Achieving good quality carbon reduction schemes through planning - Steve Charter, Green Gauge Trust
How can good quality carbon reduction schemes be achieved through the planning process?Steve CharterTraining Development ManagerGreen Gauge Trust
Can you achieve good quality sustainability / carbon reduction in planning in a viable way? YesHowever, this depends on having a good understanding ofwhat is: good quality viable e.g. in cost and buildabilityin terms of both: sustainability/carbon reduction planning policy and practice
Why buildings are important: 45% CO2 emissionsAll new homes ‘zero carbon’ by 2016;All new commercial & public buildings ‘zero carbon’by 2019Domestic CO2 emissions to be reduced by 26% by2020, and by 80% by 2050 80% of homes in 2050 have already been builtThere’s 26 million existing homes to deal with now.Responsible for 27% of current UK carbon emissions …
Planning SystemPurpose of the planning system:• To deliver sustainable development• To encourage ‘good design’ and prevent ‘poor design’• To complement other regulatory and policy approachesPlus:• To help mitigate and adapt to climate change
PPS1, Design - paragraph 35 Para 35:• High quality and inclusive design .... means ensuring a place will function well and add to the overall character and quality of the area, not just for the short term but over the lifetime of the development. This requires carefully planned, high quality buildings and spaces that support the efficient use of resources. Good design should: – address the connections between people and places by considering the needs of people to access jobs and key services; – be integrated into the existing urban form and the natural and built environments; – be an integral part of the processes for ensuring successful, safe and inclusive villages, towns and cities; – create an environment where everyone can access and benefit from the full range of opportunities available to members of society; and, – consider the direct and indirect impacts on the natural environment.
PPS1, Design - paragraph 36• Planning authorities should prepare robust policies on design and access... Key objectives should include ensuring that developments: – are sustainable, durable and adaptable (including taking account of natural hazards such as flooding) and make efficient and prudent use of resources;
PPS1, Design - paragraph 38Para 38Design policies should avoid unnecessary prescription or detail andshould concentrate on guiding the overall scale, density, massing,height, landscape, layout and access of new development inrelation to neighbouring buildings and the local area moregenerally.Local planning authorities should not attempt to imposearchitectural styles or particular tastes and they should not stifleinnovation, originality or initiative through unsubstantiatedrequirements to conform to certain development forms or styles.It is, however, proper to seek to promote or reinforce localdistinctiveness particularly where this is supported by clear planpolicies or supplementary planning documents on design.
PPS1: Climate Change Supplement• Tackling climate change is a key Government priority for the planning system.KEY PLANNING OBJECTIVES9. To deliver sustainable development ... all planning authorities should prepare, and manage the delivery of, spatial strategies that:• in providing for the homes, jobs, services and infrastructure needed by communities, and in renewing and shaping the places where they live and work, secure the highest viable resource and energy efficiency and reduction in emissions;• secure new development and shape places that minimise vulnerability, and provide resilience, to climate change; ...• conserve and enhance biodiversity ...;• respond to the concerns of business and encourage competitiveness and technological innovation in mitigating and adapting to climate change.
PPS1: Climate Change Supplement10. Regional planning bodies and all planning authorities should apply the following principles in making decisions about their spatial strategies:• the proposed provision for new development, its spatial distribution, location and design should be planned to limit carbon dioxide emissions;• new development should be planned to make good use of opportunities for decentralised and renewable or low carbon energy;• new development should be planned to minimise future vulnerability in a changing climate;• climate change considerations should be integrated into all spatial planning concerns;
PPS1: Climate Change Supplement31. There will be situations where it could be appropriate for planning authorities to anticipate levels of building sustainability in advance of those set out nationally. When proposing any local requirements for sustainable buildings planning authorities must be able to demonstrate clearly the local circumstances that warrant and allow this.32. When proposing any local requirement for sustainable buildings planning authorities should:• focus on development area or site-specific opportunities;• specify the requirement in terms of achievement of nationally described sustainable buildings standards, for example in the case of housing by expecting identified housing proposals to be delivered at a specific level of the Code for Sustainable Homes;
Common / Typical Practices by 2013-15Planning conditions prevented the most cost effective and resource efficient approach Source: The Passivhaus Diaries, Bill Butcher – Green Building Company, with Building Magazine
What is Good Design:‘Good design’ now clearly relates to:• Location• Layout (including orientation)• Landscape• Appearance• Functional DESIGN i.e. performance of any development and buildings in energy and carbon terms
Defining Sustainable Building The terms ‘sustainable building’, or ‘sustainable construction’ should be:a) Defined in a meaningful way in practical termsb) Consistent & clearc) Based in environmental, social & economic realities In your experience, are they?
