Informatics infant nutrition

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Informatics infant nutrition

  1. 1. Kia Yang<br />Infant Nutrition<br />
  2. 2. Introduction<br />Proper infant nutrition is very important for the first year of life due to rapid growth and development. Too much or too little of any food or fluids can potentially lead to health problems. Infants relay heavily on caretakers because they cannot feed themselves. Therefore, it is vital for caretakers to have the proper knowledge and training in infant nutrition. <br />
  3. 3. Definitions<br /><ul><li>Newborns are defined as birth to 1 month.
  4. 4. Infants are defined as the ages from 1 month to 12 months.</li></li></ul><li>Growth and Development of the Infant<br /><ul><li>Birth weight doubles by 5 months and triples by 1 year.
  5. 5. Height increases about a foot each year.
  6. 6. Teeth erupt at about 6 months and may have 6-8 teeth by 1 year.
  7. 7. By 1 year, infants are able to feed themselves.</li></li></ul><li>Nutritional Needs of the Newborn<br /><ul><li>Caloric intake: 50 – 55 kcal/lb/day or 105 – 108 kcal/kg/day
  8. 8. Fluid requirements: 64 – 73 mL/lb/day or 140 – 160 mL/kg/day
  9. 9. During the first 6 months weight gain includes: Formula fed – 1 oz/day; Breastfed – 0.5 oz/day
  10. 10. Protein is needed for cellular growth.
  11. 11. Fat is needed for calories and in the development of the brain and neurological system.
  12. 12. Carbohydrates are needed for energy.
  13. 13. Formula fed newborns double their birth weight between 3.5 – 4 months of age.
  14. 14. Breastfed newborns double their birth weight at 5 months of age. </li></li></ul><li>Infant Nutritional Pattern<br />From Birth – 1 month:<br /><ul><li>Eats every 2 – 3 hours, breast or bottle
  15. 15. 2 – 3 ounces (60 – 90 mL) per feeding</li></ul>From 2 – 4 months:<br /><ul><li>Has coordinated suck-swallow
  16. 16. Eats every 3 – 4 hours
  17. 17. 3 – 4 ounces (90 – 120 mL) per feeding</li></ul>From 4 – 6 months:<br /><ul><li>Begins baby food, usually rice cereal
  18. 18. Eats 4 or more times daily
  19. 19. 4 – 5 ounces (100 – 150 mL) per feeding</li></li></ul><li>Infant Nutritional Pattern Continued<br />From 6 – 8 months:<br /><ul><li>Eats baby food such as rice cereal, fruits, and vegetables
  20. 20. Eats 4 times daily
  21. 21. 6 – 8 ounces (160 – 225 mL) per feeding</li></ul>From 8 – 10 months:<br /><ul><li>Enjoys soft finger foods
  22. 22. Eats 4 times daily
  23. 23. 6 ounces (160 mL) per feeding</li></ul>From 10 – 12 months:<br /><ul><li>Eats most soft table foods with family
  24. 24. Uses cup with or without lid
  25. 25. Attempts to feed self with spoon though spills often
  26. 26. Eats 4 times daily
  27. 27. 6 – 8 ounces (160 – 225 mL) per feeding</li></li></ul><li>Introduction of Solid Foods in Infancy Recommendations<br /><ul><li>Introduce rice cereal at 4 – 6 months.
  28. 28. Introduce fruits and vegetables at 6 – 8 months.
  29. 29. Introduce meats at 8 – 10 months.
  30. 30. Use single-food prepared baby foods rather than combination meals.
  31. 31. Most importantly introduce one new food at a time, waiting at least 3 days to introduce another because if a food allergy or intolerance develops, it will be easy to identify.
  32. 32. Avoid carrots, beets, and spinach before 4 months of age.
  33. 33. Infants can be fed mashed portions of table foods such as carrots, rice, and potatoes.
  34. 34. Avoid adding sugar, salt, and spices when mixing own baby foods.
  35. 35. Avoid honey until at least 1 year of age.</li></li></ul><li>Signals that Alert the Parent to Begin Introduction Solid Foods<br /><ul><li>Has good head control such as holding head up without wobbling.
  36. 36. Being able to sit well with little support.
  37. 37. Has doubled their birth weight and weighs at least 13 pounds.
  38. 38. Still hungry after 8 to 10 breast feedings or after drinking 32 ounces of formula a day.
  39. 39. Showing interest in foods that others are eating.
  40. 40. Leaning toward food or spoon and may open mouth in anticipation.
  41. 41. Being able to move foods from the front to the back of the mouth.
  42. 42. Being able to pick up and hold a small object in their hand.
  43. 43. Being able to feed themselves with their fingers.
  44. 44. Drinking from a cup with your help.
  45. 45. Being able to turn away to signal “enough.”</li></li></ul><li>Introduction of Water<br /><ul><li>Ask your healthcare provider when you may offer your baby a bottle of water. Don’t add sugar to the water unless prescribed by your doctor. Don’t give flavored drinks, soda pop, or even fruit juice to a newborn. Some fruit juices, such as apple juice, provide empty calories without added nutrition.</li></li></ul><li>References<br />Gnatuk, C. A. (2009, October). Newborn; Parent Express; A<br /> Guide for You and Your Baby. Retrieved April 17, 2010, from University of Kentucky Cooperative Extension Service, Family and Consumer Sciences: http://www.ca.uky.edu/agc/pubs/fcs3/fcs3130/fcs3130.pdf<br />Hunter, J. G., & Cason, K. L. (2008, October). Feeding Your Infant. Retrieved April 17, 2010, from Clemson University Cooperative Extension: http://www.clemson.edu/extension/hgic/food/nutrition/nut rition/life_stages/hgic4100.html<br />London, M. L., Ladewig, P. W., Binder, R. C., & Ball, J. W. (2007). Maternal and Child Nursing Care. Upper Saddle River: Pearson Education Inc.<br />

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