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English grammar 101

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  • 1. English Grammar 101 A Review of the Essentials David A. deSilva
  • 2. Parts of Speech Nouns Pronouns Verbs Adjective Adverbs Prepositions Conjunctions Interjections
  • 3. Parts of Speech (2) Nouns: words that name persons, places, things, or ideas Pronouns: words that stand in for a noun Verbs: words that express action or state of being Adjectives: words that describe nouns or pronouns Adverbs: words that describe verbs Prepositions: words that connect a noun and its modifiers to another component of the sentence Conjunctions: words that join nouns, verbs, or other parts of a sentence Interjections: words that express emotion, shock, and the like.
  • 4. Parts of a Sentence Every sentence has a subject and a predicate.  The subject is the noun or the pronoun that the sentence says something about;  The predicate is what is said about that noun or pronoun, i.e., what that noun does or what that noun is.  “Jesus wept.” (John 11:35 NIV)  “Jesus” is the subject: the sentence is “about” Jesus.  “wept” is the predicate – what is said about Jesus.
  • 5. Subjects and Predicates “And no one in heaven or on earth or under the earth was able to open the scroll or to look into it.” (Rev 5:3 NRSV)  “no one in heaven or on earth or under the earth” is the subject; the main subject would be “one”; the rest is composed of modifiers (or descriptors)  “was able to open the scroll or to look into it” is the predicate; the main predicate would be “was”; the remaining words are complements and objects.
  • 6. Subjects and Predicates (2) “When he had taken the scroll, the four living creatures and the twenty-four elders fell before the Lamb, each holding a harp and golden bowls full of incense, which are the prayers of the saints.” (Rev 5:8 NRSV)  The subject is in italics; all the rest is predicate (“when he had…” tells when the elders “fell”).  Predicates can be split up; subjects do not always come first.  In this sentence, we find a “compound subject” (more than one subject): (1) “creatures” and (2) “elders”.
  • 7. Subjects and Predicates (3) “And the elders fell down and worshiped.” (Rev 5:14b NRSV)  In this example, we find a “compound predicate”: the subject governs more than one verb – (1) “fell down” and (2) “worshiped” “Then I saw between the throne and the four living creatures and among the elders a Lamb standing as if it had been slaughtered, having seven horns and seven eyes, which are the seven spirits of God sent out into all the earth.” (Rev 5:6 NRSV)  In this example, the subject is one word: “I”
  • 8. Subjects and Predicates (4) Sentences starting with “there” or “it”: these words are often used as a kind of “place marker” for the real subject of a sentence.  “There will be earthquakes in various places; there will be famines.” (Mk 13:8 NRSV)  Grammatically speaking, the sentence is: “Earthquakes will be [=will occur] in various places; famines will be [=will happen].” The grammatical subjects are “earthquakes” and “famine,” not “there” and “there.”
  • 9. Subjects and Predicates (5)  “But in these sacrifices there is a reminder of sin year after year.” (Heb 10:3 NRSV)  Grammatically speaking, the sentence is: “But a reminder of sins is in these sacrifices year after year.” The real subject is “reminder.”  “It is senseless to give a pledge, to become surety for a neighbor.” (Prov 17:18 NRSV)  Grammatically speaking “to give a pledge” is the subject (“to become surety for a neighbor” is set in apposition). “To give a pledge is senseless.”
  • 10. Complements Alongside the verb, the predicate often contains other essential parts of the sentence. These may include:  Direct objects  Indirect objects  Predicate nominatives  Predicate adjectives
  • 11. Complements (2) Direct Objects and Indirect Objects occur with “action” verbs:  The direct object receives the impact of the action. Put another way, the subject enacts the verb upon the direct object.  “I baptize you with water for repentance.” (Mt 3:11 NRSV). The subject (“I”) enacts the verb (“baptize”), but it is the direct object (“you”) that gets dunked. 
  • 12. Complements (3)  “He went and took the scroll.” (Rev 5:7 NRSV)  The Lamb (“he”) does the going and taking; “the scroll” is the object affected by the Lamb’s actions. “The scroll” is the direct object.  “Bear fruit worthy of repentance.” (Mt 3:8 NRSV)  In this imperative sentence, “fruit” is the thing that has to be borne: it is the direct object of the command, “bear.”
