Lab Seminar 2009 12 01 Message Drop Reduction And Movement


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Lab Seminar 2009 12 01 Message Drop Reduction And Movement

  1. 1. <ul><li>Description Based addressing and routing </li></ul><ul><li>in </li></ul><ul><li>Cluster-based Ad-Hoc network </li></ul><ul><li>for </li></ul><ul><li>Home Environment </li></ul><ul><li>By </li></ul><ul><li>Tharinda Nishantha Vidanagama </li></ul><ul><li>Supervised by, </li></ul><ul><li>Prof. Hidenori Nakazato </li></ul>Honjo Seminar 2009 12 01
  2. 2. Ad Hoc Networks <ul><li>The Ad Hoc peer network is created spontaneously as two participating nodes come within the reach of one another. </li></ul><ul><li>As the number of participating nodes and their positions vary the network it self reconfigures allowing all nodes to communicate even if they are not within their transmission range. </li></ul><ul><li>The main advantage of Ad Hoc networks is that they do not require any infrastructure to operate. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Ad Hoc Networks <ul><li>But the main disadvantages are </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Highly dynamic topology due to the mobility of the nodes, i.e. the links are not stable and bandwidth is limited. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobile devices are powered by batteries, putting an energy consumption constraint </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Security of the network is at risk as anyone can join the network and act as transmission mediators. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Ad Hoc Networks <ul><li>Increasingly wireless technology is build in to many devices. </li></ul><ul><li>Networking these devices can bring many benefits. </li></ul><ul><li>Range of application is vast. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Military </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disaster </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobile phone service extension. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Description based Ad Hoc Networks <ul><li>Communication failures are considered normal in Ad-hoc networks. </li></ul><ul><li>Description based addressing instead of host based(IP) addressing is more appropriate because it will not rely on a single path, but uses multicasting . </li></ul><ul><li>In description-based routing, selective information dissemination can be implemented. </li></ul><ul><li>Easy to understand and manage the network. </li></ul><ul><li>This will minimize control data among peers and facilitate group communication. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Ad Hoc Network at Home ! <ul><li>Increasingly new functions are built in to home appliances. </li></ul><ul><li>Home appliances fitted with wireless communication modules would become more common in near future. </li></ul><ul><li>The system for home networking would provide information required for inter-working environment for home appliances and it’s users. </li></ul><ul><li>The nodes in this environment could also have the following constraints, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low transmission distances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some nodes may have limited power supply. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Ad Hoc Network at Home ? <ul><li>What about the Ad Hoc network disadvantages? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Household appliances are mostly static i.e. they may not move at all. Therefore the problems arising due to mobility is very limited. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Almost all appliances are plugged in to an unlimited power supply, therefore the power limitations doesn’t apply. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The whole network is owned by one owner, there is no security risk within the network. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Add Hoc home network - Approach <ul><ul><li>1. Cluster Based Ad Hoc Network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Description Based Routing and Addressing </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. 1. Cluster Based Add Hoc Network <ul><li>Why? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>At home most appliances are clustered in places. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Kitchen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Living room </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bed room etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clustering also reduces the amount of control data exchanged among the nodes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only a portion of the nodes are involved in the actual routing process. