Random-access memory 1 Random-access memory Example of writable volatile random-access memory: Synchronous Dynamic RAM modules, primarily used as main memory in personal computers, workstations, and servers. Computer memory types Volatile • DRAM (e.g., DDR SDRAM) • SRAM • In development • T-RAM • Z-RAM • TTRAM • Historical • Delay line memory • Selectron tube • Williams tube Non-volatile • ROM • PROM • EPROM • EEPROM • Flash memory • Early stage • FeRAM • MRAM • PRAM • In development • CBRAM • SONOS • RRAM • Racetrack memory • NRAM • Millipede • Historical • Drum memory • Magnetic core memory • Plated wire memory • Bubble memory • Twistor memory
Random-access memory 2 Random-access memory (RAM) is a form of computer data storage. Today, it takes the form of integrated circuits that allow stored data to be accessed in any order with a worst case performance of constant time. Strictly speaking, modern types of DRAM are therefore not random access, as data is read in bursts, although the name DRAM / RAM has stuck. However, many types of SRAM, ROM, OTP, and NOR flash are still random access even in a strict sense. RAM is often associated with volatile types of memory (such as DRAM memory modules), where its stored information is lost if the power is removed. Many other types of non-volatile memory are RAM as well, including most types of ROM and a type of flash memory called NOR-Flash. The first RAM modules to come into the market were created in 1951 and were sold until the late 1960s and early 1970s. Other memory devices (magnetic tapes, disks) can access the storage data only in a predetermined order, because of mechanical design limitations. History An early type of widespread writable random-access memory was magnetic core memory, developed from 1955 to 1975, and subsequently used in most computers up until the development and adoption of the static and dynamic integrated RAM circuits in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Before this, computers used relays, delay line/delay memory, or various kinds of vacuum tube arrangements to implement "main" memory functions (i.e., hundreds or thousands of bits), some of which were random access, some not. Drum memory 1 Megabit chip - one of the last models developed could be expanded at low cost but retrieval of non-sequential memory by VEB Carl Zeiss Jena in 1989 items required knowledge of the physical layout of the drum to optimize speed. Latches built out of vacuum tube triodes, and later, out of discrete transistors, were used for smaller and faster memories such as random-access register banks and registers. Prior to the development of integrated ROM circuits, permanent (or read-only) random-access memory was often constructed using semiconductor diode matrices driven by address decoders, or specially wound core memory planes. Types of RAM The two main forms of modern RAM are static RAM (SRAM) and dynamic RAM (DRAM). In static RAM, a bit of data is stored using the state of a flip-flop. This form of RAM is more expensive to produce, but is generally faster and requires less power than DRAM and, in modern computers, is often used as cache memory for the CPU. DRAM stores a bit of data using a transistor and capacitor pair, which together comprise a memory cell. The capacitor holds a high or low Top L-R, DDR2 with heat-spreader, DDR2 without heat-spreader, Laptop DDR2, DDR, charge (1 or 0, respectively), and the transistor acts as a switch that lets Laptop DDR the control circuitry on the chip read the capacitors state of charge or change it. As this form of memory is less expensive to produce than static RAM, it is the predominant form of computer memory used in modern computers. Both static and dynamic RAM are considered volatile, as their state is lost or reset when power is removed from the system. By contrast, Read-only memory (ROM) stores data by permanently enabling or disabling selected transistors, such that the memory cannot be altered. Writeable variants of ROM (such as EEPROM and flash memory) share properties of both ROM and RAM, enabling data to persist without power and to be updated without requiring special equipment. These persistent forms of semiconductor ROM include USB flash drives, memory cards
Random-access memory 3 for cameras and portable devices, etc. As of 2007, NAND flash has begun to replace older forms of persistent storage, such as magnetic disks and tapes, while NOR flash is being used in place of ROM in netbooks and rugged computers, since it is capable of true random access, allowing direct code execution. ECC memory (which can be either SRAM or DRAM) includes special circuitry to detect and/or correct random faults (memory errors) in the stored data, using parity bits or error correction code. In general, the term RAM refers solely to solid-state memory devices (either DRAM or SRAM), and more specifically the main memory in most computers. In optical storage, the term DVD-RAM is somewhat of a misnomer since, like CD-RW, a rewriteable DVD must be erased before it can be rewritten. Memory hierarchy Many computer systems have a memory hierarchy consisting of CPU registers, on-die SRAM caches, external caches, DRAM, paging systems, and virtual memory or swap space on a hard drive. This entire pool of memory may be referred to as "RAM" by many developers, even though the various subsystems can have very different access times, violating the original concept behind the random access term in RAM. Even within a hierarchy level such as DRAM, the specific row, column, bank, rank, channel, or interleave organization of the components make the access time variable, although not to the extent that rotating storage media or a tape is variable. The overall goal of using a memory hierarchy is to obtain the higher possible average access performance while minimizing the total cost of the entire memory system (generally, the memory hierarchy follows the access time with the fast CPU registers at the top and the slow hard drive at the bottom). In many modern personal computers, the RAM comes in an easily upgraded form of modules called memory modules or DRAM modules about the size of a few sticks of chewing gum. These can quickly be replaced should they become damaged or when changing needs demand more storage capacity. As suggested above, smaller amounts of RAM (mostly SRAM) are also integrated in the CPU and other ICs on the motherboard, as well as in hard-drives, CD-ROMs, and several other parts of the computer system. Other uses of RAM In addition to serving as temporary storage and working space for the operating system and its applications, RAM is used in numerous other ways. Virtual memory Most modern operating systems employ a method of extending RAM capacity, known as "virtual memory". A portion of the computers hard drive is set aside for a paging file or a scratch partition, and the combination of physical RAM and the paging file form the systems total memory. (For example, if a computer has 2 GB of RAM and a 1 GB page file, the operating system has 3 GB total memory available to it.) When the system runs low on physical memory, it can "swap" portions of RAM to the paging file to make room for new data, as well as to read previously swapped information back into RAM. Excessive use of this mechanism results in thrashing and generally hampers overall system performance, mainly because hard drives are far slower than RAM.
Random-access memory 4 RAM disk Software can "partition" a portion of a computers RAM, allowing it to act as a much faster hard drive that is called a RAM disk. A RAM disk loses the stored data when the computer is shut down, unless memory is arranged to have a standby battery source. Shadow RAM Sometimes, the contents of a relatively slow ROM chip are copied to read/write memory to allow for shorter access times. The ROM chip is then disabled while the initialized memory locations are switched in on the same block of addresses (often write-protected). This process, sometimes called shadowing, is fairly common in both computers and embedded systems. As a common example, the BIOS in typical personal computers often has an option called “use shadow BIOS” or similar. When enabled, functions relying on data from the BIOS’s ROM will instead use DRAM locations (most can also toggle shadowing of video card ROM or other ROM sections). Depending on the system, this may not result in increased performance, and may cause incompatibilities. For example, some hardware may be inaccessible to the operating system if shadow RAM is used. On some systems the benefit may be hypothetical because the BIOS is not used after booting in favor of direct hardware access. Free memory is reduced by the size of the shadowed ROMs. Recent developments Several new types of non-volatile RAM, which will preserve data while powered down, are under development. The technologies used include carbon nanotubes and approaches utilizing the magnetic tunnel effect. Amongst the 1st generation MRAM, a 128 KiB (128 × 210 bytes) magnetic RAM (MRAM) chip was manufactured with 0.18 µm technology in the summer of 2003. In June 2004, Infineon Technologies unveiled a 16 MiB (16 × 220 bytes) prototype again based on 0.18 µm technology. There are two 2nd generation techniques currently in development: Thermal Assisted Switching (TAS) which is being developed by Crocus Technology, and Spin Torque Transfer (STT) on which Crocus, Hynix, IBM, and several other companies are working. Nantero built a functioning carbon nanotube memory prototype 10 GiB (10 × 230 bytes) array in 2004. Whether some of these technologies will be able to eventually take a significant market share from either DRAM, SRAM, or flash-memory technology, however, remains to be seen. Since 2006, "Solid-state drives" (based on flash memory) with capacities exceeding 256 gigabytes and performance far exceeding traditional disks have become available. This development has started to blur the definition between traditional random access memory and "disks", dramatically reducing the difference in performance. Some kinds of random-access memory, such as "EcoRAM", are specifically designed for server farms, where low power consumption is more important than speed. Memory wall The "memory wall" is the growing disparity of speed between CPU and memory outside the CPU chip. An important reason for this disparity is the limited communication bandwidth beyond chip boundaries. From 1986 to 2000, CPU speed improved at an annual rate of 55% while memory speed only improved at 10%. Given these trends, it was expected that memory latency would become an overwhelming bottleneck in computer performance. Currently, CPU speed improvements have slowed significantly partly due to major physical barriers and partly because current CPU designs have already hit the memory wall in some sense. Intel summarized these causes in their Platform 2015 documentation (PDF)  “First of all, as chip geometries shrink and clock frequencies rise, the transistor leakage current increases, leading to excess power consumption and heat... Secondly, the advantages of higher clock speeds are in part negated by memory latency, since memory access times have not been able to keep
Random-access memory 5 pace with increasing clock frequencies. Third, for certain applications, traditional serial architectures are becoming less efficient as processors get faster (due to the so-called Von Neumann bottleneck), further undercutting any gains that frequency increases might otherwise buy. In addition, partly due to limitations in the means of producing inductance within solid state devices, resistance-capacitance (RC) delays in signal transmission are growing as feature sizes shrink, imposing an additional bottleneck that frequency increases dont address.” The RC delays in signal transmission were also noted in Clock Rate versus IPC: The End of the Road for Conventional Microarchitectures  which projects a maximum of 12.5% average annual CPU performance improvement between 2000 and 2014. The data on Intel Processors  clearly shows a slowdown in performance improvements in recent processors. However, Intels Core 2 Duo processors (codenamed Conroe) showed a significant improvement over previous Pentium 4 processors; due to a more efficient architecture, performance increased while clock rate actually decreased. Notes and references  "Shadow Ram" (http:/ / hardwarehell. com/ articles/ shadowram. htm). . Retrieved 2007-07-24.  The Emergence of Practical MRAM http:/ / www. crocus-technology. com/ pdf/ BH%20GSA%20Article. pdf  http:/ / www. eetimes. com/ news/ latest/ showArticle. jhtml?articleID=218000269  "EcoRAM held up as less power-hungry option than DRAM for server farms" (http:/ / blogs. zdnet. com/ green/ ?p=1165) by Heather Clancy 2008  The term was coined in Hitting the Memory Wall: Implications of the Obvious (PDF) (http:/ / www. cs. virginia. edu/ papers/ Hitting_Memory_Wall-wulf94. pdf).  http:/ / epic. hpi. uni-potsdam. de/ pub/ Home/ TrendsAndConceptsII2010/ HW_Trends_borkar_2015. pdf  http:/ / www. cs. utexas. edu/ users/ cart/ trips/ publications/ isca00. pdf  http:/ / www. intel. com/ pressroom/ kits/ quickreffam. htm External links • Memory Prices (1957-2010) (http://www.jcmit.com/memoryprice.htm)
DDR3 SDRAM 6 DDR3 SDRAM In computing, DDR3 SDRAM, an abbreviation for double data rate type three synchronous dynamic random access memory, is a modern kind of dynamic random access memory (DRAM) with a high bandwidth interface. It is one of several variants of DRAM and associated interface techniques used since the early 1970s. DDR3 SDRAM is not directly compatible with any earlier type of random access memory (RAM) due to different signaling voltages, timings, and other factors. DDR3 is a DRAM interface specification. The actual DRAM arrays that store the data are similar to earlier types, with similar performance. The primary benefit of DDR3 SDRAM over its immediate predecessor, DDR2 SDRAM, is its ability to transfer data at twice the rate (eight times the speed of its internal memory arrays), enabling higher bandwidth or peak data rates. With two transfers per cycle of a quadrupled clock, a 64-bit wide DDR3 module may achieve a transfer rate of up to 64 times the memory clock speed in megabytes per second (MB/s). With data being transferred 64 bits at a time per memory module, DDR3 SDRAM gives a transfer rate of (memory clock rate) × 4 (for bus clock multiplier) × 2 (for data rate) × 64 (number of bits transferred) / 8 (number of bits/byte). Thus with a memory clock frequency of 100 MHz, DDR3 SDRAM gives a maximum transfer rate of 6400 MB/s. In addition, the DDR3 standard permits chip capacities of up to 8 gigabits. Overview DDR3 memory provides a reduction in power consumption of 30% compared to DDR2 modules due to DDR3s 1.5 V supply voltage, compared to DDR2s 1.8 V or DDRs 2.5 V. The 1.5 V supply voltage works well with the 90 nanometer fabrication technology used in the original DDR3 chips. Some manufacturers further propose using "dual-gate" transistors to reduce leakage of current. According to JEDEC the maximum recommended voltage is 1.575 volts and should be considered the absolute maximum when memory stability is the foremost consideration, such as in servers or other mission critical devices. In addition, JEDEC states that memory modules must withstand up to 1.975 volts before incurring permanent damage, although they are not required to function correctly at that level. Comparison of memory modules for desktop PCs Two low voltage DDR3 standards have been introduced by JEDEC. (DIMM). The DDR3L standard operates with a default voltage of 1.35V, using at least 15% less power than standard voltage (1.5V) DDR3. Modules with DDR3L are labeled ’’PC3L’’, and examples include DDR3L‐800, DDR3L‐1066, DDR3L‐1333, and DDR3L‐1600. The DDR3U standard operates with a default voltage of 1.25V, and modules are labelled ’’PC3U’’. The main benefit of DDR3 comes from the higher bandwidth made possible by DDR3s 8-burst-deep prefetch buffer, in contrast to DDR2s 4-burst-deep or DDRs 2-burst-deep prefetch buffer.