Defining Sustainable Building• Not a single definition• or an ‘A + B + C = D’ definitionIn essence, it’s about: a) Design + Construction + Use + Demolition /Re-Use b) Significantly Reducing ‘Whole Life’ Negative Impacts c) Consciously Increasing ‘Whole Life’ Benefits• i.e. Sust Building = Whole-life x minimised negative impacts x maximised positive benefits
The Environmental BaselineFundamental environmental baseline for development/ building to become ’sustainable’: To stabilise climate change: – 80%+ reduction in CO2 / GHG emissions For sustainable resource use: – 65-75%+ reduction in impacts / improvements in resource efficiency (i.e. based on ecological footprint & lifecycle impacts); – shifts to circular resource cycles. (These are not up for debate here ... I won’t tell you how to lay bricks, if you don’t tell me what’s sustainable ...)
Core Environmental Components for Sustainable Building• Energy and Carbon / climate impacts;• Waste & Resource Efficiency;• Water;• Health & Pollution;• Ecology & biodiversity;• To transform the quantity of impacts• To transform the quality of impacts
2. Max Thermal Efficiency 3. Natural / Low Impact 4. Waste/ Min Heat-loss Products & Materials Minimisation• Super insulation: walls, floors, roof • structural & insulation • materials selection,• Airtightness & MVHR/heat-recovery • internal & external not over-specifying• Minimum thermal bridging finishes • re-used / recycled• Buffer-zones / sun-spaces • local-regional supplies materials• High performance windows & doors • site waste minimis- ation plan Need: Skills for doing1. Max Solar Gain & these things well ... 4. Minimising EnergyMin Over-Heating• Location & & Electrical Demandorientation • natural lighting• Summer shading • e.g. LED lighting• Low-e glass • AA* appliances6. Enhancing Ecology 5. Minimising Water& Biodiversity Demand & Runoff• site works • low flush toilets• landscaping • efficient showers,• within structure e.g. taps, appliances, etcgreenroof, built-in bat • rainwater harvestingboxes, etc • greenroof, SDS, etc Source: PHI Darmstadt / AECB
Other Key Components & Considerations• Buildability and Usability / Simplicity : not a fiddley and complicated building envelope; not dependent on complex technologies which users don’t understand or use properly; no-one local to maintain or repair, etc.• Future proofed: adaptable, re-usable building / components, etc. – adaptation to & mitigation of climate change i.e. to prevent over-heatingEconomic & Social Components:• Local-regional supply and local employment & training : supply chains; local multiplier effects; training & skills; SROI (Social Return on Investment);• Affordability: emphasis depends on sector – affordability in construction + affordability in running costs (very important social housing driver) + affordability in in R&M costs (very important social housing driver) – maintaining value.• Balance between Economic Efficiency & Commercial Efficiency: often presented as the same thing, but they are not.
UK - Where Are We Heading? The 2010-2020 Skills Challenge 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019Known All new CSH Level 3 Central CSH Level 4 CSH Level 6Changes in Housing Corp Government’sStandards & English office estate to Partnership General be Carbon funded homes efficiency of Neutral. Standard for Truly Sustainable Buildings?? at Level 3 or residential better of CSH. 20% better than in 2000. Demand for SC & SBS Govt Depts to Skills ? Standards for New increase Standards for New Non-Domestic energy Build Housing? efficiency / m2 Buildings? by 15%.Possible / Code for Code for All Public Code for All Public All new All BuildingsLikely Sustainable Sustainable Sector Sustainable Sector Public Level 6 ofChanges in Buildings Buildings Buildings Buildings Buildings Sector CSB?? Expected Level 3?? Level 4 of Level 4?? Level 5 of BuildingsStandards CSB?? CSB?? Level 6 of CSB??Initiatives Carbon Carbon Challenge Challenge Competition developments underway being built 2006 Building Regs Part L standards 1st phase EcoTowns proposalsDirect Carbon Under Construction? Challenge 10 + EcoTowns Standards forDemand forSustainable (Level 6) Sustainable communities developments: Upton, Harlow North, Sherford, etc. the ExistingConstruction developments Stock? being builtand BuildingServicesSkills Sustainable schools as a UK standard?