  • 13. Complements (4) Indirect Objects: nouns or pronouns that are the indirect recipients of the action, often the “beneficiaries” of the action (“to” or “for” whom the action happens).  “By your blood you ransomed for God saints from every tribe and language and people and nation.” (Rev 5:9 NRSV).  The subject is “you”; the main verb of the predicate, “ransomed,”; “saints” are the ones actually “ransomed,” hence the direct object. “God” is the indirect object: the ransoming of the saints has an indirect effect on God, “for whom” the action happens.
  • 14. Complements (5)  “God is able from these stones to raise up children to Abraham.” (Matt 3:9 NRSV)  Looking at the infinitive “to raise up,” the direct object of the infinitive is “children,” the entities actually raised up; the indirect object is “Abraham,” to whom (i.e., in whose favor) these children are raised up.
  • 15. Complements (6) Predicate nominatives and predicate adjectives occur with verbs expressing being or a state of being (also called “linking verbs”).  “God is able” (Matt 3:9 NRSV).  Subject: “God”; verb: “is”; “able” is a predicate adjective. The whole point of the sentence is to link God with this quality, or “predicate” this quality upon God.
  • 16. Complements (7)  “You are worthy to take the scroll and to open its seals.” (Rev 5:9 NRSV)  Subject: “you”; main verb: “are”; “worthy” is another predicate adjective (followed by two complementary infinitives, “to take” and “to open,” further describing this worthiness).  “No one was found worthy to open the scroll or to look into it.” (Rev 5:4 NRSV)  “worthy” is still a predicate adjective, since “was found” (= was proven to be) is still a “state of being” verb.
  • 17. Complements (8)  “Jesus Christ is Lord” (Phil 2:11 NRSV)  Subject: “Jesus Christ”; main verb: “is”; “Lord” is a noun that is being predicated of “Jesus Christ” – it is a predicate nominative. Sometimes a direct object can also have a complement in the form of an adjective or noun predicated, in effect, upon it.  “You have made them a kingdom and priests to our God.” (Rev 5:10 ESV)  “them” is the direct object, but “a kingdom and priests” is also specifically what God made “them” – the phrase is an “object complement.”
  • 18. Kinds of Sentences Declarative: sentences stating something (whether fictive or real, narrative or argument).  “I began to weep bitterly because no one was found worthy to open the scroll or to look into it.” (Rev 5:4 NRSV) Interrogative: sentences asking a question (thus calling for some declarative statement in response).  “Who is worthy to open the scroll and break its seals?” (Rev 5:2 NRSV)
  • 19. Kinds of Sentences (2) Sometimes an interrogative statement is in transposed word order: the subject is most easily found when one reformulates the question as a statement.  “What did you go out into the wilderness to look at?” (Mt 11:7 NRSV)  “What” is not the subject; it is, in fact, the object of the preposition “at.” The subject is “you”: “You did go out into the wilderness to look at ____.”
  • 20. Kinds of Sentences (3) Imperative: sentences that issue commands.  “Repent, for the kingdom of heaven has come near.” (Mt 3:2 NRSV)  “Bear fruit worthy of repentance.” (Mt 3:8 NRSV)  "Do not weep.” (Rev 5:5 NRSV)  In all these examples the subject – You – is not expressed, but is understood. “Repent, you, for the kingdom….”
  • 21. Kinds of Sentences (4)  There are 1st and 3rd person commands as well, in which the subject will be expressed.  1st person plural: ”Let us hold fast to our confession.” (Heb 4:14 NRSV)  3rd person singular: “Let him who is without sin among you be the first to throw a stone at her.” (Jn 8:7 ESV)  3rd person plural: “If any want to become my followers, let them deny themselves and take up their cross and follow me.” (Mt 16:24 NRSV)
  • 22. Nouns Words that denote a person, place, thing, or idea Can be “proper” nouns (e.g., Peter, Judea) or “common” nouns (e.g., disciple, region) Can have “number”: singular, “disciple”; plural, “disciples” (note: usually there is a change of form) Special ending for possessive/genitive case: “the Lord’s day,” “ the nations’ tribute”
  • 23. Nouns 6 Then I saw between the throne and the four living creatures and among the elders a Lamb standing as if it had been slaughtered, having seven horns and seven eyes, which are the seven spirits of God sent out into all the earth. 7 He went and took the scroll from the right hand of the one who was seated on the throne.
