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    • About the pagination of this eBookDue to the unique page numbering scheme of this book, theelectronic pagination of the eBook does not match the paginationof the printed version. To navigate the text, please use theelectronic Table of Contents that appears alongside the eBook orthe Search function.For citation purposes, use the page numbers that appear in the text.
    • ROCKS AND MINERALSBritannica Illustrated Science Library Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Chicago ■ London ■ New Delhi ■ Paris ■ Seoul ■ Sydney ■ Taipei ■ Tokyo
    • Britannica IllustratedScience Library© 2008 Editorial Sol 90All rights reserved.Idea and Concept of This Work: Editorial Sol 90Project Management: Fabián CassanPhoto Credits: Corbis, ESA, Getty Images, Graphic News,NASA, National Geographic, Science Photo LibraryIllustrators: Guido Arroyo, Pablo Aschei, Gustavo J. Caironi,Hernán Cañellas, Leonardo César, José Luis Corsetti, VaninaFarías, Joana Garrido, Celina Hilbert, Isidro López, DiegoMartín, Jorge Martínez, Marco Menco, Ala de Mosca, DiegoMourelos, Eduardo Pérez, Javier Pérez, Ariel Piroyansky, ArielRoldán, Marcel Socías, Néstor Taylor, Trebol Animation, JuanVenegas, Coralia Vignau, 3DN, 3DOM studio, Jorge Ivanovich,Fernando Ramallo, Constanza Vicco, Diego MourelosComposition and Pre-press Services: Editorial Sol 90Translation Services and Index: Publication Services, Inc.Portions © 2008 Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.Encyclopædia Britannica, Britannica, and the thistle logo areregistered trademarks of Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.Britannica Illustrated Science Library Staff Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.Editorial Jacob E. Safra, Chairman of the BoardMichael Levy, Executive Editor, Core EditorialJohn Rafferty, Associate Editor, Earth Sciences Jorge Aguilar-Cauz, PresidentWilliam L. Hosch, Associate Editor, Mathematics and Computers Michael Ross, Senior Vice President, Corporate DevelopmentKara Rogers, Associate Editor, Life SciencesRob Curley, Senior Editor, Science and Technology Dale H. Hoiberg, Senior Vice President and EditorDavid Hayes, Special Projects Editor Marsha Mackenzie, Director of ProductionArt and CompositionSteven N. Kapusta, DirectorCarol A. Gaines, Composition SupervisorChristine McCabe, Senior Illustrator International Standard Book Number (set): 978-1-59339-797-5Media Acquisition International Standard Book Number (volume):Kathy Nakamura, Manager 978-1-59339-799-9 Britannica Illustrated Science Library:Copy Department Rocks and Minerals 2008Sylvia Wallace, DirectorJulian Ronning, Supervisor Printed in ChinaInformation Management and RetrievalSheila Vasich, Information ArchitectProduction ControlMarilyn L. BartonManufacturingKim Gerber, Director www.britannica.com
    • Rocks and Minerals
    • Contents PHOTOGRAPH ON PAGE 1 A stone with a blue opal in its center is a product of time, since it forms over millions of years.Dynamics ofthe Earths CrustPage 6MineralsPage 18Formation andTransformationof RocksPage 40Classes of RocksPage 60Use of Rocksand MineralsPage 76
    • THE MONKS HOUSE This orthodox monk lives in a volcanic cave, very close to the 11 Christian churches located in the Ethiopian town of Lalibela. thing is that there will be rocks. Only stones will remain, and their chemical composition, shape, and texture will provide clues about previous geological events and about what the Earths surface was like in the past. In the pages of this book, illustrated with stunning images, you will find invaluable information about the language of rocks and natural forces inMemory of silent witnesses to the cataclysms our planet has experienced. They know the cold of the glacial era, the intense heat of general. You will also learn to identify the most important minerals, know their physical and chemical properties, andthe Planet the Earths interior, and the fury of the oceans. They store much information about how external agents, such as wind, discover the environments in which they form. rain, ice, and temperature changes, have id you know that the Earths crustR ocks, like airplane flight recorders, store in their interior very useful information about what has been altering the planets surface for millions of years. D and its oceans are sources of useful and essential minerals for human beings? Coal, petroleum, and natural gashappened in the past. Whether forming or ancient civilizations, stones found in the crust allow us to travel and tocaves in the middle of mountains, mixedamong folds, or lying at the bottom oflakes and oceans, stones are everywhere, F symbolized eternity. This idea has persisted throughout time because stones endure, but they are recycled time heat our homes. Furthermore, practically all the products that surround us have elements provided by rocks and minerals.and they hold clues to the past. By and again. Fifty million years from now, For example, aluminum is used to producestudying rocks, we can reconstruct the nothing will be as we now know it—not beverage cans; copper is used in electrichistory of the Earth. Even the most the Andes, nor the Himalayas, nor the ice cables; and titanium, mixed with otherinsignificant rocks can tell stories about of Antarctica, nor the Sahara Desert. durable metals, is used in the constructionother times, because rocks have been Weathering and erosion, though slow, will of spacecraft. We invite you to enjoy thisaround since the beginning of the universe. never stop. This should free us from any book. It is full of interesting and worthwhileThey were part of the cloud of dust and illusion of the immortality of the Earths information. Dont miss out on it!gases that revolved around the Sun over features. What will everything be like infour billion years ago. Rocks have been the future? We dont know. The only sure
    • Dynamics of the Earths Crust MOUNTAINS OF SAND Corkscrew Canyon in Arizona contains an array of shapes, colors, and textures. The sand varies from pink to yellow to red depending on TRAVERSING TIME 8-11 UNDER CONSTRUCTION 12-13 A CHANGING SURFACE 14-15 the sunlight it receives. BEFORE ROCK, MINERAL 16-17T he Earth is like a blender in weathering and erosion by wind and rain sediment that eventually become which rocks are moved around, wear down and transform the rock. This sedimentary rock. This rock cycle never broken, and crumbled. The produces mountains, cliffs, and sand stops. In 50 million years, no single fragments are deposited, dunes, among other features. The mountain we know will exist in the same forming different layers. Then deposited material settles into layers of condition as it does today.
    • 8 DYNAMICS OF THE EARTH’S CRUST ROCKS AND MINERALS 9Traversing Time 2 COLLISION AND FUSION Heavy elements migrate. 3 METALLIC CORE The light elements form the mantle. eologists and paleontologists use many sources to reconstructG the Earths history. The analysis of rocks, minerals, and fossils found on the Earths surface provides data about thedeepest layers of the planets crust and reveals both climatic andatmospheric changes that are often associated withcatastrophes. Craters caused by the impact of meteorites and THE CORE The Earths core isother bodies on the surface of the Earth also reveal valuableinformation about the history of the planet. extremely hot and is made mostly of iron and nickel. Mountains are external folds of the crust produced by extremely powerful forces occurring inside the Earth.Complex The region that will The fragments ofStructure THE FORMATION OF THE INTERIOR Cosmic materials began to 1 become North America moves toward the Equator, thus initiating continents combine to form a single continent called Pangea.accumulate, forming a growing celestial Small bodies and dust accumulate 542 OROGENIES the development of thebody, the precursor of the Earth. High to become the size The supercontinent Geological history recognizes long periods (lasting most important The Appalachiantemperatures combined with gravity of an asteroid. Panotia forms, containing millions of years) of intense mountain formation carboniferous formations. Mountains form.caused the heaviest elements to portions of present-day called orogenies. Each orogeny is characterized by Gondwana moves slowly; The formation of slatemigrate to the center of the planet continents. North America its own particular materials and location. the ocean floor spreads through sedimentation isand the lighter ones to move toward separates from Panotia. at a similar speed. at its peak.the surface. Under a rain of meteors, The oldest 1,100 The first major Laurentia andthe external layers began to minerals, such as Rodinia, an early orogeny Baltica converge, Baltica and Siberiaconsolidate and form the Earths crust. zircon, form. supercontinent, (Caledonian creating the clash, forming the UralIn the center, metals such as iron forms. folding) begins. Caledonian range. Mountains.concentrated into a red-hot nucleus. The oldest rocks Gondwana moves Gneiss forms on metamorphose, A meteorite falls in toward the South the coast of Eruptions of basalt forming gneiss. Sudbury, Ontario, Pole. Scotland. occur in Siberia. Canada.Age in millionsof years 4,600 2,500 542 488.3 443.7 416 359.2 299ERA Hadean Proterozoic Paleozoic THE ERA OF PRIMITIVE LIFEPERIOD Pregeologic Precambrian Cambrian Ordovician Silurian Devonian Carboniferous PermianEPOCHClimate Consolidation The Earth cools 2,500 Temperatures fall. It is thought that the By this period, Temperatures were Hot, humid climates The largest carbon begins under a and the first The level of carbon Earths atmosphere vertebrates with typically warmer than produce exuberant deposits we observe Glaciations: White Earth rain of meteors. ocean is formed. dioxide (CO2) in the contained far less carbon mandibles, such today, and oxygen forests in today form where The Earth undergoes the first of its atmosphere is 16 dioxide during the as the placoderms, (O2) levels attained swamplands. forests previously massive global cooling events times higher than it Ordovician than today. osteichthyans their maximum. existed. ELEMENTS PRESENT ACCORDING TO THE TABLE (glaciations). is today. Temperatures fluctuate (bony fish), and Existing in different combinations, the crust of the Earth within a range similar to acanthodians, O contains the same elements today as those that were present when the planet was formed. The most abundant 46.6% 800 Second glaciation what we experience today. have already emerged. element in the crust is oxygen, which bonds with metals Si Metals Transition metals 600 Last massive glaciation and nonmetals to form different compounds. 27.7% NonmetalsLife Noble gases THE FIRST ANIMALS THE CAMBRIAN EXPLOSION SILURIAN Amphibians diversify Palm trees and Mg Lanthanide series Ca Among the most mysterious fossils of the Fossils from this time attest to One of the first and reptiles originate conifers replace the 2.1% Actinide series 3.6% the great diversity of marine pisciform vertebrates, from one amphibian vegetation from the Na Precambrian Period are the remains of the Al an armored fishK 2.8% Fe 8.1% Ediacaran fauna, the Earths first-known animals and the emergence group to become the Carboniferous Period. without mandibles2.6% 5.0% animals. They lived at the bottom of the of different types of first amniotes. Winged ocean. Many were round and reminiscent of skeletal structures, such insects such as MASS EXTINCTION as those found in sponges The rocks of this period dragonflies emerge. Near the end of the jellyfish, while others were flat and sheetlike. and trilobites. contain an abundance Permian Period, an of fish fossils. estimated 95 percent of TRILOBITES marine organisms and over Marine arthropods Areas of solid ground two thirds of terrestrial with mineralized are populated by ones perish in the greatest exoskeletons gigantic ferns. known mass extinction.
    • 10 DYNAMICS OF THE EARTH’S CRUST ROCKS AND MINERALS 11IMPACT FROM THE OUTSIDE The heat caused by theIt is believed that a large meteor fell onChicxulub, on the Yucatán Peninsula(Mexico), about 65 million years ago. The expansion of fragments from the impact together with the greenhouse effect Elements in CRUST The Earths crust can reachimpact caused an explosion that created acloud of ash mixed with carbon rocks. Whenthe debris fell back to Earth, some experts brought about by the spreading of ashes in the stratosphere provoked a Equilibrium a thickness of up to 6 miles (10 km) at the bottom of the ocean and up to 30 miles (50 km) on the continents.believe it caused a great global fire. series of climatic changes. Minerals, such as iron and silicates, are It is believed that this widely spread among the major constituents process resulted in the of the crust. Only the movements of the62 miles extinction of the dinosaurs. crust on the molten mantle disrupt their equilibrium.(100 km)The diameter of the crater produced by North America and LITHOSPHEREthe impact of the meteor on the Yucatán The solid rock coating Europe drift apart.Peninsula. It is now buried under almost of the Earth, which North and South2 miles (3 km) of limestone. includes the exterior of America are joined at the mantle the end of this time period. The formation of MANTLE Patagonia concludes, The mantle is 1,800 miles and an important (2,900 km) thick and is overthrust raises the composed mainly of solid rock. Its temperature Andes mountain range. increases with depth. A notable component of the upper mantle is the asthenosphere, which is FORMATION OF semisolid. In the asthenosphere, MOUNTAIN CHAINS superficial rock layers that will Gondwana eventually form the Earths reappears. 60 Central Rocky Mountains crust are melted. 30 Alps Africa separates 20 Himalayas The African Rift Zone and from South America, the Red Sea open up. The and the South Atlantic Indian protocontinent Ocean appears. collides with Eurasia. 251 Mesozoic 199.6 THE ERA OF REPTILES 145.5 65.5 Cenozoic THE AGE OF MAMMALS 23.03 Triassic Jurassic Cretaceous Paleogene Neogene Paleocene Eocene Oligocene Miocene Pliocene Pleistocene Holocene THE AGE OF FLOWERING PLANTS CORE The level of oxygen At the end of the Cretaceous Period, THE LAST GLACIATION Outer Core Carbon dioxide The global Temperatures drop The outer core is 1,400 (O2) in the the first angiosperms—plants with The most recent period of levels increase. average to levels similar to miles (2,270 km) thick atmosphere is much protected seeds, flowers, and glaciation begins three million years Average temperature is those of today. The and contains melted iron, lower than today. fruits—appear. ago and intensifies at the beginning nickel, and other minor temperatures at least 62° F lower temperatures of the Quaternary period. North chemical compounds. are higher than (17° C). The ice cause forests to Pole glaciers advance, and much of today. layer covering shrink and grasslands Inner Core the Northern Hemisphere becomes The inner core has a diameter of Antarctica later to expand. covered in ice. 756 miles (1,216 km). It is made of thickens. iron and nickel, which are solidified due to their exposure to high pressure and temperature conditions. Vast development ANOTHER MASS EXTINCTION of feathered bird HUMAN BEINGS APPEAR ON EARTH. Proliferation of Birds emerge. Toward the end of the Cretaceous species and Although the oldest hominid fossils insects Period, about 50 percent of existing mammals covered (Sahelanthropus) date back to seven million The dinosaurs species disappear. The dinosaurs, the with long fur years ago, it is believed that modern humans Appearance of undergo adaptive large marine reptiles (such as the emerged in Africa at the end of the dinosaurs radiation. Plesiosaurs), the flying creatures of that Pleistocene. Humans migrated to Europe period (such as the Pterosaurs), and the 100,000 years ago, although settling there ammonites (cephalopod mollusks) was difficult because of the glacial climate. The first mammals ALLOSAURUS disappear from the Earth. At the MAMMOTHS According to one hypothesis, our ancestors evolve from a group This carnivore beginning of the Cenozoic Era, most of Mammoths lived in Siberia. reached the American continent about of reptiles called measured 39 feet the habitats of these extinct species The cause of their extinction 10,000 years ago by traveling across the Therapsida. (12 m) long. begin to be occupied by mammals. is still under debate. area now known as the Bering Strait.
    • 12 DYNAMICS OF THE EARTH’S CRUST ROCKS AND MINERALS 13Under Construction KILAUEA CRATER Hawaii ur planet is not a dead body, complete and unchanging. It is an ever-changing system whoseO activity we experience all the time: volcanoes erupt, earthquakes occur, and new rocks emerge on the Earths surface. All these phenomena, which originate in the interior of theplanet, are studied in a branch of geology called internal geodynamics. This science analyzes Latitude 19° N Longitude 155° Wprocesses, such as continental drift and isostatic movement, which originate with themovement of the crust and result in the raising and sinking of large areas. Themovement of the Earths crust also generates the conditions that form new rocks.This movement affects magmatism (the melting of materials that solidifyto become igneous rocks) and metamorphism (the series oftransformations occurring in solid materials that give rise tometamorphic rocks).Magmatism Metamorphism Folding Fracture Magma is produced when the temperature in the mantle or crust reaches a level at An increase in pressure and/or temperature causes Although solid, the materials forming the Earths When the forces acting upon rocks become too intense, which minerals with the lowest fusion point begin to melt. Because magma is less rocks to become plastic and their minerals to crust are elastic. The powerful forces of the Earth the rocks lose their plasticity and break, creating twodense than the solid material surrounding it, it rises, and in so doing it cools and begins to become unstable. These rocks then chemically react with place stress upon the materials and create folds in the types of fractures: joints and faults. When this process happenscrystallize. When this process occurs in the interior of the crust, plutonic or intrusive the substances surrounding them, creating different rock. When this happens, the ground rises and sinks. When too abruptly, earthquakes occur. Joints are fissures and cracks,rocks, such as granite, are produced. If this process takes place on the outside, volcanic chemical combinations and thus causing new rocks to this activity occurs on a large scale, it can create mountain whereas faults are fractures in which blocks are displacedor effusive rocks, such as basalt, are formed. form. These rocks are called metamorphic rocks. Examples ranges or chains. This activity typically occurs in the parallel to a fracture plane. of this type of rock are marble, quartzite, and gneiss. subduction zones.OUTER PRESSURE TEMPERATURE FOLDS RUPTURECRUST This force gives rise to new High temperatures make For folds to form, rocks When rocksVolcanic Crust metamorphic rocks, as older the rocks plastic and must be relatively rupture quickly, anrocks rocks fuse with the minerals their minerals unstable. plastic and be acted earthquake occurs. Sea that surround them. upon by a force. Oceanic Level Plate Zone of 62 miles SubductionINNERCRUST Magmatic (100 km)Plutonic ChamberRocks 124 miles Convective (200 km) Currents Asthenosphere
    • 14 DYNAMICS OF THE EARTH’S CRUST ROCKS AND MINERALS 15A Changing Surface CORKSCREW he molding of the Earths crust is the product of two great destructive forces: weathering and CANYONT erosion. Through the combination of these processes, rocks merge, disintegrate, and join again. Living organisms, especially plant roots and digging animals, cooperate withthese geologic processes. Once the structure of the minerals Arizona Latitude 36° 30´ N Longitude 111° 24´ Wthat make up a rock is disrupted, the mineralsdisintegrate and fall to the mercy of therain and wind, which erode them. Water currentErosion Weathering CHEMICAL External agents, such as water, wind, air, and living Mechanical agents can disintegrate rocks, and PROCESSES beings, either acting separately or together, wear The mineral components chemical agents can decompose them. Disintegration of rocks are altered.down, and their loose fragments may be transported. and decomposition can result from the actions of plant They either become newThis process is known as erosion. In dry regions, the roots, heat, cold, wind, and acid rain. The breaking down of minerals or are releasedwind transports grains of sand that strike and rock is a slow but inexorable process. in solution.polish exposed rocks. On the coast, wave River Caveaction slowly eats away at the rocks. MECHANICAL PROCESSES Limestone TEMPERATURE A variety of forces can cause rock When the temperature of the fragments to break into smaller air changes significantly over a pieces, either by acting on the rocks few hours, it causes rocks to Wind directly or by transporting rock expand and contract abruptly. Transportation and fragments that chip away at the rock surface. The daily repetition of this phenomenon can cause rocks Sedimentation to rupture. In this process, materialsEOLIAN HYDROLOGIC PROCESSES eroded by the wind or water All types of moving water slowly wear are carried away andPROCESSES down rock surfaces and carry loose deposited at lower elevations,The wind drags small particles particles away. The size of the particles that WATER and these new deposits canagainst the rocks. This wears them are carried away from the rock surface In a liquid or frozen state, later turn into other rocks.down and produces new deposits depends on the volume and speed of the water penetrates into theof either loess or sand depending flowing water. High-volume and high- rock fissures, causing themon the size of the particle. velocity water can move larger particles. to expand and shatter.
    • 16 DYNAMICS OF THE EARTH’S CRUST ROCKS AND MINERALS 17Before Rock, Mineral he planet on which we live can be seen as a large rock or, more precisely, as a From Minerals to RocksT large sphere composed of many types of rocks. These rocks are composed of tiny fragments of one or more materials. These materials are minerals, whichresult from the interaction of different chemical elements, each of which is stable From a chemical perspective, a mineral is a homogeneous substance. A rock, on the other hand, is composed of different chemical substances, which, in turn, are components of minerals. The QUARTZ Composed of silica, quartz gives rock a white color.only under specific conditions of pressure and temperature. Both rocks and mineral components of rocks are also those of mountains. Thus, according to this perspective, it isminerals are studied in the branches of geology possible to distinguish between rocks and minerals.called petrology and mineralogy. MICA Composed of thin, shiny sheets of silicon, aluminum, potassium,12 millionago and other minerals, mica can be black or colorless. years GRANITE Rock composed of FELDSPAR A light-colored feldspar, quartz, and silicate, feldspar rock batholiths formed during a mica makes up a large period of great volcanic activity part of the crust. and created the Torres del Paine and its high mountains. TORRES DEL PAINE Chilean Patagonia Latitude 52° 20´ S Longitude 71° 55´ WComposition GraniteHighest summit Paine Grande (10,000 feet [3,050 m]) CHANGE OF STATESurface 598 acres (242 ha) Temperature and pressure play a prominent part in rock transformation. Inside the Earth, liquid magma is produced.Torres del Paine National Park is located in Chile When it reaches the surface, it solidifies. A similar processbetween the massif of the Andes and the Patagonian happens to water when it freezes upon reaching 32° F (0° C).steppes.
