Individual-small group activity…• On a sticky, jot down the challenging behavior that pushes your “HOT BUTTON”.• Think about a child who exhibits this behavior• How do you feel when around this child?• We have trouble separating the child from the behavior. We see the child as the challenge.
Large group activity…• Reframe it! When we reframe our thoughts, we feel differently about the child.• Instead of: “This child is a monster! I hope he moves far away!”• Tell yourself: “He is testing me to see where the limits are. My job is to stay calm and help him learn better ways to behave.”• Instead of: “Wonder if Sheetz is hiring?”• Tell yourself: “I feel undervalued right now. I need to talk to my supervisor and get support.”
Challenging behaviors• Interfere with children‟s learning, development and/or play• Are harmful to the child or others around them• Put the child at risk for future social and school challenges
Challenging behaviors• Can be either direct or indirect – Direct: • Hitting, pushing, pinching, spitting, etc. – Indirect: • Bullying, teasing, ignoring rules, refusing to share, excluding others, etc.
Sources of challenging behaviors:• Pregnancy and birth complications• Prenatal exposure to toxic substances• Developmental delays• Improper nourishment• Attention issues• Temperament• Gender• Poverty and social conditions surrounding it• Exposure to violence• Parenting style, family factors• Low quality child care
Skills children need to succeed• Confidence• Ability to develop positive and healthy relationships with peers and adults• Concentration and persistence on challenging tasks• Ability to effectively communicate emotions• Ability to listen to instructions and be attentive• Ability to solve social problems
What we know…• Challenging behavior usually has a message (I am bored, I am sad, you hurt my feelings, I need some attention)• Children often use challenging behavior when they don‟t have the social or communication skills they need to engage in more appropriate interactions• Behavior that persists over time is usually working for the child• We need to focus on teaching children what to do in place of the challenging behavior
Promoting children’s success• Create an environment where EVERY child feels good about coming to school• Design an environment that promotes child engagement• Focus on teaching children what to do! – Teach expectations and routines – Teach skills that children can use in place of challenging behaviors
Center on the Social Emotional Foundations of Early Learning Only 3-10% of children will have Individualized persistent Intensive Interventions challengesIntentional teaching of social skills and Social Emotionalemotional regulation Teaching Strategies High quality ECE Designing Supportive programs should Environments naturally support this! Building Positive Relationships
Major Messages• The 1st and most important thing we can do is build positive relationships• Focus on prevention and teaching appropriate skills.• Promoting social emotional development is not easy. There are no quick fixes to challenging behavior.• It requires a comprehensive approach that includes building relationships, evaluating our own classrooms and behaviors, and TEACHING.
Building relationships• Helps children feel accepted in the group• Assists children and learning to communicate get along with others• Encourages feelings of empathy and mutual respect among children and adults• Provides a supportive environment in which children can learn practice appropriate and acceptable behaviors as individuals and as a group
Food for thought…“Every child needs one person who is crazy about him.” ~Uri Bronfrenbrenner
Ideas for making deposits• Greet each child by name as they arrive• Post children‟s work around the room• Have a “star” of the week• Allow children to bring in items from home and share during circle time• Call it the child‟s parent in front of them to say what a great day they are having• Call a child after a difficult day and say, “I‟m sorry we had a tough day today. I know tomorrow will be better”
Ideas for making deposits• Give hugs, high-fives and thumbs up for accomplishing tasks• When they are absent, tell them how much you missed them• Write on a T-shirt all the special things about a given child and let them wear it• Find out a child‟s favorite book and read it to the whole class• Play with children, following their lead• Have children create an “All About Me” book and share them at circle time
The bank deposit…• Child level• Taps into interests• Knows about their „world‟• Facial expressions, excitement• Shares personal experiences• Engaged in play• Joke and laugh
Classroom arrangement and designTraffic patterns:• Minimize large open spaces• Minimize obstacles and other hazards• Consider the needs of children with physical and sensory disabilitiesQuestion… how does the following picture address physical and sensory issues?
Classroom arrangement and designLearning Centers: Physical Design • Clear boundaries • Visibility • Visual prompts when centers are not an option • Adequate number of centers • Size and location of centers • Number of children in centers • Organization of materials • Preparation of centers
Classroom arrangement and designLearning Centers:• Create meaningful and engaging learning centers that: – Are relevant to children‟s needs, interests and lives – Are highly engaging and interesting – Provide a variety of materials in each center – Are changed and rotated on a regular basis
Stand in the center of the room…• Is there a clear entry to each center?• Is each center inviting?• Are there enough materials? (3 units of play per child in center)• Is there a system for entering and exiting centers?• Are centers and materials/shelves labeled?• Is there a rotation of materials?• Are materials highly engaging?• Are the activities relevant to children‟s needs, interests and lives?