Sustainable Building Standards Mainstream Sustainable Low Energy Building Standards Building Standards • Passivhaus (Germany; • GreenStar (Australia) Austria) • LEED (USA) • Minergie (Switzerland)• Code for Sustainable Homes • Super-E (Canada) (UK) • Part L (UK) • Code for Sustainable Buildings – (UK, impending) • BREEAM (UK) Marginal Standards • AECB Gold & Silver Standards (UK)
Trend: UK vs Global PerspectiveUK Focus: on BREEAM, CSH and SAPGlobal Focus: now on kWh/m2Revised Definition of ‘Zero Carbon’Recommended Fabric Efficiency Standards• Recommended Metric = kWh/m2/yr – 39 kWh/m2/yr: flats & mid-terrace; – 46 kWh/m2/yr: semis / end-of-terrace & detached;• Covering Space heating & cooling energy demand• Passivhaus as a global benchmark: • Based on building physics; 20 years of experience; • Methodology based on accurate predictions of performance – not on notional buildings (SAP);
Green Deal and Housing Retrofit: volume / marketTo achieve an 80% reduction by 2050• 600,000+ housing retrofits per year (UK) = – 2,500 retrofits/working day; 333/working hour; 5.5 a minute!• SE region = 45 retrofits / working hr = £1mn / wking hr• Radian housing stock = 400 homes / year = £8mn / yr• = 1.5 / working day = £320,000,000 by 2050 at current costs.South East Skills Needs = (80,000 / 4.5) x 12 = 213,000 Permanent SE retrofit trade workforce?! Plus 6,600+ professional/technical workforce?• Figures based on conservative estimates from experience of low carbon refurbishment projects, figures developed with Paul Ciniglio, Sustainability Manager, Radian Housing
Example: Whole Life Carbon Profile Typical commercial buildingBuilding Related Carbon Emissions
UK: Known Problems or OpportunitiesScale of Issue: large sector (1.2million people+ construction; 2million incl. buildings/property/housing), many organisations & roles, complex, huge number of subbies & small builders; Existing homes: 26 million to low-to-zero carbon;Knowledge: of energy and buildings in the UK is very poor; distorted knowledge: a) has been new build focused, ahead of existing stock; b) focused on Codes, etc not buildings & performance.Skills: (virtually) no body has a complete picture; trade based, not outcome-based, team or multi-skill based; No comprehensive, coherent qualifications and courses Very (very) few competent trainers
Levels of Knowledge & Risk General Risk and Planning Associated Risk associated with Low Energy Sustainable Building outcomes:1. Client: 85% of knowledge of key issues for tender and design brief e.g. Limited knowledge means 90% chance of success in desired outcomes1. Designer / design consultant: 85% of knowledge of key design issues2. Project Management: 85% of knowledge of key project management issues3. Site Management: 85% of knowledge of key site management issues4. Site Skills: 85% of knowledge of key installation and construction issues5. Risk Is Cumulative i.e. 0.85 x 0.85 x 0.85 x 0.85 x 0.85 = 0.4437 i.e. Less than 50% chance of achieving desired outcome (this is probably optimistic!)
Where Are We Now? Risk and Opportunity 7 Factors re the Risk / Opportunity associated with carbon reduction and sustainable building issues are:1. Becoming very visible: tender requirements; exemplar buildings, good practice, tighter regulations / energy standards, etc2. Bringing about system change: a little like the Housing Act, or the Egan Review3. Becoming very current: PPS1 Supplement, new Part L, CSH Level 3 or 4 requirements, Green Deal, etc.4. Getting simpler: e.g. kWhr/m2 targets; simply a response to regulations and legislation (Part L; CRC; etc) and the market; clearer definitions and targets;5. Creating a response from the whole sector +govt +individuals6. Creating clear career and company opportunities and threats: e.g. the threat of not securing enough business because of not being on tender lists / not being able to demonstrate competence7. Being responded to in matter-of-fact ways in the sector
Predictable Trends: 2010-2015 The best will become clear and be known: 1.Standards, Certification and Competency schemes 2.Building design and construction methodologies 3.Product + Technology combinations 4. TRAININGIt will be good planning to know in advance how to: a) achieve standards locally; b) encourage and plan for the above.