    • Minerals DALLOL VOLCANO Located in Ethiopia, Dallol is the only non- oceanic volcano on Earth below sea level, making it one of the hottest places on the planet. Sulfur and other minerals that spring YOU ARE WHAT YOU HAVE 20-21 A QUESTION OF STYLE 22-23 HOW TO RECOGNIZE MINERALS 24-25 CRYSTALLINE SYMMETRY 30-31 PRECIOUS CRYSTALS 32-33 DIAMONDS IN HISTORY 34-35 from this volcano create very vivid colors. THE MOST COMMON MINERALS 36-37 A DESERT OF MINERALS 26-27 THE ESSENCE OF CRYSTALS 28-29 THE NONSILICATES 38-39 Graphite, for instance, is used toD allol is basically a desert of shades of orange. Some minerals Did you know it took human beings minerals whose ivory- belong to a very special class. thousands of years to separate metal make pencils; gypsum is used in colored crust is scattered Known as gems, they are sought and from rock? Did you also know that construction; and halite, also known with green ponds and hoarded for their great beauty. The certain nonmetallic minerals are as salt, is used in cooking. towers of sulfur salts in most valuable gems are diamonds. valued for their usefulness?
    • 20 MINERALS ROCKS AND MINERALS 21You Are What You Have Polymorphism inerals are the “bricks” of materials that make up theM Earth and all other solid bodies in the universe. They are usually defined both by their chemical composition and bytheir orderly internal structure. Most are solid crystalline A phenomenon in which the same chemical composition can create multiple structures and, consequently, result in the creation of several different minerals. The transition of onesubstances. However, some minerals have a disordered internal polymorphous variant into another, facilitated by temperature or pressurestructure and are simply amorphous solids similar to glass. conditions, can be fast or slow and eitherStudying minerals helps us to understand the origin of the Earth. reversible or irreversible.Minerals are classified according to their composition andinternal structure, as well as by the properties of hardness,weight, color, luster, and transparency. Although more than Chemical Crystallization Mineral4,000 minerals have been discovered, only about 30 are Composition Systemcommon on the Earths surface. CaCO3 Trigonal Calcite CaCO3 Rhombic Aragonite FeS2 Cubic PyriteComponents MINERALS COME FROM FeS2 Rhombic Marcasite The basic components of minerals are the chemical elements listed on the periodictable. Minerals are classified as native if they arefound in isolation, contain only one element, andoccur in their purest state. On the other hand, they 112 elements C C Cubic Hexagonal Diamond Graphiteare classified as compound if they are composed of listed in thetwo or more elements. Most minerals fall into the periodic table.compound category. DIAMOND AND GRAPHITE A minerals internal structure influences its hardness. Both 1 NATIVE MINERALS graphite and diamond are composed only of carbon; however, These minerals are classified into: they have different degrees of hardness.A- METALS AND INTERMETALSNative minerals have high thermal and electrical Diamond Graphiteconductivity, a typically metallic luster, lowhardness, ductility, and malleability. They are easyto identify and include gold, copper, and lead.GOLD SILVERAn excellent thermal and electrical conductor. The close-upAcids have little or no effect on it. image shows the MORE THAN dendrites formed by the stacking of octahedrons, sometimes in an elongated form. Microphotograph of 4,000 types of minerals have been recognized by the Carbon silver crystal dendrites International Association of Mineralogy. Atom 2 COMPOUND MINERALS Isotypic Minerals Compound minerals Isomorphism happens when minerals with the same structure, such as halite and galena, are created when exchange cations. The structure remains the same, but the resulting substance is different, chemical bonds form because one ion has been exchanged for another. An example of this process is siderite (rhombic B- SEMIMETALS C- NONMETALS HALITE between atoms of FeCO3), which gradually changes to magnesite (MgCO3) when it trades its iron (Fe) for similarly- Native minerals that are more An important group of is composed of fragile than metals and have minerals, which includes more than one element. sized magnesium (Mg). Because the ions are the same size, the structure remains unchanged. Model demonstrating chlorine and sodium. a lower conductivity. sulfur The properties of a how one atom bonds Examples are arsenic, compound mineral differ to the other four antimony, and bismuth. from those of its HALITE AND GALENA constituent elements. Halite NaCl Galena PbS Each atom is joined to four other Atoms form hexagons that Cl Na S Pb atoms of the same type. The are strongly interconnected BISMUTH SULFUR carbon network extends in three in parallel sheets. This dimensions by means of strong structure allows the sheets covalent bonds. This provides the to slide over one another. mineral with an almost unbreakable hardness. Cubic Internal Hardness of 10 Hardness of 1 Structure on the Mohs scale on the Mohs scale
    • 22 MINERALS ROCKS AND MINERALS 23 A Question of Style ptical properties involve a minerals response to the presence of light. This O characteristic can be analyzed under a petrographic microscope, which differs from ordinary microscopes in that it has two devices that polarize light. This feature makes it possible to determine some of the optical responses of the mineral. However, the most precise way to identify a mineral by its optical properties is to use an X-ray diffractometer. COLOR STREAK More reliable than a minerals color is its streak (the color of the fine powder left Color when the mineral is rubbed across a hard white surface). is one of the most striking properties of INHERENT minerals. However, in determining the COLOR identity of a mineral, color is not always useful. HEMATITE Some minerals never change color; they are called Some minerals Color: Black idiochromatic. Others whose colors are variable are always have the called allochromatic. A minerals color changes can same color; one be related, among other things, to the presence of example is impurities or inclusions (solid bodies) inside of it. malachite. MALACHITE SULFUR Streak Color: Reddish Brown AGATE A type of chalcedony, a cryptocrystalline variety of quartz, of nonuniform coloring Agates crystallize in banded Luminescence patterns because of the environments in which they Certain minerals emit light when form. They fill the cavities of they are exposed to particular rocks by precipitating out of sources of energy. A mineral is fluorescent aqueous solutions at low temperatures. Their colors if it lights up when exposed to ultraviolet reflect the porosity of the stone,EXOTIC COLOR rays or X-rays. It is phosphorescent if it its degree of inclusions, and the keeps glowing after the energy source is crystallization process.A mineral can have several removed. Some minerals will also respondshades, depending on its to cathode rays, ordinary light, heat, orimpurities or inclusions. other electric currents.QUARTZ METALLIC Minerals in this class are completely opaque, a characteristic typical of native elements, such as copper, and sulfides, such as galena. Refraction and Luster Refraction is related to the speed with which light moves through a SUBMETALLIC Minerals in this class have crystal. Depending on how light propagates a luster that is neitherROCK CRYSTALColorless; the purest through them, minerals can be classified as metallic nor nonmetallic.state of quartz monorefringent or birefringent. Luster results from reflection and refraction of light on the surface of a mineral. In general, ROSE The presence of manganese it depends on the index of refraction of a NONMETALLICOther secondary minerals, results in a pink color. minerals surface, the absorption of incident Minerals in this classknown as exotic minerals,are responsible for givingquartz its color; when it CITRINE SMOKY AMETHYST light, and other factors, such as concrete characteristics of the observed surface (for transmit light when cut into very thin sheets. They can have several types of Streaklacks exotic minerals, The presence of iron produces Dark, brown, or gray minerals The presence of iron in a instance, degree of smoothness and polish). luster: vitreous (quartz), is the color of a mineralsquartz is colorless. a very pale yellow color. ferric state results in a Based on their luster, minerals can be pearlescent, silky (talc), fine powder, which can be purple color. divided into three categories. resinous, or earthy. used to identify it.
    • 24 MINERALS ROCKS AND MINERALS 25How to Recognize Minerals Electricity Generation Piezoelectricity and PIEZOELECTRICITY The generation of electric currents that can occur when mechanical tension redistributes the negative and positive charges in a crystal. Positive charge minerals physical properties are very important for recognizing it at first glance.A pyroelectricity are Tourmaline is an example. One physical property is hardness. One mineral is harder than another when the phenomena exhibited by certain crystals, such as quartz, which PRESSURE former can scratch the latter. A minerals degree of hardness is based on a acquire a polarized charge Negativescale, ranging from 1 to 10, that was created by German mineralogist Friedrich because exposure to temperature change or mechanical tension chargeMohs. Another physical property of a mineral is its tenacity, or cohesion—that is, creates a difference in electricalits degree of resistance to rupture, deformation, or crushing. Yet another is potential at their ends. PYROELECTRICITYmagnetism, the ability of a mineral to be attracted by a magnet. The generation of electric currents that can occur when a crystal is subjected to changes in Positive temperature and, consequently, chargeExfoliation and Fracture TOURMALINE is a mineral of the changes in volume. HEAT When a mineral tends to break along the silicate group. planes of weak bonds in its crystalline Negativestructure, it separates into flat sheets parallel to COLOR chargeits surface. This is called exfoliation. Minerals that Some tourmalinedo not exfoliate when they break are said to crystals can haveexhibit fracture, which typically occurs in irregular two or more colors.patterns.TYPES OF EXFOLIATION FRACTURE can be irregular, conchoidal, smooth, Cubic Octahedral Dodecahedral splintery, or earthy. IRREGULAR FRACTURE An uneven, splintery mineral surface DENSITY Rhombohedral Prismatic and Pinacoidal reflects the structure and Pinacoidal (Basal) chemical composition of a mineral. Gold and platinum are among the most dense minerals. 7 to 7.5 IS THE HARDNESS OF THE TOURMALINE ON THE MOHS SCALE.MOHS SCALEranks 10 minerals, from the softest to the hardest. Eachmineral can be scratched by the one that ranks above it.1. TALC is the softest mineral. 2. GYPSUM can be scratched by a fingernail. 3. CALCITE is as hard as a bronze coin. 4. FLUORITE can be scratched by a knife. 5. APATITE can be scratched by a piece of glass. 6. ORTHOCLASE can be scratched by a drill bit. 7. QUARTZ can be scratched by tempered steel. 8. TOPAZ can be scratched with a steel file. 9. CORUNDUM can be scratched only by diamond. 10. DIAMOND is the hardest mineral.
    • 26 MINERALS ROCKS AND MINERALS 27A Desert of Minerals Salt Deposits Hydrothermal activity occurs when underground water comes in contact 3 EXIT The hot water is expelled through he Dallol region is part of the Afar depression in Ethiopia. It is known as “theT with volcanic heat. The heat causes the the hornito. devils kitchen” because it has the highest average temperature in the world, water to rise at high pressure through layers of salt and sulfur. The water then dissolves 93° F (34° C). Dallol is basically a desert of minerals with an ivory-colored the salt and sulfur, which precipitate out as OLD,crust, sprinkled with green ponds and towers of sulfurous salt, in shades of orange, INACTIVE the water cools at the surface. As a result, ponds and hornitos are created. The richness HORNITOcalled hornitos (8 to 10 feet [2.5–3 m] high), many of which are active and spit out of their coloring may be explained by their 2 HEAT Contact with hot rockboiling water. sulfurous composition and by the presence of certain bacteria. maintains the waters temperature. 8 to 10 feet TYPES OF HORNITOS (2.5-3 m) There are two types of hornitos: high Red Hot water active ones, which forcefully Sea YEMEN rising from ASCENT ETHIOPIA ERITREA expel boiling water, and inactive the subsoil 1 The hot water starts Latitude 9° N ones, which simply contain salt. to rise underground. SUDAN DALLOL Longitude 39° E CROSS SECTION ACTIVE INACTIVE Afar It expels boiling Composed of salt, the hornito Depression water, and it is no longer expels water. It was SOMALIA constantly growing. active in the past. YOUNG,DALLOL VOLCANO ACTIVE ETHIOPIA HORNITOLocation Afar Depression Boiling Explosion Crater waterType of volcano Sea Level When its exteriorElevation –125 feet (–48 m) is dark, a hornito isLast eruption 1926 Dallol is located at 125 feet several months old. KENYA (48 m) below sea level.Annual salt extraction 135,000 tons3.3 billion tons(3 billion metric tons)TOTAL RESERVE OF ROCK SALTIN THE AFAR DEPRESSION YOUNG DEPOSIT Newer deposits have a white color, whichMINERALIZATION PROCESS becomes darker over time.Water expelled from its magmatic TURBAN This piece of clothingspring erupts, surfacing as thermal protects workers from thewater. When the water evaporates, POND extreme temperatures ofsalt deposits are formed. Boiling water emerges the desert and the from the hornitos and intensity of the Sun while forms small ponds on OLD DEPOSIT they extract salt. HEAT the surface. The dark coloring indicates that this deposit Manual Extraction 3 The heat causes the is several months old. Salt is extracted without machinery. Defying the arid climate, water to evaporate. inhabitants of the Borena region in southern Ethiopia extract Salt deposits form on the surface. the mineral by hand for a living. They wear turbans to protect themselves from the harmful effects of the Sun. Camels then carry OTHER MINERALS the days load to the nearest village. In addition to sulfurs and ASCENT sulfates, potassium 2 Water rises to the chloride, an excellent soil surface through fertilizer, is also extracted layers of salt and from the Dallol. sulfur deposits. 1 HEAT 148,800 tons BorenaAfar- A Black, Muslim, Volcanic heat warms the water (135,000 metric tons) speaking ethnic group, whose members extract underground. per year salt in the Dallol. The Borena represent 4 Amount of salt obtained manually percent of the Ethiopian in the Afar (or Danakil) depression population.
    • 28 MINERALS ROCKS AND MINERALS 29The Essence of Crystals INTERNAL CRYSTALLINE NETWORK A crystals structure is repeated on the inside, even in the arrangement of its smallest parts: chlorine and sodium ions. In this case, the electrical forces (attraction among opposite ions and ll minerals take on a crystalline structure as they form.A repulsion among similar ones) form cubes, which creates stability. Most crystals originate when molten rock from inside However, different mineral compositions can take many other possible forms. the Earth cools and hardens. Crystallography is thebranch of science that studies the growth, shape, and LEGENDgeometric characteristics of crystals. The arrangement ofatoms in a crystal can be determined using X-ray Chlorine Anion This nonmetal can Sodium Cation This metal candiffraction. The relationship between chemical only acquire a only acquire acomposition of the crystal, arrangement of atoms, and maximum negative charge of 1. maximum positive charge of 1.bond strengths among atoms is studied in crystallographicchemistry. 7 Crystalline The combination of two ions results in a cubic form. When there are Systems more than two ions, other structures are formed.IONIC BONDTypical of metallic elements that tend to lose electrons BEFORE AFTER BASIC FORMS OF ATOMIC BONDINGin the presence of other atoms with a negative charge. BONDING BONDINGWhen a chlorine atom captures an electron from a This graphic represents an atoms internalsodium atom (metallic), both become electrically crystalline network.charged and mutually attract each other. The sodium Na Na+ The chlorine atom gains an electronatom shares an electron (negative charge) and (negative charge) and becomes abecomes positively charged, whereas the chlorine negatively charged ion (anion).completes its outer shell, becoming negative. Cl Cl- Sodium Atom The sodium atom loses an electron and becomes CUBE TETRAHEDRON positively charged. Salt (Halite) Silica Chlorine Sodium Atom 1 chlorine atom + 1 silicon atom + Atom 1 sodium atom 4 oxygen atoms The anion and the cation (positive ion) are electrically attracted toExample: Chlorine one another. They bond, forming aHalite (salt) Atom new, stable compound. DIFFERENCES BETWEEN CRYSTAL AND GLASS Glass is an amorphous solid. Because it solidifies quickly, the particles lose mobility before organizing themselves.COVALENT BONDThis type of bond occurs between two nonmetallicelements, such as nitrogen and oxygen. The atoms aregeometrically organized to share electrons from their outershells. This way, the whole structure becomes more stable. Nitrogen The nitrogen atom Atom needs three electrons to stabilize its outer CUBIC STRUCTURE ATOMIC MODEL OF A ATOMIC MODEL OF GLASS Hydrogen shell; the hydrogen is created through the CRYSTAL Solidification prevents the Atom CRYSTALS OF COMMON SALT spatial equilibrium between atom needs only one. The particles combine particles from organizing When salt forms larger crystals, different ions, which attract The union of all four their shape can be seen under a each other, and similar ions, slowly in regular, stable themselves. This makes theExample:Ammonia atoms creates a stable microscope. which repel each other. shapes. structure irregular. state.así la logran.
