Direct Participation <ul><li>The participation of citizens is usually restricted to voting. </li></ul><ul><li>Once votes have been cast and officials elected, there is little direct participation in what laws are made or how they should be enforced. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Once officials are elected, they automatically become representatives of the people. </li></ul><ul><li>Nevertheless, citizens can (and do) engage in Indirect participation. </li></ul>
Indirect Participation <ul><li>Indirect participation happens via influence. </li></ul><ul><li>A regular citizen may not be able to directly make or pass laws, but it is able to influence lawmakers into making and creating laws. </li></ul>
Argument against influence <ul><li>Many of the founding fathers wanted a truly representative democracy, in which elected officials studied the needs of the republic and acted accordingly, without outside influence. </li></ul><ul><li>Outside opinions may not be well informed or may contain hidden agendas that do not efficiently benefit society. </li></ul>
Argument in favor of influence <ul><li>Many people believe that it is the duty of lawmakers to do what citizens desire. </li></ul><ul><li>Many believe that the only way to ensure officials act according to the desires of the people is through a close contact and influence over the elected officials. </li></ul>
Political Parties and influence <ul><li>Though parties are mainly interested in winning elections, they remain organized in between elections; their members work together to pass laws and ensure their interests are maintained. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Political parties can influence lawmakers also by keeping close track of their loyalty. </li></ul><ul><li>An official who breaks with party politics may find himself or herself denied funds and offices. </li></ul>
Veto <ul><li>Another way to influence lawmakers is through veto. A president or governor has the power to veto a law, that is, to refuse to sign it. </li></ul>
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