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The British British left south Africa in 1910. They left the small white population of south African born whites to rule the country. Population… 10% white 70% black 20% other
Apartheid A rigid separation of races. None whites were not allowed to vote. Non whites were told where to live. These places were called ‘homelands’ Non whites were told where to work. The theory was that if they were kept within their own ethnic groups they could develop their own culture.
Inequality Strict laws were passed to ensure a peaceful country To control the movement of the non-white population, they created the passbooks Passbooks gave certain workers permission to be in city. All others could not come into the city. – Divided families
Inequality cont... All aspects were divided into white or black areas. Beaches Bathrooms Schools Restaurants Funding was not distributed evenly.
Non-violence ARCHBISHOP DESMOND TUTU. Advocated a nonviolent approach to change the government. Staged peaceful protest rallies Won the Nobel peace prize in 1984. Staged a peaceful protest rally in Sharpeville. The government used extreme force to disburse the protesters. 60 people were killed.
Poverty Poverty was one of the largest problems for blacks. Forced to live in areas unsuitable for humans, these degrading shacks were called home by millions.
Desmond tutu respected holy man who advocated a non violent approach to changing the government.
He would win the Nobel peace prize in 1984 for his efforts.
Government Reacts The racist government looked to stop these protest rallies. They banned all opposition groups to the government. Among them was the African national congress (ANC). One of its leaders, nelson Mandela, was forced to flee. He would later be captured and sentenced to life imprison in 1964.
International Pressure The violent acts against the peaceful protesters made national headlines. The OAU, organization of African unity, urged countries to boycott south Africa. The U.N. Placed an arms embargo on the country. The U.S. Even imposed economic sanctions.
Steps Towards Change The International sanctions took there toll on the country. Many white business men urged the government for change. By 1980, it repelled the passbook laws. By 1989, the ban on opposition groups, such as the ANC, was lifted. Nelson Mandela was finally freed after 25 years of imprisonment.
Continuing to lead the ANC through his letters and his wife, Winnie, Mandela would emerge from prison, not a forgotten casualty of apartheid, but the voice of the south African black population!
New Constitution By the early 1990’s, the president of south africa, de klerk, agreed to hold talks with tutu and Mandela. A new constitution was drawn up to include basic rights to all citizens, regardless of the race. Including voting rights! The first free elections were held in 1994 and Mandela was overwhelmingly elected as president.