  • 24. Nouns 6 Then I saw between the throne and the four living creatures and among the elders a Lamb standing as if it had been slaughtered, having seven horns and seven eyes, which are the seven spirits of God sent out into all the earth. 7 He went and took the scroll from the right hand of the one who was seated on the throne.
  • 25. Pronouns Words used in place of a proper or common noun. A pronoun generally has an antecedent – a specific noun named earlier in the discourse for which the pronoun is “standing in.”
  • 26. Personal PronounsPersonal pronouns have “person,” “number,” and “case.” Singular (nominative): I (1st) , you (2nd) , he, she, it (3rd) Plural (nominative): we (1st) , you (2nd) , they (3rd) Singular (objective): me, you, him, her, it Plural (objective): us, you, them
  • 27. Personal PronounsAnd I began to weep bitterly because no one was found worthy to open the scroll or to look into it.Then one of the elders said to me, "Do not weep. See, the Lion of the tribe of Judah, the Root of David, has conquered, so that he can open the scroll and its seven seals."
  • 28. Personal PronounsAnd I began to weep bitterly because no one was found worthy to open the scroll or to look into it.Then one of the elders said to me, "Do not weep. See, the Lion of the tribe of Judah, the Root of David, has conquered, so that he can open the scroll and its seven seals."
  • 29. Possessive Pronouns Singular: mine, yours, his, hers, its Plural: ours, yours, theirs“He is the atoning sacrifice for our sins, and not for ours [= our sins] only but also for the sins of the whole world.” (1 John 2:2)“My beloved is mine and I am his.” (Song 2:16)
  • 30. Possessive Pronounsvs. Possessive Adjectives Pronouns: stand in for nouns – “he atoned not only for their sins, but ours.” “Ours” stands in for the noun “sins.” Adjectives: describe nouns – “he atoned for our sins.” “Our” describes a noun in the sentence.
  • 31. Intensive and Reflexive Pronouns Singular: myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself Plural: ourselves, yourselves, themselvesIntensive: “He himself was not the light, but he came to testify to the light.” (John 1:8)Reflexive: "Is he going to kill himself? Is that what he means by saying, Where I am going, you cannot come?“ (John 8:22)
  • 32. Definite Relative Pronouns Introduce subordinate clauses that, as a whole, function as adjectives (supplying additional information about some noun or pronoun). As with most pronouns, the definite relative pronoun points back to some antecedent (some noun to which it is referring) Who, whom (objective case of “who”), whose (possessive case of “who”), which/that
  • 33. Relative Clauses The relative pronoun introduces a relative clause with a verb and, often, objects, modifiers, and prepositional phrases. The entire clause modifies some noun or pronoun in the main sentence (the antecedent of the relative pronoun). A relative clause generally could have been written as a separate sentence:  You love Lazarus.  Lazarus is sick.  “He [Lazarus] whom you love is sick.” (John 11:3)
  • 34. Relative Pronouns (and relativeclauses) “He went and took the scroll from the right hand of the one who was seated on the throne.” “This is the one of whom the prophet Isaiah spoke.” (Matt 3:3) “I baptize you with water for repentance, but one who is more powerful than I is coming after me, whose sandals I am not worthy to carry.” (Matt 3:11)
  • 35. Indefinitive relative pronouns The relative pronoun can also be used where there is no antecedent, sometimes generalized (“whoever, whatever”) “Whoever denies me before others, I also will deny before my Father in heaven.” (Matt 10:33) “Remember then what you received and heard” (Rev 3:3)
  • 36. Interrogative Pronouns Used to ask questions; no antecedent Who? What? Which? “Who is worthy to open the scroll and break its seals?” (Rev 5:2)
  • 37. Demonstrative Pronouns Used to “point out” particular objects. This, these; that, those Nearer demonstratives: this, these Farther demonstratives: that, those
  • 38. Demonstrative Pronouns “This [= “this person”] is the one of whom the prophet Isaiah spoke.” (Matt 3:3) Then one of the elders addressed me, saying, "Who are these [=“these people”], robed in white, and where have they come from?“ (Rev 7:13) “Blessed are those [=“those people”] who mourn, for they will be comforted.” (Matt 5:4)
  • 39. Indefinite Pronouns These pronouns do not refer to specific persons or things, but rather to general types or classes. Anyone, anybody, anything; someone, somebody, something; everyone, everybody, everything; none, nobody, nothing; all, few, many, several, etc.