Predictable Changes: by 2015• Anyone learning about or working in planning and built environment sectors now and in the future will be working in a world where: – Low energy sustainable buildings are the norm – sustainable building products & energy technologies are either commonplace, the norm or a legislated requirement• Definitions will be clear & widely understood i.e. ‘Sustainable’ = (low energy, low carbon) x (use + construction + end-of-life) = whole-of-life + waste min + water efficient + healthy (physiological, environmental, social and economic)
The Future It will become know and understood that well designed, well built low energy low carbon buildings = warm in winter cool in summer excellent indoor air quality Very low running costs = sustainableA shift in understanding, like going from a privy to a house with indoor plumbing!
The Emerging Present & Future:Buildings built and refurbished to absoluteenergy targetsDelivered by teams with skills accreditationAssurance of:a)design and build qualityb)energy performance outcomes
Summary of Planning Implications1. Trends in: a) LC Building Policy, Regulations and Standards, and b) Market & Contract Conditions (e.g. precedents) These trends imply changes in: a) what are appropriate planning conditions2. Implications for Knowledge, Skills & Competence in terms of what constitutes Good Design and how planning can support its delivery3. Needs for proof of performance at both application and project completion stages in: a) high building energy performance standards b) low / zero waste, sustainable procurement, etc
Planning Approach PLUS: Active Participation In Hants SustainableConstruction Network PLUS: PLUS: Encourage Encourage lLocal Local Exemplar Sustainable Buildings / Supported by Building Skills Developments Good Programmes Knowledge & e.g. via planning Negotiation conditions
The Planning Approach• ‘Fabric First’, then renewables – Set absolute energy targets (kWh/m2/yr)• Embodied energy & carbon – buildings & infrastructure• Use standards, but understand them well e.g. BREEAM, Passivhaus, etc.• Have an Integrated Approach: – LDF Policies; – SPG (Sustainable Design & Construction Guide); – Development Briefs.• Actively Encourage good precedents in the district
Everyone Needs Education Transport planners Planners English Heritage Asset managers Planning Clients Building managers Developers Users Housing associations Building use Procurement Repair & Maintenance Sustainable Building Architects Knowledge & Skills:Energy suppliers Many audiences, similar messages Architectural technologists Energy supply Design Energy assessors Building services Construction Construction products Source:Building control SMEs ManufacturersConstruction companies Installers
Sustainable Buildings Skills We can create low energy sustainable buildings in cost effective, efficient and reliable ways when we have the skills and knowledge to do so.• This is so for existing buildings or new buildIMPORTANT - mainly this involves:a)improving or refining existing skillsb)adding new knowledge.
Planning Skills for Low Carbon Development & Sustainable Buildings• In a practical sense, planning skills for low carbon development and sustainable buildings are:Planning skills & knowledge which:a) Enable the key components of low carbon development & sustainable buildings to be achieved,b) In ways that are cost effective, efficient & reliable. Skills relating to proper implementation of low carbon development and sustainable building and design methods: 5 core components + process skills
Defining Sustainable Building Skills Sustainable Building competence centres around five essential core components. Skills and knowledge for:1. Low Energy Buildings2. Sustainable Building Materials &Products3. Energy, Building Services &Utility Systems4. Waste Minimisation & Materials Efficiency5. Water Efficiency & Management Systems PLUS:• Whole building overview / process
(c) Steve Charter / SC2 Sustainability Consultancy
1. Low Energy Building CompetenceCompetence in Low Energy Buildings:1. Super-insulation – Products, installation methods, etc. – embodied impacts.2. Air-tightness and ventilation, including buildability;3. Minimal thermal bridging and prevention of thermal bypass.4. Passive solar, other heat gains and thermal mass.5. Natural light and ventilation.6. Efficient energy systems: heat and electrical;
(c) Steve Charter / SC2 Sustainability Consultancy
Other Key Skills: Ecology & Health• Skills for enhancing ecology and biodiversity Essential for a sustainable built environment – but not essential for all– usually supplied by landscape designers & ecologists. However: basic awareness will be useful.• Skills for Healthy Buildings For some clients this will be very important – increasingly recognised as creating higher employee productivity and lower absenteeism costs.
