K...
UNFCCC Adoption of RLs RLs could be adopted through one of several alternative procedural approaches, including: • A singl...
Temporal Validity of RLs RLs may be: •   Re-negotiated within a specific timeframe •   Re-submitted for review and adjustm...
Subnational RLsUnder an international REDD+ mechanism,Parties would qualify for international results-based support only o...
Related Processes Under the UNFCCCand Kyoto Protocol LULUCF • Cancun Agreements – an annex lists reference   levels for es...
Potential Outline for REDD+ RL Modalities:A Suggestion for SBSTA  Principles  Guidelines on RL Development  Data Submissio...
Next Items on the Agenda 16:40 – Panel Commentators 17:10 – Audience Discussion and Q&A 18:00 – Adjourn to Reception      ...
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Pdf final reference levels slide deck bonn sbsta meeting june 2011

  1. 1. Modalities for REDD+Reference Levels:Technical and Procedural Issues9 June 2011 SBSTA Side EventPrepared forThe Government of Norway
  2. 2. Authors Arild Angelsen Norwegian University of Life Sciences & CIFOR Doug Boucher (Co-Coordinator) Union of Concerned Scientists Sandra Brown Winrock International Valérie Merckx European Forest Institute Charlotte Streck (Co-Coordinator) Climate Focus Daniel Zarin (Project Leader) Climate and Land Use Alliance 2
  3. 3. AcknowledgmentsPeter Aarup Iversen Florence Daviet Michael ObersteinerMarco Albani Manuel Estrada Porrua Lydia OlanderAlfred Gichu Mochammad Farhan Helmy Erika OordKen Andrasko Jose Carlos Fernandez Yaw OsafoKemen Austin Horst Freiberg Jim PenmanTasso Azevedo Peter Graham Per F I PharoD James Baker Nora Greenglass Audun RoslandGirma Balcha Bronson Griscom Maria Sanz SanchezWilliam Boyd Pablo Gutman Sebastian ScholzAndrea Cattaneo Promode Kant Osvaldo Stella MartinsBas Clabbers Jagdish Kishwan Bernardo StrassburgTim Clairs Antonio LaViña Doddy Surachman SukadriSteve Cornelius Donna Lee Naomi SwickardPham Manh Cuong Cyril Loisel Victoria Tauli-CorpuzAndreas Dahl-Jørgensen Fabien Monteils Natalie Unterstell Daniel Nepstad Michael Wolosin 3
  4. 4. Goals of the Report Describe the issues that UNFCCC negotiators need to address to develop modalities for REDD+ Reference Levels and Reference Emissions Levels Inform and support the SBSTA process that needs to respond to the COP-16 request for these modalities to be ready for COP-17 Identify useful follow-up to this report, between July and November. 4
  5. 5. What are Modalities? A set of requirements included in a decision of the COP formulating rules, standards, or terms of reference that help operationalize mechanisms or frameworks established under the Convention. 5
  6. 6. Why Reference Levels Matter (1)Reference Levels/Reference Emission Levelsestablish business-as-usual (BAU) baselines againstwhich actual emissions are compared.• We refer to these as “RLs”• Emission reductions are estimated as the difference between RLs and actual emissions.• RLs underpin the credibility of REDD+• The process of establishing RLs can inform development and implementation of REDD+ policies 6
  7. 7. Why Reference Levels Matter (2) Reference Levels/Reference Emission Levels are also needed to determine the eligibility of UNFCCC Parties for international, results- based support for REDD+, and to calculate that support on the basis of measured, reported, and verified emission reductions. • We refer to this as the “compensation baseline” (CB).* • CBs underpin the credibility of REDD+ financing. • CBs influence the potential effectiveness, efficiency and equity of REDD+ funds.*Formerly referred to as crediting baseline 7
  8. 8. PrinciplesFor the Development For the RLs Submittedof RL Modalities for Adoption Environmental Objectivity Integrity Empirical Basis Access Transparency Simplicity Independence 8
  9. 9. Technical Issues Scope of REDD+ Historic Emissions and Removals • Reference emission levels and forest reference levels should be developed transparently taking into account historic data, and adjusted for national circumstances (Decision 4/CP15, para 7) Adjusting for National Circumstances Linking RLs to Results Based Finance 9
  10. 10. Scope of REDD+ The full scope of REDD+ is covered by the three categories in the IPCC Good Practice Guidance framework • Forests converted to other lands o Deforestation • Forests remaining as forests o Forest degradation o Conservation of forest carbon stocks* o Sustainable management of forests o Enhancement of forest carbon stocks in existing forests • Other lands converted to forests o Enhancement of carbon stocks through A/R? 10
  11. 11. Historic Emissions and Removals Existing data in many countries are of limited value, and new data will need to be collected and compiled Steps and data requirements are relevant at subnational to national scale—key step is to establish a set of national standards Countries could opt to work in a stepwise fashion: • On selected states/provinces where change in forest cover historically high, or • On selected activity such as deforestation where national capacity exists and satellite imagery is freely available Approaches and data should be consistent with future monitoring system 11
  12. 12. Examples of Needed Data 4. Identify drivers of forest 2. Select which cover change1. Definition of pools to includeForest- determineswhich lands to include 15% cover 3. Measures of C stocks 5. Interpret 30% cover remote sensing imagery 12
  13. 13. National CircumstancesForest Transition Stage Drivers• Potential indicators: • Commodity prices deforestation trends, Development Plans forest cover, GDP/capita and Policies • May affect future rates of forest conversion • Integrate REDD+ into national policies • Inflated RL? 13
  14. 14. Linking RLs to Results-Based Finance Should the Compensation Baseline (CB) be set equal to, or adjusted from, BAU? Considerations relevant to the environmental integrity of a REDD mechanism: • Additionality: Definition and Scale • Effectiveness and Efficiency • Equity • Avoiding International Leakage 14
  15. 15. Procedural Issues UNFCCC Adoption of RLs Temporal Validity of RLs Subnational RLs Related Processes under the UNFCCC and Kyoto Protocol 15
  16. 16. UNFCCC Adoption of RLs RLs could be adopted through one of several alternative procedural approaches, including: • A single-undertaking top-down process • A country-driven sequential process • Hybrid process: political decision at the international level and consolidation with country submissions 16
  17. 17. Temporal Validity of RLs RLs may be: • Re-negotiated within a specific timeframe • Re-submitted for review and adjustment • Automatically revised • Reviewed every X number of years e.g. in the context of national communications 17
  18. 18. Subnational RLsUnder an international REDD+ mechanism,Parties would qualify for international results-based support only on the basis of adoptednational RLs. Where Parties developsubnational RLs, they would constitute a steptoward adopting national RLs. 18
  19. 19. Related Processes Under the UNFCCCand Kyoto Protocol LULUCF • Cancun Agreements – an annex lists reference levels for estimating emissions from forest management by developed country Parties in a possible second commitment period. Values subject to review CDM • If ‘enhancement of carbon stocks’ is clarified to include A/R of lands not currently forested, then rules would be needed on how to integrate existing and possibly future CDM project activities in broader RLs 19
  20. 20. Potential Outline for REDD+ RL Modalities:A Suggestion for SBSTA Principles Guidelines on RL Development Data Submission Notification of Preliminary RLs International Adoption of Final RLs Data Administration 20
  21. 21. Next Items on the Agenda 16:40 – Panel Commentators 17:10 – Audience Discussion and Q&A 18:00 – Adjourn to Reception www.redd-oar.org 21

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