  • 40. Indefinite Pronouns “Blessed is anyone who takes no offense at me.” (Matt 11:6) “The kingdom of heaven may be compared to someone who sowed good seed in his field.” (Matt 13:24) “For many are called, but few are chosen.” (Matt 22:14)
  • 41. Reciprocal Pronouns Pronouns indicating that the individual members of a collective subject act back on other members of the group. One another, each other “I give you a new commandment, that you love one another.” (John 13:34) “What are you discussing with each other while you walk along?” (Luke 24:17)
  • 42. Appositives Nouns or pronouns can be used simply to rename another noun or pronoun in the sentence. The second noun or pronoun is said to stand in “apposition” to the first, and is like a parenthetical comment.  “A Savior, Christ, the Lord, is born for you today in David’s city” (Luke 2:11)  “Paul and Timothy, servants of Jesus Christ, to all the saints….” (Phil 1:1)  “Ananias came down with some elders and an attorney, a certain Tertullus, and they reported their case against Paul.” (Acts 24:1)
  • 43. Verbs Action  Jesus wept.  I saw a mighty angel.  He went and took the scroll. State of being  no one … was able.  You are worthy.
  • 44. Verbs (2) English verbs are often formed by a combination of one or more “helping verbs” with a “main verb.”  The Lion … has conquered.  You were slaughtered.  They will reign on earth. Helping verbs are an essential part of the formation of the various voices, tenses, and aspects of the English verb.
  • 45. Helping Verbs Listed Common Helping Verbs:  Do, does, did  Has, have, had  Am, are, is, were, was, be, being, been Modal Helping Verbs  Can, could  May, might  Must  Shall, should, ought [to]  Will, would
  • 46. Verbs: Person and Number 1st Person  Singular: I heal.  Plural: We heal. 2nd Person  Singular: You heal.  Plural: You (Y’all) heal. 3rd Person  Singular: He, she, it heals.  Plural: They heal.
  • 47. Verbs: Voice Active: The subject of the sentence performs the action of the verb, often upon one or more objects.  He went and took the scroll.  They will reign on earth. Passive: The action of the verb is done to the Subject of the sentence.  You were slaughtered.  They were baptized by him in the river Jordan.
  • 48. Verbs: Tense(all examples are in active voice) Present  Simple: I baptize.  Progressive: I am baptizing. Past  Simple: I baptized.  Progressive: I was baptizing. Future  Simple: I will baptize.  Progressive: I will be baptizing.
  • 49. Verbs: Tenses (2) Present Perfect  Simple: I have baptized.  Progressive: I have been baptizing. Past Perfect (Pluperfect)  Simple: I had baptized.  Progressive: I had been baptizing. Future Perfect  Simple: I will have baptized.  Progressive: I will have been baptizing.
  • 50. Verbs: Tenses (Passive Examples) Present  Simple: I am baptized.  Progressive: I am being baptized. Past  Simple: I was baptized.  Progressive: I was being baptized. Future  Simple: I will be baptized.  Progressive: I will be being baptized. (Not regularly used.)