Other Important Skills: various1. Whole-Life and Costing Skills: – Understanding the whole process – the big picture and the detail – Adding, subtracting and multiplication - selecting and weighing-up the right coefficients, factors and variables2. People Skills: – Team / communication skills – Client e.g. if refurb happens with residents in occupation.3. Modelling Skills: a) Excel e.g. for PHPP, b) 3D modelling, c) THERM (thermal bridging), d) etc4. Energy Monitoring & Efficient ICT Systems – Intelligent energy / building monitoring and management systems – Green ICT – because ICT is a large energy user & secondary heat producer in commercial and public sector.5. Business development & commercialisation skills: specialist sales, finance & marketing, etc
Training Problems / ChallengesCurrently a distinct lack of:1.Formally accredited courses on sustainable building issues;2.Low-energy building content within mainstream building-related qualifications e.g. BTECs, NVQs, etc.3.Trainers with real experience / competence in low energy sustainable building.
Skills Development Planning Process Problem / Challenge: Insufficient SB knowledge / skills Solution: plentiful SB knowledge / skills Strategy : develop & action SB knowledge / skills plan
Sustainable Building Skills Plan Recommendation: Develop a Skills Plan / Learning pathway for low energy sustainable building skills & competenceIncluding getting to know:a) training which is available now in key skills areas;b)training which is known to be in development;c) key organisations involved in providing, brokering & developing sustainable building training e.g. SusCon, AECB Carbonlite, Green Gauge, etc;
Skills Plan Objectives1. Identify / establish training priorities and progression routes for staff learning / career development2. Define your learning system, involving both formal and informal education3. Undertake a process of training to fill knowledge/skills gaps.4. Develop a shared language and understanding a) In your company b) With you supply chains / project partners c) With your clients5. Develop full SB competence in the work force
Diagram 3: Pathway 1: Personal and Business DevelopmentGreen Building Landmark Stream 1 Stream 2 Stream 3 SkillsLearning System Who am I? What can I Making it happen What do I / we need Centres be? Design & now? Leadership Talents / Where / Project development and Innovation & Vision Entry Points aptitudes who am I delivery now? Technical People Systems of Products Knowledge systems Specific Progression Skills sets and Desired Routes technology Supply-Chain Construction Skills Systems Change Management Clusters Skills / Business / sets Project Creating Self-managed teams Personal Vision and Practical people Manageme Training Steps to Vision Collaboration / partnerships manageme nt Programmes nt Pathway 2: Practical, Professional and Technical Skills Stream 2: Higher Enterprise & Training for Innovation Levels Employment Stream 1: Sustainable Construction, Modern Methods, Business Professiona Hubs Programmes Manageme l, Technical 21st Century Construction Excellence nt Energy Products, Considerate MMC and Project Accreditatio Demand / systems, Constructors, Construction Manageme n Systems Efficiency technologies H&S Innovation nt On-the-Job Major Learning / Energy Supply Waste Healthy, non- Standards, Exemplar Work Based / Local & Minimisation & toxic building legislation, Stream 3: Site and Projects Renewable management compliance Training Practical Skills On-site Specialist Training Skills Centres Pathway 3: Ad Hoc Learning, Showcasing and Virtual General Resources Demo Public and Centres & Stream 1: Networks, Stream 2: Seminars, Events, Stream 3: Virtual Learning & Client Groups Physical Membership Organisations, Exhibitions and ICT Resources Programme Showcasing Publications Conferences
Learning from Exemplar Buildings Use a range of exemplar buildings: visits, articles, case study materials, project work, etc.• Examples of specific SB details, and how to achieve them successfully• Visits for knowledge / skills enrichment. – Elizabeth Fry Building, UEA: 3,500m2, heated by 2 x 24kW(t) condensing boilers; no cooling needed / provided, other than naturally through structure; – Centre for Disability Studies, Rochford College. – Denby Dale Passivhaus; – See other examples in SC2 SB Training Directory.