    • 30 MINERALS ROCKS AND MINERALS 31Crystalline Symmetry HOW MINERALS CRYSTALLIZE MONOCLINIC RHOMBIC 22% There are seven crystalline systems. Rhombic Three nonequivalent crystallographic axes here are more than 4,000 minerals on Earth. They appear in nature in two ways: without an 32%T CUBIC The 32 existing crystal classes are meet at 90º angles. identifiable form or with a definite arrangement of atoms. The external expressions of these 12% grouped into these crystalline systems. TRICLINIC Topaz arrangements are called crystals, of which there are 32 classes. Crystals are characterized by 7% TETRAGONALtheir organized atomic structure, called a crystalline network, built from a fundamental unit (unit HEXAGONAL TRIGONAL 12% Trigonal This system includes the mostcell). These networks can be categorized into the seven crystalline systems according to the crystals 8% 9% characteristic rhombohedrons, as well as hexagonal prismsarrangement. They can also be organized into 14 three-dimensional networks, known as the Bravais and pyramids. Three equallattices. axes meet at 120º, Triclinic with one axis meeting at 90º These crystals have very odd to the center.Typical Characteristics Cubic Tetragonal shapes. They are not symmetrical from one end to Rhodochrosite Pinacoids These crystals are shaped like Three crystallographic axes the other. None of their three A crystal is a homogeneous solid cubes, but one of their facets is Prism and meet at 90° angles. axes meet at 90º angles. whose chemical elements exhibit an longer than the others. All three Basalorganized internal structure. A unit cell axes meet at 90º angles, but one Labradorite Pinacoid Diamondrefers to the distribution of atoms or axis is longer than the other two. Bipyramidmolecules whose repetition in threedimensions makes up the Hexagonal Monoclinic Scheelite prisms have six sides, with 120º Prisms look like tetragonalcrystalline structure. The angles. From one end, the cross crystals cut at an angle. Prism andexistence of elements with section is hexagonal. Their axes do not meet at Domesshared symmetry allows the 32 90º angles.crystal classes to be categorizedinto seven groups. These groups Vanadinite Prisms,are based on pure geometric shapes, Domes, andsuch as cubes, prisms, and pyramids. Two Brazilianite Trigonal or Rhombohedral Pinacoids THE MOST COMMON Shapes SHAPES Simple LEGEND Rhombus Cube Trigonal Base- Octahedron Trapezohedron centered CRYSTALLINE Triclinic Rhombus SYSTEM Shapes Rhombo- Ditrigonal Centered dodecahedron Tetragonal Scalenohedron Rhombus Hexagonal Prism and Prism Ditetragonal Prisms Prism Tetrahedron Combined Face- with Pinacoids centered Triclinic Triclinic BRAVAIS Hexagonal Rhombus LATTICES Network Network Bipyramid Prism Tetragonal Bipyramid Hexagonal Prism Combined with Hexagonal Simple Vertical Axis Bipyramid Monoclinic Hexagonal Network Prism and CRYSTALBravais Lattices Prism Combined with Bipyramid SYMMETRY CRYSTALLOGRAPHIC Simple Cubic Basal Pinacoid Monoclinic In 1850, Auguste Bravais A crystals ideal plane of symmetry Frontal Network Network OR COORDINATE AXES demonstrated theoretically passes through its center and divides it Planethat atoms can be organized into Centered on into two equal, symmetrical parts. Itsonly 14 types of three-dimensional its Bases Transverse Axis three crystallographic axes pass throughnetworks. These network types Body-centered Simple its center. A crystals longest verticalare therefore named after him. Cubic Network Only 14 network Tetragonal axis is called “c,” its transverse axis “b,” and its shortest (from front to back) “a.” Face-centered combinations are possible. Centered The angle between c and b is called Horizontal Plane Anteroposterior Axis alpha; the one between a and c, beta; Sagittal Cubic Network THESE COMBINATIONS ARE CALLED BRAVAIS LATTICES. Tetragonal and the one between a and b, gamma. Plane
    • 32 MINERALS ROCKS AND MINERALS 33Precious Crystals 3 POLISHING The shaping of the facets of the finished gem BRILLIANCE LIGHT enters the diamond. The internal faces of the The facets of the recious stones are characterized by their beauty, color, transparency, and rarity. Examples areP 100 pavilion reflect the light diamond act as mirrors 55.1 among themselves. diamonds, emeralds, rubies, and sapphires. Compared to other gems, semiprecious stones are 34.3° BEZEL because they are cut at exact angles and proportions. 13.53 CROWN composed of minerals of lesser value. Today diamonds are the most prized gem for their “fire,” luster, 1.9 GIRDLE STAR The light is reflected back to the crown inand extreme hardness. The origin of diamonds goes back millions of years, but people began to cut them 40.9° TABLE the opposite direction. 43.3 FIRE LIGHTonly in the 14th century. Most diamond deposits are located in South Africa, Namibia, and Australia. PAVILLION Flashes of color from a well- The rays divide cut diamond. Each ray of light into their is refracted into the colors of components. IDEAL DIAMOND the rainbow. STRUCTURE Each color reflects CUTTING AND CARVING CARVING: With aDiamond C separately in the Mineral composed of crystallized carbon in a 2 The diamond will be cut by another diamond to reach final perfection. This task is carried chisel, hammer, and circular saws, the diamond is crown. cubic system. The beauty of its glow is due to a out by expert cutters. shaped.very high refraction index and the great dispersion oflight in its interior, which creates an array of colors. It CUTTING: Usingis the hardest of all minerals, and it originates B a fine steel blade,underground at great depths. the diamond is hit with a sharp blow to split it. EXTRACTION 1 Diamonds are obtained from kimberlite pipes left over from old volcanic eruptions, which brought the diamonds INSPECTION: up from great depths. A Exfoliation isKIMBERLEY determined in orderMINE to cut the diamond. ERODED LAVARING OF WASTEMATERIAL miles (km) MOUTH 0 microns 0.3 mi (0.5 km) 320 MEASURED VERTICALLY (0.32 mm) COOLED LAVA 0.6 mi THE CHEMISTRY OF DIAMONDS MAIN CONDUIT (1.0 km) Strongly bonded carbon atoms crystallize in a cubic structure. Impurities or structural flaws can cause diamonds to show a hint of various colors, such as 0.9 mi 27.6 tons yellow, pink, green, and bluish white. (1.5 km) BRILLIANT EMERALD PRINCESS TRILLION 8 CARATS COMMON XENOLITHS CUTS 1.2 mi (2.0 km) (25 metric tons) A diamond can have many shapes, of mineral must be removed to 6.5 CARATS ROOT as long as its obtain a 1 carat diamond. facets are carefully 1.5 mi 0.03 CARAT PEAR HEART OVAL MARQUISE (2.5 km) calculated to 1 carat = 0.007 ounce maximize its PRESSURE (0.2 grams) brilliance. ZONE 0.5 inch 0.3 inch 0.08 inch (13 mm) (6.5 mm) (2 mm) PRECIOUS STONES SEMIPRECIOUS STONESGems Mineral, rock, or petrified material that, after being cut and polished, is used inmaking jewelry. The cut and number of pieces that DIAMOND EMERALD OPAL RUBY SAPPHIRE AMETHYST TOPAZ GARNET TURQUOISEcan be obtained is determined based on the The presence of any color is Chromium gives it its This amorphous silica Its red color comes Blue to colorless corundum. Quartz whose color is determined A gem of variable color, composed A mix of iron, aluminum, Aluminum phosphate andparticular mineral and its crystalline structure. due to chemical impurities. characteristic green color. substance has many colors. from chromium. They can also be yellow. by manganese and iron of silicon, aluminum, and fluorine magnesium, and vanadium greenish blue copper
    • 34 MINERALS ROCKS AND MINERALS 35Diamonds in History 13.53 100 THE TAYLOR-BURTON DIAMOND This diamond, with a weight of 69.42 carats, was auctioned in 1969. The day after buying it, Cartier sold it to the Elizabeth THE LEGEND OF THE VALLEY OF DIAMONDS Alexander the Great introduced the legend of the Valley of Diamonds to Europe. According to this ancient account, later incorporated into the book The Thousand and One Nights, there was an inaccessible iamonds are a sign of status, and their monetary value is determined TaylorD actor Richard Burton for $1.1 million. His valley located in the mountains of northern India. The bed of this valley was covered with diamonds. To obtain them, raw by the law of supply and demand. First discovered by Hindus in 500 wife Elizabeth Taylor tripled meat was thrown in the valley and then fetched by trained 43.3 its value when she sold it BC, diamonds gained fame in the early 20th century when they were after divorcing him. birds, which would return it encrusted with diamonds.advertised in the United States as the traditional gift from husbands totheir wives. Some diamonds became famous, however, not only for their FINAL CUTeconomic value but also for the tales and myths surrounding them. The Misfortune of Possessing Hope Cullinan, the Greatest Find The Hope Diamond is legendary for the harm it brought to its owners Discovered in 1905 in South Africa, this diamond is the biggest ever since being stolen from the temple of the goddess Sita in India. According found. It was sold to the government of Transvaal two years after its to the legend, its curse took lives and devoured fortunes. In 1949 diamond discovery for $300,000 (£150,000). It was then given to Edward VII on theThe Great Koh-i-noor Diamond expert Harry Winston bought it and in 1958 donated it to the Smithsonian Institution, in Washington, D.C., where it can be viewed by the public. occasion of his 66th birthday. The king entrusted the cutting of the diamond to Joseph Asscher of The Netherlands, who divided it into 105 pieces. This diamond, which originated in India, now belongs to the British royal family. The raja of Malwa owned it for two centuries, until1304, when it was stolen by the Mongols. In 1739 the Persians tookpossession of it. It witnessed bloody battles until finding its way back 9 LARGE ANDto India in 1813, after which point it reached the queen. 96 SMALL PIECES Joseph Asscher studied the huge stone for six months to decide how to cut it; he then divided it into nine primary stones and 96 smaller diamonds. ORIGINAL CUT THE GREAT It formerly weighed 186 STAR OF AFRICA carats with 30 facets that This gem is the second merged into six facets, largest cut diamond in the which, in turn, became world, weighing 530 one. This explains its carats. Because it belongs name: Mountain of Light. to the British Crown, it is Legend Over the years, belief in the curse of the Hope Diamond on display in the Tower of London. was reinforced as its owners fell into ruin. Evalyn Walsh McLean, the last private owner of the diamond, did not sell it even after several tragedies befell her family. 1669 Louis XIV acquires the gem. He died in agony of gangrene. Coronation 1830 Henry Hope buys the diamond and suffers under the curse; he soon sells it. Evalyn of the Queen Walsh Mother McLean History 1918 While the stone is in the hands of members of the McLean family, the patriarch and two of The Queen his daughters die. In 1856 this diamond was offered to Mothers Crown Queen Victoria as compensation for the Sikh wars. She then had it recut. The ORIGINAL CUT The Koh-i-noor was diminished to 109 carats. purest of blue from the FINAL CUT presence of boronic ONLY FOR WOMEN Because this diamond was believed to bring unhappiness to impurities, the diamonds color is also influenced by the presence of nitrogen, which adds a 530 carats men, the superstitious Queen is the weight of the Cullinan I, the largest pale yellow shade. stone obtained from the original Cullinan find. Victoria added a clause to her will stating that the diamond It is followed by Cullinan II, which weighs 317 carats and is set in the imperial crown. should only be handed down to the wives of future kings.
    • 36 MINERALS GRAN ATLAS VISUAL DE LA CIENCIAROCKS AND MINERALS 37 ROCAS Y MINERALES 37The Most Three- dimensional MINERAL COMBINATIONS DARK SILICATES Iron is added to its composition.Common Minerals Structure Three fourths of the Earths crust is composed of silicates with complex structures. Silicas, IRON AND MAGNESIUM EXAMPLE: BIOTITE The color and heaviness of this mineral are caused by the presence of iron and magnesium ions. Known as a ferromagnesian mineral, biotites FE ilicates, which form 95 percent of the Earths crust, are the most feldspars, feldspathoids, scapolites, and zeolites specific gravity varies between 3.2 and 3.6.S abundant type of mineral. Units of their tetrahedral structure, formed by the bonding of one silicon and four oxygen ions, combine to createseveral types of configurations, from isolated simple tetrahedrons to simple and AUGITE all have this type of structure. Their main characteristic is that their tetrahedrons share all their oxygen ions, forming a three- dimensional network with the same unitary composition. Quartz is part of the silica group. LIGHT SILICATES MAGNESIUM EXAMPLE: MINERAL TALC This mineral contains variable amounts of Calcium is added to its composition. CAdouble chains to sheets and three-dimensional complex networks. They can be calcium, aluminum, sodium, and potassium. THREE-light or dark; the latter have iron and magnesium in their chemical structures. DIMENSIONAL Its specific gravity is, on average, 2.7—much lower than that of ferromagnesian minerals. STRUCTURE LATERAL VIEWStructures Quartz has a complex three-dimensional The basic unit of silicates consists of four oxygen ions located at the vertices of a tetrahedron, surrounding a Complex structure composed only of silicon andsilicon ion. Tetrahedrons can form by sharing oxygen ions,forming simple chains, laminar structures, or complex three- Structure oxygen. VIEW FROM ABOVE This structure occurs when the tetrahedronsdimensional structures. The structural configuration also share three of their four oxygen ions withdetermines the type of exfoliation or fracture the silicate will neighboring tetrahedrons, spreading out to form CHAINSexhibit: mica, which is composed of layers, exfoliates into flat a wide sheet. Because the strongest bonds aresheets, whereas quartz fractures. formed between silicon and oxygen, exfoliation Clays are complex runs in the direction of the other bonds, parallel minerals with a very to the sheets. There are several examples of this type of structure, but the most common ones fine grain and a are micas and clays. The latter can retain water sheetlike structure. Simple within its sheets, which makes its size vary with hydration. Structure All silicates have the same basic component: a silicon-oxygen tetrahedron. This structure consists of four oxygen ions that surround a much smaller silicon ion. Because this tetrahedron does not share oxygen ions with other tetrahedrons, it keeps its simple structure. UNCOMBINED OXYGEN COMPACTED SILICATES SILICON This group includes all silicates composed of RESULTING SHAPE independent tetrahedrons of silicon KAOLINITE The quartz crystal and oxygen. Example: maintains a hexagonal shape olivine. with its six sides converging to a tip (pyramid). SILICATE MOLECULES WATER MOLECULES OLIVINE SILICATE MOLECULES A CRYSTAL OF GREAT VOLUME For a quartz crystal to acquire large dimensions, it needs a great deal of silicon and oxygen, much time, and ample space.
    • 38 MINERALS ROCKS AND MINERALS 39The Nonsilicates In Alloys and Compounds ulfurs, oxides, sulfates, pure elements, carbonates, hydroxides, As was the case with silicates, it is very difficult to findS and phosphates are less abundant than silicates in the Earths crust. They make up eight percent of minerals, but they are veryimportant economically. They are also important components of rock. rocks composed of pure nonsilicate elements—elements with atoms of only one type. The constituent elements of nature, metal and nonmetal, tend to join together and form compounds and alloys. From a chemical perspective, even ice, solidified water, is a compound of hydrogen and oxygen atoms. Some compoundsSince ancient times, some have been appreciated for their usefulness or are used as ores, meaning that they are mined for their constituent elements. For example, pure aluminum is obtainedsimply for their beauty. Others are still being researched for possible from bauxite. Other compound minerals, however, are used forindustrial uses. their specific properties, which can be very different from those of each of their constituent elements. This is the case with magnetite, which is an iron oxide.Very Few in a Pure State Native Elements It is rare for native chemical elements to be found in the In addition to carbon—which forms minerals such Earths crust in a pure state. In general, they must be as diamond and graphite when crystallized—extracted from other minerals by means of industrial chemical copper, gold, sulfur, silver, and platinum are otherprocesses. However, they can occasionally be found in rocks in a minerals that are found as native elements.pure state. Diamonds, for instance, are pure carbon. MALACHITE ASSOCIATION The greenish color indicates the Carbonates formation of copper sulfate. Simpler than silicates, minerals in this group are composed of a complex anion associated with a positive ion. FLUORITE Calcium carbonate (calcite, the main Halides component of limestone) and calcium magnesium carbonate (dolomite) are the most common carbonates. FORMATION OF DENDRITES GYPSUM ROSETTE are binary compounds. One halite is CHALCOPYRITE Microscopic forms table salt (or sodium chloride). Halites Iron, copper, and sulfur are that appear when copper solidifies and Sulfates have many uses: fluorite is used in the industrial production of steel, and sylvite (potassium chloride) is used as present. crystallizes Gypsum, widely used in fertilizer. construction, is a calcium sulfate that forms in the sea and contains water in its structure. Without water, calcium sulfate forms ENCRUSTED “FOOLS GOLD” COPPER another mineral, anhydrite, which is IN ROCK was an early name also used in construction. Barytine for pyrite because APATITE Here crystals are of its glitter. is a sulfate from which the metal1.2 inches encrusted in slate, a barium is extracted. (3 CM) metamorphic rock.Copper nuggetscan reach a highdegree of purity. Phosphates Sulfides Both apatite, used as fertilizer, and the semiprecious stone turquoise are are found in metal ores and are LIMONITE phosphates. These materials have a associated with sulfur. Examples complex structure based on an ion of sulfides are pyrite (iron), 0.04 inch Hydroxides composed of one phosphorus and four oxygen atoms. These ions, in turn, are associated with compound ions of chalcopyrite (iron and copper), argentite (silver), cinnabar (mercury), galena (lead), and (1 mm) Known in chemical terms as a base, other elements. sphalerite (zinc). PYRITE MAGNETITE these types of minerals appear through Oxides the association of oxide with water. Limonite, an iron ore used as pigment because of its reddish color, and bauxite STRUCTURE OF PYRITE Metal associations with oxygen atoms. (or aluminum hydroxide) are among the The cubic shape of Ilmenite, hematite, and chromite are ores most abundant hydroxides. Bauxite is crystals comes from from which titanium, iron, and chrome the ore from which aluminum, a metal the balanced location are extracted. Rubies and sapphires are that is becoming more and more widely of iron and sulfur extracted from corundum. used, is extracted. atoms.
    • Formation and SUBTERRANEAN WORLD This awe-inspiring limestone cave in Neversink Pit (Alabama) looks like no other ROCKS OF FIRE 42-43 SCULPTED VALLEY 44-45 IF STONES COULD SPEAK 52-53 METAMORPHIC PROCESSES 54-55Transformation of Rocks place on Earth. EVERYTHING CHANGES 46-49 THE BASIS OF LIFE 56-57 DARK AND DEEP 50-51 DIVINE AND WORSHIPED 58-59 places, even in the bowels of the Earth,N atural forces create an underground caves. Settings like the one undergo remarkable changes. An incredible variety of in the picture amaze us and arouse our initially igneous rock can become in search of strange or precious landscapes, such as deserts, interest in finding out what is hidden in sedimentary and later metamorphic. materials, such as gold and silver. They beaches, elevated peaks, the caves depths. Rocks subjected to There are experts who overcome every also look for fossils to learn about life- ravines, canyons, and high pressure and temperatures can type of obstacle to reach inhospitable forms and environments of the past.