  • 51. Verbs: Tenses (Passive Examples) Present Perfect  Simple: I have been baptized.  Progressive: N/A Past Perfect (Pluperfect)  Simple: I had been baptized.  Progressive: N/A Future Perfect  Simple: I will have been baptized.  Progressive: N/A
  • 52. Verbs: Moods Indicative: Narrating Facts or Purported Facts  John was baptizing in the Jordan River. Imperative: Giving Commands  “Repent, for the kingdom of heaven is near.” Subjunctive: Unreal Situations  "If this man were a prophet, he would have known who and what sort of woman this is who is touching him, for she is a sinner." (Luke 7:39 ESV)
  • 53. Verbal Forms Infinitives: the bare form of the verb  Present Active (time contemporary with or subsequent to main verb): “To heal,” “to save,” “to call”  Present Passive: “To be healed,” “to be saved,” “to be called”  Perfect Active (time prior to main verb): “To have healed,” “to have loved”  Perfect Passive: “To have been healed,” “to have been loved”  Stative: “To be,” “to have been”
  • 54. Infinitives: Uses As a noun:  Subject of verb: “To live is Christ, and to die is gain.” (Phil 1:21 ESV)  What is?  Object of verb: “I want to know Christ.” (Phil 3:10 NRSV)  I want what?
  • 55. Infinitive: Uses (2) As an adjective:  “By faith Sarah herself received power to conceive.” (Heb 11:11 NRSV)  The infinitive answers the question “what kind of power?”
  • 56. Infinitive: Uses (3) As an adverb:  “Abraham … obeyed when he was called to go out.” (Heb 11:8 NRSV)  Supplies more information about the verb “called”  “God is not ashamed to be called their God.” (Heb 11:16)  Supplies more information about the adjective “ashamed,” perhaps giving the “circumstances”
  • 57. Participles Active: baptizing  While baptizing by the river, John was arrested. Passive: baptized  Baptized by John, Peter and Andrew went out to preach. Participles can form additional voices and tenses with helping verbs, e.g.:  Perfect Active: having baptized  Having baptized many, John’s reputation spread.  Perfect Passive: having been baptized  Having been baptized by John, the tax collectors repented.
  • 58. Participles: Usage Adjectival Participial Clauses: the participles describes some noun or pronoun  “I saw in the right hand of the one seated on the throne a scroll written on the inside and on the back, sealed with seven seals” (Rev 5:1 NRSV)  The participle “seated” introduces a clause that further describes the “one”; the participles “written” and “sealed” introduce clauses giving additional information describing the “scroll.”
  • 59. Participles: Usage (2) Adverbial Participial Clauses: the participle gives more information about the action of the main verb  “These all died in faith, not having received the things promised, but having seen them and greeted them from afar, and having acknowledged that they were strangers and exiles on the earth.” (Heb 11:13 NRSV)  “[not] having received” and “having seen … and greeted” and “having acknowledged” all describe under what circumstances “these all died.”  “They were baptized by him in the river Jordan, confessing their sins.” (Matt 3:6 NRSV)  “Confessing” supplies information about the circumstances under which the people were being baptized.
  • 60. Gerunds (Participles acting as Nouns) The gerund looks like the present participle in form: baptizing, seeing, healing As a gerund, however, the word acts as a simple noun, naming the particular action.  “To me, living is Christ and dying is gain” (Phil 1:21 NRSV).  “Living” and “Dying” are both fulfilling the role of nouns as subjects of the verb “is.”
  • 61. Verbals and their Complements Participles, Infinitives, and Gerunds can take all the complements that a normal verb can take:  Adverbs  Direct Objects  Indirect Objects  Adverbial Prepositional Phrases  Predicate Nominatives
  • 62. Adjectives Words used to describe nouns or pronouns. Adjectives are words that answer questions like “what kind of ____?” or “which _____?” or “how many _____?” Attributive Adjectives (simple descriptors):  Then I saw in the right hand of the one seated on the throne a scroll written on the inside and on the back, sealed with seven seals; and I saw a mighty angel proclaiming with a loud voice, “Who is worthy to open the scroll and break its seals?” (Rev 5:1-2 NRSV)
  • 63. Adjectives (2) Predicate Adjectives: the “point” of the sentence is to link a noun or pronoun with a descriptor by means of a linking verb (a form of be, become, etc.)  “No one in heaven or on earth or under the earth was able to open the scroll” (Rev 5:3)  “No one [S] … was [V] able [Pred Adj]”  “No one was found worthy.” (Rev 5:4)  “You are worthy to take the scroll.” (Rev 5:9)
  • 64. Adjectives (3) Substantive Adjectives: Adjectives can be used as nouns, as in the title, “The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly.”  Blessed are the meek, for they will inherit the earth…. Blessed are the merciful, for they will receive mercy. (Mt 5:5, 7 NRSV)  “meek” and “merciful” are actually adjectives. Here it is understood that Jesus is talking about “those who are meek” or “the meek ones.”