DDR3 SDRAM 7 DDR3 modules can transfer data at a rate of 800–2133 MT/s using both rising and falling edges of a 400–1066 MHz I/O clock. Sometimes, a vendor may misleadingly advertise the I/O clock rate by labeling the MT/s as MHz. The MT/s is normally twice that of MHz by double sampling, one on the rising clock edge, and the other, on the falling. In comparison, DDR2s current range of data transfer rates is 400–1066 MT/s using a 200–533 MHz I/O clock, and DDRs range is 200–400 MT/s based on a 100–200 MHz I/O clock. High-performance graphics was an initial driver of such bandwidth requirements, where high bandwidth data transfer between framebuffers is required. Comparison of memory modules for portable/mobile PCs (SO-DIMM). DDR3 does use the same electric signaling standard as DDR and DDR2, Stub Series Terminated Logic, albeit at different timings and voltages. Specifically DDR3 uses SSTL_15. DDR3 prototypes were announced in early 2005. Products in the form of motherboards appeared on the market in June 2007 based on Intels P35 "Bearlake" chipset with DIMMs at bandwidths up to DDR3-1600 (PC3-12800). The Intel Core i7, released in November 2008, connects directly to memory rather than via a chipset. The Core i7 supports only DDR3. AMDs first socket AM3 Phenom II X4 processors, released in February 2009, were their first to support DDR3. DDR3 DIMMs have 240 pins and are electrically incompatible with DDR2. The two are prevented from being accidentally interchanged by different key notch positions on the DIMMs. DDR3 SO-DIMMs have 204 pins. GDDR3 memory, sometimes incorrectly referred to as "DDR3" due to its similar name, is an entirely different technology, as it is designed for use in graphics cards and technologically based on DDR2 SDRAM. Latencies While the typical latencies for a JEDEC DDR2 device were 5-5-5-15, some standard latencies for JEDEC DDR3 devices include 7-7-7-20 for DDR3-1066 and 8-8-8-24 for DDR3-1333. DDR3 latencies are numerically higher because the I/O bus clock cycles by which they are measured are shorter; the actual time interval is similar to DDR2 latencies (around 10 ns). There is some improvement because DDR3 generally uses more recent manufacturing processes, but this is not directly caused by the change to DDR3. As with earlier memory generations, faster DDR3 memory became available after the release of the initial versions. DDR3-2000 memory with 9-9-9-28 latency (9 ns) was available in time to coincide with the Intel Core i7 release. CAS latency of 9 at 1000 MHz (DDR3-2000) is 9 ns, while CAS latency of 7 at 667 MHz (DDR3-1333) is 10.5 ns. (CAS / Frequency (MHz)) × 1000 = X ns Example: (7 / 667) × 1000 = 10.4948 ns
DDR3 SDRAM 8 Extensions Intel Corporation officially introduced the eXtreme Memory Profile (XMP) Specification on March 23, 2007 to enable enthusiast performance extensions to the traditional JEDEC SPD specifications for DDR3 SDRAM. Modules JEDEC standard modules Standard Memory clock Cycle I/O bus Data rate Module Peak transfer Timings CAS name (MHz) time (ns) clock (MHz) (MT/s) name rate (MB/s) (CL-tRCD-tRP) latency (ns) DDR3-800D 100 10 400 800 PC3-6400 6400 5-5-5 12 1⁄2 DDR3-800E 6-6-6 15 DDR3-1066E 133⅓ 533⅓ 1066⅔ PC3-8500 8533⅓ 6-6-6 7 1⁄2 11 1⁄4 DDR3-1066F 7-7-7 13 1⁄8 DDR3-1066G 8-8-8 15 DDR3-1333F* 166⅔ 6 666⅔ 1333⅓ PC3-10600 10666⅔ 7-7-7 10 1⁄2 DDR3-1333G 8-8-8 12 DDR3-1333H 9-9-9 13 1⁄2 DDR3-1333J* 10-10-10 15 DDR3-1600G* 200 5 800 1600 PC3-12800 12800 8-8-8 10 DDR3-1600H 9-9-9 11 1⁄4 DDR3-1600J 10-10-10 12 1⁄2 DDR3-1600K 11-11-11 13 3⁄4 DDR3-1866J* 233⅓ 933⅓ 1866⅔ PC3-14900 14933⅓ 10-10-10 4 2⁄7 10 5⁄7 DDR3-1866K 11-11-11 11 11⁄14 DDR3-1866L 12-12-12 12 6⁄7 DDR3-1866M* 13-13-13 13 13⁄14 DDR3-2133K* 266⅔ 1066⅔ 2133⅓ PC3-17000 17066⅔ 11-11-11 3 3⁄4 10 5⁄16 DDR3-2133L 12-12-12 11 1⁄4 DDR3-2133M 13-13-13 12 3⁄16 DDR3-2133N* 14-14-14 13 1⁄8 * optional CL - Clock cycles between sending a column address to the memory and the beginning of the data in response tRCD - Clock cycles between row activate and reads/writes tRP - Clock cycles between row precharge and activate Fractional frequencies are normally rounded down, but rounding up to -667 is common due to superstition about the number 666. Note: All above listed are specified by JEDEC as JESD79-3D. All RAM data rates in-between or above these listed specifications are not standardized by JEDEC—often they are simply manufacturer optimizations using higher-tolerance or overvolted chips. Of these non-standard specifications, the highest reported speed reached was equivalent to DDR3-2544 as of May 2010. DDR3-xxx denotes data transfer rate, and describes raw DDR chips, whereas PC3-xxxx denotes theoretical bandwidth (with the last two digits truncated), and is used to describe assembled DIMMs. Bandwidth is calculated by taking transfers per second and multiplying by eight. This is because DDR3 memory modules transfer data on a bus that is 64 data bits wide, and since a byte comprises 8 bits, this equates to 8 bytes of data per transfer.
DDR3 SDRAM 9 In addition to bandwidth and capacity variants, modules can 1. Optionally implement ECC, which is an extra data byte lane used for correcting minor errors and detecting major errors for better reliability. Modules with ECC are identified by an additional ECC or E in their designation. For example: "PC3-6400 ECC", or PC3-8500E. 2. Be "registered", which improves signal integrity (and hence potentially clock rates and physical slot capacity) by electrically buffering the signals with a register, at a cost of an extra clock of increased latency. Those modules are identified by an additional R in their designation, whereas non-registered (a.k.a. "unbuffered") RAM may be identified by an additional U in the designation. PC3-6400R is a registered PC3-6400 module, PC3-6400R ECC is the same module but with additional ECC. 3. Be fully buffered modules, which are designated by F or FB and do not have the same notch position as other classes. Fully buffered modules cannot be used with motherboards that are made for registered modules, and the different notch position physically prevents their insertion. Feature summary DDR3 SDRAM components • Introduction of asynchronous RESET pin • Support of system-level flight-time compensation • On-DIMM mirror-friendly DRAM pinout • Introduction of CWL (CAS write latency) per clock bin • On-die I/O calibration engine • READ and WRITE calibration DDR3 modules • Fly-by command/address/control bus with on-DIMM termination • High-precision calibration resistors • Are not backwards compatible—DDR3 modules do not fit into DDR2 sockets; forcing them can damage the DIMM and/or the motherboard Technological advantages compared to DDR2 • Higher bandwidth performance, up to 2133 MT/s standardized • Slightly improved latencies as measured in nanoseconds • Higher performance at low power (longer battery life in laptops) • Enhanced low-power features Development and market penetration In May 2005, Desi Rhoden, chairman of the JEDEC Committee responsible for creating the DDR3 standard, stated that DDR3 had been under development for "about 3 years". DDR3 was launched in 2007, however sales were not expected to overtake DDR2 until the end of 2009, or possibly early 2010, according to Intel strategist Carlos Weissenberg, speaking during the early part of their roll-out in August 2008 (the same timescale for market penetration had been stated by market intelligence company DRAMeXchange over a year earlier in April 2007. and by Desi Rhoden in 2005 ) The primary driving force behind the increased usage of DDR3 has been new Core i7 processors from Intel and Phenom II processors from AMD, both of which have internal memory controllers: the latter recommends DDR3, the former requires it. IDC stated in January 2009 that DDR3 sales will account for 29 percent of the total DRAM units sold in 2009, rising to 72% by 2011.