    • 42 FORMATION AND TRANSFORMATION OF ROCKS ROCKS AND MINERALS 43Rocks of Fire ON THE SURFACE VOLCANIC ROCK Volcanic, or extrusive, rocks are those that reach the surface as lava because of volcanic activity. BASALT ROCK originates from highly 50% SILICA CONTENT According to the gneous (from Latin ignis, “fire”) rocks form when magma coming from the rocky mantle (underneath They solidify relatively quickly on the surface. liquid fluid magma that type of lavaI the crust) rises, cools, and solidifies. When magma comes to the surface as lava and solidifies relatively quickly, it creates extrusive rocks, such as basalt or rhyolite. On the other hand, whenmagma seeps into caves or between rock layers and slowly solidifies, intrusive igneous rocks, such as Some, like the obsidians, solidify too quickly to crystallize. This class of rock is distinguished by its viscosity, caused by the low silica content and dissolved gas at the moment of eruption, which give these rocks a particular texture. Highly liquid cools quickly. ASH CONE Composed of pyroclasts of the volcano itself LACCOLITHgabbro and granite, are formed. These rocks usually have thicker grains and are less dense than the lava, such as basalt, usually covers large surfaces is located between because it solidifies on the outside while still DIKEextrusive ones. They are arranged in structures called dikes, sills, and batholiths beneath the surface. remaining fluid underground. Formed by magma that superficial layers.Igneous rocks make up most of the Earths crust. intruded into a vertical fracture PLATEAU Composed of rhyolitic BRANCHINGA Complex Process CRUST volcanic lava (rich in silicon) VOLCANIC OUTCROPPING LACCOLITH The Earths crust is 44 miles (70 km) Rigid, outermost deep at most. Farther down, rocks are layer CALDERAmolten or semimolten, forming magma that Collapsed volcanicrises through the crust and opens paths through ROCKY MANTLE PYROCLASTS crater covered withcracks, cavities, or volcanoes. Magma can 1,800 miles Rock fragments watersolidify when it is moving or still or when (2,900 km) thick and ash thatunderground or expelled to the surface. All spread out overthese characteristics together with different miles COREmineral compositions create a wide variety of The outer core ERODEDigneous rocks. is made of solid LAVA FLOW iron and melted nickel. MAIN VENT SOLID ROCKBENEATH THE SURFACEPLUTONIC ROCKS LATERAL VENTSMost magma is underground in the form LA LAKE VAof plutons, which undergo a solidificationprocess. This forms intrusive (or plutonic)rocks. When magma intrudes into vertical 2,200º Ffissures, the resulting rock formations arecalled dikes; those between sedimentary (1,200º C) MUD FLATSlayers are sills; and batholiths are masseshundreds of miles long. In general, intrusiverocks crystallize slowly, and their minerals THE TEMPERATURE OF LAVA IN THE CRUST 2,550º Fform thick grains. But the solidification SILLS (1,400º C)process will determine the structure; the occupy the spaces between MAGMA TEMPERATURE AT Arock will be different depending on whether overlying layers of rocks. DEPTH OF 125 MILES (200 KM)solidification is slow (over millions of years)or fast and whether it loses or gainsmaterials along the way. MAGMA Bowens Reaction Series CHAMBER Different magma materials solidify at different receives magma temperatures. Minerals with calcium, iron, and GRANITE material from the magnesium crystallize first, giving them a dark coloring Composed of feldspar and mantle. (olivine, pyroxene). But sodium, potassium, and aluminum quartz crystals, it is rich in crystallize at lower temperatures, remaining in the residual sodium, potassium, and silica. magma until the end of the process. They are present only in pale-colored rock, which crystallizes MAGMA 70% SILICA CONTENT STOCKS later. Sometimes different stages of the process can are massive be seen in the same rock. plutons smallerDIKES AGATE than batholiths.The structure of the rock ROCK SURROUNDINGdepends on its formation ROCKprocess. Thus, a rock BATHOLITH LAST LAYER RICH INresulting from magma can be an old magma TO CRYSTALLIZEintrusion into a dike will SODIUM chamber that hashave a structure and INTRUSIVE solidified over thousands COOLING OFcoloring different from the ROCK MAGMA RISES MAGMA of years.rock around it because of because of the melted RICH IN FIRST LAYERhaving crystallized faster. rocks low density. TO CRYSTALLIZE CALCIUM
    • 44 FORMATION AND TRANSFORMATION OF ROCKS ROCKS AND MINERALS 45Sculpted Valley YOSEMITE NATIONAL PARK United States osemite National Park is located 200 miles (320 km) east of San Latitude 37° NY Francisco, California. This park is known worldwide for its granite cliffs, waterfalls, crystalline rivers, and forests of giant sequoias. It covers an area of 1,190 square miles (3,081 sq km) and extends along Location Surface California Longitude 119° W 1,190 square miles (3,081 sq km) the eastern slopes of the Sierra Nevada range. Yosemite National 103 Visitors in 2005 3,380,038 Park has over three million visitors every year. Million Opened on Administered by 9/25/1890 National Park Service Years Ago CATHEDRAL ROCKS One of the main rock CASCADES Some rock formations in the park serve as platforms formations, with for waterfalls, especially in April, May, and June when compacted and the snow melts upstream. The valley has nine scratched granite walls 103 87 616 feet waterfalls, five of which are over 1,000 feet (300 m) high; Yosemite Falls is 2,600 feet (800 m) high. This is the highest waterfall in North America and the Million Million (188 m) third highest in the world. Years Years Ago FREE FALL EL CAPITAN HALF DOME BRIDAL VEIL FALLS 300-foot-high (1,000 m) Granite monolith of This huge waterfall granite cliff used for unique beauty. It is lower formed as a consequenceYosemite mountain climbing than El Capitan, being 2,160 feet (660 m) high. of glacial thaw in a “hanging” valley. This park has an average elevation of 1,300 to 2,000 feet(400-600 m) above sea level. The geologyof the area is mostly composed of a graniticbatholith, but five percent of the park iscomposed of formations from themetamorphism of volcanic and sedimentaryrocks. Erosion at different elevations and fracturesystems created valleys, canyons, hills, and othercurrent geological formations. The wideseparation between fractures and joints is causedby the amount of silica present in the granite andin the metamorphic rocks.FORMATION OF THE LANDSCAPEErosion in the joints resulted in valleys and canyons. Thestrongest erosive forces of the last several million years havebeen glaciers, which changed the V-shaped valleys created byrivers into U-shaped glacial valleys. FOREST The park has three groves of giant sequoias, among other species. BATHOLITH FORMATION ASCENT EROSION1 2 Ten million years ago, the Sierra 3 Almost all rocky formations One million years ago, at Yosemite Park are composed Nevada underwent a tectonic the descending flow of of granite; they belong to the elevation that caused the glacial ice gave the original batholith. batholith to emerge. valley a U shape. FISSURES GRANITE ELEVATION V-SHAPED U-SHAPED GLACIATION The erosion at rock joints causes fissures ROCK SLOPES CANYONS within them, and this process leads to the Compact granite forming a large formation of valleys and canyons. The batholith downward flow of the glacial mass of ice cut and sculpted the valley into a U shape. Today this unique landscape attracts great FISSURE numbers of visitors. Produced by erosion at rock joints
    • 46 FORMATION AND TRANSFORMATION OF ROCKS ROCKS AND MINERALS 47Everything Changes TRANSPORT OF SEDIMENTS DESERT TINY GRAINS SAND GLACIER FINE AND HETEROGENEOUS ICE ind, ice, and water. These natural elements cause great changes in the Earths landscape.W In the desert, the wind Glaciers transport rock moves particles in three fragments, which accumulate in Erosion and transportation are processes that produce and spread rock materials. Then, ways: suspension (very moraines. They are made up of a fine grains and dust), heterogeneous material called 160 FEET when these materials settle and become compacted, new rocks are created, which in turn transport (the most WIND 3 INCHES till, which, together with rocks, is (50 M) (10 CM)will revert to sediment. These are sedimentary rocks: the most widely known rocks, they cover 70 basic way), and sliding along the surface. carried along by the glacier. TILLpercent of the Earths surface. By observing sedimentary rocks of different ages, scientists canestimate how the climate and the environment have changed. GLACIAL CIRQUE At the upper end TRANSPORTCOLUMNSFormed by the action ALLUVIAL CONE of the valley, the walls erode in a 2 After erosion, fragments are transported to an area where they will be deposited. In deserts, the windof the wind and sand EROSION semicircular form. transports the sand grains, forming dunes; withabrasionDESERT Sediments are deposited at the mouth of canyons. 1 The wear and movement of materials on the surface through the action of water, wind, or glaciers, the debris forms frontal and lateral moraines.PLATEAU ice. It can start when rocks are broken down SLOPES by physical or chemical forces. Rocks fall from slopes onto glaciers. They are included CANYON in the material that makes Typical result of strong up the moraine. temperature variations between night and day CENTRAL MORAINE forms when two PEDESTALS valley glaciers meet, Cracks created by creating only one the wind and mass of ice. watercourses DEPOSITS Sand accumulates CRACKS in low areas. TRANSPORTED ROCK will be deposited on the moraines. LATERAL MORAINE Formed by the fragments accumulatedMUSHROOM along the sides of the glacierFORMATION DUNESSand transported by the wind moldsstratified shapes such as mushrooms. OASIS ERRATICS INSELBERG are large rock A solitary mound fragments that less eroded than the glacier WIND U-SHAPED FINE SEDIMENT the flat ground transports and The wind and VALLEYS is deposited under the deposits. over which it rises Glaciers erode GLACIER constant sand glacier and at its front abrasion erode valleys, forming Mass of ice that end. The deposited the base of a a U shape because flows down over material is called till. stone peak. erosion is greatest a landmass. at the bottom. GLACIER DUNES W IC IN E DDeserts DUNE Glaciers TERMINAL MORAINE The largest environments sculpted by wind are the deserts. Because EROSION These huge ice masses form on the ground, slowly moving downward Rocks that fall onto the of the scarcity of water and the widely varying temperatures, the rock By transporting sand grains through the action of gravity. As they advance, they carry away rocks in glacier, along with theis broken down by physical forces. Rocks fragment and are swept to low-lying from the crest of the ridge, their path. At the head of a glacier valley, the walls erode in a semicircle, forming rock it was already carrying,areas by occasional water currents. Then sand and mud will be swept away the wind moves the dunes. what is called a glacial cirque. The simultaneous, progressive erosion of the walls accumulate at the front ofby the wind in a process called deflation. Through this process particles can The grains can be transported ACCUMULATED creates a pyramidal horn, or peak. The valleys through which a glacier has passed the glacier and form what is ACCUMULATEDbe transported into semiarid regions. up to 100 feet (30 m) per year. SEDIMENTS are U-shaped instead of the V shape typical of the erosion of river valleys. called a terminal moraine. SEDIMENTS
    • 48 FORMATION AND TRANSFORMATION OF ROCKS ROCKS AND MINERALS 49TRANSPORT OF SEDIMENTS CEMENTATION PROCESS MINERAL This is the most important process that transforms DEPOSITSRIVER COAST BEACH sediment into rock. Cementation occurs when particlesGREAT DISTANCES BOULDER LOCAL DEPOSITS join with the materials precipitated from the waterA river can transport WATER After each wave breaks,sediments over great the undertow descends the currents. Sedimentary rocks are formed through thedistances. Rivers originate in beach slope, creating an WAVES union of different minerals that have been dissolved inelevated areas, from which accumulation of sand that 30 FEET water. When the water evaporates or cools, thethey flow to lower areas and 3 FEET has been transported by the (10 M) dissolved minerals can precipitate and form depositsthen to the sea. When the (1 M) waves in a process called a SEPARATIONcurrent gathers speed, it coastal current. Sand is also SAND that accumulate with other sediments, or they can form OR PEBBLES rocks on their own. Salts and sandstone are common BY WEIGHTtransports big boulders. When transported by rivers, whichthe energy is less, the current deposit sediments in their examples of cemented rocks.carries only smaller rocks. deltas. SEDIMENT BANKS WATERFALLS Softer rock erodes, forming a RIVERS MOUTH SEDIMENTATION COMPACTIONSLOPE cave with a rocky ceiling that will finally crumble and fall. 3 When the currents that transport sediment lose energy, the sediment is Interrupts the shoreline and delivers continental sediments. 4 The successive layers of sedimentary deposits compact the lower ones by exerting pressureRiver valleys are deposited in layers and distributed over on them. This gives rise to diagenesis andsteep because they extensive areas. lithification, processes that will form new rock.are composed of layers COASTAL PLAINof hard rock. A plain that usually RAPIDS lies inward from beach In these geographic features, MARINE ABRASIONCLIFF a high volume of matter is PLATFORMA product of lateral transported by river erosion. Flat surface createdundermining by a receding cliff MEANDERS The outside of the curve is CAVE where the most sediment is Caves are cut into the deposited. rock through abrasion. ESTUARY Former river valley that is now flooded. It offers the necessary SOLID conditions for depositing much ROCK sediment. CLIFFS originate through the erosive action of the waves against the base of coastal terrain.FORMATION OFV-SHAPED VALLEYSUnlike glacial valleys, which are SEDIMENTARYeroded in the shape of a U, river DEPOSITvalleys are V-shaped. Accumulation of UNDERWATER sediments transported by SLOPE coastal (longshore) drift ALLUVIAL Along the coast, the effects of PLAIN erosion caused by waves are easy LAYERS SEDIMENTARY Different layers Composed to spot. Cliffs are created through DEPOSITS of lithified of sediments the erosive action of the waves against the base of coastal terrain. As the erosion sediments progresses, the undermining of the cliffs base RIVER INITIAL PHASE leaves higher rock layers jutting outward, which Close to the rivers then collapse. The cliff recedes, leaving a flat surface source, the current is in the form of a bank called an abrasion platform. very strong, and it erodes and digs into the riverbed WAVES to form V-shaped valleys. CoastsRivers DELTA FORMATION Ocean coasts are the most changing landscapes in the Earths BEACH FORMATION Close to their source, rivers flow through areas of high elevation. The sediment deposited geography thanks to a process called coastal drift. The elements Beaches are formed from the The water descends there with great force and energy, which at the rivers mouth FINAL PHASE that build up the coastline—wind, rain, and waves—also erode and mold gradual deposits of waves inenables the current to transport large boulders. At low elevations, creates a delta, an area it. Thus, the waves that bring the sediments that form beaches and carry low-energy coastal zones. Theyrivers flow more smoothly over sediments, forming meanders and with sandbars through them away are the same waves that can create or knock down a cliff or can be made of fine sediment, such as mud and sand, or of larger ACCUMULATEDeroding laterally. On reaching the coast, rivers deposit sediments and which the river flows in cave. Its remnants will be the building material for another beach, along materials, such as boulders. SEDIMENTSform estuaries or deltas. various directions. with the sediment that comes from rivers and their deltas.
    • 50 FORMATION AND TRANSFORMATION OF ROCKS ROCKS AND MINERALS 51Dark and Deep Stalactite Formation cave is a hollow space created essentially through the chemical action of water Limestone is a rock composedA on a soluble, usually chalky, material. Caves have three structures: stalactites (conical structures that hang from the cave ceiling), stalagmites (structuresthat jut from the cave floor), and columns (created when stalactites and stalagmites join). almost exclusively of calcium carbonate, which dissolves in naturally acid water. Rainwater absorbs carbon dioxide from the air and microorganisms from the ground, becoming a weak acid. When filtered, it can dissolve limestoneThe cycle of cave formation is called the karst cycle, which lasts a total of around one over time. If this water drips into a cave, it loses carbon 1 WATER DROPLET dioxide to the air and deposits the excess calcium in Every stalactite starts frommillion years. For this reason, young, active caves have noisy streams and cascades, stalactites and stalagmites, thereby maintaining chemical a simple water dropletwhereas old caves are silent wonders decorated with stalagmites, stalactites, and columns. equilibrium. Stalactites are excellent examples of chemical containing dissolved salts. sedimentary rocks. CALCITE 2 When the droplet falls, it leaves behind a narrowThe Karst Cycle calcite trail. When water dissolves high calcium content rock through the corrosive effect of carbonic abrasive action of pebbles and other insoluble elements. Water is filtered until it reaches lower COLUMN 65º F 3 MORE LAYERSacid, it forms networks of conduits and galleries. levels, leaving in its wake openings arranged in If stalactites (18º C) Each successive droplet that falls deposits anotherThe initial fissures widen not only through this levels and separated by vertical pits and passages and stalagmiteschemical process but also mechanically through the that connect the different levels. grow until they IDEAL TEMPERATURE FOR fine calcite layer. THE PRECIPITATION OF join together, CARBONATE they become columns. INTERIOR TUBE FLAT FISSURE 1 STRUCTURE OF THE 4 The layers form around a GROUND STRATUM OF A CAVE narrow pipe (0.02 inch [0.5 The grounds original structure is composed of permeable limestone. It 130 feet mm]) through which the water seeps. has fissures through which river or rainwater (39 m) STALACTITE is filtered. This starts the THE HIGHEST COLUMN Water 5 If many droplets are erosive process. IN THE WORLD Droplet PERMEABLE deposited over this pipe, LIMESTONE stalactites are formed. WATER FILTRATION IMPERMEABLE ROCK STALACTITES INITIAL CAVE TUNNEL can form on ceilings and cement 2 Water, following the floors, although they form much CANGO contour of the terrain, faster in a caves natural CAVES forms an underground river. UNDERGROUND environment that contains The first calcite or calcium SEQUENCE carbon-rich solutions. SOUTH AFRICA carbonate deposits start Latitude 33º S to form in the shape of stalactites. CALCITE DEPOSITS 23 feet Longitude 18º E (7 m) THE BIGGEST STALACTITE Length 3.3 miles (5.3 km) SINKHOLE VAULT IN THE WORLD Depth 200 feet (60 m) Location East of Cape Town STALAGMITE 3 EXTENDED CAVE SYSTEM Water droplets containing dissolved carbonate Other Formations Formed when several create stalagmites as they A passing underground current forms two types CANGO CAVES tunnels are joined drip down. of landscape: canyons and tunnels. Underground Isolated in a narrow strip of limestone from the together. Sometimes the rivers and waterfalls above the water table create Precambrian, in the highlands of Oudtshoorn, the Cango DRY GALLERY surface of the soil starts to sink, creating 100 feet deep, undulating canyons by eroding and dissolving limestone and by abrading the rock layers with sediment. Caves are remarkable for their abundant deposits of calcite. They are left over from a larger channel below TUNNEL CAVERN sinkholes. If the cave extends below the water (30 m) Below the water table, caves are full of water that moves slowly, dissolving walls, floors, and ceilings of carbonate the water table. This channel dried up when the neighboring surface valleys were worn down to lower THE TALLEST STALAGMITE levels. The impressive stalagmites were then formed.. table, tunnels are formed. rock to create tunnels. IN THE WORLD
    • 52 FORMATION AND TRANSFORMATION OF ROCKS ROCKS AND MINERALS 53If Stones Could Speak When it dies, an animal can A Fossils Age ock strata form from sediments deposited GRAND CANYON 1. be submerged on a riverbed, protected from oxygen. The Fossils are remains of organisms that lived in the past. Today scientists use several procedures, including carbon-14 dating, to estimate their age.R The skeleton is completely This method makes it possible to date organic remains with precision from as over time in successive layers. Sometimes these sediments bury remains of organisms Colorado River Arizona Latitude 36° N body begins to decompose. 2. covered with sediments. Over the years, new layers are added, burying the earlier layers. long ago as 60,000 years. If organisms are older, there are other methods for absolute dating. However, within a known area, a fossils location in a given sedimentary layer enables scientists to place it on an efficient, relative time scale.that can later become fossils, which provide key Length 112° W Following principles of original horizontality and of succession, it is possible to find out when an organism lived.data about the environment and prehistoric life on CONTINUITYEarth. The geologic age of rocks and the Once the water disappears, theprocesses they have undergone can bediscovered through different methods COCONINO The Grand Canyon tells the history of the Earth in colorful layers on its walls. The Colorado River has been carving its way through the plateau 3. fossil is already formed and crystallized. The crusts movements raise the layers, PLATFORM for six million years. The layers bringing the fossil to the surface.that combine analyses of Erosion exposes the fossilsuccessive layers and thefossils they contain. along the river provide an uninterrupted account of geological history. 4. to full view. With carbon-14 dating, scientists can determine if it is less than 60,000 years old. During fossilization, molecules of the original tissue are replaced precisely with minerals that petrify it. Rock Layers and the Passage of Time Period Rock layers are essential for time measurement PERMIAN because they retain information not only about the SUPAI GROUP Cononino geologic past but also about past life-forms, climate, and Sandstone more. The principle of original horizontality establishes that the layers of sediment are deposited horizontally Hermit and parallel to the surface and that they are defined Shale by two planes that show lateral continuity. If layers ity nform are folded or bent, they must have been altered TONTO PLATFORM by some geologic process. These ruptures are Paraco CARBONIFEROUS called unconformities. If the continuity between layers is interrupted, it means TONTO that there was an interval of time and, PLATFORM Muav consequently, erosion in the layer REDWALL LIMESTONE Limestone below. This also is called Bright Angel unconformity, since it interrupts Shale the horizontality 460 feet DEVONIAN principle. (140 m) CAMBRIAN formity Discon PRECAMBRIAN TONTO GROUP Zoroaster Granite 1,000 feet TRILOBITES (310 m) are extinct arthropods. They were solitary marine creatures, PALEOSIBERIA and they had a segmented PRINCIPLE OF SUCCESSION Angular body and an exoskeleton of the protein chitin, with pairs Unconformity Fossils succeeded one another in a of jointed limbs. Together definite order, which makes it TEMPORAL with graptolites they are one of the most EUROAMERICA possible to date past events. The HIATUS Unc characteristic fossils existence of identical fossils on Unconformity between onf from Paleozoic marine different continents helps establish the Tonto Group and the orm Redwall Limestone indicates Colorado River ity UNKAR GROUP sediments. correlations and assigns the same age a temporal hiatus. Between to widely separated geographic areas. the Redwall Limestone and VISHNU SCHISTS GONDWANA the Supai Group, there is temporal continuity.
    • 54 FORMATION AND TRANSFORMATION OF ROCKS ROCKS AND MINERALS 55Metamorphic Processes 570° F (300° C) 930° F hen rocks are subjected to certain conditions (highW (500° C) SLATE pressure and temperature or exposure to fluids with Metamorphic rock of low grade that forms through pressure SCHIST dissolved chemicals), they can undergo remarkable at about 390° F (200° C). Very flaky rock produced bychanges in both their mineral composition and their structure. It becomes more compact metamorphism at intermediate and dense.This very slow process, called metamorphism, is a veritabletransformation of the rock. This phenomenon originates temperatures and depths greater than six miles (10 km). The minerals recrystallize. 1,200° Finside the Earths crust as well as on the surface. The (650° C)type of metamorphism depends on the nature of the GNEISSenergy that triggers the change. This energy can be Produced through highly metamorphicheat or pressure. processes more than 12 miles (20 km) beneath the surface, it involves extremely powerful tectonic forces and temperatures near the melting point of rock. 1,470° F (800° C) FUSION At this temperature, most rocks start to melt until they become liquid. Regional Metamorphism Contact Metamorphism As mountains form, a large amount of rock is deformed Magmatic rocks transmit heat, so a body of magma and transformed. Rocks buried close to the surface can heat rocks on contact. The affected area, located descend to greater depths and are modified by higher around an igneous intrusion or lava flow, is called an aureole. temperatures and pressures. This metamorphism covers Its size depends on the intrusion and on the magmas thousands of square miles and is classified according to the temperature. The minerals of the surrounding rock turn temperature and pressure reached. Slate is an example of into other minerals, and the rock metamorphoses. rock affected by this type of process. 1 1 Sandstone Schist Intermediate Crust Limestone Schist Magma Lower Crust Dynamic Metamorphism 2 2 SCOTLAND, United Kingdom The least common type of metamorphism, Latitude 57° N dynamic metamorphism happens when Quarzite TEMPERATURE Longitude 04° W the large-scale movement of the crust PRESSURE The closer the rock is to along fault systems causes the rocks to As the pressure the heat source and the Slate Hornfels be compressed. Great rock masses thrust increases on the rocks, greater the temperature, In environmentsScotland was raised in the Caledonian over others. Where they come in contact with high temperature the mineralogical the higher the degree oforogeny 400 million years ago. This pressure new metamorphic rocks, called structure of rocks is Marble Magma metamorphism that and pressure, slates willproduced the gneiss shown in the photo. cataclasites and mylonites, are formed. become phyllites. reorganized, which takes place. reduces their size.