  • 65. Adjectives (4) Adjectives have “degrees”  Positive: “holy,” “righteous,” “good”  “you are my strong refuge” (Ps 71:7)  Comparative: “holier,” “more righteous,” “better”  “And the LORD made his people … stronger than their enemies (Ps 105:24)  Superlative: “holiest,” “most righteous,” “best”  “The anger of God rose against them and he killed the strongest of them” (Ps 78:31)
  • 66. Adverbs Adverbs are words that give more information about the action of the sentence – i.e., the verb – or about an adjective or even another adverb. Adverbs often answer questions like:  How?  Why?  Where?  When?  Under what circumstances?  To what degree or extent? (This is the sense in which adverbs generally describe adjectives and other adverbs.) Adverbs often, but do not always, end in -ly
  • 67. Adverbs (2) “I began to weep bitterly because no one was found worthy to open the scroll or to look into it.” (Rev 5:4 NRSV)  How was John weeping? “I know you are enduring patiently and bearing up for my names sake.” (Rev 2:3 ESV)  How are the believers enduring? “When the disciples heard this, they were greatly astonished.” (Matt 19:25 NIV)  To what extent were the disciples astonished?
  • 68. Adverbs (3) Like adjectives, adverbs can be compared:  Positive: “bitterly”  Comparative: “more bitterly”  Superlative: “most bitterly” Irregular comparisons also exist:  Well, better, best  Little, less, least  Badly, worse, worst
  • 69. Caution: When adverbs look likeprepositions “And when he had looked around at everything, as it was already late, he went out to Bethany with the twelve.” (Mark 11:11).  “Around” is often used as a preposition, as in “I heard the voice of many angels around the throne” (Rev 5:11 NASU). In Mk 11:11, however, “around” describes the action of “looking” – Where did Jesus look?
  • 70. Prepositions Prepositions stand before a noun or pronoun (and its descriptors) to create a prepositional phrase. The entire prepositional phrase will describe some other noun or pronoun in the sentence (acting adjectivally) or the verb in the clause to which it is related (acting adverbially).
  • 71. Prepositions (2) Some common prepositions in prepositional phrases (from Mt 3:1-12):  in the wilderness  from the coming wrath  to yourselves  at the root  of the trees  into the granary  with unquenchable fire
  • 72. Common Prepositions About, above, according to, across, after, against, along, alongside [of], among, around, at, because of, before, behind, below, beneath, beside(s), between, beyond, by, concerning, despite, down, during, except, for, from, in, inside, instead of, into, like, near, of, off, on, out of, over, past, since, through, throughout, to, together with, toward, under, underneath, until, unto, up, upon, up to, with, within, without
  • 73. Prepositions (3) “I tell you, God is able from these stones to raise up children to Abraham. Even now the ax is lying at the root of the trees; every tree therefore that does not bear good fruit is cut down and thrown into the fire.” (Mt 3:9-10 NRSV)  Adverbial prepositional phrases:  “from these stones” (giving information about the “raising”)  “to Abraham” (ditto)  “at the root” (where is the ax lying?)  “into the fire” (where is it being thrown?)  Adjectival prepositional phrase”  “of the trees” (giving information about what root)
  • 74. Prepositions (4a) “Then I saw in the right hand of the one seated on the throne a scroll written on the inside and on the back, sealed with seven seals…. And no one in heaven or on earth or under the earth was able to open the scroll or to look into it.” (Rev 5:1, 3 NRSV)
  • 75. Prepositions (4b) “Then I saw in the right hand [adv.: where saw?] of the one [adj.: describes what hand] seated on the throne [adv.: where seated?] a scroll written on the inside [adv.: how or where written?] and on the back [adv.], sealed with seven seals [adv.: sealed by what means or how?] …. And no one in heaven [adj.: describes “one”] or on earth [adj.] or under the earth [adj.] was able to open the scroll or to look into it [adv.: look where?].” (Rev 5:1, 3 NRSV)
  • 76. Caution Many words that can function as prepositions can also function as other parts of speech!  “Since” can be a preposition, conjunction, or adverb  “To” can be a preposition (“to the river”), or it can be part of an infinitive (“to come,” “to sing,” “to look”) FUNCTION determines what a word is in a given context
  • 77. Conjunctions Conjunctions are used to link words or phrases together (coordinating conjunctions), set them in relationship to one another (correlative conjunctions), or subordinate one clause to another, usually giving some indication of the logical relationship between those clauses (subordinating conjunctions).