DDR3 SDRAM 10 Successor JEDECs planned successor to DDR3 is DDR4, whose standard is currently in development. The primary benefits of DDR4 compared to DDR3 include a higher range of clock frequencies and data transfer rates and significantly lower voltage. Some manufacturers have already demonstrated DDR4 chips for testing purposes. References  McCloskey., Alan. "Research: DDR FAQ" (http:/ / www. ocmodshop. com/ ocmodshop. aspx?a=868). . Retrieved 2007-10-18.  JEDEC JESD 79-3B (http:/ / www. jedec. org/ download/ search/ JESD79-3B. pdf) (section 6, table 21 and section 7, table 23)  Jaci Chang Design Considerations for the DDR3 Memory Sub-system. Jedex, 2004, p. 4. http:/ / www. jedex. org/ images/ pdf/ samsung%20-%20jaci_chang. pdf  Soderstrom, Thomas (2007-06-05). "Pipe Dreams: Six P35-DDR3 Motherboards Compared" (http:/ / www. tomshardware. com/ 2007/ 06/ 05/ pipe_dreams_six_p35-ddr3_motherboards_compared/ ). Toms Hardware. .  Fink, Wesley (2007-07-20). "Super Talent & TEAM: DDR3-1600 Is Here!" (http:/ / www. anandtech. com/ printarticle. aspx?i=3045). AnandTech. .  "DocMemory" (2007-02-21). "Memory Module Picture 2007" (http:/ / www. simmtester. com/ page/ news/ showpubnews. asp?title=Memory+ Module+ Picture+ 2007& num=150). .  "JEDEC" (2010-12-01). "204-Pin DDR3 SDRAM SO-DIMM Specification" (http:/ / www. jedec. org/ download/ search/ 4_20_18R20A. pdf). .  Shilov, Anton (2008-10-29). "Kingston Rolls Out Industry’s First 2GHz Memory Modules for Intel Core i7 Platforms" (http:/ / www. xbitlabs. com/ news/ memory/ display/ 20081029141143_Kingston_Rolls_Out_Industry_s_First_2GHz_Memory_Modules_for_Intel_Core_i7_Platforms. html). Xbit Laboratories. . Retrieved 2008-11-02.  "Intel Extreme memory Profile (Intel XMP) DDR3 Technology" (http:/ / www. intel. com/ assets/ pdf/ whitepaper/ 319124. pdf). . Retrieved 2009-05-29.  DDR3 SDRAM STANDARD (http:/ / www. jedec. org/ standards-documents/ docs/ jesd-79-3d)  Kingstons 2,544 MHz DDR3 On Show at Computex (http:/ / news. softpedia. com/ news/ Kingston-s-2-544-MHz-DDR3-On-Show-at-Computex-143379. shtml)  Memory technology evolution: an overview of system memory technologies (http:/ / h20000. www2. hp. com/ bc/ docs/ support/ SupportManual/ c00256987/ c00256987. pdf) (PDF), Hewlett-Packard, p. 18,  "DDR3: Frequently Asked Questions" (http:/ / www. kingston. com/ channelmarketingcenter/ hyperx/ literature/ MKF_1223_DDR3_FAQ. pdf). . Retrieved 2009-08-18.  Sobolev, Vyacheslav (2005-05-31). "JEDEC: Memory standards on the way" (http:/ / www. digitimes. com/ news/ a20050530PR201. html). digitimes.com. . Retrieved 2011-04-28. "JEDEC is already well along in the development of the DDR3 standard, and we have been working on it for about three years now.... Following historical models, you could reasonably expect the same three-year transition to a new technology that you have seen for the last several generations of standard memory"  "IDF: "DDR3 wont catch up with DDR2 during 2009"" (http:/ / www. pcpro. co. uk/ news/ 220257/ idf-ddr3-wont-catch-up-with-ddr2-during-2009. html). pcpro.co.uk. 19 August 2008. . Retrieved 2009-06-17.  Bryan, Gardiner (April 17, 2007). "DDR3 Memory Wont Be Mainstream Until 2009" (http:/ / www. extremetech. com/ article2/ 0,2845,2115031,00. asp). extremetech.com. . Retrieved 2009-06-17.  Salisbury, Andy (2009-01-20). "New 50nm Process Will Make DDR3 Faster and Cheaper This Year" (http:/ / www. maximumpc. com/ article/ news/ new_50nm_process_will_make_ddr3_faster_and_cheaper_this_year). maximumpc.com. . Retrieved 2009-06-17.  "KH Kim Receives 2011 JEDEC Technical Recognition Award" (http:/ / www. jedec. org/ news/ jedec-awards-program/ kh-kim-2011-tr-award). jedec.org. . Retrieved 2011-07-31.  Shilov, Anton (August 16, 2010). "Next-Generation DDR4 Memory to Reach 4.266GHz – Report" (http:/ / www. xbitlabs. com/ news/ memory/ display/ 20100816124343_Next_Generation_DDR4_Memory_to_Reach_4_266GHz_Report. html). Xbitlabs.com. . Retrieved 2011-01-03.  "Samsung develops DDR4 memory with up to 40 percent better energy efficiency than DDR3" (http:/ / www. engadget. com/ 2011/ 01/ 04/ samsung-develops-ddr4-memory-with-up-to-40-percent-better-energy/ ). Engadget.com. January 4, 2011. . Retrieved 2011-07-31.
DDR SDRAM 11 DDR SDRAM Double data rate synchronous dynamic random access memory (DDR SDRAM) is a class of memory integrated circuits used in computers. DDR SDRAM (sometimes referred to as DDR1 SDRAM) has been superseded by DDR2 SDRAM and DDR3 SDRAM, neither of which are either forward or backward compatible with DDR Generic DDR-266 Memory in the 184pin DIMM SDRAM, meaning that DDR2 or DDR3 memory modules will not form work in DDR equipped motherboards, and vice versa. Compared to single data rate (SDR) SDRAM, the DDR SDRAM interface makes higher transfer rates possible by more strict control of the timing of the electrical data and clock signals. Implementations often have to use schemes such as phase-locked loops and self-calibration to reach the required timing accuracy.  The interface uses double pumping (transferring data on both the rising and falling edges of the clock signal) to lower the clock frequency. One advantage of keeping the clock frequency down is that it reduces the signal integrity requirements on the circuit board connecting the Corsair DDR-400 Memory with heat spreaders memory to the controller. The name "double data rate" refers to the fact that a DDR SDRAM with a certain clock frequency achieves nearly twice the bandwidth of a single data rate (SDR) SDRAM running at the same clock frequency, due to this double pumping. With data being transferred 64 bits at a time, DDR SDRAM gives a transfer rate of (memory bus clock rate) × 2 (for dual rate) × 64 (number of bits transferred) / 8 (number of bits/byte). Thus, with a bus frequency of 100 MHz, DDR SDRAM gives a maximum transfer rate of 1600 MB/s. "Beginning in 1996 and concluding in June 2000, JEDEC developed the DDR (Double Data Rate) SDRAM specification (JESD79)." JEDEC has set standards for data rates of DDR SDRAM, divided into two parts. The first specification is for memory chips, and the second is for memory modules.
DDR SDRAM 12 Specification standardsComparison of memory modules for desktop PCs Comparison of memory modules for (DIMM). portable/mobile PCs (SO-DIMM). Standard Memory clock I/O bus clock Data rate VDDQ Module Peak transfer Timings Cycle name (MHz)  (MHz) (MT/s) (V) name rate (MB/s) (CL-tRCD-tRP) time (ns) DDR-200 100 10 100 200 2.5±0.2 PC-1600 1600 DDR-266 133⅓ 7.5 133⅓ 266⅔ PC-2100 2133⅓ DDR-333 166⅔ 6 166⅔ 333⅓ PC-2700 2666⅔ DDR-400A 200 5 200 400 2.6±0.1 PC-3200 3200 2.5-3-3 DDR-400B 3-3-3 DDR-400C 3-4-4 Note: All above listed are specified by JEDEC as JESD79F. All RAM data rates in-between or above these listed specifications are not standardized by JEDEC—often they are simply manufacturer optimizations using tighter-tolerance or overvolted chips. The package sizes in which DDR SDRAM is manufactured are also standardized by JEDEC. There is no architectural difference between DDR SDRAM designed for different clock frequencies, for example, PC-1600, designed to run at 100 MHz, and PC-2100, designed to run at 133 MHz. The number simply designates the data rate at which the chip is guaranteed to perform, hence DDR SDRAM is guaranteed to run at lower (underclocking) and can possibly run at higher (overclocking) clock rates than those for which it was made. DDR SDRAM modules for desktop computers, commonly called DIMMs, have 184 pins (as opposed to 168 pins on SDRAM, or 240 pins on DDR2 SDRAM), and can be differentiated from SDRAM DIMMs by the number of notches (DDR SDRAM has one, SDRAM has two). DDR SDRAM for notebook computers, SO-DIMMs, have 200 pins, which is the same number of pins as DDR2 SO-DIMMs. These two specifications are notched very similarly and care must be taken during insertion if unsure of a correct match. DDR SDRAM operates at a voltage of 2.5 V, compared to 3.3 V for SDRAM. This can significantly reduce power consumption. Chips and modules with DDR-400/PC-3200 standard have a nominal voltage of 2.6 V.
DDR SDRAM 13 Increasing operating voltage slightly can increase maximum speed, at the cost of higher power dissipation and heating, and at the risk of malfunctioning or damage. Many new chipsets use these memory types in multi-channel configurations. Chip characteristics DRAM density Size of the chip are measured in megabits (1 megabyte = 8 megabits. For example, 256 Mbit means 32 MB.) Nearly all motherboards only recognize 1 GB modules if they contain 64M×8 chips (low density ). If 128M×4 (high density) 1 GB modules are used, they most likely will not work. The JEDEC standard allows 128M×4 only for slower buffered/registered modules designed specifically for some servers, but some generic manufacturers do not comply. Organization The notation like 64M×4 means that the memory matrix has 64 million (the product of banks x rows x columns) 4-bit storage locations. There are ×4, ×8, and ×16 DDR chips. The ×4 chips allow the use of advanced error correction features like Chipkill, memory scrubbing and Intel SDDC in server environments, while the ×8 and ×16 chips are somewhat less expensive. x8 chips are mainly used in desktops/notebooks but are making entry into the server market. There are normally 4 banks and only one row can be active in each bank. Module characteristics Ranks To increase memory capacity and bandwidth, chips are combined on a module. For instance, the 64-bit data bus for DIMM requires eight 8-bit chips, addressed in parallel. Multiple chips with the common address lines are called a memory rank. The term was introduced to avoid confusion with chip internal rows and banks. A memory module may bear more than one rank. The term sides would also be confusing because it incorrectly suggests the physical placement of chips on the module. All ranks are connected to the same memory bus (address+data). The Chip Select signal is used to issue commands to specific rank. Adding modules to the single memory bus creates additional electrical load on its drivers. To mitigate the resulting bus signaling rate drop and overcome the memory bottleneck, new chipsets employ the multi-channel architecture. Capacity Number of DRAM Devices The number of chips is a multiple of 8 for non-ECC modules and a multiple of 9 for ECC modules. Chips can occupy one side (single sided) or both sides (dual sided) of the module. The maximum number of chips per DDR module is 36 (9×4) for ECC and 32 (8x4) for non-ECC. ECC vs non-ECC Modules that have error correcting code are labeled as ECC. Modules without error correcting code are labeled non-ECC. Timings CAS latency (CL), clock cycle time (tCK), row cycle time (tRC), refresh row cycle time (tRFC), row active time (tRAS). Buffering registered (or buffered) vs unbuffered
DDR SDRAM 14 Packaging Typically DIMM or SO-DIMM Power consumption A test with DDR and DDR2 RAM in 2005 found that average power consumption appeared to be of the order of 1-3W per 512MB stick. Increases with clock rate, and when in use rather than idling. A manufacturer has produced calculators to estimate the power used by various types of RAM . Module and chip characteristics are inherently linked. Total module capacity is a product of one chips capacity by the number of chips. ECC modules multiply it by 8/9 because they use one bit per byte for error correction. A module of any particular size can therefore be assembled either from 32 small chips (36 for ECC memory), or 16(18) or 8(9) bigger ones. DDR memory bus width per channel is 64 bits (72 for ECC memory). Total module bit width is a product of bits per chip by number of chips. It also equals number of ranks (rows) multiplied by DDR memory bus width. Consequently a module with greater amount of chips or using ×8 chips instead of ×4 will have more ranks. Example: Variations of 1 GB PC2100 Registered DDR SDRAM module with ECC Module size (GB) Number of chips Chip size (Mbit) Chip organization Number of ranks 1 36 256 64M×4 2 1 18 512 64M×8 2 1 18 512 128M×4 + This example compares different real-world server memory modules with a common size of 1 GB. One should definitely be careful buying 1 GB memory modules, because all these variations can be sold under one price position without stating whether they are ×4 or ×8, single or dual ranked. There is a common belief that number of module ranks equals number of sides. As above data shows, this is not true. One can find 2-side/1-rank or 2-side/4-rank modules. One can even think of a 1-side/2-rank memory module having 16(18) chips on single side ×8 each, but its unlikely such a module was ever produced. History Double data rate (DDR) SDRAM specification From JEDEC Board Ballot JCB-99-70, and modified by numerous other Board Ballots, formulated under the cognizance of Committee JC-42.3 on DRAM Parametrics. Standard No. 79 Revision Log: • Release 1, June 2000 • Release 2, May 2002 • Release C, March 2003 – JEDEC Standard No. 79C. "This comprehensive standard defines all required aspects of 64Mb through 1Gb DDR SDRAMs with X4/X8/X16 data interfaces, including features, functionality, ac and dc parametrics, packages and pin assignments. This scope will subsequently be expanded to formally apply to x32 devices, and higher density devices as well."
