UNDERSTANDING STRUCTURESAND MECHANISMS- FLIGHT a review
Air is a gas and also is a fluid.It takes up space and fills the shape of thecontainer it is placed in. Know thisWe demonstrated this with the two cups, one filled with air theother with water. We then transferred the air from one cupinto the other, displacing the water.Air can exert a force when compressed remember when someone brokeThe syringe?
Know this Air exerts pressure equally in all directions (unless an external force affects it). This pressure is measured in atmospheres. One atmosphere is equal to 1 kg per square cm or 14.7 pounds per square inch at sea level on Earth.The blue bar representsOne atmosphere
Bernoulli’s Principle:When you increase the speed of air over asmooth, hard, curved surface, you lower the pressure andgenerate lift. Aerofoil or air foil Know this
There are 4 forces that act on an aircraft:GRAVITY(weight/mass)- the attraction between the aircraft andthe centre of the Earth.LIFT-upward force counteracting the pull of gravity and producedby the interaction of the wing and the air.THRUST-forward motion of the aircraft produced by some actionsuch as a propeller spinning, a jet or rocket shooting gases out of itstail, or even a hand throwing the aircraft.DRAG-resistance of the air to an object moving through it. Know this. Be able to explain and label a diagram gravity
Know the following Parts of the airplane: Fuselage, rudder, ailerons, Elevators and how they affect the control of an airplane.FuselageThe body of the plane
Flight without wings Know thisAll airplane designs depend on wings to provide lift.Obviously hot air balloons and lighter than air ships (blimpsor zeppelins) produce lift by trapping gases which areless dense than the surrounding air in a container (nylon balloon)And they float in our atmosphere.The problem with hot air balloons is that there is nocontrol over the direction that the balloon travels. It goeswhere the wind takes it.Blimps have a membrane filled with helium and has a gondola(a basket) with a motor attached to guide it to where you want to go.At one time they were filled with hydrogen (a highly flammable gas)But there was always the danger of this happening
Rockets and missiles do not producelift with wings, they counter the pull of gravity by Knowpure thrust. this The compressed air in the bottle forces the water through a nozzle (bottle neck) which produces the thrust required to accelerate the bottle vertically upwards.
Some Famous Firsts in Flight•400 BCE Chinese invent the first kites•1783 the Montgolfier brothers invent the Knowfirst hot air balloon two•1903 the Wright brothers become the firstto successfully fly an engine poweredairplane•1927 Charles Lindbergh makes the firstsolo non stop flight across the Atlanticocean•1932 Amelia Earhart is the first woman tofly solo non stop across the Atlantic ocean•1961 Yuri Gagarin is the first human to flyinto space•1976 the Concorde is the first supersonic(faster than sound) passenger jet•2005 Airbus A380 the world’s largestcommercial aircraft ,carrying almost 900people, completes its first flight
What are some of the Benefits and Costs ofAviation technology for society and the environmentThe speed and ease of air travel allow quick transportation of organs forlifesaving transplants, quick transportation of injured patients tohospitals, and trips for business and pleasure. However, air travel alsoincreases therisk of spreading infectious diseases and creates noise and air pollution.The use of technology for military use allows for Search and rescue, peacekeeping, law enforcement but also provides the ability to be used for waragainst people with the ability to cause mass destructionCrop dusting from planes allows chemicals to be spread quickly overlarge crop areas, which is critical to pest control and crop protection.However, the planes cannot control perfectly where the chemicals may go, sothe chemicals may spread where they are not wanted affecting plant andwildlife. Explain one of the pros and one of the cons of flight from this list or give one of your own