  • 78. Conjunctions (2) Coordinating Conjunctions: and, or, but, so, yet:  “No one in heaven or on earth or under the earth was able to open the scroll or to look into it.” Rev 5:3 NRSV)  The first two conjunctions link three prepositional phrases together as one overarching unit of modifiers describing “one”  The last conjunction links two infinitives, connecting both as complements to “was able”
  • 79. Conjunctions (3a)  “You are worthy to take the scroll and to open its seals, for you were slaughtered and by your blood you ransomed for God saints from every tribe and language and people and nation.” (Rev 5:9 NRSV)
  • 80. Conjunctions (3b)  “You are worthy to take the scroll and to open its seals, for you were slaughtered and by your blood you ransomed for God saints from every tribe and language and people and nation.” (Rev 5:9 NRSV)  The first “and” links two infinitives as complements to “worthy” (“worthy” of what?)  The second “and” links two clauses as part of the rationale introduced by “for” (“you were slaughtered and … you ransomed”)  The last three occurrences of “and” link four nouns as the common objects of the preposition “from”
  • 81. Conjunctions (4) Correlative (both…and, neither…nor, not only … but also, either…or):  “At that time his voice shook the earth, but now he has promised, ‘Yet once more I will shake not only the earth but also the heavens.’” (Heb 12:28 ESV)  The “not only…but also” coordinates “earth” and “heaven” as twin objects of the verb “shake,” while also establishing a stronger relationship between the two objects.  “Store up for yourselves treasures in heaven, where neither moth nor rust consumes and where thieves do not break in and steal.” (Matt 6:20 NRSV)  “neither” and “nor” link “moth” and “rust” as two subjects of the verb “consumes.
  • 82. Conjunctions (5) Subordinating Conjunctions (when, while, after, before, since; where; whether; as, as if; because; though, although; if, unless; so, so that, in order that; as … as; rather than) Used to connect noun or adverb clauses to some other element in the sentence
  • 83. Conjunctions (6) “And I began to weep bitterly because no one was found worthy to open the scroll or to look into it. Then one of the elders said to me, ‘Do not weep. See, the Lion of the tribe of Judah, the Root of David, has conquered, so that he can open the scroll and its seven seals.’ Then I saw between the throne and the four living creatures and among the elders a Lamb standing as if it had been slaughtered, having seven horns and seven eyes, which are the seven spirits of God sent out into all the earth.” (Rev 5:4-6 NRSV)  “because” introduces a subordinate clause specifying CAUSE  “so that” introduces a subordinate clause specifying RESULT  “as if” introduces a subordinate clause specifying MANNER
  • 84. Conjunctive Adverbs Not to be confused with subordinating conjunctions, these adverbs can also be used to indicate the relationship between independent clauses:  Accordingly, also, anyway, besides, certainly, consequently, conversely, finally, furthermore, hence, however, incidentally, indeed, instead, likewise, meanwhile, moreover, nevertheless, next, nonetheless, otherwise, similarly, specifically, still, subsequently, then, therefore, thus
  • 85. Interjections Words usually expressing surprise or emotion, drawing attention to something or some experience.  “And those who passed by derided him, wagging their heads and saying, ‘Aha! You who would destroy the temple and rebuild it in three days, save yourself, and come down from the cross!’” (Mk 15:29-30 ESV)  “His disciples said, "Ah, now you are speaking plainly and not using figurative speech!” (Jn 16:29 ESV)
  • 86. Kinds of Sentences and Clauses Clauses: groups of related words containing a subject and a verb.  Independent (or main) clauses: An independent clause expressed a grammatically complete thought and can stand alone as a complete sentence.  “John the Baptist appeared in the wilderness of Judea.” (Matt 3:1 NRSV)  “John wore clothing of camels hair with a leather belt around his waist, and his food was locusts and wild honey.” (Matt 3:3 NRSV) – a compound of two independent clauses.