DDR SDRAM 15 High density vs low density High density memory here means non-ECC 184 pin SDRAM memory. Organization PC3200 is DDR SDRAM designed to operate at 200 MHz using DDR-400 chips with a bandwidth of 3,200 MB/s. Because PC3200 memory is double-pumped, its effective clock rate is 400 MHz. 1 GB PC3200 non-ECC modules are usually made with sixteen 512 Mbit chips, 8 down each side (512 Mbits × 16 chips) / (8 bits (per byte)) = 1,024 MB. The individual chips making up a 1 GB memory module are usually organized with 64 Mbits and a data width of 8 bits for each chip, commonly expressed as 64M×8. Memory manufactured in this way is low density RAM and will usually be compatible with any motherboard specifying PC3200 DDR-400 memory. High density RAM In the context of the 1 GB non-ECC PC3200 SDRAM module, there is very little visually to differentiate low density from high density RAM. High density DDR RAM modules will, like their low density counterparts, usually be double-sided with eight 512 Mbit chips per side. The difference is that for each chip, instead of being organized in a 64M×8 configuration, it is organized with 128 Mbits and a data width of 4 bits, or 128M×4. High density memory modules are assembled using chips from multiple manufacturers. These chips come in both the familiar 22 × 10 mm (approx.) TSOP2 and smaller squarer 12 × 9 mm (approx.) FBGA package sizes. High density chips can be identified by the numbers on each chip. High density RAM devices were designed to be used in registered memory modules for servers. JEDEC standards do not apply to high-density DDR RAM in desktop implementations. JEDECs technical documentation, however, supports 128M×4 semiconductors as such that contradicts 128×4 being classified as high density. As such, high density is a relative term, which can be used to describe memory which is not supported by a particular motherboards memory controller. Alternatives DDR Bus Internal Prefetch Transfer Voltage DIMM SO-DIMM MicroDIMM SDRAM clock rate (min burst) Rate pins pins pins Standard (MHz) (MHz) (MT/s) DDR 100–200 100–200 2n 200–400 2.5/2.6 184 200 172 DDR2 200–533 100–266 4n 400–1066 1.8 240 200 214 DDR3 400–1066 100–266 8n 800–2133 1.5 240 204 214 DDR (DDR1) has been superseded by DDR2 SDRAM, which has some modifications to allow higher clock frequency, but operates on the same principle as DDR. Competing with DDR2 are Rambus XDR DRAM. DDR2 has become the standard, as XDR is lacking support. DDR3 SDRAM is a new standard that offers even higher performance and new features. DDRs prefetch buffer depth is 2 bits, while DDR2 uses 4 bits. Although the effective clock rates of DDR2 are higher than for DDR, the overall performance was no greater in the early implementations, primarily due to the high latencies of the first DDR2 modules. DDR2 started to be effective by the end of 2004, as modules with lower latencies became available.
DDR SDRAM 16 Memory manufacturers have stated that it is impractical to mass-produce DDR1 memory with effective clock rates in excess of 400 MHz (i.e. 400MT/s and 200MHz external Clock). DDR2 picks up where DDR1 leaves off, and is available at effective clock rates of 400 MHz and higher. RDRAM is a particularly expensive alternative to DDR SDRAM, and most manufacturers have dropped its support from their chipsets. DDR1 memorys prices have substantially increased since Q2 2008 while DDR2 prices are reaching an all-time low. In January 2009, 1 GB DDR1 is 2–3 times more expensive than 1 GB DDR2. High density DDR RAM will suit about 10% of PC motherboards on the market while low density will suit almost all motherboards on the PC Desktop market. MDDR MDDR is an acronym that some enterprises use for Mobile DDR SDRAM, a type of memory used in some portable electronic devices, like mobile phones, handhelds, and digital audio players. Through techniques including reduced voltage supply and advanced refresh options, Mobile DDR can achieve greater power efficiency. References  Northwest Logic DDR Phy datasheet (http:/ / www. nwlogic. com/ docs/ ASIC_DDR_PHY. pdf)  Memory Interfaces Data Capture Using Direct Clocking Technique (Xilinx application note) (http:/ / www. xilinx. com/ support/ documentation/ application_notes/ xapp701. pdf)  "The Love/Hate Relationship with DDR SDRAM Controllers" (http:/ / www. design-reuse. com/ articles/ 13805/ the-love-hate-relationship-with-ddr-sdram-controllers. html). .  Cycle time is the inverse of the I/O bus clock frequency; e.g., 1/(100 MHz) = 10 ns per clock cycle.  DOUBLE DATA RATE (DDR) SDRAM STANDARD (http:/ / www. jedec. org/ standards-documents/ docs/ jesd-79f)  "What is the difference between PC-2100 (DDR-266), PC-2700 (DDR-333), and PC-3200 (DDR-400)?" (http:/ / www. crucial. com/ support/ memory_speeds. aspx). Micron Technology, Inc.. .  Low Density vs High Density memory modules (http:/ / reviews. ebay. com/ Myth-Low-Density-vs-High-Density-memory-modules_W0QQugidZ10000000001236178)  Mike Chin: Power Distribution within Six PCs (http:/ / www. silentpcreview. com/ article265-page4. html)  Micron: RAM power calculators (http:/ / www. micron. com/ support/ dram/ power_calc. html)  http:/ / www. jedec. org/ download/ search/ JESD79F. pdf DOUBLE DATA RATE (DDR) SDRAM SPECIFICATION (Release F)  DDR2 vs. DDR: Revenge Gained (http:/ / www. xbitlabs. com/ articles/ memory/ display/ ddr2-ddr. html) External links • Official JEDEC website (http://www.jedec.org/)
DDR4 SDRAM 17 DDR4 SDRAM In computing, DDR4 SDRAM, an abbreviation for double data rate type four synchronous dynamic random-access memory, is a type of dynamic random-access memory (DRAM) with a high bandwidth interface currently under development and expected market release in 2012. As a "next generation" successor to DDR3 SDRAM, it is one of several variants The first DDR4 memory module was manufactured by Samsung and announced in of DRAM used since the early 1970s. It is January 2011. not directly compatible with any earlier type of random access memory (RAM) due to different signaling voltages, timings, physical interface and other factors. DDR4 itself is a DRAM interface specification. Its primary benefits compared to DDR3 include a higher range of clock frequencies and data transfer rates (2133–4266 MT/s compared to DDR3s 800–2133  ) and significantly lower voltage (1.2 - 1.05 V for DDR4, compared to 1.5 – 1.2 V for DDR3). DDR4 also anticipates a change in topology – it discards dual and triple channel approaches in favor of point-to-point where each channel in the memory controller is connected to a single module.  Switched memory banks are also an anticipated option for servers. Development and market history Standards body JEDEC began working on a successor to DDR3 around 2005, about 2 years before the launch of DDR3 in 2007.  The high-level architecture of DDR4 was planned for completion in 2008 and, as of 2007, was said by JEDECs Future DRAM task group chairman to be "on time". The final specification is expected in the second half of 2011, shortly before DDR4s commercial launch. Some advance information was published in 2007, and a guest speaker from Qimonda provided further public details in a presentation at the August 2008 San Francisco Intel Developer Forum (IDF).    DDR4 was described as involving a 30 nm process at 1.2 volts, with bus frequencies of 2133 MT/s "regular" speed and 3200 MT/s "enthusiast" speed, and reaching market in 2012, before transitioning to 1 volt in 2013.  Subsequently, further details were revealed at MemCon 2010, Tokyo (a computer memory industry event), at which a presentation by a JEDEC director titled "Time to rethink DDR4"  with a slide titled "New roadmap: More realistic roadmap is 2015" led some websites to report that the introduction of DDR4 was probably or definitely  delayed until 2015. However, DDR4 test samples were announced in line with the original schedule in early 2011 at which time manufacturers began to advise that large scale commercial production and release to market was scheduled for 2012. DDR4 is expected to represent 5% of the DRAM market in 2013, and to reach mass market adoption and 50% market penetration around 2015; the latter is comparable with the approximately 5 years taken for DDR3 to achieve mass market transition over DDR2. In part, this is because changes required to other components would impact all other parts of computer systems, which would need to be updated to work with DDR4. In February 2009, Samsung validated 40 nm DRAM chips, considered a "significant step" towards DDR4 development since in 2009, DRAM chips were only beginning to migrate to a 50 nm process. In January 2011, Samsung announced the completion and release for testing of a 2 GB DDR4 DRAM module based on a process between 30 and 39 nm. It has a maximum data transfer rate of 2133 Mb/s at 1.2 V, uses pseudo open drain technology (adapted from graphics DDR memory ) and draws 40% less power than an equivalent DDR3
DDR4 SDRAM 18 module.   Three months later in April 2011, Hynix announced the production of 2 GB DDR4 modules at 2400 MT/s, also running at 1.2 V on a process between 30 and 39 nm (exact process unspecified), adding that it anticipated commencing high volume production in the second half of 2012. Semiconductor processes for DDR4 are expected to transition to sub-30 nm at some point between late 2012 and 2014.  Technical description The new chips are expected to run at 1.2 V or less,  versus the 1.5 V of DDR3 chips, and have in excess of 2 billion data transfers per second. They are expected to be introduced at clock speeds of 2133 MT/s, estimated to rise to a potential 4266 MT/s  and lowered voltage of 1.05 V  by 2013. DDR4 is likely to be initially commercialized using 32 – 36 nm processes, and according to a roadmap by PC Watch (Japan) and comments by Samsung, as 4 Gbit chips.  Increased memory density was also anticipated, possibly using TSV ("through-silicon via") or other 3D stacking processes.    The DDR4 specification will include standardized 3D stacking "from the start" according to JEDEC. X-bit Labs commented that "as a result DDR4 memory chips with very high density will become relatively inexpensive". Prefetch an 8n prefetch with bank groups, including the use of two or four selectable bank groups. DDR4 also anticipates a change in topology. It discards dual and triple channel approaches (used since the original first generation DDR ) in favor of point-to-point where each channel in the memory controller is connected to a single module.  This mirrors the trend also seen in the earlier transition from PCI to PCI Express, where parallelism was moved from the interface to the controller, and is likely to simplify timing in modern high-speed data buses. Switched memory banks are also an anticipated option for servers.  The minimum clock speed of 2133 MT/s was said to be due to progress made in DDR3 speeds which, being likely to reach 2133 Mb/s, left little commercial benefit to specifying DDR4 below this speed.  Techgage interpreted Samsungs January 2011 engineering sample as having CAS latency of 13 clock cycles, described as being comparable to the move from DDR2 to DDR3. In 2008, concerns were raised in the book Wafer Level 3-D ICs Process Technology that non-scaling analog elements such as charge pumps and voltage regulators, and additional circuitry "have allowed significant increases in bandwidth but they consume much more die area". Examples include CRC error-detection, on-die termination, burst hardware, programmable pipelines, low impedence, and increasing need for sense amps (attributed to a decline in bits per bitline due to low voltage). The authors noted that as a result, the amount of die used for the memory array itself has declined over time from 70-80% with SDRAM and DDR1, to 38% for DDR3 and potentially to less than 30% for DDR4. References  Shilov, Anton (August 16, 2010). "Next-Generation DDR4 Memory to Reach 4.266GHz – Report" (http:/ / www. xbitlabs. com/ news/ memory/ display/ 20100816124343_Next_Generation_DDR4_Memory_to_Reach_4_266GHz_Report. html). Xbitlabs.com. . Retrieved 2011-01-03.  後藤 弘茂 ("Gotou Shigehiro"). "メモリ4Gbps時代へと向かう次世代メモリDDR4 ("Towards Next-Generation 4Gbps DDR4 Memory")" (http:/ / pc. watch. impress. co. jp/ docs/ column/ kaigai/ 20100816_387444. html). 2010-08-16. PC Watch (Japan). . Retrieved 2011-04-25. ( English translation (http:/ / translate. google. com/ translate?js=y& prev=_t& hl=en& ie=UTF-8& layout=1& eotf=1& u=http:/ / pc. watch. impress. co. jp/ docs/ column/ kaigai/ 20100816_387444. html& sl=ja& tl=en))  Swinburne, Richard (2010-08-26). "DDR4: What we can Expect" (http:/ / www. bit-tech. net/ hardware/ memory/ 2010/ 08/ 26/ ddr4-what-we-can-expect/ 1). bit-tech.net. . Retrieved 2011-04-28. – Page 1 (http:/ / www. bit-tech. net/ hardware/ memory/ 2010/ 08/ 26/ ddr4-what-we-can-expect/ 2) – – Page 3 (http:/ / www. bit-tech. net/ hardware/ memory/ 2010/ 08/ 26/ ddr4-what-we-can-expect/ 3)  Sobolev, Vyacheslav (2005-05-31). "JEDEC: Memory standards on the way" (http:/ / www. digitimes. com/ news/ a20050530PR201. html). digitimes.com. . Retrieved 2011-04-28. "Initial investigations have already started on memory technology beyond DDR3. JEDEC always has about three generations of memory in various stages of the standardization process: current generation, next generation, and future."