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Cluster Based Add Hoc Network Organization <ul><li>Everyone knows its one hop neighbors ( Neighbor Table ). </li></ul><ul><li>Cluster heads know their neighboring cluster heads ( Cluster Adjacency Table ). </li></ul><ul><li>Member nodes send their messages to their respective cluster heads to be forwarded to their destinations. </li></ul><ul><li>Only cluster heads and gateways forward messages. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Problem of Routing <ul><li>Does a cluster head know about all other cluster heads? </li></ul><ul><li>This requires high memory capacity ! </li></ul><ul><li>How to route messages beyond known cluster range? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A fixed size Routing Cache (RC) is used to keep track of the nodes that are beyond range. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rather than using a table structure this helps reduce the memory usage. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There is no need to store the full identities or routs. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>We assume that identifiers given to the nodes in the network i.e. home appliances are similar to the following examples. </li></ul><ul><li> Kitchen oven, Kitchen television, Living room television etc. </li></ul><ul><li>In this natural language usage, a general location is identified from the beginning words and becomes more specific within that particular area by the next words. </li></ul><ul><li>Our routing algorithm routes the data messages in the direction of the destination. </li></ul><ul><li>When the message finally arrives at the particular region, there would be nodes that store the exact identifier in their Neighbor table, thus allowing the message to be delivered to the correct destination node. </li></ul>2. Description Based Routing and Addressing  
  13. 13. <ul><li>How the Routing Cache is used? </li></ul><ul><li>If a cluster head or gateway node comes across another cluster head that is beyond its range, it inserts the name in to the RC. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g: if the required destination is “kitchen oven” but the RC entry may be “kitchen”. </li></ul><ul><li>This partial match is enough to ensure that the message gets routed in the direction of the kitchen. </li></ul><ul><li>If the entry is in the 1 st position of the RC it would be as follows. </li></ul>Routing Cache Usage   0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 n e h c t i k
  14. 14. Routing Cache Storage <ul><li>For the simulation purpose we use a fixed size character RC. </li></ul><ul><li>Elements are inserted in a way that some of the information about old entries are overwritten by new entries. </li></ul><ul><li>If, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>S - RC size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>p - Number of parts the RC is divided in to ( p = 2x, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>where x = 0, 1, 2… and Total possible RC entries = 2p) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>P - The next position in RC to be occupied </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>q - (  1) If entry number is an odd number </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> (+1) If entry number is an even number. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>When an entry is made in to the RC the starting position (T) for an entry is given according to the following formula. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Starting Position T= </li></ul>
  15. 15. Routing Cache storage <ul><li>The number of characters allocated for an entry in the RC is given by the following formula, </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Number of characters = </li></ul><ul><li>The actual character positions are given by a modified version of the Fibonacci series (0, 1, 2, 3, 5…), where we have omitted the repetition of number 1. Character position in the RC is given by the following formula, </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  16. 16. Tabular Support Structures <ul><li>Neighbor Table (NT): Holds the information about a node’s one-hop neighbors that have a bi-directional link. It holds the neighbor’s identifier and its status. </li></ul><ul><li>Cluster Adjacency Tables (CAT): Holds the information about the neighboring clusters. A neighboring CH can be two or three hops away. The CAT holds CH identifier and the GW identifier, which is the next immediate hop in the direction of that cluster head. </li></ul><ul><li>Routing Cache Table (RCT): This will be used to store directional RC. This table will store the one hop identifier (of a GW) of each available bi-directional link that has clusters beyond itself and RC for that direction. All the nodes keep an NT, but the CHs and the GWs also keep the CATs and may also use RCT. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Types of Messages <ul><li>Control Messages </li></ul><ul><li>- Control messages are sent only to a node’s one-hop neighbors. </li></ul><ul><li>All control messages are terminated at their one-hop neighbors. </li></ul><ul><li>The receivers update their CAT, NT and RC/RCT with the new control data and create new control messages that are sent to its neighbors. This way the entire network is configured. </li></ul>Type of message Description Number of Entries for each RC RC/RCT Entries RC/RCT of the sender (CH and GW nodes) RC/RCT CAT of the sender (CH and GW nodes) CAT NT of the sender NT Status of the sender Status Name of the sender ID