  • 87. Kinds of Sentences and Clauses (2)  Dependent (subordinate) clauses: these clauses are not complete sentences, but must always be attached to a main (independent) clause.  “because no one was found worthy to open the scroll or to look into it.” (Rev 5:4 NRSV)  “so that he can open the scroll and its seven seals.” (Rev 5:5 NRSV)  “as if it had been slaughtered.” (Rev 5:6 NRSV)  In each of these three examples, there is a subject (bold) and verb (italic), but none can stand as a complete sentence.
  • 88. Kinds of Sentences and Clauses (3) “By faith Sarah herself received power to conceive, even when she was past the age, since she considered him faithful who had promised.” (Heb 11:11 NRSV)  “By faith Sarah herself received power to conceive.” (Main clause; could stand alone as a complete sentence)  “even when she was past the age” (Subordinate clause)  “since she considered him faithful who had promised” (Subordinate clause)
  • 89. Kinds of Sentences and Clauses (4) Phrases:  These are related groups of words that do not contain both a subject and a verb, e.g., prepositional phrases and participial phrases.  in the right hand  of the one  seated on the throne  sealed with seven seals  proclaiming with a loud voice  having seven horns and seven eyes  into all the earth
  • 90. Functions of Subordinate Clauses Adjectival (most often involving relative clauses introduced by relative pronouns)  “This is the one of whom the prophet Isaiah spoke.” (Matt 3:3 NRSV)  “Every tree therefore that does not bear good fruit is cut down and thrown into the fire.” (Matt 5:10 NRSV)  “One who is more powerful than I is coming after me.” (Matt 5:11 NRSV) These can be introduced also by “where,” “when,” “why,” and “whose”  “He has risen…. Come and see the place where he lay.” (Matt 28:6 NIV) – Still answers the question, “What place?”
  • 91. Functions of Subord. Clauses (2) Adverbial  Temporal (when does the action of the main clause take place?)  “When he had taken the scroll, the four living creatures and the twenty-four elders fell before the Lamb.” (Rev 5:8 NRSV)  Location (where does the action of the main clause take place?)  “You knew that I reap where I have not sowed and gather where I scattered no seed.” (Matt 25:26 ESV)  Manner (by what means or in what manner does the action of the main clause take place?)  “I saw … a Lamb standing as if it had been slaughtered.” (Rev 5:6 NRSV)
  • 92. Functions of Subord. Clauses (3)  Cause (for what reason does the action of the main clause take place?)  “I began to weep bitterly because no one was found worthy to open the scroll or to look into it.” (Rev 5:4 NRSV)  Concession (despite what does the action of the main clause take place?)  “Although he was a son, he learned obedience from what he suffered.” (Heb 5:8 NIV)  Condition (under what circumstances would the action of the main clause take place?)  “If anyone hears my voice and opens the door, I will come in and eat with him, and he with me.” (Rev 3:20 NIV)
  • 93. Functions of Subord. Clauses (4)  Purpose (to what end does the action of the main clause take place?)  “They watched Him, and sent spies who pretended to be righteous, in order that they might catch Him in some statement.” (Luke 20:20 NASU)  Result (to what effect did the action of the main clause take place?)  “The Lion of the tribe of Judah … has conquered, so that he can open the scroll and its seven seals.” (Rev 5:5 NRSV)
  • 94. Functions of Subord. Clauses (5) Noun Clauses: the clause as a whole plays a role usually assigned to a noun (like subject, direct object, object of a preposition).  “When he heard that Archelaus was reigning over Judea in place of his father Herod, he was afraid to go there.” (Matt 2:22 ESV) – the whole “that” clause is the direct object of “he heard”  “What you sow must die before it is given new life” (1 Cor 15:36 NJB) – “What you sow” functions, as a whole, as the subject of the sentence. Note: because noun clauses often play an integral role in the main clause, they are often not separable from the main clause (as adjectival and adverbial clauses are).

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