DDR4 SDRAM 19  "DDR3: Frequently asked questions" (http:/ / www. kingston. com/ channelmarketingcenter/ hyperx/ literature/ MKF_1223-1_DDR3_FAQ. pdf). Kingston Technology. . Retrieved 2011-04-28. ""DDR3 memory launched in June 2007""  Valich, Theo (2007-05-02). "DDR3 launch set for May 9th" (http:/ / www. theinquirer. net/ inquirer/ news/ 1016272/ ddr3-launch-set-may-9th). The Inquirer. . Retrieved 2011-04-28.  Hammerschmidt, Christoph (2007-08-29). "Non-volatile memory is the secret star at JEDEC meeting" (http:/ / www. eetimes. com/ electronics-news/ 4189215/ Non-volatile-memory-is-the-secret-star-at-JEDEC-meeting?pageNumber=1). eetimes.com. . Retrieved 2011-04-28.  "Hynix produces its first DDR4 modules" (http:/ / www. behardware. com/ news/ 11425/ hynix-produces-its-first-ddr4-modules. html). behardware.com. 2011-04-05. . Retrieved 2011-04-26.  "DDR4 – the successor to DDR3 memory" (http:/ / www. h-online. com/ newsticker/ news/ item/ IDF-DDR4-the-successor-to-DDR3-memory-736983. html). The "H" (h-online.com). 2008-08-21. . Retrieved 2011-04-28. "The JEDEC standardisation committee cited similar figures around one year ago"  Graham-Smith, Darien (2008-08-19). "IDF: DDR3 wont catch up with DDR2 during 2009" (http:/ / www. pcpro. co. uk/ news/ 220257/ idf-ddr3-wont-catch-up-with-ddr2-during-2009). PC Pro. . Retrieved 2011-04-28.  Volker Risska (Volker Rißka) (2008-08-21). "IDF: DDR4 als Hauptspeicher ab 2012 ["Intel Developer Forum: DDR4 as the main memory from 2012" (http:/ / www. computerbase. de/ news/ hardware/ arbeitsspeicher/ 2008/ august/ idf-ddr4-als-hauptspeicher-ab-2012/ )"]. computerbase.de. . Retrieved 2011-04-28. ( English (http:/ / translate. google. com/ translate?hl=en& sl=de& tl=en& u=http:/ / www. computerbase. de/ news/ hardware/ arbeitsspeicher/ 2008/ august/ idf-ddr4-als-hauptspeicher-ab-2012/ ))  Novakovic, Nebojsa (2008-08-19). "Qimonda: ddr3 moving forward" (http:/ / www. theinquirer. net/ inquirer/ news/ 1012591/ qimonda-ddr3-moving-forward). The Inquirer. . Retrieved 2011-04-28.  Gervasi, Bill. "Time to rethink DDR4" (http:/ / discobolusdesigns. com/ personal/ 20100721a_gervasi_rethinking_ddr4. pdf). July 2010. Discobolus Designs. . Retrieved 2011-04-29.  "DDR4-Speicher kommt wohl später als bisher geplant ("DDR4 memory is probably later than previously planned")" (http:/ / www. heise. de/ newsticker/ meldung/ DDR4-Speicher-kommt-wohl-spaeter-als-bisher-geplant-1060545. html). heise.de. 2010-08-17. . Retrieved 2011-04-29. ( English (http:/ / translate. google. com/ translate?hl=en& sl=de& tl=en& u=http:/ / www. heise. de/ newsticker/ meldung/ DDR4-Speicher-kommt-wohl-spaeter-als-bisher-geplant-1060545. html))  Nilsson, Lars-Göran (2010-08-16). "DDR4 not expected until 2015" (http:/ / semiaccurate. com/ 2010/ 08/ 16/ ddr4-not-expected-until-2015/ ). semiaccurate.com. . Retrieved 2011-04-29.  By annihilator (2010-08-18). "DDR4 memory in Works, Will reach 4.266GHz" (http:/ / wccftech. com/ 2010/ 08/ 18/ ddr4-memory-works-reach-4266ghz/ ). wccftech.com. . Retrieved 2011-04-29.  Gruener, Wolfgang (February 4, 2009). "Samsung hints to DDR4 with first validated 40 nm DRAM" (http:/ / www. tgdaily. com/ content/ view/ 41316/ 139/ ). tgdaily.com. . Retrieved 2009-06-16.  Jansen, Ng (January 20, 2009). "DDR3 Will be Cheaper, Faster in 2009" (http:/ / www. dailytech. com/ DDR3+ Will+ be+ Cheaper+ Faster+ in+ 2009/ article13977. htm). dailytech.com. . Retrieved 2009-06-17.  "Samsung Develops Industrys First DDR4 DRAM, Using 30nm Class Technology" (http:/ / www. samsung. com/ us/ business/ semiconductor/ newsView. do?news_id=1202). Samsung. 2011-04-11. . Retrieved 26 April 2011.  Perry, Ryan (2011-01-06). "Samsung Develops the First 30nm DDR4 DRAM" (http:/ / techgage. com/ news/ samsung_develops_the_first_30nm_ddr4_dram/ ). techgage.com. . Retrieved 2011-04-29.  "Samsung Develops Industrys First DDR4 DRAM, Using 30nm Class Technology" (http:/ / www. samsung. com/ us/ business/ semiconductor/ newsView. do?news_id=1202). Samsung. 2011-01-04. . Retrieved 2011-03-13.  http:/ / www. techspot. com/ news/ 41818-samsung-develops-ddr4-memory-up-to-40-more-efficient. html  "Diagram: Anticipated DDR4 timeline" (http:/ / translate. googleusercontent. com/ translate_c?hl=en& ie=UTF-8& sl=ja& tl=en& u=http:/ / pc. watch. impress. co. jp/ img/ pcw/ docs/ 387/ 444/ html/ kaigai-09. jpg. html& prev=_t& rurl=translate. google. com& twu=1& usg=ALkJrhiDMjWRSrDnnnL4mro50bRDlxQlVw). 2010-08-146. PC Watch (Japan). . Retrieved 2011-04-25. (Linked from cited PC Watch article dated Aug 16 2010)  Looking forward to DDR4 (http:/ / www. pcpro. co. uk/ news/ 220257/ idf-ddr3-wont-catch-up-with-ddr2-during-2009. html)  DDR3 successor (http:/ / www. heise-online. co. uk/ news/ IDF-DDR4-the-successor-to-DDR3-memory--/ 111367)  "IDF: DDR4 memory targeted for 2012" (http:/ / www. hardware-infos. com/ news. php?news=2332) (in German). hardware-infos.com. . Retrieved 2009-06-16. English translation (http:/ / translate. google. com/ translate?hl=en& sl=de& u=http:/ / www. hardware-infos. com/ news. php?news=2332& ei=bi44Sv_wBouZjAfVzYyjDQ& sa=X& oi=translate& resnum=1& ct=result& prev=/ search?q=http:/ / www. hardware-infos. com/ news. php%3Fnews%3D2332& hl=en& safe=off& num=100)  "JEDEC Announces Broad Spectrum of 3D-IC Standards Development" (http:/ / www. jedec. org/ news/ pressreleases/ jedec-announces-broad-spectrum-3d-ic-standards-development). JEDEC. 2011-03-17. . Retrieved 26 April 2011.  "Main Memory: DDR3 & DDR4 SDRAM" (http:/ / www. jedec. org/ category/ technology-focus-area/ main-memory-ddr3-ddr4-sdram). jedec.org. . Retrieved 2011-09-29.  See for example • Biostar I86PE-A4 (http:/ / www. biostar. com. tw/ app/ en/ mb/ content. php?S_ID=235) (Pentium 4) "Support Dual Channel DDR 200/266/333/400 MHz"
DDR4 SDRAM 20 • Gigabyte GA-8SRX (http:/ / www. pchardware. ro/ press/ preview. php?id=64) (Pentium 4, review dated December 2001) "DDR333 or... DDR266... optimized for... dual channel DDR memory technology" • PCA-6289 specification (http:/ / www. comprel. it/ schede_prodotto/ data_sheet/ PCA-6289_ds. pdf) (Intel Xeon) "Dual channel DDR200/266 SDRAM" • AMD 2001 white paper: "White paper: AMD Eighth-Generation Processor Architecture" (http:/ / www. datasheetarchive. com/ datasheet-pdf/ 021/ DSA00367679. html). 2001-10-16. AMD. p. 4. . Retrieved 2011-04-28. "The Hammer microarchitecture [codename for Athlon 64 or Opteron] incorporates a dual-channel DDR DRAM controller... The controller will be initially designed to support PC1600, PC2100, and PC2700 DDR memory" (DDR1 memory types)"  Tan, Gutmann and Reif (2008). Wafer Level 3-D ICs Process Technology (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=fhen8HeoC1AC& pg=PA278& dq=ddr4+ sdram& hl=en& ei=iLa2Ta6LAY_Cswa1m9DNDQ& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=13& ved=0CIcBEOgBMAw#v=onepage& q=ddr4 sdram& f=false). Springer. pp. 278 (sections 12.3.4 – 12.3.5). .