Activity…With a group of 3-4,discuss these twowriting centers. What strengths do they have? What are your concerns?
Activity… This is yourcircle time area. Putyour class in it. Whatwould happen?Now… Redesign it!
Schedules and routinesDevelop a schedule that promotes child engagement and success. To do this:• Balance activities – Active and quiet – Small group and large group – Teacher directed and child directed• Teach children the schedule• Establish a routine and follow it consistently – When changes are necessary, prepare children ahead of time
Large group activity…• You scheduled water play outside for today. Everyone is excited. Now there is a tornado warning and it‟s raining. – What do you do?
TransitionsPlan for transitions• Minimize the number of transitions that children have during the day.• Minimize the length of time children spend waiting with nothing to do.• Prepare children for transitions by providing a warning.• Structure the transitions so that children have something to do while they wait.• Teach children the expectations related to transitions.• Individualize supports and cues.
The transition train…• What did you see happen?
The transition train…• What did you see happen?
Giving directions• Make sure you have the children‟s attention before you give the direction• Minimize the number directions given• Individualize the way directions are given• Give clear directions
Giving directions• Give directions that are positive• Give children the opportunity to respond to a direction• When appropriate, give the child choices and options for following directions• Follow through with positive acknowledgment of children‟s behavior
General guidelines for rules• Few and simple• Involve the children in developing• Post visually• Teach them systematically• They generally address: – Noise level – Movement inside – Interactions with property – Interactions with adults – Interactions with peers
Fun ways to reinforce rules• Rules Bingo• Make a big book about school rules• Playing “rule charades”
Ongoing monitoring and positive attention• Give children attention when they‟re engaging inappropriate behaviors• Monitor our behavior to ensure that we‟re spending more time using positive, productive language and less time giving directions or correcting inappropriate behavior
Positive Feedback and Encouragement1. Contingent on appropriate behavior2. Descriptive3. Conveyed with enthusiasm4. Contingent on effort
Using positive feedback and encouragement• Use both verbal and nonverbal forms• Individualized use based on child‟s needs and preferences• Encourage other adults and peers to use positive feedback and encouragement
Large group activity…• Count the number of positive comments the teacher makes (and positive non- verbals)• What types of comments and nonverbal behaviors did the teacher demonstrate?
Small group activity…• Select one of the following scenarios and brainstorm ways you could encourage that child – Gabe hangs his coat up in his cubby – Cecilia sits down and draws a picture – Nolan washes his hands before lunch – Fatima keeps her hands to herself during circle time – Zoe says, “Teacher… Look at me!” after she built the tower of blocks
Teaching Social Emotional Skills• Why? • We don‟t ask why we teach letters and• When? numbers. They need• What? these skills to be successful in life • Circle time, small group time, teachable moments, times of crisis • How to be a good friend, sharing, listening, helping others, etc.
Stages of Learning• Acquisition – new skill or concept• Fluency – the ability to immediately use the skill or concept without a prompt• Maintenance – continuing to use the skill or concept over time• Generalization – applying the skill or concept to new situations, people, activities, ideas, and settings
Friendship Skills• Think about children who are well liked and friendly…• What do you notice about their behavior that makes it easier for them to make friends?
Friendship Skills• Gives suggestions (play organizers)• Shares toys and other materials• Takes turns (reciprocity)• Is helpful• Gives compliments• Understands how and when to give an apology• Begins to empathize
Play Organizers• Describe skill – Get a friend‟s attention – Give a friend a toy – Offer suggestions of what to do with toys/materials• Demonstrate skill• Practice• Promote
Sharing• Describe skill – Child has materials – Offers or responds to request from peer for materials• Demonstrate skill• Practice• Promote
Being Helpful – Team Player• Describe skill – Children might assist each other – Tell or show a friend how to do something – Assist a friend in distress• Demonstrate skill• Practice• Promote
Taking Turns• Describe skill – “You take a turn, I take a turn” – Might ask for a turn with a toy – Might initiate turn taking games• Demonstrate skill• Practice• Promote
Giving Compliments• Describe skill – Verbal – say things like: “Good job _____! or I like the way you _____!” – Physical – Do things like: Hug, pat on the shoulder, high five• Demonstrate skill• Practice• Promote
Knowing How & When to Apologize• Describe skill – Children might say, “I‟m sorry I hit you when you took my ball.” – “I didn‟t mean to push you.”• Demonstrate skill• Practice• Promote
Setting the Stage for Friendship• Inclusive setting• Cooperative use toys• Embed opportunities• Social interaction goals and objectives• Atmosphere of friendship