  18. 18. Handling a Control Message <ul><li>When a node receives a Control Message, </li></ul><ul><li>If receiver is a CH and previous sender is a GW node or this node is a GW and previous sender is a CH, </li></ul><ul><li>- If the sender is unknown then Add as a neighbor </li></ul><ul><li>- All known CH of the sender that it has a direct link or it is through another GW node (this GW node must be a neighbor node of the previous sender) are inserted to this CH’s CAT. </li></ul><ul><li>- All other CAT entries are inserted to RC/RCT. </li></ul><ul><li>- Previous sender’s NT entries that are not even partially known are inserted to the RC/RCT. </li></ul><ul><li>- Sender’s RC/RCT entries that are not even partially known are also inserted to the RC/RCT. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Types of Messages <ul><li>2. Data Messages </li></ul><ul><li>- Nodes arbitrarily generate data messages after the network has configured. </li></ul>Data carried by the message Data Available number of hops TTL Next receiving node (only for directional routing) Nxt. Receiver Previous sender Prev.Sender Message destination Destination Type of message Description Status of the sender Status Message identifier MsgID Name of the sender ID
  20. 20. Handling Data Messages <ul><li>When a node receives a Data Message, </li></ul><ul><li>If destination is this node </li></ul><ul><li>Consume data </li></ul><ul><li>Else if I am Gateway/Cluster head and if this data has not already been forwarded </li></ul><ul><li>Look for destination in neighbor table </li></ul><ul><li>If not found </li></ul><ul><li>Look for destination in Cluster Adjacency table </li></ul><ul><li>If not found </li></ul><ul><li>Look for partial match in Cluster Adjacency table </li></ul><ul><li>If not found </li></ul><ul><li>Look for partial/complete match in the RC/RCT. </li></ul><ul><li>If found </li></ul><ul><li>Forward message </li></ul><ul><li>Else </li></ul><ul><li>Discard message. </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>A simulation program was developed in order to evaluate the above proposal. </li></ul><ul><li>We have used an environment, which is a flat surface 25*25 square units, where 100 nodes are statically located. </li></ul><ul><li>The size of the RC was limited to 128 characters. </li></ul><ul><li>Each node has various transmission distance (maximum of 3 units) and priorities. </li></ul><ul><li>Each node will send a number of messages to randomly selected destinations. </li></ul>Evaluation  
  22. 22. Evaluation – Message broadcast <ul><li>It shows 100% success rate on message delivery with the current environment setting. </li></ul><ul><li>But… message misdirection is very high !!!. </li></ul> 
  23. 23. Evaluation – Single Routing Cache <ul><li>It shows on average a 100% success rate on message delivery with the current environment setting. </li></ul><ul><li>But… message misdirection is still high !!!. </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>The message misdirection occurred because of the use of single RC. </li></ul><ul><li>RC entries do not store the direction of that particular entry. Therefore the messages maybe forwarded to the wrong way as well. </li></ul>Evaluation – Why the misdirection?  
  25. 25. Solution – Directional Routing Cache <ul><li>Routing nodes are given a RC for each outward link. </li></ul><ul><li>The nodes can now compute the next hop of the messages in the right direction. </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>The message misdirection is significantly reduced by the directional RCs. </li></ul><ul><li>But the Memory usage is High and unpredictable !!! </li></ul>Simulation – Directional Routing Cache
  27. 27. <ul><li>The RC is divided proportionally between each bidirectional link. </li></ul><ul><li>Initially full size given to first bidirectional link with a RC entry. </li></ul><ul><li>If another link has a RC entry the RC is proportionally divided among the links according to the number of entries in each direction. </li></ul>Solution: Proportional Directional RCs
  28. 28. <ul><li>Success at 100% </li></ul>Simulation: Proportional Directional RCs