DVD 21 DVD DVD DVD-R read/write side Media type Optical disc Capacity 4.7 GB (single-sided, single-layer – common) 8.5–8.7 GB (single-sided, double-layer) 9.4 GB (double-sided, single-layer) 17.08 GB (double-sided, double-layer – rare) Read mechanism 650 nm laser, 10.5 Mbit/s (1×) Write mechanism 10.5 Mbit/s (1×) Standard    DVD Forums DVD Books and DVD+RW Alliance specifications A DVD is an optical disc storage media format, invented and developed by Philips, Sony, Toshiba, and Panasonic in 1995. DVD originally stood for Digital Versatile Disk, or Digital Video Disk. The acronym was dropped after DVD proved to have more uses than just storing video content. DVDs offer higher storage capacity than Compact Discs while having the same dimensions. Pre-recorded DVDs are mass-produced using molding machines that physically stamp data onto the DVD. Such discs are known as DVD-ROM, because data can only be read and not written nor erased. Blank recordable DVDs (DVD-R and DVD+R) can be recorded once using optical disc recording technologies and supported by optical disc drives and DVD recorders and then function as a DVD-ROM. Rewritable DVDs (DVD-RW, DVD+RW, and DVD-RAM) can be recorded and erased multiple times. DVDs are used in DVD-Video consumer digital video format and in DVD-Audio consumer digital audio format, as well as for authoring AVCHD discs. DVDs containing other types of information may be referred to as DVD data discs. History Before the advent of DVD and Blu-ray, the Video CD (abbreviated as VCD, and also known as View CD, Compact Disc digital video) became the first format for distributing digitally encoded films on standard 120 mm optical discs. (its predecessor CD Video used analog video encoding). VCD was on the market in 1993. In the same year, two new optical disc storage formats were being developed. One was the Multimedia Compact Disc (MMCD), backed by Philips and Sony, and the other was the Super Density (SD) disc, supported by Toshiba, Time Warner, Matsushita
DVD 22 Electric, Hitachi, Mitsubishi Electric, Pioneer, Thomson, and JVC. Representatives of the SD camp approached IBM, asking for advice on the file system to use for their disc as well as seeking support for their format for storing computer data. Alan E. Bell, a researcher from IBMs Almaden Research Center got that request and also learned of the MMCD development project. Wary of being caught in a repeat of the costly videotape format war between VHS and Betamax in the 1980s, he convened a group of computer industry experts, including representatives from Apple, Microsoft, Sun, Dell, and many others. This group was referred to as the Technical Working Group, or TWG. The TWG voted to boycott both formats unless the two camps agreed on a single, converged standard. Lou Gerstner, president of IBM, was recruited to apply pressure on the executives of the warring factions. Eventually, the computer companies won the day, and a single format, now called DVD, was agreed upon. The TWG also collaborated with the Optical Storage Technology Association (OSTA) on the use of their implementation of the ISO-13346 file system (known as Universal Disc Format) for use on the new DVDs. Philips and Sony decided it was in their best interest to avoid another format war over their Multimedia Compact Disc, and agreed to unify with companies backing the Super Density Disc to release a single format with technologies from both. The specification was mostly similar to Toshiba and Matsushitas Super Density Disc, except for the dual-layer option (MMCD was single-sided and optionally dual-layer, whereas SD was single-layer but optionally double-sided) and EFMPlus modulation. EFMPlus was chosen because of its great resilience to disc damage, such as scratches and fingerprints. EFMPlus, created by Kees Immink (who also designed EFM), is 6% less efficient than the modulation technique originally used by Toshiba, which resulted in a capacity of 4.7 GB, as opposed to the original 5 GB. The result was the DVD specification, finalized for the DVD movie player and DVD-ROM computer applications in December 1995. The DVD Video format was first introduced by Toshiba in Japan in November 1996, in the United States in March 1997 (test marketed), in Europe in October 1998, and in Australia in February 1999. In May 1997, the DVD Consortium was replaced by the DVD Forum, which is open to all other companies. Specifications DVD specifications created and updated by the DVD Forum are published as so-called DVD Books (e.g. DVD-ROM Book, DVD-Audio Book, DVD-Video Book, DVD-R Book, DVD-RW Book, DVD-RAM Book, DVD-AR Book, DVD-VR Book, etc.).   Some specifications for mechanical, physical and optical characteristics of DVD optical discs can be downloaded as freely available standards from the ISO website. Also, the DVD+RW Alliance publishes competing DVD specifications such as DVD+R, DVD+R DL, DVD+RW or DVD+RW DL. These DVD formats are also ISO standards.    Some of DVD specifications (e.g. for DVD-Video) are not publicly available and can be obtained only from the DVD Format/Logo Licensing Corporation for a fee of US $5000.  Every subscriber must sign a non-disclosure agreement as certain information in the DVD Book is proprietary and confidential.
DVD 23 Etymology The official DVD charter documents specify that the basis of the DVD name stems from the term "digital versatile disc" . Usage in the present day varies, with Digital Versatile Disc, Digital Video Disc, and DVD being the most common. DVD was originally used as an initialism for the unofficial term digital videodisk. A newsgroup FAQ written by Jim Taylor (a prominent figure in the industry) claims that four years later, in 1999, the DVD Forum stated that the format name was simply the three letters "DVD" and did not stand for anything. The DVD Forum website has a section called "DVD Primer" in which the answer to the question, "What does DVD mean?" reads, "The keyword is versatile. Digital Versatile Discs provide superb video, audio and data storage and access—all on one disc." Identification (MID) The DVD is made of a spiral groove read or written starting at the center. The form of the groove encodes unalterable identification data known as Media Identification Code (MID). The MID contains data such as the manufacturer and model, byte capacity, allowed data rates (also known as speed), etc. Design As a movie delivery medium DVD was adopted by movie and home entertainment distributors to replace the ubiquitous VHS tape as the primary means of distributing films to consumers in the home entertainment marketplace. DVD was chosen for its superior ability to reproduce moving pictures and sound, for its superior durability, and for its interactivity. Interactivity had proven to be a feature which consumers, especially collectors, favored when the movie studios had released their films on laser disk. When the price point for a laser disk at approximately $100 per disk moved to $20 per disk at retail, this luxury feature became available for mass consumption. Simultaneously, the movie studios decided to change their home entertainment release model from a rental Comparison of several forms of disk storage showing tracks (not-to-scale); green denotes start and red denotes end. model to a for purchase model, and large * Some CD-R(W) and DVD-R(W)/DVD+R(W) recorders operate in ZCLV, CAA numbers of dvds were sold. or CAV modes, but most work in Constant linear velocity (CLV) mode. At the same time, a demand for interactive design talent and services was created. Movies in the past had uniquely designed title sequences. Suddenly every movie being released required information architecture and interactive design components that matched the films tone and were at the quality level that Hollywood demanded for its product.
DVD 24 New DVD releases are released weekly by all major studios. DVDs are typically released on Tuesdays of every week. With the advent of Blu-ray releases, studios now rely on both Blu-ray and DVDs to supplement their revenue for a particular movie. As an interactive medium DVD as a format had two qualities at the time that were not available in any other interactive medium: 1. Enough capacity and speed to provide high quality, full motion video and sound, and 2. low cost delivery mechanism provided by consumer products retailers who quickly moved to sell their players for under $200 and eventually for under $50 at retail. In addition, the medium itself was small enough and light enough to mail using general first class postage. Almost overnight, this created a new business opportunity and model for business innovators like Netflix to re-invent the home entertainment distribution model. It also opened up the opportunity for business and product information to be inexpensively provided on full motion video through direct mail. Capacity Capacity and nomenclature  SS = single-sided, DS = double-sided, SL = single-layer, DL = dual-layer Designation Sides Layers Diameter Capacity (total) (cm) (GB) (GiB)  SS SL 1 1 8 1.46 1.36 DVD-1 DVD-2 SS DL 1 2 8 2.66 2.47 DVD-3 DS SL 2 2 8 2.92 2.72 DVD-4 DS DL 2 4 8 5.32 4.95 DVD-5 SS SL 1 1 12 4.70 4.37 DVD-9 SS DL 1 2 12 8.54 7.95 DVD-10 DS SL 2 2 12 9.40 8.75  DS SL+DL 2 3 12 13.24 12.33 DVD-14 DVD-18 DS DL 2 4 12 17.08 15.90 Capacity and nomenclature of (re)writable discs Designation Sides Layers Diameter Capacity (total) (cm) (GB) (GiB) DVD-R SS SL (1.0) 1 1 12 3.95 3.68 DVD-R SS SL (2.0) 1 1 12 4.70 4.37 DVD-RW SS SL 1 1 12 4.70 4.37 DVD+R SS SL 1 1 12 4.70 4.37 DVD+RW SS SL 1 1 12 4.70 4.37 DVD-R DS SL 2 2 12 9.40 8.75 DVD-RW DS SL 2 2 12 9.40 8.75 DVD+R DS SL 2 2 12 9.40 8.75
DVD 25 DVD+RW DS SL 2 2 12 9.40 8.75 DVD-RAM SS SL 1 1 8 1.46 1.36* DVD-RAM DS SL 2 2 8 2.65 2.47* DVD-RAM SS SL (1.0) 1 1 12 2.58 2.40 DVD-RAM SS SL (2.0) 1 1 12 4.70 4.37 DVD-RAM DS SL (1.0) 2 2 12 5.16 4.80 DVD-RAM DS SL (2.0) 2 2 12 9.40 8.75* The basic types of DVD (12 cm diameter, single-sided or homogeneous double-sided) are referred to by a rough approximation of their capacity in gigabytes. In draft versions of the specification, DVD-5 indeed held five gigabytes, but some parameters were changed later on as explained above, so the capacity decreased. Other formats, those with 8 cm diameter and hybrid variants, acquired similar numeric names with even larger deviation. The 12 cm type is a standard DVD, and the 8 cm variety is known as a MiniDVD. These are the same sizes as a standard CD and a mini-CD, respectively. The capacity by surface (MiB/cm2) varies from 6.92 MiB/cm2 in the DVD-1 to 18.0 MiB/cm2 in the DVD-18. As with hard disk drives, in the DVD realm, gigabyte and the symbol Scan of a DVD 4.5 capacity disk 9 GB are usually used in the SI sense (i.e., 10 , or 1,000,000,000 bytes). For distinction, gibibyte (with symbol GiB) is used (i.e., 10243 (230), or 1,073,741,824 bytes). Each DVD sector contains 2,418 bytes of data, 2,048 bytes of which are user data. There is a small difference in storage space between + and - (hyphen) formats: Size comparison: a 12 cm DVD+RW and a 19 cm pencil.
DVD 26 Capacity differences of writable DVD formats Type Sectors Bytes kB MB GB KiB MiB GiB DVD-R SL 2,298,496 4,707,319,808 4,707,319.808 4,707.320 4.707 4,596,992 4,489.250 4.384 DVD+R SL 2,295,104 4,700,372,992 4,700,372.992 4,700.373 4.700 4,590,208 4,482.625 4.378 DVD-R DL 4,171,712 8,543,666,176 8,543,666.176 8,543.666 8.544 8,343,424 8,147.875 7.957 DVD+R DL 4,173,824 8,547,991,552 8,547,991.552 8,547.992 8.548 8,347,648 8,152.000 7.961 Technology DVD uses 650 nm wavelength laser diode light as opposed to 780 nm for CD. This permits a smaller pit to be etched on the media surface compared to CDs (0.74 µm for DVD versus 1.6 µm for CD), allowing in part for DVDs increased storage capacity. In comparison, Blu-ray Disc, the successor to the DVD format, uses a wavelength of 405 nm, and one dual-layer disc has a 50 GB storage capacity. Writing speeds for DVD were 1×, that is, 1,385 kB/s (1,353 KiB/s), in the first drives and media models. More recent models, at 18× or 20×, DVD-RW Drive operating with the protective have 18 or 20 times that speed. Note that for CD drives, 1× means cover removed. 153.6 kB/s (150 KiB/s), about one-ninth as swift.  DVD drive speeds Drive speed Data rate  ~Write time (min) (Mbit/s) (MB/s) (MiB/s) SL DL 1× 11.08 1.39 1.32 57 103 2× 22.16 2.77 2.64 28 51 2.4× 26.59 3.32 3.17 24 43 2.6× 28.81 3.60 3.43 22 40 4× 44.32 5.54 5.28 14 26 6× 66.48 8.31 7.93 9 17 8× 88.64 11.08 10.57 7 13 10× 110.80 13.85 13.21 6 10 12× 132.96 16.62 15.85 5 9 16× 177.28 22.16 21.13 4 6 18× 199.44 24.93 23.78 3 6 20× 221.60 27.70 26.42 3 5 22× 243.76 30.47 29.06 3 5 24× 265.92 33.24 31.70 2 4
DVD 27 Internal mechanism of a drive This mechanism is shown right side up; the disc would sit on top of it. The laser and optical system scans the underside of the disc. With reference to the photo, just to the right of image center is the disc spin motor, a gray cylinder, with its gray centering hub and black resilient drive ring on top. A clamp (not in the photo, retained in the drives cover), pulled down by a magnet, clamps the disc when this mechanism rises, after the disc tray stops moving inward. This motor has an external rotor – every visible part of it spins. The gray metal chassis is shock-mounted at its four corners to reduce sensitivity to external shocks, and to reduce drive noise when running fast. The soft shock mount grommets are just below the brass-colored washers at the four corners (the left one is obscured). Running through Internal mechanism of a DVD-ROM Drive. See text for details. those grommets are screws to fasten them to the black plastic frame thats underneath. Two parallel precision guide rods that run between upper left and lower right in the photo carry the "sled", the moving optical read-write head. As shown, this "sled" is close to, or at the position where it reads or writes at the edge of the disc. A dark gray disc with two holes on opposite sides has a blue lens surrounded by silver-colored metal. This is the lens thats closest to the disc; it serves to both read and write by focusing the laser light to a very small spot. It is likely that this disc rotates half a turn to position a different set of optics (the other "hole") for CDs vs. DVDs. Under the disc is an ingenious actuator comprising permanent magnets and coils that move the lens up and down to maintain focus on the data layer. As well, the actuator moves the lens slightly toward and away from the spin-motor spindle to keep the spot on track. Both focus and tracking are relatively quite fast and very precise. The same actuator rotates the lens mount half a turn as described. To select tracks (or files) as well as advancing the "sled" during continuous read or write operations, a stepping motor rotates a coarse-pitch leadscrew to move the "sled" throughout its total travel range. The motor, itself, is the gray cylinder just to the left of the most-distant shock mount; its shaft is parallel to the support rods. The leadscrew, itself, is the rod with evenly-spaced darker details; these are the helical groove that engages a pin on the "sled". The irregular orange material is flexible etched copper foil supported by thin sheet plastic; these are "flexible printed circuits" that connect everything to the electronics (which is not shown).