    • 56 FORMATION AND TRANSFORMATION OF ROCKS ROCKS AND MINERALS 57The Basis of Life Different Characteristics Observing the soil profile makes it possible to distinguish layers called horizons. Each layer has Living Organisms in the Soil Many bacteria and fungi live in the soil; their biomass usually surpasses that of all animals living on the surface. Algae (mainly diatoms) also live closest to theO rganisms are born, live, reproduce, and die on a natural layer of soil. From this layer, crops are harvested, livestock are raised, and construction materials are obtained. It establishes the link between 300 years The time needed for the natural different characteristics and properties, hence the importance of identifying the layers to study and describe them. The surface layer is rich in organic matter. Beneath is the subsoil, surface, where there is most light. Mites, springtails, cochineal insects, insect larvae, earthworms, and others are also found there. Earthworms build tunnels that make the growth of roots easier. Their droppings retain water and contain formation of soil with its three where nutrients accumulate and some important nutrients.life and the mineral part of the planet. Through the action of climate and basic layers, or horizons. roots penetrate. Deeper down is abiological agents, soil forms where rocks are broken down. layer of rocks and pebbles. EARTHWORMS It takes approximately 6,000 earthworms to produce 3,000 pounds (1,350 kg) of humus.Types of Soil RANKER In the soil we find bedrock materials that have been develops on top of slightly altered greatly altered by air and water, living organisms, and bedrock. It is typical in high mountains, 0.2% HUMUSdecomposed organic materials. The many physical and especially if it forms on granite or other of the worlds land surface is the substance composed ofchemical transformations that it undergoes produce different acidic rocks. organic materials, usually foundtypes of soil, some richer in humus, other with more clay, and in the upper layers of soil. It isso on. The soils basic texture depends to a great extent on produced by microorganisms,the type of bedrock from which the soil is formed. mainly acting on fallen branches 0 and animal droppings. The dark color of this highly fertile layer comes from its high carbon content.PERMAFROST UPPER LAYERAreas near the poles This layer is dark and rich inThe soil is saturated nutrients. It contains a 3 ftwith frozen water. Inthe parts that thaw, network of plant roots along (1 m) Rock Cycle with humus, which is formedbig puddles are Some rocks go through the rock cycle to form soil. Under the from plant and animalformed. Because of its action of erosive agents, rocks from the Earths crust take on residues.characteristics, many characteristic shapes. These shapes are a consequence partly of theanimals cannot live there. rocks own composition and partly of several effects caused by erosive SUBSOIL agents (meteorological and biological) responsible for breaking down contains many mineral particles rocky material. 20% from the bedrock. It is formed of the by complex humus. Clouds of dust and ash are released to the atmosphere. worlds land Ash and surface 7 ft other (2 m) pyroclastic materialsDESERTIC A volcano Igneous areArid soil expels lava and deposited rock cools in layers.Containing very little humus, it pyroclastic down andrests directly on mineral deposits 14% material. erodes.and rock fragments. of the worlds land surface EROSIONLATERITE 10 ft Some sedimentary These IGNEOUS ROCK and metamorphic layersTypical tropical soil (3 m) Extrusive rocks rocks erode, compressWith abundant rains and humidity in these zones, the soil iswell drained. The rain leaves a mix of oxides and hydroxides 10% form as the lava cools. forming new strata. and harden.of aluminum, iron, manganese, nickel, and other minerals in of the worlds landthe soil. This represents 70 percent of the worlds iron surface Magma rises to thereserves. surface and comes out as lava through BEDROCK the volcano.HOW IT FORMS The glacier The bare Moss and Small trees Animals and plants that The continuous breakdown SEDIMENTARY ROCK 1 drags 2 rock and 3 dwarf 4 manage to 5 die help to enrich the and erosion of the bedrock sediments. gravel shrubs take root. soil. Igneous and plutonic Heat and pressure canMuch of the Earths crust is covered with a layer of helps increase the thickness recrystallize the rock remain. grow. rocks form assediment and decomposing organic matter. This layer, of the soil. Soil texture also magma cools and without melting it,called soil, covers everything except very steep slopes. depends to a great extent on solidifies below the turning it into anotherAlthough it is created from decomposing plant and Earths surface. type of rock. the type of bedrock on whichanimal remains, the soil is a living and changing METAMORPHIC ROCK it forms. The rock melts tosystem. Its tiniest cavities, home to thousands of form magma.bacteria, algae, and fungi, are filled with water or air. If it is hotThese microorganisms speed up the decomposition enough, the rock can turn intoprocess, turning the soil into a habitat favorable to magma again.plant roots as well as small animals and insects. Years passed since glaciation. 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 IGNEOUS ROCK
    • 58 FORMATION AND TRANSFORMATION OF ROCKS ROCKS AND MINERALS 59Divine and Worshiped ormed millions of years ago, some rocks enjoy the privilege of being considered BeliefsF deities. Pagans, Christians, Muslims, and Aborigines of Australia base part of their beliefs on the myths, properties, or legends of a rock. Among the best known areUluru (Ayers Rock), the Black Stone located in the cube-shaped sepulcher of the Ka`bah, Each crack, protuberance, or groove of a rock has meaning to Aborigines. For example, a rocks orifices symbolize the eyes of a Uluru Sacred place for Australian Aborigines for thousands of years, Uluru (Ayers Rock) is four miles (9.5 km) in circumference and rises 1,100 feet (340 m) above the Australian desert. Uluru was discovered by Caucasians in 1872 and renamed Ayers Rock in honorand the rocks of Externsteine, a destination of Christian pilgrimages and a sacred site dead enemy. of the Australian Prime Minister Henry Ayers. In this enormousfor many ancient pagan religions. Their origins are described and studied in theology as sandstone mass, dozens of dream paths traversed by the Aborigines and the paths already traveled by their ancestors in the pastwell as in geology. Resistant to the passing of time, they are transformed into myths converge through a series of myths. In this manner, all the sacredthat remain to the present. places are connected. On the rock are forms such as Kuniya women and the wounded head of the Liru warrior, among others. ULURU-KATA TJUTA NATIONAL PARK, Australia Latitude 25° S Longitude 131° EThe great reddish rock of Uluru wascreated during the Alice Springs orogeny,400 million years ago. The sandstone andconglomerates that formed the ancientalluvial fans folded and fractureddeeply, turning horizontal layerson their ends. CAVE PAINTINGS Uluru contains some of the most representative features of the ancestral history of the Aborigines. The caves surrounding the base of the rock have some Aboriginal paintings illustrating the paths and limits of the Dream Time. Many carvings in the caves are considered to be of divine origin. The Black Stone Externsteine of the Ka`bah Made of oddly twisted limestone rocks, Located in one corner of the Ka`bah, the Black Stone Externsteine is located in the Teutoburg MUSLIM TRADITION 100 feet is the most sacred treasure of the Islamic world. The Forest north of the Rhine River in Rhineland, Muslims who have the necessary Ka’bah is a cubic building located in Mecca, toward which means are expected to go to Germany. It was the place of heroic myths and Muslims face as they pray five times a day. The stones Mecca at least once in their lives. (30 m) German legends. It is also related to the Scandinavian Eddas and, during Nazism, to the Aryan myth. According to popular belief, the exposed surface is 6 x 8 inches (16 x 20 cm), and its pieces are held together by a frame with a silver band. Muslims relate its origin to Adam and say that Abraham and his son the height of the Externsteine formation. It consists of five stones were placed there at night by giants; they Ishmael built the Ka`bah, but it was the Prophet Muhammad limestone pillars, riddled with caves, were then burned by the devil, which explains who converted Mecca into the sacred center of Islam in the passages, and secret chambers. their grotesque appearance. 7th century.
    • Classes of Rocks BEAUTIFUL AND STRANGE The inside of a geode, a rock filled with crystals, usually displays a beautiful formation. HOW TO IDENTIFY ROCKS 62-63 IGNEOUS ROCKS 64-65 MARINE SEDIMENTS 66-67 ORGANIC ROCKS 70-71 COMMON METAMORPHIC ROCKS 72-73 INCREDIBLE PETRA 74-75 COLLECTION OF DETRITAL ROCKS 68-69 accumulation of the remains ofD ifferent types of rocks can be rock on the outside, but when it is cut in the categories of igneous, metamorphic, distinguished based on their half, a fantastic range of colors and and sedimentary rocks. Most organisms that decomposed millions of luster, density, and hardness, shapes can be revealed. The several characteristics of rocks depend on their years ago. Coal and some types of among other properties. A classes of rocks can also be grouped constituent minerals. There are also carbonate and siliceous rocks are part of geode looks like a common according to how they formed, giving us organic rocks, formed through the this group.
    • 62 CLASSES OF ROCKS ROCKS AND MINERALS 63How to Identify Rocks Color The color of a rock is determined by the color of the minerals that compose it. Some colors are WHITE If the rock is a marble composed of pure calcite or dolomite, it is usually white. ocks can be classified as igneous, metamorphic, or sedimentary generated by the purity of the rock, whereas others areR according to the manner in which they were formed. Their specific characteristics depend on the minerals that constitute them. Based onthis information, it is possible to know how rocks gained their color, texture, produced by the impurities present in it. Marble, for instance, can have different shades if it contains impurities. BLACK Various impurities give rise to different shades in the marble.and crystalline structure. With a little experience and knowledge, people canlearn to recognize and identify some of the rocks that they often see. Shapes 0.4 inch (1 cm) The final shape that a rock acquires depends to a great extent on its Fracture WHITE Texture resistance to outside forces. The cooling process and subsequent erosion also influence the formation of rocks. Despite the changes caused by these processes, it Age Being able to accurately determine When a rock breaks, its surface displays fractures. If the fracture results in a flat surface breaking off, it is called exfoliation. Rocks usually break in locations where their MARBLE IMPURITY WHITE refers to the size and arrangement of grains that form a rock. The grains can be thick, fine, or even imperceptible. There are also rocks, such as conglomerates, whose grains are formed by the fragments of other rocks. is possible to infer information about a the age of a rock is very useful in mineral structure changes. MARBLE If the fragments are rounded, there is less compaction, and ANGULAR the study of geology. the rock is therefore more porous. In the case of Rocks have this shape rocks history from its shape. when they have not been PEGMATITE sedimentary rocks in which the sedimentary cement worn down. prevails, the grain is finer. WHITE MARBLE 0.4 inch (1 cm) ROUNDED The wear caused by erosion and transport GRAIN gives rocks a smooth shape. is the size of the individual parts of a rock, be they crystals and/or fragments of other rocks. A rocks grain can be thick or fine. Mineral Composition Rocks are natural combinations of two or more minerals. CRYSTALS The properties of rocks will change in accordance with form when a melted rock cools their mineralogical composition. For instance, granite contains and its chemical elements quartz, feldspar, and mica; the absence of any of these organize themselves. Minerals elements would result in a different rock. then take the shape of crystals.
    • 64 CLASSES OF ROCKS ROCKS AND MINERALS 65Igneous Rocks Dikes and Sills: Rocks Formed in Seams Some types of igneous rocks are formed from ascending magma that solidifies in seams or fissures. The resulting sheetlike body of rock is called a ormed from magma or lava, igneous rocks can be classified according to their dike if it has a vertical orientation or a sill if it has a horizontal orientation. TheF composition. This classification specially takes into account: the relative proportion of silica, magnesium, and iron minerals found in these type of rocks; their grain size(which reveals how fast they cooled); and their color. Rocks that contain silica, along with composition of these rocks is similar to those of intrusive and extrusive rocks. In fact, like dikes and sills, intrusive and extrusive rocks can also form in cracks. However, the manner in which the materials in a sill or dike solidify causes them to form crystalline structures different from those of their volcanic and plutonic relatives. CRYSTAL JOINED BY VITREOUS MASS PORPHYRITICSmuch quartz and feldspar, tend to have pale colors; those with low silica content have dark These rocks solidify in two phases. In the first,colors created by iron and magnesium-containing minerals, such as olivine, pyroxene, and slower phase, thickamphiboles. A rocks texture is determined by the configuration of its crystal grains. phenocrystals form. Then in the second PEGMATITE IS phase, the phenocrystals NATURALLY SMOOTH. are dragged along byUnderground: Plutonic or Intrusive Rocks magma, which causes the formation of smaller, Rocks of this type formed through the solidification of magma masses deep vitreous crystals. The within other rocks. In general, they have undergone a slow cooling process in name porphyritic alludesthe Earths crust, which has permitted the formation of pure mineral crystals large PEGMATITE to the color purple. This very abundant, acidicenough to be seen with the unaided eye. Usually they display a compact structure rock has a mineraland have low porosity. Depending on the composition of the magma, there are acidicplutonic rocks (rich in silicon) or basic rocks (with low silicon content). Granite isthe most common type of intrusive rock. composition identical to that of granite. However, its solidification process was Index PEGMATITE IS ASSOCIATED very slow, thus enabling its WITH THE PRESENCE OF crystals to grow to a size of GEMS AND RARE METALS. several feet. Extrusive Rocks, Products of Volcanoes MACROPHOTOGRAPHY Extrusive rocks form through the fast cooling of magma on or near the BASALT OF PINK GRANITE Earths surface. Their structure and composition are closely related to the This rock forms most of the oceanic volcanic activity in the areas where they emerge. Because they are typically crust. Its low silicon content gives it products of a fast solidification process, they usually have a very fine grain. When its characteristic dark color (between they are expelled from a volcano, they do not have a chance to crystallize before blue and black). Its rapid cooling and GRANITE GABBRO they cool, so they acquire a vitreous (glasslike) texture. solidification gives it a very fine grain. This rock is formed by big grains of This rock contains ferromagnesian minerals, such as olivine, pyroxene, and Because of its hardness, it is used to feldspar, quartz, and mica. Its light- augite, which form dark-colored build roads; it is not, however, used to colored components indicate an crystallizations, and feldspars, which give a make paving stones because abundance of silicon and that the white coloring to some of its parts. Gabbro it is too slippery. rock is acidic. Because of its great PUMICE resistance to wear, granite is often generally solidifies slowly, leaving it with This rock is produced from lava with a used as a construction material. thick grains. high silicon and gas content, which gives it a foamy texture. This explains 1 mile its porous consistency—acquired during rapid solidification—which enables it to float in water. (1.6 km) THE MINIMUM DEPTH AT WHICH GRANITE FORMSPERIDOTITEThis rock is mainly composed of GEOMETRIC PRISMSolivine (which gives it a greenish These prisms were formed incolor) and pyroxene. It is less the Giants Causewaythan 45 percent silicon and is (Northern Ireland) throughrich in magnesium, a very light contraction, expansion, andmetal. It is abundant in the rupture of basaltic lava flowsupper layers of the mantle (at a that crystallized gradually.depth of about 40 miles [60 OBSIDIAN GRANODIORITE This rock is black; its shades vary inkm]) as a residue of old crust. This rock is often confused with granite, but it is grayer since it contains larger numbers of quartz and sodic plagioclase crystals than it accordance with its impurities. Because it undergoes rapid cooling, its structure is vitreous, not crystalline; thus, it is HexagonMACROPHOTOGRAPHY does feldspar. It has thick grains and contains THE MOST COMMON commonly called volcanic glass. Strictly SHAPE INTO WHICHOF GRANODIORITE dark crystals called nodules. speaking, obsidian is a mineraloid. It was BASALT CRYSTALLIZES often used to make arrowheads.
    • 66 CLASSES OF ROCKS ROCKS AND MINERALS 67Marine Sediments Coral Reefs are rocky structures resistant to the action of waves and to the movement of the water. They are formed and/or colonized by photosynthetic organisms and marine animals, BARRIER REEF PARALLEL TO THE COAST edimentary rocks can also form through the accumulation and lithification 68° FS some of which have calcareous skeletons, as in the case of of organic remains. The most common example is coral reefs, which develop coral polyps. These soft organisms, related to anemones and underwater, surrounding the coasts of many temperate seas. Manylimestone rocks also originate this way; they are made of calcium carbonate (20° C) jellyfish, live in colonies. When their solid calcareous skeletons sediment, they turn into calcite. They live in symbiosis with single-celled algae known as zooxanthellae. MINIMUM WATER HOW CORAL GROWS(calcite) or calcium and magnesium (dolomite). Because of their porous TEMPERATURE NEEDED FOR THE FORMATION OFconsistency, they often serve as repositories for fossil fuels, which are also of CORAL REEFS REEF LAGOONorganic origin. Other rocks, like coquina, form through the accumulation offragments of marine shells, lithified over time as materials filled and cementedtheir interstices. Living Polyp Calcareous CONTINENTAL Skeleton SHELF BranchedFROM SEDIMENT TO ROCK PolypUnder pressure from overlying layers,sediments are compacted and lithified,reducing their volume by 40 percent.Other substances dissolved in water(calcite, silica, and iron oxide) fill up the Pearl, Jewel of the Seainterstices between the particles of In order to protect themselves from the intrusionsediments, and when the water of a foreign body—such as a sand grain thatevaporates, cementation occurs. becomes lodged between their mantle and shell—bivalve mollusks cover the intruding object with alternating BRANCH CORAL BRAIN CORAL COQUINA CALCITE concentric layers of protein (conchiolin) and calcite. This process ultimately yields a pearl. Fine pearls are produced by pearl oysters (Pinctada) in the warm, clear waters of tropical seas.CORALS IN ARIZONA LAYERS OF 1 MOTHER-OF-PEARLIn the first phase of the Paleozoic Era Oyster(500 million years ago), the current Combination ofmountainous region of the American calcite and a proteinWest was a coastal area with much coral called conchiolinactivity. This is how the abundantcalcareous formations that canbe seen today in ArizonasGrand Canyon originated.These formations also Grain of Sandcoexist with muchyounger rocks. Layers of Mother- of-Pearl Pearl (interior) Old Reefs Enveloping Motion PEARL LUSTER 2 results from the FLAT CORAL Corals typically grow optical properties of in colonies and create crystallized mother-Current reefs, layer by layer. of-pearl.StateBoundaryCurrentCoastalBoundary Paleozoic Coastal Area 3 feet (1 m) Natural Pearl THE HEIGHT THAT A REEF CAN GROW TOWARD THE SURFACE IN ONE YEAR
    • 68 CLASSES OF ROCKS ROCKS AND MINERALS 69Collection of Detrital Rocks A Variety of Sandstones Sandstone is rock composed of grains that are mostly between 0.003 and mong the sedimentary rocks, detrital rocks are the most abundant. They formA 0.08 inch (0.06 and 2 mm) in size. Sandstones are classified according to through the agglomeration of rounded fragments (clasts) of older rocks. Depending their mineral composition, their level of complexity (or geologic history), and the proportion of cementation material they contain. Quartzarenite (which is more on the size of the clasts, they are classified as (from smallest to largest) pelite, than 95 percent quartz), arkose (which is mostly feldspar), red sandstone (whichlutite and limestone, sandstone, and conglomerates. The analysis of their components, is cemented by iron compounds), and graywacke belong to this class of rocks.cementation matrix, and arrangement in layers makes it possible to reconstruct the ARKOSEgeologic history both of the rocks and of the areas in which they are found. possesses a varied composition,Some break off easily and are used in industrial processes and although it contains up to 25 SANDSTONE percent quartz and feldspar.construction as rock granules, whereas others are is made up of small grains of Generally, it has a porous sand that are here stratified consistency, and less than oneappreciated for their toughness and hardness. by color and texture. This percent of its interstices are type of sandstone indicates empty. In this specimen, the that an alternating pinkish section is composed ofClay, Lime, and Ash process of sedimentation involving two types of feldspar, and the white portion is quartz. These materials form the less porous, fine-grained detritic rocks. Lutites are particles has occurred. rocks of clay, composed of particles whose diameter does not exceed0.0002 inch (0.004 mm). In general, they are compacted and cemented throughchemical precipitation. Limestone rocks are also called limolites, named after lime,a sedimentary material with a somewhat thicker grain (up to 0.0025 inch [0.06mm]). Some rocks composed of volcanic ash have a similar granulation. Theserocks are very important in construction. GRAYWACKE COMPACTED ASH It is possible to find one or more layers of fine-grained pyroclastic material (volcanic ash) in many has a defined proportion of calcium carbonate, quartz, feldspar, and mica. It differs from common sandstone because it 20% OF SEDIMENTARY contains a higher amount of cementation ROCKS ARE sedimentary rocks. Rocks formed materials (more than 15 percent), which SANDSTONES. from larger pyroclasts, which form its grain matrix. This makes it more solidified in the air during an compacted. eruption before they touched the ground, are rarer. Their origin is igneous, but their formation is sedimentary. TUFF is rock that is formed from deposits of volcanic ash that has been cemented together. Conglomerates 40% THE REDUCTION IN THE VOLUME There are several types: crystalline tuff, which is largely composed of igneous glass; lithic tuff, which contains rock fragments; and hybrid tuff, which is formed from fragmented Most of the grains that compose these rocks are larger than 0.08 inch (2 mm). In some cases, it is possible to identify with the unaided eye the primary rocks from which a conglomerate is formed. As OF CLAY AS IT IS COMPACTED a result, it is possible to determine the areas where the sediments volcanic material combined with some clay. originated. Accumulations of gravel and cementation material can indicate either slopes in the rocks where the conglomerates formed or the action of fluvial currents. All this information makes it possible to reconstruct the geologic history of a rock.CLAY(KAOLINITE) CLAY CHALK MICROPHOTOGRAPHWhen hydrated, The substance commonly Composed of calcite debris of OF BRECCIAit increases in size. known as clay is an biochemical origin, this unconsolidated rock, made mineral originates in the sea CONGLOMERATE Formed by large fragments, they are of hydrated aluminum near the coast. After being good examples of sediments that have been silicates and typically full of eroded and transported, it compacted after landslides. The irregularity impurities. Kaolin is the accumulates on slopes where of this specimens clasts points to a chaotic name for pure granular it becomes compacted. The origin, which could be alluvial in nature or clay; it is soft and white chalk we use on blackboards associated with a glacial moraine. and keeps its color even is, in reality, gypsum. after it has been fired in a kiln. It has scale-shaped microcrystals and generally 85% PERCENTAGE OF CLASTS LARGER THAN contains impurities. 0.08 INCH (2 MM) BRECCIA Its grains are thick but with straight angles and edges. This shows that the sediments COMPACTED have not traveled far and that cementation Very fine sediment has taken place near the area from which the materials originated.