Skills for Existing or New Buildings• The general cost-effective target will be: – 60-80% reduction in energy demand: heating, hot-water & lighting.• Existing Buildings: most critical competencies: a) Survey, specification and costing – to identify optimum measures; b) building fabric efficiency / improvement work; c) project management.• New Buildings: most critical competencies: a) Design, specification and costing; b) building fabric efficiency and energy systems; c) project management.
Highlight Key Skills Gaps(c) Steve Charter / SC2 Sustainability Consultancy
Green Gauge Directory of Sustainable Building TrainingSustainable Construction Courses Numbers of CoursesSusCon 30 courseParity Projects / domestic sust refurb 8 BTEC accredited + 7 othersGreen Register Training 24 CPD coursesBasic energy efficiency / insulation 6 coursesUltra Low Energy / Passivhaus 4 coursesProducts / eco-building practice 2+ coursesRenewables Lots of coursesWaste minimisation Lots of coursesMMC / Offsite Methods 2+ coursesSustainable Construction / Procurement Management various coursesEnviroskills - accredited short courses various coursesEnergy Assessor / CSH / BREEAM, etc 7+ coursesSustainable Construction – MSc/PGDip, Degree, FD SomeSust Energy / Renewables – MSc/PGDip, Degree, FD Lots of coursesOther courses: UK GBC STEP, BRE, etc Various
Training and accreditation for low energy sustainable buildings • CPD courses • Seminars and events • QCF Accredited Unit Outlines• Research / technical & strategy reports
Green Stripes / OCTG QCF UnitsLevel 3 Diploma in Sustainable Building Trade/installer and site-management skills Professional, technical and management skillsLevels 2, 3 and 5 Units Impact of Sustainable & Low Carbon Construction Energy & Buildings (Level 3 & 4) Airtight Construction Materials & Products for Sustainable Construction Sustainable & Low Carbon Technologies Waste Management in Sustainable Construction Water in Sustainable Construction Technology units: PV, Solar Thermal, Heat Pumps Sustainable Construction Advi ce
CPD Programme 1 day / ½ day training1. Understanding sustainable building skills2. Introduction to energy & buildings3. Procuring low energy buildings: design, specification & delivery4. Delivering thermally efficient buildings5. A whole house approach to low carbon housing refurbishment6. Introduction to Passivhaus for newbuild housing7. Introduction to building performance evaluation8. Understanding sustainable building standards, regulations & codes9. Energy & building services systems for low energy low carbon buildings10. Planning and management of low carbon refurbishment11. Embodied energy & carbon12. Building performance evaluation Masterclass13. Helping surveyors get ready for the Green Deal
The first officially PH certified UK building - training centre/ offices, MachynllethWCR Property Ltd Source: www.beechwoodbusinesspark.co.uk
Elizabeth Fry Building, UEA Great Bow Yard, Langport See Anatomy of An EcoBuild, Nigel GriffithsDenby Dale PassivhausSee www.greenbuildingstore.co.uk The Pines Calyx, Kent
Thermal Efficiency: on site - the parts that make up the whole Super-insulated walls and floors within minimal thermal bypass or thermal bridgingMinimal thermal bridging Complex junction details MVHR system design etc Source: The Passivhaus Diaries, Bill Butcher – Green Building Company, with Building Magazine
YorkEco Depot 71.5 tonnes of carbon locked into its structure = A material consideration
Modcell:Strawbale + Lime Modular Building System
Offsite & Modular SystemsSource: Kingspan website i.e. SIPTEC states: “• No CFCs or HCFCs • Superior Fire performance • Will not absorb water • No Formaldehyde • Exceptional strength • Environmentally safe and inert • Highest U-value per kilo • Green in colour and application • Contains no harmful fibers • MPUR represents an efficient use of natural resources, saving energy and conserving resources through its manufacture, use and disposal.” Source: Siptec website Source: Kingspan website