DVD 28 DVD recordable and rewritable HP initially developed recordable DVD media from the need to store data for backup and transport. DVD recordables are now also used for consumer audio and video recording. Three formats were developed: DVD-R/RW, DVD+R/RW (plus), and DVD-RAM. DVD-R is available in two formats, General (650 nm) and Authoring (635 nm), where Authoring discs may be recorded with encrypted content but General discs may not. Although most DVD writers can nowadays write the DVD+R/RW and DVD-R/RW formats (usually denoted by "DVD±RW" and/or the existence of both the DVD Forum logo and the DVD+RW Alliance logo), the "plus" and the "dash" formats use different writing Sony DVD Read & Rewritable specifications. Most DVD readers and players will play both kinds of discs, although older models can have trouble with the "plus" variants. Some first generation DVD players would cause damage to DVD±R/RW/DL when attempting to read them. Dual-layer recording Dual-layer recording (sometimes also known as double-layer recording) allows DVD-R and DVD+R discs to store significantly more data—up to 8.54 gigabytes per disc, compared with 4.7 gigabytes for single-layer discs. Along with this, DVD-DLs have slower write speeds as compared to ordinary DVDs and when played on a DVD player a slight transition can sometimes be seen between the layers. DVD-R DL was developed for the DVD Forum by Pioneer Corporation; DVD+R DL was developed for the DVD+RW Alliance by Philips and Mitsubishi Kagaku Media (MKM). A dual-layer disc differs from its usual DVD counterpart by employing a second physical layer within the disc itself. The drive with dual-layer capability accesses the second layer by shining the laser through the first semitransparent layer. In some DVD players, the layer change can exhibit a noticeable pause, up to several seconds. This caused some viewers to worry that their dual-layer discs were damaged or defective, with the end result that studios began listing a standard message explaining the dual-layer pausing effect on all dual-layer disc packaging. DVD recordable discs supporting this technology are backward-compatible with some existing DVD players and DVD-ROM drives. Many current DVD recorders support dual-layer technology, and the price is now comparable to that of single-layer drives, although the blank media remain more expensive. The recording speeds reached by dual-layer media are still well below those of single-layer media. There are two modes for dual-layer orientation. With Parallel Track Path (PTP), used on DVD-ROM, both layers start at the inside diameter (ID) and end at the outside diameter (OD) with the lead-out. With Opposite Track Path (OTP), used on many Digital Video Discs, the lower layer starts at the ID and the upper layer starts at the OD, where the other layer ends; they share one lead-in and one lead-out. DVD-Video DVD-Video is a standard for storing and distributing video/audio content on DVD media. The format went on sale in Japan on November 1, 1996, in the United States on March 1, 1997, in Europe on October 1, 1998 and in Australia on February 1, 1999. DVD-Video became the dominant form of home video distribution in Japan when it first went on sale in 1996, but did not become the dominant form of home video distribution in the United States until June 15, 2003, when weekly DVD-Video in the United States rentals began outnumbering weekly VHS cassette rentals, reflecting the rapid adoption rate of the technology in the U.S. marketplace.  Currently, DVD-Video is
DVD 29 the dominant form of home video distribution worldwide, although in Japan it was surpassed by Blu-ray Disc when Blu-ray first went on sale in Japan on March 31, 2006. Security Content Scramble System (CSS) is a Digital Rights Management (DRM) and encryption system employed on almost all commercially produced DVD-video discs. CSS utilizes a proprietary 40-bit stream cipher algorithm. The system was introduced around 1996 and was first compromised in 1999. The purpose of CSS is twofold: 1. CSS prevents byte-for-byte copies of an MPEG (digital video) stream from being playable since such copies do not include the keys that are hidden on the lead-in area of the restricted DVD. 2. CSS provides a reason for manufacturers to make their devices compliant with an industry-controlled standard, since CSS scrambled discs cannot in principle be played on noncompliant devices; anyone wishing to build compliant devices must obtain a license, which contains the requirement that the rest of the DRM system (region codes, Macrovision, and user operation prohibition) be implemented. While most CSS-decrypting software is used to play DVD videos, other pieces of software (such as DVD Decrypter, AnyDVD, DVD43, Smartripper, and DVD Shrink) can copy a DVD to a hard drive and remove Macrovision, CSS encryption, region codes and user operation prohibition. Consumer restrictions The rise of filesharing and "piracy" has prompted many copyright holders to display notices on DVD packaging or displayed on screen when the content is played that warn consumers of the illegality of certain uses of the DVD. It is commonplace to include a 90 second advert warning that most forms of copying the contents are illegal. Many DVDs prevent skipping past or fast-forwarding through this warning. Arrangements for renting and lending differ by geography. In the U.S., the right to re-sell, rent, or lend out bought DVDs is protected by the first-sale doctrine under the Copyright Act of 1976. In Europe, rental and lending rights are more limited, under a 1992 European Directive that gives copyright holders broader powers to restrict the commercial renting and public lending of DVD copies of their work. DVD-Audio DVD-Audio is a format for delivering high fidelity audio content on a DVD. It offers many channel configuration options (from mono to 5.1 surround sound) at various sampling frequencies (up to 24-bits/192 kHz versus CDDAs 16-bits/44.1 kHz). Compared with the CD format, the much higher-capacity DVD format enables the inclusion of considerably more music (with respect to total running time and quantity of songs) and/or far higher audio quality (reflected by higher sampling rates and greater sample resolution, and/or additional channels for spatial sound reproduction). Despite DVD-Audios superior technical specifications, there is debate as to whether the resulting audio enhancements are distinguishable in typical listening environments. DVD-Audio currently forms a niche market, probably due to the very sort of format war with rival standard SACD that DVD-Video avoided.
DVD 30 Security DVD-Audio discs employ a DRM mechanism, called Content Protection for Prerecorded Media (CPPM), developed by the 4C group (IBM, Intel, Matsushita, and Toshiba). Although CPPM was supposed to be much harder to crack than DVD-Videos CSS, it too was eventually cracked in 2007 with the release of the dvdcpxm tool. The subsequent release of the libdvdcpxm library (which is based on dvdcpxm) allowed for the development of open source DVD-Audio players and ripping software, such as DVD-Audio Explorer. As a result, making 1:1 copies of DVD-Audio discs is now possible with relative ease, much like DVD-Video discs. Improvements and succession HD DVD and Blu-ray Disc In 2006, two new formats called HD DVD and Blu-ray Disc were released as the successor to DVD. HD DVD competed successfully with Blu-ray Disc in the format war of 2006–2008. A dual layer HD DVD can store up to 30GB and a dual layer Blu-ray disc can hold up to 50GB.  However, unlike previous format changes, e.g., audio tape to Compact Disc or VHS videotape to DVD, there is no immediate indication that production of the standard DVD will gradually wind down, as they still dominate, with around 75% of video sales and approximately one billion DVD player sales worldwide as of 3 April 2011. In fact, experts claim that the DVD will remain the dominant medium for at least another five years as Blu-ray technology is still in its introductory phase, write and read speeds being poor as well as the fact of necessary hardware being expensive and not readily available.   Consumers initially were also slow to adopt Blu-ray due to the cost. By 2009, 85% of stores were selling Blu-ray Discs. A high-definition television and appropriate connection cables are also required to take advantage of Blu-ray disc. Some analysts suggest that the biggest obstacle to replacing DVD is due to its installed base; a large majority of consumers are satisfied with DVDs. The DVD succeeded because it offered a compelling alternative to VHS. In addition, Blu-ray players are designed to be backward-compatible, allowing older DVDs to be played since the media are physically identical; this differed from the change from vinyl to CD and from tape to DVD, which involved a complete change in physical medium. As of 2011 it is still commonplace for major releases to be issued in "combo pack" format, including both a DVD and a Blu-ray disc (as well as, in many cases, a third disc with an authorized digital copy). Also, some multi-disc sets use Blu-ray for the main feature, but DVDs for supplementary features (examples of this include the Harry Potter "Ultimate Edition" collections, the 2009 re-release of the 1967 The Prisoner TV series, and a 2007 collection related to Blade Runner). Another reason cited (July 2011) for the slower transition to Blu-ray from DVD is the necessity of and confusion over "firmware updates" and needing an internet connection to perform updates. This situation can be best compared to the changeover from 78 rpm shellac recordings to 45 rpm and 33⅓ rpm vinyl recordings; because the medium used for the earlier format was virtually the same as the latter version (a disc on a turntable, played using a needle), phonographs continued to be built to play obsolete 78s for decades after the format was discontinued. Manufacturers continue to release standard DVD titles as of 2011, and the format remains the preferred one for the release of older television programs and films, with some programs such as Star Trek: The Original Series needing to be re-scanned to produce a high definition version from the original film recordings (certain special effects were also updated in order to be better received in high-definition viewing). In the case of Doctor Who, a series primarily produced on standard definition videotape between 1963 and 1989, BBC Video reportedly intends to continue issuing DVD-format releases of that series until at least November 2013 (since there would be very little increase in visual quality from upconverting the standard definition videotape masters to high definition).
DVD 31 Holographic Versatile Disc The Holographic Versatile Disc (HVD) is an optical disc technology that may one day hold up to 6 terabytes of information, although the current maximum is 500 GB. It employs a technique known as collinear holography. 5D DVD The 5D DVD, being developed in the Swinburne University of Technology in Melbourne, Australia, uses a multilaser system to encode and read data on multiple layers. Technology could be compatible with current DVD disc-drive technology. Disc capacities are estimated at up to 10 terabytes, and the technology could be commercially ready by 2019. Use as backup medium Durability of DVDs is measured by how long the data may be read from the disc, assuming compatible devices exist that can read it: that is, how long the disc can be stored until data is lost. Five factors affect durability: sealing method, reflective layer, organic dye makeup, where it was manufactured, and storage practices. The longevity of the ability to read from a DVD+R or DVD-R is largely dependent on manufacturing quality, ranging from 2 to 15 years,   and is believed to be an unreliable medium for backup unless great care is taken for storage conditions and handling. According to the Optical Storage Technology Association (OSTA), "manufacturers claim life spans ranging from 30 to 100 years for DVD, DVD-R and DVD+R discs and up to 30 years for DVD-RW, DVD+RW and DVD-RAM". References  DVD FLLC (2009-02) DVD Book Construction – list of all available DVD Books (http:/ / www. dvdfllc. co. jp/ format/ f_bconst. html), Retrieved on 2009-07-24  DVD FLLC DVD Format Book – History of Supplements for DVD Books (http:/ / www. dvdfllc. co. jp/ format/ f_histry. html), Retrieved on 2009-07-24  MPEG.org, DVD Books overview (http:/ / www. mpeg. org/ MPEG/ DVD/ General/ Books. html), Retrieved on 2009-07-24  (PDF) Super Video Compact Disc, A Technical Explanation (PDF) (http:/ / www. ip. philips. com/ view_attachment/ 2450/ sl00812. pdf), Philips System Standards and Licensing, 1998, pp. 2, , retrieved 2008-02-13  "E-commerce and Video Distribution: DVD and Blu-ray" (http:/ / ecommerceandvideodistributiondvd. blogspot. com/ ). .  Johnson, Lawrence B. (September 7, 1997). "For the DVD, Disney Magic May Be the Key" (http:/ / query. nytimes. com/ gst/ fullpage. html?res=9407EEDC1730F934A3575AC0A961958260). The New York Times. . Retrieved 2009-05-25.  ISO ISO Freely Available Standards (http:/ / standards. iso. org/ ittf/ PubliclyAvailableStandards/ index. html), Retrieved on 2009-07-24  ISO ISO/IEC 17344:2009, Data interchange on 120 mm and 80 mm optical disc using +R format – Capacity: 4,7 Gbytes and 1,46 Gbytes per side (recording speed up to 16X) (http:/ / www. iso. org/ iso/ iso_catalogue/ catalogue_ics/ catalogue_detail_ics. htm?csnumber=52065), Retrieved on 2009-07-26  ISO ISO/IEC 25434:2008, Data interchange on 120 mm and 80 mm optical disc using +R DL format – Capacity: 8,55 Gbytes and 2,66 Gbytes per side (recording speed up to 16X) (http:/ / www. iso. org/ iso/ iso_catalogue/ catalogue_ics/ catalogue_detail_ics. htm?csnumber=51140), Retrieved on 2009-07-26  ISO ISO/IEC 17341:2009, Data interchange on 120 mm and 80 mm optical disc using +RW format – Capacity: 4,7 Gbytes and 1,46 Gbytes per side (recording speed up to 4X) (http:/ / www. iso. org/ iso/ iso_catalogue/ catalogue_ics/ catalogue_detail_ics. htm?csnumber=52064), Retrieved on 2009-07-26  ISO ISO/IEC 26925:2009, Data interchange on 120 mm and 80 mm optical disc using +RW HS format – Capacity: 4,7 Gbytes and 1,46 Gbytes per side (recording speed 8X) (http:/ / www. iso. org/ iso/ iso_catalogue/ catalogue_tc/ catalogue_detail. htm?csnumber=52066), Retrieved on 2009-07-26  DVD FLLC (2009) DVD Format Book (http:/ / www. dvdfllc. co. jp/ format/ f_nosbsc. html), Retrieved on 2009-08-14  DVD FLLC (2009) How To Obtain DVD Format/Logo License (2005–2009) (http:/ / www. dvdfllc. co. jp/ license/ l_howto. html), Retrieved on 2009-08-14  http:/ / www. dvdforum. org/ about-charter. htm  "DVD Primer" (http:/ / www. dvdforum. org/ faq-dvdprimer. htm#1). Dvdforum.org. . Retrieved 2011-08-10.  Markoff, John (1996-01-11). "A Battle for Influence Over Insatiable Disks" (http:/ / query. nytimes. com/ gst/ fullpage. html?res=990CEEDA143CF932A25752C0A963958260). The New York Times. . Retrieved 2007-04-09.