    • 70 CLASSES OF ROCKS ROCKS AND MINERALS 71Organic Rocks FORMATION OF PETROLEUM In an anaerobic PETROLEUM TRAPS Caprock Storage Rock rganic rocks are composed of the remains of 26% environment at a depth of about 1O living organisms that have undergone processes of decomposition and compactionmillions of years ago. In these processes, the OF THE PRIMARY ENERGY CONSUMED IN THE WORLD COMES FROM COAL. mile (2 km), organic sediments that developed in environments with little oxygen turn ANTICLINE FAULT TRAPgreater the depth and heat, the greater the into rocks that produce crude oil.caloric power and thermal transformation ofthe rock. The change experienced by these KEYsubstances is called carbonization. Gas Petroleum (Oil) STRATIGRAPHIC SALINE DOME Water TRAPCoal Formation LOCATION INSIDE The movements of the Earths crust subjected Plant materials, such as leaves, woods, barks, and THE EARTH the strata rich in spores, accumulated in marine or continental basins organic remains to285 million years ago. Submerged in water and protected great pressure andfrom oxygen in the air, this material slowly became enriched Vegetation transformed them intowith carbon through the action of anaerobic bacteria. that will hard coal over the form peat course of 300 million after dying years.Transformation of SURROUNDINGVegetation into Hard Coal TEMPERATURE1. Vegetation Organic compounds on the surface became covered by oxygen-poor water found in a peat bog, which effectively LEGEND shielded them from oxidation. Exerted Pressure.2. Peat Through partial putrefaction and Peat is compacted and DEPTH up to 1,000 feet (300 m) carbonization in the acidic water of the transformed. TEMPERATURE peat bog, the organic matter changes into coal. up to 77º F (25º C) Contains 60% carbon3. Ligniteis formed from the compression of peat that DEPTH is converted into a brown and flaky 1,000 to substance. Some primary plant structures 5,000 feet can still be recognized in it. (300 to 1,500 m) Coal rich Contains 70% carbon in humic acids TEMPERATURE up to 104° F (40° C)4. Coal has a content of less than 40 percent DEPTH mineral substance on the basis of dry 5,000 to material. It has a matte luster, is similar to charcoal, and is dirty to the touch. Coal: 20,000 feet gas and (1,500 to 6,000 m) Contains 80% carbon fuel is obtained TEMPERATURE up to 347° F (175° C)5. Anthracite is the type of coal with the greatest concentration DEPTH of carbon. Its high heat value is mostly due to this type of coals high carbon content and low 20,000 to concentration of volatile material. It is harder and Metamorphism 25,000 feet where gases (6,000 to 7,600 m) denser than ordinary coal. and oils are released Contains 95% carbon TEMPERATURE up to 572° F (300° C)WORLD COAL RESERVES WORLD PETROLEUM RESERVESBillions of tons Billions of barrelsNorth Europe and ANTHRACITE North Europe andAmerica Eurasia ROCK America Eurasia254.4 287.1 59.5 140.5 At times, the surface of anthraciteCentral and Middle Asia can appear to have Central and Middle AsiaSouth America Africa East Pacific traces of plant South America Africa East Pacific19.9 50.3 0.4 296.9 fossils. 103.5 114.3 742.7 40.2
    • 72 CLASSES OF ROCKS ROCKS AND MINERALS 73Common Marble and Quartzite These rocks are compacted andMetamorphic Rocks nonfoliated. Marble is a thick-grained crystalline rock, derived from limestone or GARNETIFEROUS SCHIST dolostone. Because of its color and The dark red crystals of toughness, marble is used in the garnet formed during construction of large buildings. Quartzite is a metamorphism. he classification of metamorphic rocks is not simple because the very hard rock, usually made of sandstoneT same conditions of temperature and pressure do not always produce the same final rock. In the face of this difficulty, these rocks aredivided into two large groups, taking into account that some exhibit rich in quartz, which, under elevated metamorphic conditions, melts like pieces of glass. Quartzite is normally white, but iron oxide can give it a reddish or pinkish tone.foliation and others do not. During the transformation process, the densityof rock increases, and recrystallization can induce the formation of biggercrystals. This process reorganizes the mineral grains, resulting in laminar orbanded textures. Most rocks derive their color from the minerals of which 7 IS THE LEVEL OFthey are composed, but their texture depends on more than just their HARDNESS OFcomposition. QUARTZITE. Schist GARNETIFEROUS SCHIST This rock is more prone to foliation, and it QUARTZITE This rocks name comes from its can break off in small sheets. It is more It is hard and tough; it is components. Schist determines than 20 percent composed of flat, elongated compacted because the its texture and garnet its color minerals, which normally include mica and quartz grains entwine. and distinctive features. amphiboles. For schist to be formed, a more intense metamorphism is needed. The different schistose rocks names and characteristics depend on the predominant mineral that composes them or on the one that produces SLATE exfoliation. Among the most important schistose MICROGRAPHY rocks are mica, hornblende, and talc. Because this type of rock has different layers, it has been Composed of foliated or used in sculpture. laminated clay mineralsSLATEIts black color comes fromthe carbon in organic matterpresent in sediments. MICACEOUS HORNBLENDE SCHIST 0.04 inch MARBLE SCHIST Its characteristic coloring is determined by colorless or It contains some sodium as well as considerable amounts of iron and (1 mm) It is highly valued for its texture andSlates and Phyllites white muscovite crystals. aluminum. OR MORE. THE SIZE OF MICA GRAINS IN color. It is used SCHIST—LARGE ENOUGH TO SEE WITH These foliated rocks recrystallized under in sculpture and THE UNAIDED EYE. moderate pressure and temperatureconditions. Slate has very fine grains made of small Gneiss architecture.mica crystals. It is very useful in the production of Striped rock that usually contains long and granularroof tiles, floor tiles, blackboards, and billiard tables. PHYLLITE minerals. The most common types are quartz, potashIt almost always is formed through low-grade Similar to slate, it is feldspar, and plagioclase. It can also have smaller amountsmetamorphism in sediments and, less often, from notable for its silky luster. of muscovite, biotite, and hornblende. Its characteristicvolcanic ash. Phyllite represents a gradation in stripes are due to a segregation of light and dark silicates.metamorphism between slate and schist; it is Gneiss rock, which has a mineral composition similar to thatcomposed of very fine mica crystals, such as of granite, is formed through sedimentary processes ormuscovite or chlorite. derived from igneous rocks. However, it can also form through high-grade metamorphism of schists. It is the last rock of the metamorphic sequence.FoliationLAMINATED OR STRIPED TEXTURE, SLATE Stripes MAKE IT POSSIBLE TO DETERMINE GNEISS Heat and pressure MARBLE MICROGRAPH Impurities and accessoryRESULTING FROM THE PRESSURE TO Because of exfoliation, it tends THE DIRECTION IN WHICH PRESSURE can change granite minerals color the marble.WHICH THE ROCK WAS SUBJECTED to break into flat sheets. WAS EXERTED ON THE ROCK. into gneiss.
    • 74 CLASSES OF ROCKS ROCKS AND MINERALS 75Incredible Petra HIDDEN IN THE DESERT Petra is hidden in the mountains 155 miles (250 km) south of Amman, the capital of Jordan, and north of the Red Sea and the Great Rift Valley in Africa. istorians from ancient Rome used to talk about a mysterious city of stone. In 1812 JohannH Ludwig Burckhardt of Switzerland rediscovered it. Traces of Neolithic civilizations were found in Petra; however, its foundation in the 4th century BC isattributed to the Nabataeans, a nomadic people. The Nabataeans were On the Rift ITS CLIFFS ARE PART OFmerchants and raiders who became prosperous by controlling the spice Petra THIStrade. The city, carved in sandstone, knew times of splendor, FRACTURE; INbut it eventually fell into ruin. THE YEAR 363, IT WAS DAMAGED BY AN EARTHQUAKE. Temples and Tombs The only way to reach Petra is by foot through a narrow passage among the rocks. The passage is 1 mile (1.5 km) long and, at some points, less than 3.3 feet (1 m) wide. The Uncertain Origins Treasury (Khasneh) is the first seen upon Petras architecture is dominated by entering the city, followed by a Roman Greek, Egyptian, and Roman features; amphitheater. The buildings are carved into however, their symbiosis with Eastern cliffs, and more than 3,000 old tombs have been elements is so great that to this day experts excavated. The city also has fortifications. find it difficult to establish Petras origin and dates of construction. The citys exterior adornments contrast with the interior sobriety of its temples. It contained CHRISTIAN ORIGINAL TOMBS sumptuous public baths that date from a time WALLS of splendor (1st century BC). However, most AMPHITHEATER of Petras population, which reached a peak of BYZANTINE MOUNT TREASURY 20,000 inhabitants, lived in adobe houses. WALLS EL KUBHTAGREATTEMPLE MOUNT UM 3 MILES AL BIERRA MAIN (5 KM) STREET HABIS ELEPHANTS (Interpretation) CASTLE Tourist Attraction Native to Africa or India, elephants were The stone buildings were not represented in classic culture. Here, erected at different times however, they are seen adorning Greek- over a period of 1,000 years. style capitals. This particular merging of cultures created expressions found nowhere else in the ancient world. Archaeologists find it difficult to date the pieces of art found in Petra. The Treasury IT WAS BELIEVED THAT THIS BUILDING HOUSED A PHARAOHS TREASURE. ITS CUBE-SHAPED INTERIOR HAS SMOOTH WALLS AND IS LINED WITH MORTUARY CHAMBERS. CORINTHIAN CAPITAL (Interpretation) One of the most classic capitals of Greek A Door Between Worlds architecture, along with the Ionic and Doric styles The statue represents the god Serapis, whose cult was established in the 4th century BC in both Greece and Egypt. Serapis is of Greek origin, but obelisks and cubic stones, typical Egyptian monuments, also abound in Petra. For a long time, it was believed that Petra was the biblical town of Edom. Its strategic location made it a transit area for Indians and Africans. The Roman and Byzantine empires had a WINGED LIONS (Interpretation) profound influence: Petra was their gateway to the These carvings were located in the temple East. Beginning in the 7th century, though, Nabataean of Atargatis, goddess of fertility in the culture began to merge with Islamic culture, and it Nabataean culture. ultimately disappeared. Carved in Stone The construction over sandstone respects and takes advantage of the characteristics of the landscape. To create openings, builders used the cracks and fissures that already existed in the rock. The sandstone in Petra is composed of at least two original types of sediments of different colors. Some people believe they are from different geologic phases, but it is SERAPIS more likely that the original sand was made God of prosperity and of different grains. concealed mysteries. In Egyptian SANDSTONE iconography, Serapis A sedimentary rock has horns. with medium-sized grains (less than 0.08 inch [2 mm]), with great toughness and hardness. Its mineralogical composition can vary. In the Jordanian desert, it forms cliffs.
    • Use of Rocks and Minerals FOUND ALL OVER THE WORLD Coal is found in almost all regions of the world, but today the only deposits of commercial importance IN DAILY LIFE 78-79 MOUNTAINS OF GOLD AND SILVER 80-81 BLACK AS COAL 86-87 BLACK GOLD 88-89 are located in Europe, Asia, AN OPEN-AIR MINE 82-83 RADIOACTIVE MINERALS 90-91 Australia, and the Americas. BLINDED BY BRILLIANCE 84-85 being sought. One of these alternativeH uman beings have been hundreds of feet down. Human beings material from which many products extracting coal since ancient have to make incursions into the bowels people use are made. Unfortunately, the sources is nuclear energy. It requires times, and mining generally of the Earth to extract its wealth. The Earths reserves of coal, oil, and gas are uranium, an element found in certain takes place underground materials extracted from the Earth are being depleted. For this reason, other rocks. because most veins are the basis of modern civilization, the raw sources of energy to replace them are
    • 78 USE OF ROCKS AND MINERALS ROCKS AND MINERALS 79In Daily Life Metals The body of a car is made of iron (present in both steel and magnetite), aluminum, and magnesium. Other metals are used to produce parts that are resistant ENGINE BLOCK SEAT t is impossible to conceive of modern life without the constant use of objects andI to torsion (vanadium, cadmium), temperature (cobalt), It sustains the materials made of rocks and minerals, metallic or nonmetallic. To illustrate this, and corrosion (nickel and zinc). Barium and platinum are engine and is made BACK used in very specific parts, and other metals are used in of magnetite, an it is enough simply to consider the elements that make up a car, trace them BODYWORK smaller amounts in lubricants, fluids, or paints. iron ore. Glass fiberback to their origins, and consider the processes that shaped them. In some cases, Aluminum, titanium, magnesium, and steel SPRINGSthe texture and characteristics of each material can be easily seen. Othermaterials, especially nonmetals such as coal and sulfur, are less noticeable, but 20% MORE ALUMINUM IS SPRINGS WIRING SYSTEM Steelthey are a part of the production process as well. REQUIRED BY VOLUME Cadmium CopperThis process tends to emphasize and improve the FOR THE SAME WEIGHT OF STEEL.physical, chemical, and electric characteristicsof each material.Hydrocarbons, the Source of Energy The combustion of petroleum derivatives provides energy for propulsion. The combustion pathway begins with the storage of gasin the tank and ends with the expulsion of waste gases through theexhaust pipe. There a catalyst with thousands of cells filters the mosttoxic gases: carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxide. FUEL ALUMINUM TANK Light and durable ENGINE Aluminum Magnesium Iron EXHAUST Cobalt PIPE IRON Strong and resistantElectric Properties: Conductors,Insulators, and Semiconductors Metals, which tend to lose electrons, are the soul of electric cables and circuits. Nonmetals (and their polymeric derivatives) hinder the MAGNESIUMflow of electrons and are used as insulators. Other minerals, such as silicon, Adds flexibilityhave intermediate properties: electronic components are manufactured byadding impurities to modify their properties. 0.07 NonmetalsCONTROL PANEL pound Silicon and its derivatives (silicone, silica, and silicates such as asbestos) are omnipresent materials in car manufacturing. They WHEELSIn smaller contact areas, more expensivemetals are used (gold is the best conductor). (0.03 kg) appear in crystallized form, such as quartz, and in noncrystallized—or Titanium is often used in alloys and inChips and other electronic components PER CUBIC INCH glass—form. Other nonmetals aid in the strengthening of metals—for the cars finish.contain silicon. Phosphorescent displays MAGNESIUM IS THE LOCKS example, carbon in the production of steel and sulfur in thehave strontium paint. LIGHTEST METAL USED FOR Covered with zinc vulcanization of rubber. INDUSTRIAL PURPOSES. CIRCUITS DISTRIBUTOR Gold, silver, Platinum MIRRORS IGNITION palladium Glass and lead COIL Barium HEADLIGHTS DISPLAYS Tungsten WINDOWS STEERING ENGINE JOINTS SPARK PLUGS TIRES Strontium Glass (silica) WHEEL Asbestos Porcelain Vulcanized Silicon coating (kaolin) steel mesh
    • 80 USE OF ROCKS AND MINERALS ROCKS AND MINERALS 81Mountains of Gold and Silver 3. BLUEPRINT OF THE MINE 2 TO 5 YEARS COST: $547 MILLION Once the reserves and costs were MACHINERY WAREHOUSE With capacity to store big vehicles rom the decision to exploit an area where valuable minerals are suspected to exist to obtainingF analyzed, it was necessary to open the these minerals in major amounts, large-scale mining operations require complex work that lasts mineral deposit and evaluate the environmental impact of the operation. GRINDING for years. For instance, the exploitation of Veladero, an open-air gold-and-silver mine located in The infrastructure was then built; it SYSTEMthe province of San Juan in the Argentinean Andes and exploited by the Canadian company included paths, houses, and river diversions.Barrick Gold, required more than a decade of research and development before the firstingots were obtained in October 2005. To reach the deposits, roads and housing werebuilt for the workers. The potential environmental impact of the mine was PROCESSING PLANTanalyzed since explosives had to be used and toxic substances, suchas cyanide, were needed for extracting and separating the OPEN CUT Irock from other metals. (FEDERICO EDGE) VELADERO HILL NONPRODUCTIVE AREA VELADERO, Areas that do not ARGENTINA yield satisfactory mining results ENCAMPMENT Latitude 29° S Sturdy buildings Longitude 70° W FEASIBLE AREA at 12,470 feet Opened by means (3,800 m) aboveTotal land area 1,158 square miles of perforations and sea level (3,000 sq km) explosions OPEN CUT II (AMABLE EDGE)Employed builders (peak) 5,000 SUPERFICIAL ROCKSGold reserves (1st estimate) 900 tons During prospecting, field GOLD IS NOT FOUND INEstimated life span 17 years samples are collected for METALLIC FORM BUT PERFORATION analysis. RATHER COMBINED WITH TOWER OTHER MINERALS. Used to extract rocks located deep withinHUGE OPEN-AIR MINE the EarthVeladero—located in the Argentinean province ofSan Juan, as shown on the map—required 2,300tons of metallic structures and consumes 2,520 164 FEETtons of sodium cyanide per year for extracting gold. (50 M) VELADERO MINE 13,120 VISUAL Leaching Ground (Potrerillos Ravine) HERE GOLD IS SEPARATED SAN JUAN feet ANALYSIS OF ROCKS FROM THE ROCKS. (4,000 m) ABOVE SEA LEVEL The elevation of the mine1.PROSPECTING EXPLORATORY PERFORATION1 TO 3 YEARSCOST: $10 MILLIONProspecting began in 1994. During thisphase, the possible existence of a depositcovering a vast area was analyzed. It wasnecessary to draw maps, conduct studies, STRATA Based on these features, geologic maps of the 2. EXPLOITATION 2 TO 5 YEARS COST: $90 MILLION The first phases are involved with field prospecting. During this MINERAL CONCENTRATION area are drawn. DIRECT OBSERVATION process, preliminary research is confirmed or revised. Once the is evaluated bymake satellite images, and undertake field Geologists visit the area existence of the deposit is confirmed, the next step is to taking samples fromtrips to analyze superficial rocks. and take rock samples. establish its dimensions, reserves, yield, and extraction costs. deep in the Earth.
    • 82 USE OF ROCKS AND MINERALS ROCKS AND MINERALS 83An Open-Air Mine BINGHAM CANYON UNITED here are many types of mines. Some are located in the depths ofT STATES the Earth, and some show their contents at its surface. Bingham Latitude 40° 32´ N Canyon, a copper mine located in Utah, is not only one of the Longitude 112° 9´ Wmost important open-air mines but also one of the largest excavationsin the world. It is so large that it can be seen from space. It has been in Diameter of the pit 2.5 miles (4 km) 2,300 feet (700 m)operation since 1903, and it has been excavated in the form of terraces, Depth of the pit Opening year 1903like those used in agriculture. Its activity never stops, continuing even on 2013 Closing yearweekends and holidays. The manner in which copper is extracted involves Number of employees 1,700not only the use of machinery of extraordinary dimensions but also theuse of a hydro-metallurgic chemical process called lixiviation, or leaching.Thanks to this process it is possible to obtain 99.9 percent of copper in its WATER BASIN TERRACING OF THEpure state from a copper concentration of 0.02 ounce per pound (0.56 gram The phreatic layer, the SURFACE closest aquifer to the The mine acquires a steplikeper kg) of raw material. surface below the water shape because it is excavated table, emerges at the in spiral terraces. The bottom and forms a water machines can move easily basin with a peculiar color over the terraces, collecting because of the copper salts the extracted material.How the Metal Is Extracted in the deposit. Thousands of pounds of explosives, trucks and shovels as transported to grinders, which produce rock fragments 1.5 inches large as a house, and massive grinding machines that can (4 cm) in diameter. These materials are placed in a pile that isreduce hard rocks to dust are involved in the extraction process, treated with a solution of water and sulfuric acid. This process isand rock temperatures are raised to 4,500° F (2,500° C). In this called lixiviation, or leaching. Lixiviation is a hydro-metallurgicway, copper is extracted from one of the largest open-air mines treatment that makes it possible to obtain copper present in theon the planet. The raw material excavated from the terraces in oxidized minerals. The treated material begins the process ofthe mine contains oxidized copper minerals. This material is sulfatation of copper contained in the oxidized minerals. PATHS The roads are well built, and they can withstand loads of up to 1,765 cubic HOW MATERIAL TRANSMISSION PULLEYS 1 IS OBTAINED The process begins with rock perforation feet (50 cu m) of rock on only one truck. and blasting. The rock is removed from theLOADERS/CHARGERS pit and loaded by large shovels onto trucks. ARRANGEMENT OF Then it is unloaded onto a mobile grinder. The ground rock is removed from the mine on conveyor belts and then sprayed with a 2 THE STACK When on the conveyor belts, the material solution of water and sulfuric acid. is taken to a place where it will form a lixiviation pile or stack, and a trickle COPPER RECOVERY 0.56 % irrigation system is installed on top of this pile. Sprinklers cover the entire exposed area. The material will spend 45 days here. 3 The resulting copper solution is collected in conduits and then undergoes a process of electrolytic refining. During this process, electricity passes between two TUNEL COPPER CONCENTRATION copper plates suspended in the solution; copper from IN THE RAW MATERIAL 6 ounces/ gallon the solution adheres to the sheets as it is separated through electrolysis. RAW MATERIAL SPRINKLERS SEWER ACID SOLUTION (45 g/l) OF COPPER IN THE SOLUTION AT THE END OF THE 99.9 % COPPER IN A PURE STATE TERRACES BOTTOM OF THE MINE The material extracted LIXIVIATION PROCESS MAXIMUM PHREATIC LEVEL 0.4 MILE from the pit is loaded (0.7 KM) on a mobile grinder. 26 FEET 2.5 MILES (8 M) (4 KM) COPPERLIXIVIATION SHEETS FORMATION OF THE MINEThe hydro-metallurgic process that makes Surface mines take the shape of large terracedit possible to obtain copper from the pits, which grow ever deeper and wider. Viewedoxidized minerals by applying a solution of from above, an enormous spiraling hollow can be ELECTROLYTIC POOLsulfuric acid and water. Oxidized minerals seen. This is a relatively inexpensive and simple COLECTORare sensitive to attack by acid solutions. method to extract high-purity materials.