  29. 29. <ul><li>The performance is similar to the equal-sized directional RCs </li></ul>Equal-sized RC Vs Proportional directional RC
  30. 30. <ul><li>When a message is received by a node that has many outward links, it checks each RC for a match with the destination. </li></ul><ul><li>If more than one RC is positively matched the node has to broadcast the message to all outward links. </li></ul><ul><li>Thereafter only the next hop nodes who know the destination will forward the message, and the others will register a lost message. </li></ul>Directional RCs – remaining message drop
  31. 31. <ul><li>The loss due to wrong routing is significantly reduced by the directional RCs. </li></ul>Simulation Comparison %
  32. 32. <ul><li>Considering that a home environment does not contain large number of nodes, this algorithm can be effectively implemented. </li></ul><ul><li>The use of clustering has further supported in reducing the network traffic and routing overhead. </li></ul><ul><li>Use of descriptions improves the user understandability of the system. </li></ul><ul><li>Use of directional RCs will significantly reduce the message loss and improve resource usage. </li></ul><ul><li>Proportional directional RC is the solution with most preferable settings. </li></ul><ul><li>The amount of misdirected messages is also independent of the amount of data sent by any node. </li></ul>Conclusion
  33. 33. <ul><li>We will study the performance and issues when movement is introduced to the network nodes. In the home environment elements such as cell phones and laptops etc, will have movement associated with them. </li></ul><ul><li>We would also like to find the optimal RC size for a given number of nodes. </li></ul><ul><li>Further decrease the amount of control information held and transmitted by nodes. </li></ul>Future extensions  
  34. 34. <ul><li>[1] Tim Daniel Hollerung, “The Cluster-Based Routing Protocol”- project group ‘Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks Based on Wireless LAN’- 2003/4P. </li></ul><ul><li>[2]Krishna, N.H. Vaidya, M. Chatterjee and D.K. Pradhan. “A cluster-based approach for routing in dynamic networks”. ACM SIGCOMM Computer Communication Review 27:49-65, 1997. </li></ul><ul><li>[3] M. Petorvic, V. Muthusamy, H.Jacobsen, “Content-Based Routing in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks”,IEEE MobiQuitous, 2005. </li></ul><ul><li>[4] Mario Gerla and jack Tzu-Chieh Tsai, “Multicluster, Mobile, Multimedia radio network”. ACM- Baltzer Journal of Wireless Networks ,1: 255-265, 1995. </li></ul><ul><li>[5] R.C.Shah and J.M. Rabaey, “ Energy aware routing for low energy ad hoc sensor networks”,0-7803-7376-6/02 IEEE 2002, pp.350-355. </li></ul><ul><li>[6] Tharinda N. Vidanagama, Hidenori Nakazato, “Description Based Routing and Addressing in Cluster Based Ad Hoc Network” IEICE General Conference, 2009. </li></ul><ul><li>[7] Tharinda N. Vidanagama, Hidenori Nakazato, “Reduction of Message Misdirection in Description Based Clustered Ad Hoc Networks”, (To be presented at 7 th IEEE CCNC PerNets workshop). </li></ul>Reference
  35. 35. <ul><li>In a home environment nodes have a limited, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Space, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Available starting positions, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Destinations. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Infrequently moving nodes are also considered as static. </li></ul>Introducing Node Movements  
  36. 36. <ul><li>Observe node and classify them accordingly. </li></ul><ul><li>- all nodes start as static nodes. </li></ul><ul><li>- The nodes should monitor their own movements. </li></ul><ul><li>- One method is to check whether its cluster changes from time to time. </li></ul><ul><li>but what if the cluster moved and not the node? </li></ul><ul><li>Do clusters move in a home environment? </li></ul>Movement Options  
  37. 37. <ul><li>Vary the “Hello” message or the beaconing frequency proportional to the node movement speed. </li></ul><ul><li>- In this case the node it self should measure its own speed and adjust the beaconing frequency accordingly. </li></ul><ul><li>- rate of changing of clusters can be used as a measure of movement speed. </li></ul>Introducing Node Movements  
  38. 38. <ul><li>Use a random way point model. </li></ul><ul><li>- Randomly select nodes and move them to random destinations. </li></ul><ul><li>- In a home environment node can not have random routes. </li></ul><ul><li>- There are only a number of fixed routes a node can take? </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>- The routes depend on the architecture of the house ! </li></ul>Introducing Node Movements  
  39. 39. <ul><li>Thank you ! </li></ul>
  40. 40. Questions ?