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Where are the Uranium resources? Harikrishnan Tulsidas
Uranium in earth Uranium was produced in one or more supernovae  Meteorites - 0.008 ppm U Primitive mantel – 0.021 ppm U D...
Uranium Minerals <ul><li>Uraninite:  UO 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Pitchblende:  UO 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Coffinite:  U(SiO4) 1-x (...
Types of Uranium Deposits <ul><ul><li>In Production </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Unconformity-contact deposits </li></ul><ul><li...
Unconformity type “ Hot” Granite Source   Australian deposits Canadian deposits
Sandstone & Hematite Breccia type “ Hot” Granite Source   Enigmatic closeness to oil – gas fields   ?
Uranium distribution in geological time Generation 5:   (500/400-0 Ma) – Sst, Surfical, Some Unconformity related, Volcani...
World distribution of uranium resources   IAEA   / OECD NEA  Uranium 2007: Resources, Production and Demand Others   941,0...
Reserves Vs Grade Original  Reserves Original Grade UDEPO Data 838 21 162 457 144 54 Grand Total 3 2 0 1 0 0 > 5.00 31 0 1...
Exploration for Uranium Airborne Surveys Foot Surveys Geochemical Surveys Geophysical Surveys Drilling For exploration pro...
First Mover Vs Elephant Country “ Greenfield” exploration  - looking for a deposit in an area where uranium  has not been ...
Thanks Yellow Cake
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Where Are The Uranium Resources Insight

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Presentation at Insight, IAEA 1 October, 2009

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Transcript of "Where Are The Uranium Resources Insight"

  1. 1. Where are the Uranium resources? Harikrishnan Tulsidas
  2. 2. Uranium in earth Uranium was produced in one or more supernovae Meteorites - 0.008 ppm U Primitive mantel – 0.021 ppm U Depleted mantle – 0.004 ppm U Continental crust - 2.8 ppm U Granite - 4-5 ppm U Sedimentary rocks- 2 ppm U Seawater- 0.003 ppm U In the geological past, local concentrations of uranium have occasionally achieved natural criticality - the Oklo reactors. Very high-grade ore - 20% U High-grade ore - 2% U, Low-grade ore - 0.1% U, Very low-grade ore - 0.01% U Outer core Inner core Transition zone 5150 km 4700 km 2900 km Oceanic crust av depth 7 km Continental crust av depth 35 km 6370 km Lower Mantel 350 km 900 km Upper Mantel
  3. 3. Uranium Minerals <ul><li>Uraninite: UO 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Pitchblende: UO 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Coffinite: U(SiO4) 1-x (OH) 4x </li></ul>Primary (endogene) minerals - uraninite (pitchblende), coffinite, brannerite and davidite - the element in quadrivalent state In the presence of metal ions such as Na+, K+, Ca+2, Mg+2, Cu+2, V and Fe+2, hundreds of Secondary uranyl minerals form Carnotite: K 2 (UO 2 ) 2 (VO4) 2 ·3H 2 O, Tyuyamunite: Ca(UO 2 ) 2 (VO4) 2·5-8 H 2 O Autunite: Ca(UO 2 ) 2 (PO4) 2·10-12 H 2 O Torbernite: Cu(UO 2 ) 2 (PO4) 2·8-12 H2O Pithchblende Uraninite Autunite Tobernite
  4. 4. Types of Uranium Deposits <ul><ul><li>In Production </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Unconformity-contact deposits </li></ul><ul><li>Sub-unconformity-epimetamorphic </li></ul><ul><li>Vein type deposits </li></ul><ul><li>Sandstone deposits </li></ul><ul><li>Collapse breccia pipe deposits </li></ul><ul><li>Surficial deposits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Co- or –by product </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Quartz-pebble conglomerate deposits </li></ul><ul><li>Hematite Breccia deposits </li></ul><ul><li>Intrusive deposits </li></ul><ul><li>Phosphorite deposits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Possible future or past production </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Volcanic deposits </li></ul><ul><li>Metasomatite deposits </li></ul><ul><li>Synmetamorphic deposits </li></ul><ul><li>Lignite </li></ul><ul><li>Black shale deposits </li></ul>5.46 Mil tonnes Undiscovered Resources: 7.77 million tU Unconventional Resources: ~7.3 – 22 million tU Seawater: 4 billion tU
  5. 5. Unconformity type “ Hot” Granite Source Australian deposits Canadian deposits
  6. 6. Sandstone & Hematite Breccia type “ Hot” Granite Source Enigmatic closeness to oil – gas fields ?
  7. 7. Uranium distribution in geological time Generation 5: (500/400-0 Ma) – Sst, Surfical, Some Unconformity related, Volcanic, Granite-related vein Generation 4: (700 – 500 Ma) – Vein, Intrusive Generation 3: (1500 – 900 Ma) – Unconformity contact, pegmatite, peralkaline syenite, H. Breccia Generation 2: (2200-1900-1700 Ma) – SSt type (Oklo), Synmetamorphic sratiform, epimetamorphic vein like Generation 1: (2800-2200 Ma) – QPC type 6% ~12% 28% 11% ~16%
  8. 8. World distribution of uranium resources IAEA / OECD NEA Uranium 2007: Resources, Production and Demand Others 941,000 17% Total 5,469,000 100% iNFCIS - UDEPO Data of 1176 uranium deposits from 71 countries http://www-nfcis.iaea.org Total 19,193,456 tU tU Red Book Undiscovered Resources: 7,771,100 tU 5.0% 274,000       Niger 5.0% 275,000       Namibia 5.1% 278,000       Brazil 6.3% 342,000       United States 7.7% 423,000       Canada 8.0% 435,000       South Africa 10.0% 546,000       Russia 14.9% 817,000       Kazakhstan 22.7% 1,243,000       Australia
  9. 9. Reserves Vs Grade Original Reserves Original Grade UDEPO Data 838 21 162 457 144 54 Grand Total 3 2 0 1 0 0 > 5.00 31 0 10 13 3 5 1.00 - 5.00 517 7 89 282 106 33 0.10 - 1.00 172 6 31 96 26 13 0.03 - 0.10 115 6 32 65 9 3 < 0.03 Total > 100,000 10,000 - 100,000 1000-10000 500 - 1,000 < 500  
  10. 10. Exploration for Uranium Airborne Surveys Foot Surveys Geochemical Surveys Geophysical Surveys Drilling For exploration programs where a promising mineral showing is discovered, it will take at least 7 to 10 years before the start of a new mine!
  11. 11. First Mover Vs Elephant Country “ Greenfield” exploration - looking for a deposit in an area where uranium has not been found before. “ Brownfield” exploration - search for additional deposits near a known mine. Fewer than 1 in 10000 mineral showings discovered actually become a mine! Red Book 2007 * Expected expenditure
  12. 12. Thanks Yellow Cake
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