Re-envisioning REDD+:Gender, Forest Governance and REDD+ in Asia Jeannette Gurung and Abidah Setyowati WOCAN
REDD+ Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation to create incentives for developing countries to reduce GHG and invest in low carbon paths to sustainable development REDD+ goes beyond, to include role of conservation, SFM Performance-based payments to forest owners and users Should be possible for poor forest dependent community members to gain multiple benefits
If designed and implemented well…Significant co-benefits of REDD+ : Ensure secure tenure Reduce poverty Sustainable livelihood biodiversity conservation climate change adaptation
Risks to community members Lack of secure rights and tenure Restrictions on forest use, in forests managed for conservation, carbon sequestration Unequal benefit sharing mechanisms Focus on technical aspects
What is Missing?
Gender Assessment in Cambodia,Vietnam, Indonesia, Nepal1. What are women’s roles in forest management?2. How have gender issues been incorporated in REDD+ projects?3. What constraints affect gender integration into REDD+?4. Recommendations for REDD+ and Sustainable Landscapes program
Women’s Potential Contribution toREDD+ Primary users and managers of forests Local knowledge High dependence on NTFPs for livelihoods Roles in forest protection, not only harvesting
Gender Integration in REDD+ Little evidence that institutions implementing REDD+ or PES projects have incorporated gender in systematic and significant ways; No specific recognition of women as a stakeholder group that will be affected by REDD+ differently than men;
Women and Land Tenure in REDD+ Importance of secure tenure in REDD+ If REDD+ brings about compliance with international conventions on women’s rights (i.e. CEDAW), could positively affect women through payments and co- benefits, including land rights. But if women’s rights are ignored, REDD could result in women’s restricted access to forests and NTFPs, increasing time and distance to collect fuel wood, food, other products and further marginalizing them; Unsecure tenure rights for women; Few countries provide joint rights to community forest user group membership, or formal rights needed for revenue sharing;
Benefit Sharing Mechanism Assumptions that women will benefit automatically from community-focused activities. Many cases show elite and male capture of benefits due to women lack of access to decision making processes; Rights to benefit sharing often determined by tenure rights;
Participation Low levels of ‘meaningful’ participation by women in forest governance bodies as well as REDD+ decision making processes at local, national and global level.
Nepal Case Chitwan District Dolakha District 35 Women 30 80 Men Women 25 70 16 Men 60 39 20 50 15 2 40 10 16 30 14 5 1 1 20 36 4 4 4 0 10 2 2 11 Advisory Monitoring REDD Network REDD Network 3 3 0 Committee Committee Secretariat Advisory Monitoring REDD Network REDD Network Committee Committee Secretariat
Barriers to participation Illiteracy: lack of access to education; Limited time and mobility: Work burdens of women that allow little time to participate in capacity building activities, and opportunities to voice their concerns and perspectives; Exclusion: lack of recognition of roles, responsibilities and rights of women in forest management.
Institutional ‘gender blindness’ Lack of awareness of gender issues within forestry institutions; Institutional biases that determine ‘appropriate’ roles for women, based on socio-cultural norms; Few women professionals to challenge these norms results in a failure to recognize and legitimate women’s roles, knowledge and contributions to forest management.
Leadership Perception that women cannot lead, based on low education levels; No activities to strengthen women’s leadership in forest and REDD+ governance;
Despite that concerns… Women champions exists in variety of levels; Women networks can be powerful to change the situation
Recommendations Incorporate gender perspective in the project design and implementation; Provide capacity building for women and space for women’s voice; Ensuring secured tenure for women; Strengthen women’s organizations/self help groups to provide them with skills and knowledge; Develop benefit distribution systems that recognize and reward women’s contributions to forest management; Promote technologies that reduce women’s work loads while promoting conservation increasing men’s supports for women participation and leadership in REDD+.
Concluding Remarks Women’s unsecured tenure bring a lot of implications Neglect of women’s rights in climate change policies and initiative is problematic;