HISTORY OF MOOCs
The first MOOCs emerged from the open educational resources (OER) movement.
Open Educational Resources (OER) are freely accessible, openly licensed
documents and media that are useful for teaching, learning, educational, assessment
and research purposes.
The term MOOC was coined in 2008 by Dave Cormier of the University of Prince
And Senior Research Fellow Bryan Alexander of the National Institute for
Technology in Liberal Education.
In response to a course called Connectivism and Connective Knowledge (also
known as CCK08).
It was called „Connectivism and Connective Knowledge/2008‟ (CCK8), created
by educators Stephen Downes and George Siemens.
Building off a for-credit course at the University of Manitoba, Canada, this
was the first class designed behind the acronym of „MOOC‟ and used many
different platforms to engage students with the topic, including Facebook
groups, Wiki pages, blogs, forums and other resources.
Around 2,200 people signed up for CCK08, and 170 of them created their own
The course was free and open, which meant that anyone could join, modify or
remix the content without paying (although a paid, certified option was
In 2012, another MOOC experiment caught academics‟ attention.
Two Stanford Professors Sebastian Thrun and Peter Norvig decided to offer
“Introduction to Artificial Intelligence” for free online.
Designed to resemble real classroom experiences and offer high-quality
classes for everyone, the idea had the advantage of carrying the prestigious
Stanford name .
More than 160,000 students in 190 countries signed up, and for the first time,
an open online course was truly „massive‟. This led Thrun and Norvig to build
a new business model for online knowledge.
focuses mostly on instructivist approaches to teaching.
The instructor, along with a support team, record and serve video lectures to
Things that the learners learned, are then practiced through formative
assessed in some sort of graded activity
Tend to focus on constructivist and connectivist approaches to learning.
Learning happens when students interact with authentic materials.
List of References
Bell, F. (2011) Connectivism: Its Place in Theory-Informed Research and
Innovation in Technolgy-Enabled Learning. International Review of Research in
Open and Distance Learning. Volume 12, Number 3. Retrievable from web
http://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl/article/view/902/1664 (accessed 22
Cormier D, Siemens G (2010) Through the open door: open courses as
research, learning, and engagement. EDUCAUSE Review; 2010; 45(4): 30-9.
(accessed 22 February 2014)