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1 Developing countries on agro biodiversity rio+20

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Agricultural biodiversity acknowledged

Agricultural biodiversity acknowledged

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  • 1. DEVELOPING COUNTRIESPERSPECTIVES ON BIODIVERSITY,FARMERS RIGHTS, FOOD SECURITYAND CLIMATE CHANGE IN THE FACEOF RIO+ 20 CONVENTION. BY ANDREW MUSHITA COMMUNITY TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT TRUST P. O. BOX 7232 HARARE June 2012  
  • 2. BACKGROUND TO CTDT’s CROP DIVERSIFICATION RELATED INTERVENTIONS   Community Technology Development Trust(CTDT) is a Zimbabwe-based non- governmental organization, working with marginalized communities in Zimbabwe and Zambia. CTDT works through four thematic program areas Food security and livelihoods Agro Biodiversity Environmental Management Policy and Advocacy
  • 3. Community Seed Banking and Seed Fairs These events are intended to highlight three but complementary elements which include: Community crop –diversification through on-farm agro-biodiversity conservation and sustainable use On-farm research and use of community seed banks as repositories of local crop germplasm On-farm seed production, distribution and supply Communities at the front-line of climate change
  • 4. Indigenous Seed Diversity
  • 5. Table1. Germplasm Accessions at Chibika Community Seed Bank in UMP District, in Mashonaland East Province: CROP NUMBER OF ACCESSIONS Sorghum 258 Maize 37 Pearl millet 67 Cowpeas 233 Groundnuts 88 Round nuts 97 Pumpkin 71 Finger-millet (Rapoko) 68 Beans 66 Up-Land Rice 13 Indigenous vegetables 46 Mapudzi (gourds) 79 Cucumber 39 Okra 49 Total 1211 (pop. 3 600HH) Source: CTDT 2012
  • 6. The Objectives of Seed Fair Events Creating awareness amongst farmers, researchers, policy makers, extension staff and the media on the status of crop diversity within an area (village/ward or district) Showcasing how farmers are managing community seed banks that are integrated with on-farm crop research, germplasm storage, bulk seed production and storage for own seed security which is an important pre-requisite for household food sovereignty Enabling farmers and seed experts to meet and exchange local knowledge and experiences (IKS) on local crop diversity conservation, management and utilization; Creating opportunities and market linkages for farmers to exchange and/or sell on-farm produced seed between and among themselves and private sector seed industry through contract on-farm seed production Contract seed production in collaboration with the private-sector
  • 7.  There is need to promote traditional knowledge relevant to plant genetic Why Farmers Rights? resources for food and agriculture; Provide the right to equitably participate in sharing benefits arising from the utilization of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture; and The right to participate in making decisions, at the national level, on matters related to the conservation and sustainable use of plant genetic resources
  • 8. Biodiversity Farmer TrainingGroups
  • 9. Table 2: Whose Rights are Being Served Currently PLANT BREEDERS FARMERS 1.Have legal status 1.No legal Status 2.Intellectual Property Rights 2. No Recognition to Farmers Intellectual Rights 3. Patents 3. Piracy of Farmers Knowledge and Innovations 4. Terminator Technology 4. Legislated Restriction to Market Access 5.Market Access With Monopoly 5. No Institutional Support Other Than Customary Practices and Systems 6. Mergers of Seed and Chemical 6. No Support and Recognition of Farmers Companies Research, Knowledge and Innovations 7. Institutional Support at National, 7. Prohibitive Cost to Externally Developed Regional and Global Levels Technologies 8.Research Capacity (Access to Public 8. No Framework for Capacity Building Farmers to Funds and Materials) Maintain their Systems /Practices of PGR Mgt. 9. Free Access to Farmers PGR, Knowledge 9. No Support to Farmers Organizations in Terms and Innovations of Agro-Biodiversity Mgt.Source: Andrew Mushita, 2007
  • 10. Proposed Farmer’s rights legislative framework Provision for the establishment, function and powers of a national biodiversity authority Community rights and traditional knowledge Access to biological resources and community knowledge (PIC) Establishment of biological diversity management committees at national and community levels Implementation of Farmers Rights (IT Art. 9) Traditional practitioners rights Establishment of a biodiversity fund 
  • 11. CTDT’s EXPERIENCE ON COLLABORATING WITH THE PRIVATE SECTOR SEED COMPANIESTable 3 Highlights the Results of Farmer Contract Seed Multiplication Initiative: Crop Season Crop Type Participating Hectares Amount of Buying Farmers Planted Seed Seed Sold(MT) Company 2002/03 Pearl-Millet 268 36 21 Seed-Co Cowpeas 10 8 3.5 2003/04 Pearl-Millet 285 136 121 Seed –Co Cowpeas 12 38 15 2008/09 Pearl-Millet 224 36 60 Agri-Seeds Cowpeas 34 47 11
  • 12. Conclusion Essential to develop national policies and strategic plans for conserving sustainability of plant genetic resources. Promote efforts to conserve biodiversity Farmers‘ Rights realization and domestication should be considered as a key precondition and basis for food and agriculture production in the world. Integrated approach to climate change
  • 13. Thank You !!!