Middle ages part 2


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Middle ages part 2

  1. 1. Middle Ages, Part 2
  2. 2. Feudalism <ul><li>Organized government collapsed after the death of Charlemagne. </li></ul><ul><li>Small, independent governments replaced the idea of the large empire. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Feudalism is what we call the system in which kings and powerful nobles granted land and military aid to 'lesser nobles' (weaker) in return of loyalty and military assistance. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>By mid 1000s, feudalism was a established way of life throughout Western Europe. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Because vikings and other tribes made holding one large empire under control hard, it became easier to divide and hold smaller, but more organized and better protected territories </li></ul>
  6. 6. It works like this: <ul><li>A king with more land that he can handle gave a part of his land for loyal nobles to protect, these nobles in turn gave part of this land to their own knights to protect. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Who's who? <ul><li>The guy giving the land is a Lord. </li></ul><ul><li>The person receiving this land is a vassal. </li></ul><ul><li>The land is called the fief. </li></ul><ul><li>If a noble lord &quot;A&quot; gives land to another noble &quot;B&quot;, and this noble &quot;B&quot; gives land to his knights, Noble &quot;B&quot; is both lord and vassal. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Fiefs and the titles associated became hereditary. The eldest son being the one to receive the land. </li></ul><ul><li>This is called primogeniture. It prevented lands from being subdivided more than necessary. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>In this system, the king himself acted as just another feudal lord, and every lord himself became a local lord, with governmental authority over his land. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Though technically every person in a kingdom was a vassal of the king, in reality the kings of the middle ages had authority over their direct vassals. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>The feudal relationship is a contract of honor that can only occur among nobles. </li></ul><ul><li>The same man can be lord and vassal. </li></ul><ul><li>The relation was very personal and close, lords and vassals being related directly in hierarchy. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Obviously, on this contract the vassal has more obligations than the lord. </li></ul><ul><li>With each contract came requirements from the vassals in term of expected number of cavalry and infantry units. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Vassals were in charge of covering certain expenses for their lords, including ransom if the lord was captured by an enemy. </li></ul><ul><li>The vassal also had to serve on the lords court and to house his lord for a determined period of time each year. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Justice <ul><li>There were three ways to dispense justice: </li></ul><ul><li>Trial by combat, the accused and accuser or representatives would fight in a duel. Winner is innocent, loser is wrong. </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Compurgation: this was oath taking, each the accuser and the accused gathered people who swore on the honesty of the person. They acted as character witnesses. </li></ul><ul><li>Trial by ordeal: the accuser carried a piece of hot iron in his hand, walked through fire or dug for a stone in a pot of boiling water. If the wound healed easily, instant innocence... Very scientific... </li></ul>