    • 84 USE OF ROCKS AND MINERALS ROCKS AND MINERALS 85Blinded by Brilliance FLOW OF IMMIGRANTS From the United States 30,000 UNITED STATES he discovery of gold in the Sacramento River in California in the mid-19th century started one of In 1848, California had aT the largest migrations of its time. Fortune hunters came from the Americas as well as from Asia, but few were able to achieve their goal of striking it rich. Each year, obtaining gold required alarger investment of time and equipment, and equipment suppliers population of 14,000. However, within four years and with the gold fever at its peak, the population rose to 223,856. Through Mexico 15,000 California Sacramento Riverwere the ones who ultimately earned the highest profits. Goldwas the key force in settling California, now the Key *Number ofwealthiest state in the United States. At its peak, By Boat immigrants who 40,000* arrived in 1849 SLUICE BOXimmigration overwhelmed the states social and Water flowed through the artificial CHANNELEDmunicipal services as up to 30 houses were RIVER canal, where riffles (barriers) along the bottom of the sluice box caughtbeing built each day. the gold and let the other material ARTIFICIAL pass through. CANALENCAMPMENTSBad living conditionsled to the death ofmany workers;many were also DRAGGING DRY RIVERBED 100 SLUICE BOXES COULD BEkilled by epidemics Mules dragged large stones, used USED IN THE CONSTRUCTIONand illnesses. to break other quartz stones, OF JUST ONE WASHER. O thus releasing the gold within. NT ME RA AC OS THEY RÍ SHOVELED THE GRAVEL. WASHED PARTICLES DRY RIVERBED SLOPE GOLD WASHING The water flowed SELECTOR CONTAINERS GOLD IN THE SOIL and deposited Gold could be found in gold at the PARTICLES dry riverbeds as dust, serrated bottom. BEING WASHED as nuggets, or as small ORIGINAL rock fragments. RIVERBED HOPPER The gravel was placed in the PAN CHINESE hopper and the deposited The swirling movement of Chinese immigrants, material was moved with a the pan allowed for the attracted by the lever. When water was separation of sediments, and prospect of wealth, added, the dirt could be RETURN TO THE RIVER BY HAND the gold could be identified constituted most of carried away, leaving the Once the water had been by a difference in weight. the labor force. gold at the barrier since the DRY RIVER used to pan for gold, it was Resources and tools were scarce. Almost everything was density of gold is greater In 1853, $3 million was channeled back into the done by hand. than that of water. invested to change the river from which it came. course of the Yuba River, which merged with the 1848 1850 1852 1 On the morning of January 24, while 2 California became the 31st state of the Union. Slavery was Sacramento River. The water of the new canal 3 When the surface gold was exhausted, more James Marshall was building a sawmill for his employer John Sutter, he discovered gold on the banks of the $16 WAS THE PRICE OF A PLOT abolished because of the large influx of immigrants and the fear that it would reduce workers salaries. However, the Fugitive Slave Act was sanctioned by the state. According $500 MILLION IN GOLD WAS was used to wash the gold. complex technology was required to extract it from the ground. Hydraulic mining, which used water jets, was a technique used for Sacramento River. This irrevocably OF LAND; 18 MONTHS LATER, to this law, every fugitive slave that entered California had EXCHANGED DURING this purpose. Miners then became changed the history of California. IT WAS PRICED AT $45,000. to be returned to his or her owner. THE ENTIRE DECADE. employees, enduring long workdays.
    • 86 USE OF ROCKS AND MINERALS ROCKS AND MINERALS 87Black as Coal 60% OF EXPLOITATION IS CARRIED OUT UNDERGROUND. n gallery or subterranean mines people must enter the bowels of the Earth to be able to extractI the planets mineral wealth. Some mines for extracting coal—the legendary driving force of the Industrial Revolution—are a clear example of this type of exploitation. Although these minesimply higher costs and labor risks, they have a lower environmental impact. MAIN PRODUCERS Year 2003. In millions of tons. China United States 1,070 1,635 India 503 Russia 294How Coal Is Extracted South Africa 264 MAIN CONSUMERS6. DISTRIBUTION Mine trains transport the coal from the mine to the point of consumption. Year 2003. In millions of tons. China United States 1,094 1,531 India 4305. WASHING AND CLASSIFICATION Coal that leaves the mine is mixed with mud and rocks. It must be washed and classified according to quality and size. EXTRACTION TOWER Germany South Africa 273 264 Coal with Coal is separated impurities from other materials Water through decantation. Coal VENTILATION Without good ventilation, methane, an explosive gas, condenses in the galleries and creates the risk of explosions. Coal Coal dust pellets Coal gravel Impurities WASHING AND CLASSIFICATION BUILDING FRESH-AIR ENTRANCE4. ELEVATION From the main shaft, the coal is transferred to cargo EXIT FOR CONTAMINATED AIR SECONDARY SHAFT elevators that transport it to the surface. MINERS MOVEMENT IN TRANSPORT THE GALLERIES The miners travel GALLERY on foot or by train Tunnel that is used for to the coal vein. communication in the mine3. TRANSPORTATION The extracted coal is placed on the conveyor belts that take it to the main shaft, and from MAIN SHAFT there it is taken to the surface. 16 TO 23 FEET (5 TO 7 M)2. EXTRACTION The method that is widely used is that of continuous mining. A machine extracts the coal mechanically. Mobile 5,000 feet Arm (1.52 km) THE SHAFTS CAN REACHCoal Vein THIS DEPTH. TRANSPORTER BELT1. PERFORATION A vertical shaft is perforated, allowing access to the coal vein. 1.8 tons IS THE AMOUNT OF COAL THE PERFORATOR CARGO ELEVATOR EXTRACTS IN AN HOUR.
    • 88 USE OF ROCKS AND MINERALS ROCKS AND MINERALS 89Black Gold 3. EXTRACTION If the well is productive, the drilling towers are removed and extraction 4. TRANSPORTATION Tankers transport crude oil to the refinery, where 5. REFINING The components of crude oil are separated, making FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION Distillation Column Light Molecules Molecules of Intermediate CRACKING Big molecules are broken down to create smaller ones. PRODUCTS OF DISTILLATION Approximate Boiling Point Gas ecause of its economic importance as a source of energy, petroleum, or systems are installed. various products can use of the fact thatB Weight be derived from it. each component oil, is called black gold. Searching for it requires large amounts of money NATURAL WAYS TO boils at a different Crude Oil Hydrocarbon Smaller 212º F Gasoline Molecules (100º C) and years of investigation and exploration, all with no guarantees. Once PUMP PETROLEUM temperature. Heat Molecules By January 2005 Refining is carrieddiscovered, petroleum extraction entails the use of expensive machinery, which The driving force is the out by means of two Catalytic 392º F (200º C) Keroseneincludes everything from oil pumps to refineries that convert oil into many gas dissolved in a petroleum 25% main processes: fractional distillation Cracking Plant Diesel Oilderivative products. The oil trade is one of the most lucrative businesses deposit. of the worlds and cracking. 572º F (300º C) merchant fleet Fuel Oilworldwide, and a change in its price can affect national economies and put The gas was used to accumulatedwhole countries on guard. Petroleum is a nonrenewable source of energy. in the deposit transport oil. There were 11,356 tankers. Crude-Oil Deposit pushes the Residue petroleum Fractioning outward. Drilling TANKER Columns Later as water Column or is pumped in,How Petroleum Is Obtained String it accumulates This pipe will underneath REFINERY1. 2. SEARCH EXPLORATION be lowered into the petroleum Indirect methods are used Once a deposit is detected, the ground. and pushes it to detect the presence of the soil is drilled to verify upward. hydrocarbons. However, the that there is petroleum information obtained is not with economic potential. conclusive. Machinery Pipe for Room SEISMIC TRUCK CONTINENTAL Delivering Drill Mud Cargo space divided CRUST These machines are located at different points within into compartments the research area. Electric Motors PUMP ENGINE SEA Pool for Recovering Drill Oil Pump Mud Pumping systems If oil does not flow naturally, it is extracted with a pumping system. GEOPHONEVibrating CONTINENTALSheet CRUST EXPLORATORY WELL IMPROVEMENT DRILLING IN OIL RECOVERY 1 Powerful motors INJECTION make the drilling 1 OF GAS OR RISING string turn. WATER 2 PETROLEUM is carried out The injected under high material DRILL BIT pressure; theSeismic 2 It advances through natural pushes up the petroleumWaves volume is and makes it the rock formationspenetrate the increased. rise faster. that lie between the Detail of MAIN CONSUMERSlayers of the the Drill Bit Year: 2004 surface and the DRILL MUDEarths crust hydrocarbons below. North Pacific-and bounce flows down MAIN EXTRACTORS America Asiaback to the through the Year: 2004 28.8% 30.1%surface when pipe and exits LUTITE CAUTION Middle Europe Europethe type of 3 Once oil is detected, through the East and Eurasia Africa androck they pass drill orifices. 3.3% Eurasia Bounced Waves 29.6% 22.1%throughchanges. Geophones register these the drilling proceeds more slowly, and valves are closed to Roller with Teeth Solid As the mud rises, it carries GAS SOLID ROCK 77% OF ALL PETROLEUM Central and South North America Middle East 25.9% Central and South America waves. A prevent the oil from rock that America 18.2 % 5.9% 6.0% Rock reveals which PRODUCED IS seismic section gushing to the surface PETROLEUM 9.2% strata have EXTRACTED FROM North America and Pacific-Asia account is generated under high pressure. Pacific-Asia Africa for 90 percent of the increase in petroleum been perforated. UNDERGROUND based on the WATER 10.2% 10.8% consumption over the last 10 years. DEPOSITS. data obtained.
    • 90 USE OF ROCKS AND MINERALS ROCKS AND MINERALS 91Radioactive Minerals Carbon 14 is a method for dating organic fossil samples based on the exponential decay REACTOR BUILDING law of radioactive isotopes. After a living ranium and plutonium were used for the first time—for militaryU This special building is made of reinforced organism has been dead for 5,730 years, the purposes—in the 1940s. Once World War II ended, nuclear concrete and steel. It is 210 feet (64 m) high amount of 14C present in its body has and 148 feet (45 m) wide. It houses and decreased by half. Thus, when the amount of reactors and their fuels began to be used as sources of energy. To shelters the components of the reactor. It also latent 14C is measured in organic materials, itprocess these minerals, nuclear plants are necessary. They must be built contains the pressure vessel, four steam is possible to calculate the amount remaining generators, a pump (which circulates cooling in the material and, therefore, to calculatefollowing many safety guidelines, since nuclear energy is considered to be water around the core), and a compressor REINFORCED when the organism died.very risky. Accidents like the one in Chernobyl and, more recently, in (which keeps the water under pressure). CONCRETE WALLTokaimura, Japan, are clear examples of what can happen when control ofthis form of energy is lost. These images show the structure and heart of CRANE FOR 50,000 yearsa nuclear reactor, the way uranium is processed, and the peaceful uses of THE FUEL RODS MAMMOTHthis type of energy. CRANE CUB BRIDGE STEEL STRUCTUREPressure Vessel THE NUCLEUS OF THE REACTOR is in the lower part of the safety vessel, in which The nuclear reactor is inserted into a vessel formed by there are about 200 groups of fuel sheaths sized 0.4 REINFORCED HOOKS TO LIFT steel that is approximately 1.6 feet (0.5 m) thick. The fuel, inch (1 cm) in diameter and 13 feet (4 m) in height. CONCRETE OR LOWER THEwhich is encapsulated in zirconium alloy sheaths, is located inside CONTROL RODS WALL USE OF URANIUM IN MEDICINEthe hollow space of the vessel. This design helps to meet one of The application of nuclear energy helps with thethe first goals in nuclear safety: to prevent radioactive productsfrom leaking into the surrounding environment. 572º F diagnosis and treatment of diseases such as cancer. It can detect alterations long before symptoms develop clinically, which allows for more effectiveURANIUM HANDLING (300º C) early treatment.Uranium 235 is the only isotope that is found in a natural THE TEMPERATURE OFstate, easily fissionable. For this reason, it is the main fuel THE WATER PELLET THYROID TAKES INused in nuclear power plants. Even though it is rare to find 99MTC-PERTECNETATE.it in the Earths crust, it can be found in enriching depositsin watercourse beds. URANIUM RODS STEAM WATER GENERATOR CONTROL DEPOSIT THYROID PROTECTION RODS SCINTILLOGRAPHY GLOVES USING POSITRON EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY RAW SAFETY SUIT URANIUM To handle radioactive material, such as spent fuel bars, workers must wear a special suit because of the high levels of radiation. THE SUIT IS HERMETIC. IT URANIUM WATER MUST ISOLATE THE WORKER PELLETS FOR FROM THE OUTSIDE. USE IN A FUEL ROD REACTOR THE WORKER CARRIES CORE AN OXYGEN TANK. A HOSE IS CONNECTED GROUPS OF TO THE TANK SO THE COOLING- FUEL RODS THAT WORKER CAN BREATHE. FLUID PUMP CONTAINER FOR GENERATE THE THE FUEL RODS MACHINERY THE HANDS MUST BE NUCLEAR REACTION ROOM PROTECTED WITH INSULATING GLOVES. 264 FUEL RODS IN EACH GROUP PIPING TUNNEL PIPING TUNNEL Human Scale
    • 92 GLOSSARY ROCKS AND MINERALS 93Glossary deposit is called primary. Otherwise, it is called Rocks, minerals, and fossils offer information thatAlkalines Carat Concretion secondary. Flexibility helps us reconstruct the history of the planet.Minerals that have a high content of potassium, Unit of weight used in jewelry, variable in time Hard mass of mineral material that usually holds Ability of minerals to bend without fracturing.sodium, lithium, rubidium, and calcium. and place, equivalent to 0.007 ounce (0.2 g). a fossil inside. Diatomite Glacier Light, porous rock. It has a light color, and it is Fluorescence A large mass of ice formed through theAmorphous Cave Contact Metamorphism consolidated. Composed exclusively (or almost) Property of some minerals that enables them to accumulation of recrystallized and compactedMineral with fractured surfaces instead of Subterranean cavity formed through the Large-scale transformation of a rock into of diatoms. emit a certain level of light when exposed to snow occurring either on a mountain or over acrystalline faces. Noncrystalline. chemical action of water on soluble, generally another type of rock. This happens mostly as a ultraviolet rays. The fluorescent properties large area on a landmass. Ice moves slowly and both excavates rock and carries debris. calcareous, ground. consequence of a sudden temperature increase. Dolostone present in a metal can make it look as if it were truly fluorescent.Anticline Carbonated sedimentary rock that contains at GraniteA fold of sedimentary strata sloping upwards Cementation Convection Currents least 50 percent or more carbonate, of which atlike an arch. Process by which sediment both loses porosity Moving pathways of material that occur inside least half appears as dolomite. Fold Intrusive igneous rock composed mainly of quartz the mantle as a consequence of the transfer of Bending and deformation of rock strata due to and feldspar. It can be polished and used in and is lithified through the chemical decoration.Asthenosphere precipitation of material in the spaces between heat coming from the Earths core. The hottest Earthquake the compression caused by the movements of the grains. zones of the mantle rise, and the coldest ones tectonic plates. The sudden and violent release of energy andLayer inside the Earth, below the lithosphere. It sink. These movements are probably responsible vibrations in the Earth that generally occurs Habitis part of the upper mantle and is composed of for the movement of tectonic plates. Fossileasily deformable rock. Cementation Zone along the edges of tectonic plates. External aspect of a crystal that reflects its Any trace of an old life-form. It can be the predominant shape. Place where lithification occurs. Water CrackAtom infiltrates the area, fills up the spaces between Elasticity petrified remains of an organism or an the grains of sediment, and transforms loose Fissure or cavity in the rock that results from Tendency of a mineral to recover its shape after impression of an organism left in rock. HardnessThe smallest unit of matter. sediment into a solid mass. tension. It can be completely or partially filled being subjected to flexion or torsion. Resistance offered by a mineral to scratching with minerals. Fossil Fuel and abrasion. One mineral is said to be harderBacteria Chasm, or Rift Era Fuel formed from the partially decomposed than another if the former can scratch theMicroscopic and unicellular life-form found in Wide valley formed as a consequence of the Crust remains of deceased organisms. These latter. Division of time in the Earths history. Geologistsair, water, plants, animals, and on the Earths extension of the crust at the boundaries of External layer of the Earth. There are two types mixtures of organic compounds are extracted divide eras into periods.crust. diverging tectonic plates. of crust: continental crust forms large terrestrial from the subsoil with the goal of producing Hot Spot masses, and oceanic crust forms the bottoms of energy through combustion. They are coal, oil, Erosion and natural gas. Place within a tectonic plate where active the oceans.Batholith Chemical Compound volcanoes form. Removal and transport of sediment through theGreat mass (larger than 60 square miles [100 Substance formed by more than one element. Crystal action of water, ice, and wind. Fracture Hydrothermalsq km] of surface) of intrusive igneous rocks. Organized, regular, and periodically repeated Break of a mineral along an irregular surface. It Chemical Element arrangement of atoms. Evaporation can be conchoidal, hooked, smooth, or earthy. Process involving the physical and chemicalBravais Lattices Substance that contains only one type of atom. transformations suffered by rocks or minerals Process through which a liquid becomes gas through the action of hot fluids (water andThree-dimensional crystal systems, based on Crystalline System without boiling. Gem gases) associated with a magma body.certain mathematical principles, that representthe 14 types of cell units. Clay It includes all crystals that can be related to the Mineral or other natural material that is valued Fine-grained sediments formed by the chemical same set of symmetric elements. Exfoliation for its beauty and rarity. It can be polished and Igneous Rocks decomposition of some rocks. It is malleable cut to produce jewels.Butte The tendency for certain minerals to fracture Rocks formed directly from the cooling of when wet and hardens as it dries. Density along regular planes within their crystalline magma. If they solidify inside the crust, they areHill with a flat top and sloping sides, found in structure. Geode said to be plutonic (or intrusive); if they solidifyareas that have undergone intense erosion. Amount of mass of a mineral per unit of volume. Coal Spherical, rocky cavity covered with well- on the surface, they are said to be volcanic (or Fault extrusive). formed crystals.Canyon Combustible black rock of organic origin. It is Deposit produced through the decomposition of plant Fracture involving the shifting of one rock massDeep, narrow valley formed by fluvial erosion. materials that accumulate in swamps or A natural accumulation of a rock or mineral. If it with respect to another. Geology Impermeable Rock shallow marine waters. is located at the site where it formed, the Rock through which liquids cannot be filtered. Study of the Earth, its shape, and its composition.
    • 94 GLOSSARY ROCKS AND MINERALS 95Intrusion Magmatic Rock Mohs Scale Placer Silicates Talus SlopeA large mass of rock that forms in empty Rock that forms when magma cools off and A tool designed to test the hardness of a given Mineral concentrations as deposits of placer They make up about 95 percent of the Earths Accumulation of fragments resulting from thespaces underground when magma infiltrates solidifies. Magmatic intrusive rocks solidify mineral by comparing it to 10 known minerals, during time lapses that vary from a few decades crust. Their tetrahedral structure, with one mechanical weathering of rocks. The sedimentstrata, cools, and solidifies. underground, while the extrusive ones solidify from the softest to the hardest. Each mineral up to millions of years. silicon and four oxygen ions, creates different deposit forms more or less in situ as the result on the surface. can be scratched by those following it. types of configurations through the union of the of the transport of materials through gravity ions. According to their composition, members over a small distance.Jade Pyroelectric of this mineral group are differentiated intoWhite or green metamorphic rock formed by a Magnetism Molecule Property that some nonconductor minerals have light and dark.compact and tenacious filter of very fine needles Property of some minerals that allows them to Chemical compound formed when one or several to create difference in power transmissions Tectonic Elevationof tremolite. It is a rare rock used in art objects. be attracted by a magnet and to change the types of atoms are joined together. from differences in temperature. Rising of rocks as a consequence of the direction of a compass needle. Slate movements of tectonic plates. Bluish black, fine-grained metamorphic rock. ItKarst Cycle Native Element Quartzite can be easily divided into sheets.Formation cycle of caves that lasts a total of Malleability An element that occurs in nature that is not Metamorphic rock formed by the consolidation Tectonic Platesabout one million years. Mechanical property of a mineral that makes it of quartz sandstone. It is extremely hard. Rigid fragments of the lithosphere that move on possible for the mineral to be molded and combined with other elements. Sulfur and gold are examples of native elements. Quartzite can also be a sedimentary rock, which Solution the asthenosphere. formed into a sheet through repeated blows is sandstone with a very high content of quartz; Mixture of two or more chemical substances. ItKimberlite without breaking. it is very hard and it has light color. can be liquid, solid, or gaseous.Type of rock usually associated with diamonds Oceanic Trench Tenacityand other minerals coming from the depths ofthe Earth. Mantle Narrow and deep submarine depression formed Regional Metamorphism Stalactite The level of toughness that a mineral offers to when the oceanic crust of one tectonic plate fracture, deformation, crushing, bending, or The layer between the crust and external core. moves beneath another. Metamorphism occurring in rock over large Internal structure of a cave. It is conical and pulverization. It includes the upper mantle and lower mantle. areas. hangs from the cave ceiling.LavaMagma expelled on the surface of the Earth. Ornamental Stone Transparent Marble Rock Stalagmite It is not a precious stone, but it can be used in It is said that a mineral is clear when light goes Metamorphosed limestone rock composed of Natural aggregate of one or more minerals Internal structure of a cave. It is conical andLimestone compacted calcite and dolomite. It can be jewelry or for other ornamental purposes. (sometimes including noncrystalline substances) rises from the cave floor. through it without weakening. When only some light passes through, the mineral is calledRock containing at least 50% calcite. It can also polished. that constitute an independent geologic unit. translucent. If no light passes through, it ishave dolomite, aragonite, and siderite. Outcrop Streak called opaque. Massive Part of a rock formation devoid of vegetation or Sedimentary Rock Characteristic color of the fine dust obtainedLithosphere One of the possible habits of a consistent soil that stands out from the Earths surface. Rock that forms through accumulation of from a mineral by rubbing it over an unglazed VeinExterior, rigid layer of the Earth formed by the mineral that refers to the tendency for certain sediments that, when subjected to physical and porcelain plate. Fracture that cuts through rocks and is filled bycrust and upper mantle. crystals to intertwine and form a solid mass Oxidation Zone chemical processes, result in a compacted and some mineral. rather than independent crystals. consolidated material. Sediment can form on Deposit of minerals with oxidizing properties, river banks, at the bottom of precipices, in Streak TestLode formed through the effect of meteorization or valleys, lakes, and seas. Sedimentary rock A test that involves rubbing a mineral against Volcanic OutcroppingSub-superficial rock intrusion of tabular-shaped Metal weathering. accumulates in successive layers, or strata. an unglazed white porcelain sheet to obtain Isolated pile of hard magmatic rocks thatrock. Any element that shines, conducts electricity, dust. The color of the dust left on the tile can remain after the disappearance of the rest of and is malleable. Petrifaction Sediments help identify the mineral. the volcano due to erosion.Luster Cell-by-cell replacement of organic matter, such Rock fragments or remains of plants or animalsLevel of light reflection on the surface of a Metamorphic Rock as bones or wood, with minerals of the deposited at the bottom of rivers, lakes, or Symmetry Axes Weathering surrounding solutions.crystal. Type of rock resulting from the application of oceans by water, wind, or ice. Symmetry element that enables the repetition The breaking down of a material by sustained high pressure and temperature on igneous and of crystalline faces to form different shapes. physical or chemical processes.Magma sedimentary rocks. Piezoelectric Seismic WavesHot, rocky material from the crust and upper Property that some minerals have to produce a Elastic waves that travel through the Earth Synclinemantle in liquid state that forms crystals as it Mineral difference in potential when subjected to after an earthquake. They can also be produced Concave fold of sedimentary rock strata. The compression, traction, or torsion.cools. When magma is expelled at the Earths Inorganic solid of natural origin that has an artificially through explosions. younger rocks are located at the center of thesurface, it is called lava. organized atomic structure. concave.
    • 96 INDEX ROCKS AND MINERALS 97IndexA barytine, 39 basalt, 43 eruptions, 9 Grand Canyon, 52-53, 66 car, elements, 78-79 carbon, mineral structure, 21 conglomerate (sedimentary rock), 69 contact metamorphism, 55 See also metamorphism cuts, 33 hardness, 21, 25 history, 34-35 extended cave system, 50 Externsteine rock formation (Germany), 58 extinction: See mass extinctionabrasion platform, 49 formation, 12, 65 carbon-14 dating, 53, 91 copper, 38 structure, 21, 30, 33 extrusive rock (volcanic rock), 65agate, 23 batholith, 16, 42, 43 carbonate, 39 mining, 82-83 dike, 42, 43, 65 formation, 12, 42, 43 crystallizing pattern, 43 Yosemite National Park, 44 Carboniferous Period, 9 coquina, 66 dinosaur, mass extinctions, 10 rock cycle, 57Alexander the Great, Valley of Diamonds, 35 bauxite, 38 carbonization, 70 coral reef, 66-67 dolomite, 66allochromatic mineral, 22 beach, formation, 49 cascades, 45 Corkscrew Canyon (Arizona, United States), dune, erosion, 46Allosaurus, 10 bedrock, 57 cataclasite, formation, 54 6-7, 14-15 dynamic metamorphism, 54alloy, 39Alps, formation, 10aluminum, 79 Bering Strait, modern humans, 11 Bingham Canyon (Utah, United States), 82-83 biotite, 37 Cathedral Rocks (Yosemite National Park, cation, 28 United States), 45 corundum, hardness, 25 covalent bond, 28 Cretaceous Period, 10 See also metamorphism Famethyst, 22 birefringent mineral, 23 cave, 50-51 crystal fault (rock fracture), 13 color, 33ammonia, covalent bond, 28ammonite, extinction, 10 bismuth, 20 Black Stone of the Kabah (Mecca, Saudi Arabia), 59 Australian Aborigine paintings, 59 formation, 49 Neversink Pit, 40-41 atomic model, 29 Bravais lattices, 30 characterization, 30 E feldspar, 17 fissure, granite rock, 45 flowering plant, Cretaceous Period, 10Andes mountain range, formation, 11 blackboard chalk, 68 cementation (sedimentary rock), 49, 69 crystallographic axes, 31 Earth fluorite, 39angiosperm, 10 Borena (ethnic group), 27 Cenozoic Era, 10-11 crystallographic chemistry, 28 history, 4-5, 8-9 hardness, 24anhydrite, 39 Bowens reaction series, 43 Central Rocky Mountains (United States), formation, 63 layers, 11 foliation, 72anion, 28 Bravais, Auguste, 30 formation, 10 internal network, 29 earthquake, causes, 13 fools gold: See pyriteanthracite, 71 Bravais lattices, 30 chalcopyrite, 38 precious stones, 32 Earths core, 9, 11, 42 fossilapatite, 38 brazilianite, crystalline system, 30 chalk, 68 crystalline network, categorization, 30 Earths crust, 8, 11, 42 Cambrian explosion, 9 hardness, 24 breccia, 69 chemical element, 8, 16, 20 crystalline system, 30-31 Earths mantle, 11, 42 dating, 53, 91Appalachian Mountains, formation, 9 Bridal Veil Falls (Yosemite National Park, chemical weathering process, 15 crystallization system, 21 earthworm, humus production, 57 formation, 53aragonite, chemical crystallization, 21 United States), 45 Chicxulub (Mexico), meteor impact, 10 crystallographic axis, 31 Ediacaran fauna, 8 hominid, 11Argentina, Veladero mine, 80-81 Burkhardt, Jean L., 74 Chile, Torres del Paine National Park, 16-17 crystallographic chemistry, 28 effusive rock, formation, 12 succession, 52, 53arkose (sandstone), 69 citrine, 22 crystallography, 28 Egyptian iconography, 75 fractional distillation, 89ash cone, 43 clast, detrital rocks, 68 cubic crystalline system, 30 El Capitan (Yosemite National Park, United fracture, 13, 24, 63Asscher, Joseph, 35 clay Cullinan diamond, 35 States), 44 temperature effects, 15asthenosphere (Earths mantle), 11atom, crystalline structures, 28, 29augite, 36 C kaoline, 68 lutite, 68 structure, 36 electric current, 25 element, chemical, 8, 16, 20 emerald, color, 32 Fugitive Slave Law, 84 fusion (rock), 55aureole, 55Australia, Uluru-Kata Tjuta National Park, calcite, 66 chemical crystallization, 21 cliff, formation, 49 coal D Eocene Epoch, 10 eolian process (erosion), 14 58-59automobile: See carAyers, Henry, 59 hardness, 24 calcium sulfate, 39 caldera, 43 deposits, 71, 77 formation, 70-71 mining, 76-77, 86-87 Dallol volcano (Ethiopia), 18-19, 26-27 deflation, geologic processes, 46 erosion, 14, 46 rock formation: See sedimentary rock soil formation, 57 GAyers Rock (Australia): See Uluru-Kata Tjuta Caledonian range, 9 coastal drift, 4 delta, formation, 48 erratics, glaciers, 47 gabbro (rock), 64 National Park California (United States), gold rush, 84-85 coastal plain, 49 dendrite, 38 estuary, 49 galena, structure, 21 Cambrian explosion, 9 color density (mineral), 25 Ethiopia garnet, color, 33 Cambrian Period, 9 mineral, 22: See also streak color desert, 46 Borena ethnic group, 27 garnetiferous schist, 72-73B Cango Caves (South Africa), 50-51 canyon Bingham Canyon, 82-83 rock, 63 column (cave structure), 50 compaction (sedimentary rock), 49 desertic soil, 56 detrital rock, 68-69 Devonian Period, 9 Dallol volcano, 18-19, 26-27 volcanic cave house, 4-5 exfoliation, 24, 63 gas: See petroleum gem (precious stone), 18-19, 32-33 geode, 60, 61Baltica, Ural Mountains formation, 9 formation, 46, 51 compound mineral, 20 diamond, 19, 32-33 exotic mineral, quartz color, 22 geologic process: See erosion; weathering
    • 98 INDEX ROCKS AND MINERALS 99geologic time scale, 8-11 rock layers, 53geology, branches, 16 halite: See salt hardness (mineral) diamond, 21 J-K M mineralization process, Dallol volcano, 26 mining coal, 76-77, 86-87 OGermany, Externsteine rock formation, 58 graphite, 21 joint (rock fracture), 13 magma, rock formation, 42, 43 copper, 82-83 obsidian, 43, 65Giants Causeway (Northern Ireland), 65 Mohs scale, 21, 24 Jordan, Petra, 74-75 See also igneous rock; volcanic rock gold, 80-81, 84-85 oceanglacial cirque, 47 quartzite, 73 Jurassic Period, 10 magmatism, 12 hydraulic, 85 first, 8glaciation hematite, 23 kaoline, 68 magnesite, structure, 21 open-air mine, 82-83 marine sediments, 66-67 Precambrian Period, 8 hexagonal crystalline system, 30 See also clay magnesium, 78, 79 silver, 80-81 Oligocene Epoch, 11 Quaternary Period, 11 Himalayas (Asia), formation, 10 kaolinite, 36 magnetite, 38 types, 82 olivine, 36glacier, 44, 47, 56 Holocene Epoch, 11 karst cycle, 50 malachite, 22, 39 Miocene Epoch, 11 opal, 32glass, atomic model, 29 Hope Diamond, 35 Kilauea Crater (Hawaii, United States), 12-13 mammal, Cenozoic Era, 10-11 Mohs, Friedrich, 24 open-air mine, 82-83gneiss, 72 hopper (mining equipment), 85 Kimberley mine, 32 mammoth, 11, 91 Mohs scale of hardness, 24-25 optical property (mineral), 22-23 formation, 9, 55 hornblende schist, 72 Koh-I-Noor diamond, Great, 34 marble, 73 diamonds, 21 Ordovician Period, 9 metamorphism, 73 hornito (salt formation), 26, 27 colors, 63 graphite, 21 organic rock, 61, 70gold human being, emergence, 11 marcasite, chemical crystallization, 21 monoclinic crystalline system, 30 original horizontality principle, 53 gold rush, 84-85 humus, 57 mass extinction monorefringent mineral, 23 orogeny, 9 metals, 20 mining, 80-81Gondwana (continent), 9 hydraulic mining, 85 hydrocarbon, 78 hydrologic process, erosion, 14 L Cretaceous Period, 10 Permian Period, 9 Mauna Loa volcano (Hawaii, United States), moraine, 47 mother-of-pearl, 67 mountain orthoclase, hardness, 25 oxide, 38grain (rock), 63 hydroxide, 38 labradorite, 31 12-13 formation, 9, 10, 11, 13Grand Canyon (United States), 52-53, 66 laccolith, 43 McLean, Evelyn Walsh, 35 See also specific names, for example Sierragranite, 12, 17, 42, 44, 45, 64granodiorite, 64 laterite soil, 56 lava, 43 Mecca (Saudi Arabia), Black Stone of the Kabah, 59 Nevada range Mountain of Light (diamond): See Great P-Qgraphite chemical crystallization, 21 hardness, 21 I leaching (lixiviation), 82 lignite, 71 limestone, 68 mechanical weathering process, 15 Mesozoic Era, 10 metal Koh-I-Noor diamond mylonite, formation, 54 Paleocene Epoch, 10 Paleozoic Era, 9 use, 19 idiochromatic mineral, 22 Externsteine formation, 58 car parts, 78-79 calcareous formations, 66 Yosemite National Park, 44-45 igneous rock, 64-65 formation, 66 luster, 23 Pangea (continent), 9graywacke, 69Great Koh-I-Noor diamond, 34Great Star of Africa diamond, 35 formation, 42-43 rock cycle, 57 immigrant labor, gold mining, 84 karst cycle, 50 Neversink Pit, 40-41 stalactite formation, 51 native minerals, 21, 22 metamorphic rock, 12 classification, 72 N Panotia (supercontinent), 9 Patagonia, formation, 11 pearl, formation, 67Greece, ancient, architecture in Petra, 75 India, diamond history, 34, 35 limolite: See limestone rock cycle, 57 Nabataean people, Petra, 74-75 peat bog, coal formation, 70gypsum, 39 inselberg, 46 limonite, 38 metamorphism, 12, 54-55 native mineral, 20 pegmatite, 65 hardness, 24 internal geodynamics, 12 lithosphere, 11 meteor, Yucatán Peninsula, 10 Neversink Pit (Alabama, United States), 40-41 peridotite, 64 use, 19 intrusive rock (plutonic rock), 64 lixiviation (leaching), 82 Mexico, Yucatán Peninsula meteor, 10 nonmetal mineral, 20, 38 permafrost, 56 formation, 12, 42 luminescence, 23 mica, 17 car parts, 79 Permian Period, 9 rock cycle, 57 luster, 23 micaceous schist, 72 luster, 23 Petra (Jordan), 74-75 ionic bond, 28 pearl, 67 mineral, 18-39 nonsilicate mineral, 38-39 petrographic microscope, 22H iron, 79 isomorphism, 21 lutite, 68 chemical perspective, 17 classification, 20-23 optical property, 22-23 Northern Ireland, Giants Causeway, 65 nuclear energy, 77, 90-91 nuclear reactor, 90-91 petroleum (gas) combustion, 78 formation and reserves, 70-71Hadean Era, 8 physical properties, 24-25 production process, 88-89Half Dome (Yosemite National Park, United radioactive, 90-91 phosphate, 38 States), 45 sources, 5 phraetic layer, mining, 83halide, 39 structure, 21 phyllite, formation, 54, 72
    • 100 INDEX ROCKS AND MINERALS 101piezoelectricity, 25Pleistocene Epoch, 11Pliocene Epoch, 11 reptile Cretaceous Period extinction, 10 Mesozoic Era, 10 water transportation, 48-49 wind transportation, 47 sedimentary rock stripe (rock), 72 subsoil, 57 sulfate, 39 U Wplutonic rock (intrusive rock), 64 rhodochrosite, 31 detrital rock, 68-69 sulfide, 39 Uluru-Kata Tjuta National Park (Australia), water formation, 12, 42 rhombic crystalline system, 31 formation, 46-49, 57 sulfur, 19, 20, 22 58-59 cave formation, 50-51 rock cycle, 57 river, sediment transportation, 48-49 marine organic remains, 66-67 supercontinent, 8, 9 unconformity, rock layers, 53 erosion, 14polymorphism, 21 rock, 60-75 See also stalactite; stalagmite United Kingdom hornitos, 26, 27porphyritic rock, 65 color, 62 sedimentation, 15, 48 Giants Causeway, 65 sediment transportation, 48-49positron emission tomography, 91 formation, 16-17, 62 semimetal mineral, 20 royal familys diamond ownership, 34, 35 weathering, 15Precambrian Period, 8precious stone, colors, 32-33 See also specific types, for example diamond identification, 62-63 mineralogical composition, 62 shape, 62 semiprecious stone color, 33 See also precious stone T United States of America Bingham Canyon, 82-83 Corkscrew Canyon, 6-7, 14-15 waterfall formation, 48 Yosemite National Park, 45pressure, effect on rock structure, 55 transformation: See metamorphism Serapis (Egyptian god), 75 talc, 37 gold mining, 84-85 weathering, 14, 15prism, 30 See also specific types, for example granite Siberia, Ural Mountains formation, 9 hardness, 24 Grand Canyon, 52-53, 66 wind Giants Causeway, 65 rock crystal, 22 siderite, structure, 21 Taylor, Elizabeth, 35 Mauna Loa volcano, 12-13 deserts, 46Proterozoic Era, 8 rock cycle, 6-7, 57 Sierra Nevada range (United States), 44-45 Taylor-Burton diamond, 35 Neversink Pit, 40-41 erosion, 14pumice, 65 Rocky Mountains (North America), silicate, structures, 29, 36-37 temperature, degree of metamorphism, 55 Yosemite National Park, 44-45 sediment transportation, 47pyrite (fools gold) formation, 10 silicon, 79 terminal moraine, 47 Ural Mountains (Eurasia), formation, 9 Winston, Harry, 35 chemical crystallization, 21 Rodinia (early supercontinent), 8 sill (rock formation), 42, 65 Tertiary Period, 10-11 uranium, 77 structure, 39 rose quartz, 22 Silurian Period, 9 tetragonal crystalline system, 31 handling, 90pyroclastic material: See volcanic ash ruby, color, 32 silver texture (rock), 63 medical uses, 91pyroelectricity, 25Quaternary Period, 11quartz crystal dendrite, 20 mining, 80-81 sinkhole, 50 thyroid, scintillography, 91 till, glaciers, 47 topaz, 31 X-Z agate, 23 color, 22 composition, 17 S slate, 39, 72 formation, 9 micrography, 72 color, 33 hardness, 25 Torres del Paine National Park (Chile), 16-17 V X-ray diffraction, 22 crystal structure identification, 28 Yosemite National Park (United States), 44-45 hardness, 25 safety measure, radioactive material, 90, 91 phyllite formation, 54, 72 tourmaline, 24-25 Valley of Diamonds (legend), 35 Yucatán Peninsula (Mexico), meteor, 10 structure, 37 salt (halite), 19, 20 sluice box, 85 transportation, eroded materials, 15 vanadinite, 30 zooxanthellae, coral reefs, 67quartzite, 73 extraction, 27 Smithsonian Institution, Hope Diamond, 35 Triassic Period, 10 Veladero mine (Argentina), 80-81 ionic bond, 28 smoky quartz, 22 triclinic crystalline system, 31 Victoria, Queen, Great Koh-I-Noor diamond, 34 structure, 21, 28-29 soil trigonal crystalline system, 31 volcanic ash, 68 salt deposit, hornito formation, 27 formation, 56 trilobite, 9, 52 ash cone, 43 sandstone humus, 57 tropics, laterite soil, 56 volcanic rock (extrusive rock), 65R classification, 69 Petra, 74-75 Uluru, 58-59 profile, 57 types, 56 South Africa tuff, detrital rocks, 68 tunnel, formation, 51 turquoise, color, 33 formation, 12, 42, 43 rock cycle, 57 volcanoradioactive mineral, 90-91 sapphire, color, 33 Cango Caves, 50-51 caldera, 43ranker (soil type), 56 Saudi Arabia, Black Stone of the Kabah, 59 diamonds, 35 Dallol, 18-19, 26-27rapids, 48 scheelite, 31 stalactite, 50 Mauna Loa 12-13refining, petroleum, 89 schist, 55 formation, 51 rock formation, 42, 65refraction, 23 types, 72-73 stalagmite, 50regional metamorphism, 55 Scotland, gneiss formation, 9, 54-55 stock (rock formation), 43 See also metamorphism sediment streak color, 23 soil formation, 56 See also color fdf dsdfsdaf