DVD 32  "DVD FAQ" (http:/ / www. dvddemystified. com/ dvdfaq. html#1. 1). DVD Demystified. 2006-09-12. .  "DVD Primer" (http:/ / www. dvdforum. org/ faq-dvdprimer. htm#1). DVD Forum. 2004-11-14. . Retrieved 2008-01-23.  "DVD Book A: Physical parameters" (http:/ / www. mpeg. org/ MPEG/ DVD/ Book_A/ Specs. html). Mpeg.org. . Retrieved 2009-08-22.  Cinram: DVD in Detail (http:/ / www. cinram. com/ dvd/ tech/ dvdindetail. pdf)  Jim Taylor. "DVD Demystifed FAQ" (http:/ / www. dvddemystified. com/ dvdfaq. html). Dvddemystified.com. . Retrieved 2009-08-22.  "DVD-14" (http:/ / www. afterdawn. com/ glossary/ terms/ dvd-14. cfm). AfterDawn Ltd.. . Retrieved 2007-02-06.  "Understanding DVD -Recording Speed" (http:/ / www. osta. org/ technology/ dvdqa/ dvdqa4. htm). Osta.org. . Retrieved 2011-08-09.  The write time is wildly optimistic for higher (>4x) write speeds, due to being calculated from the maximum drive write speed instead of the average drive write speed.  "DVD Media / DVD-R Media" (http:/ / www. taperesources. com/ dvd_media. html#article2). Tape Resources. . Retrieved 2011-08-09.  Robert DeMoulin. "Understanding Dual Layer DVD Recording" (http:/ / www. burnworld. com/ howto/ articles/ intro-to-dual-layer. htm). BurnWorld.com. . Retrieved 2007-07-06.  "DVD players benchmark" (http:/ / www. hometheaterhifi. com/ cgi-bin/ shootout. cgi?function=search& articles=all& type=& manufacturer=0& maxprice=0& deInt=0& mpeg=0#SamsungBD-P1000 Blu-ray/ DVD Player (HDMI)). hometheaterhifi.com. . Retrieved 2008-04-01.  "Discount stores are a video lovers channel of choice" (http:/ / findarticles. com/ p/ articles/ mi_m3092/ is_15_37/ ai_50241583). Discount Store News (via findarticles.com). 1998-08-10. . Retrieved 2008-03-06.  Bakalis, Anna (2003-06-20). "Its unreel: DVD rentals overtake videocassettes" (http:/ / washingtontimes. com/ business/ 20030620-113258-1104r. htm). Washington Times. .  IEEE - Copy Protection for DVD Video p.2 (http:/ / www. dvd-copy. com/ reference/ IEEE-doc-copyproc. pdf)  "DVD-Audio ripper" (http:/ / forum. doom9. org/ showthread. php?p=1099342#post1099342). . Retrieved 2008-04-09.  "What is Blu-ray Disc?" (http:/ / www. sonystyle. com/ webapp/ wcs/ stores/ servlet/ CategoryDisplay?catalogId=10551& storeId=10151& langId=-1& identifier=S_BrandShowcase_Blu-ray). Sony. . Retrieved 2008-11-25.  "DVD FAQ: 3.13 – What about the new HD formats?" (http:/ / www. dvddemystified. com/ dvdfaq. html#3. 13). 2008-09-21. . Retrieved 2008-11-25.  "High-Definition Sales Far Behind Standard DVDs First Two Years" (http:/ / www. movieweb. com/ dvd/ news/ 20/ 26720. php). Movieweb.com. 2008-02-20. . Retrieved 2009-08-22.  "Blu-ray takes 25% Market share:" (http:/ / www. blu-raystats. com/ MarketShare/ index. php). 2008-09-21. . Retrieved 2011-06-28.  Robert Martorana (2009-11-04). "Slow Blu-ray Adoption: A Threat to Hollywoods Bottom Line?" (http:/ / seekingalpha. com/ article/ 171207-slow-blu-ray-adoption-a-threat-to-hollywood-s-bottom-line). Seeking Alpha. . Retrieved 2011-08-09.  Gates And Ballmer On "Making The Transition" (http:/ / www. businessweek. com/ magazine/ content/ 04_16/ b3879008_mz001. htm). BusinessWeek. 2004-04-19. . Retrieved 2009-08-22.  "Kirk/Spock STAR TREK To Get All-New HD Spaceships" (http:/ / www. aintitcool. com/ display. cgi?id=24344). Aintitcool.com. . Retrieved 2009-08-22.  "The Mind of Evil in Color Just Not Yet and More" (http:/ / www. dwin. org/ expressionengine/ index. php/ site/ comments/ the_mind_of_evil_in_colour_just_not_yet_and_more/ ). Doctor Who Information Network. 2009-10-23. . Retrieved 2010-04-25.  "Five-Dimensional DVD Could Hold Data of 30 Blu-ray Discs" (http:/ / www. physorg. com/ news162138048. html). PhysOrg.com. 2009. .  "5D storage could hold 2,000 times more than 1 DVD" (http:/ / www. cbc. ca/ technology/ story/ 2009/ 05/ 22/ tech-5d-storage-dvd-polarization-colours-3d-swinburne-chon-nature. html). CBC News. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. 2009-05-22. . Retrieved 2009-05-29.  "How To Choose CD/DVD Archival Media" (http:/ / adterrasperaspera. com/ blog/ 2006/ 10/ 30/ how-to-choose-cddvd-archival-media). 2006-10-30. . Retrieved 2009-03-14.  "Optical Media Longetivity" (http:/ / www. thexlab. com/ faqs/ opticalmedialongevity. html). . Retrieved 2010-02-26.  "DVD Durability" (http:/ / www. backupcritic. com/ backup-media/ dvd/ durability. html). . Retrieved 2010-02-26.  "The Life-Span of DVDs" (http:/ / www. larryjordan. biz/ articles/ lj_dvd_life. html). january 2006. . Retrieved 2010-02-26.  "How long will data recorded on writable DVD discs remain readable?" (http:/ / www. osta. org/ technology/ dvdqa/ dvdqa11. htm). . Retrieved 2009-03-14.
DVD 33 Further reading • Bennett, Hugh (April 2004). "Understanding Recordable and Rewritable DVD" (http://www.osta.org/ technology/dvdqa/). Optical Storage Technology Association. Retrieved 2006-12-17. • Labarge, Ralph (2001). DVD Authoring and Production. Gilroy, California: CMP Books. ISBN 1-57820-082-2. • Taylor, Jim (2000). DVD Demystified (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Professional. ISBN 0-07-135026-8. External links • DVD (http://search.dmoz.org/cgi-bin/search?search=dvd) at the Open Directory Project • Dual Layer Explained (http://www.burnworld.com/howto/articles/intro-to-dual-layer.htm) – Informational Guide to the Dual Layer Recording Process • DVD Frequently Asked Questions (and Answers) (http://www.dvddemystified.com/dvdfaq.html) • DVD Burning and Ripping: A Primer, A Glossary (http://dvd-burning-software.toptenreviews.com/ dvd-burning-and-ripping.html) • YouTube: Segment from 1997 Toshiba DVD demo disc (http://www.youtube.com/user/eyeh8cbs#p/u/14/ NSY5rVzsTBc) – Technical information about the then-new DVD format, from "DVD Gallery," an in-store demonstration disc from Toshiba. DVD recorder A DVD recorder (also known as a DVDR, mainly outside of the UK and Ireland), is an optical disc recorder that uses Optical disc recording technologies to digitally record analog DVR with built-in DVD recorder. signal or digital signals onto blank writable DVD media. Such devices are available as either installable drives for computers or as standalone components for use in television studios or home theater systems. As of March 1, 2007 all new tuner-equipped television devices manufactured or imported in the United States must include ATSC tuner. The US Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has interpreted this rule broadly so as to include apparatus such as computer with TV tuner cards with video capture ability, videocassette recorders and standalone DVD recorders. NTSC DVD recorders are therefore undergoing a transformation, either adding a digital ATSC tuner or removing over-the-air broadcast television tuner capability entirely. However these DVD recorders can still record analog audio and analog video.
DVD recorder 34 Technical information Originally, DVD recorders supported one of three standards: DVD-RAM, DVD-RW (using DVD-VR), and DVD+RW (using DVD+VR), none of which are directly compatible. As a general rule, however, most current DVD drives support both the + and - standards, while few support the DVD-RAM standard, which is not directly compatible with standard DVD drives. Recording speed is generally denoted in values of X (similar to CD-ROM usage), where 1X in DVD usage is equal to 1.321 MB/s, roughly equivalent to a 9X CD-ROM. In practice, this is largely confined to computer-based DVD recorders, since standalone units generally record in real time, that is, 1X speed. recorders use a laser (usually 650 nm red) to read and write DVDs. The reading laser is usually not stronger than 5 mW, while the writing laser is considerably more powerful. The faster the writing speed is rated, the stronger the laser is. DVD burner lasers often peak at about 100-400 mW in continuous wave (some are pulsed). Some laser hobbyists have discovered ways to extract the laser diode from DVD burners and modify them to create laser apparatus that can cause burning. Computer-based DVD drives Further information: Optical disc drive DVD recorder drives have become standard equipment in many, though not all, computer systems currently on the market, after being initially popularized by the Pioneer/Apple SuperDrive; aftermarket drives as of early 2007 can cost as little as $23. DVD recorder drives can be used in conjunction with DVD authoring software to create DVDs near or equal to commercial quality, and are also widely used for data backup and exchange. As a general rule, computer-based DVD recorders can also handle CD-R and CD-RW media; in fact, a number of standalone DVD recorders actually use drives designed for computers. Most internal drives are designed with parallel ATA interfaces, with serial ATA becoming more readily available. External drives almost always use USB 2.0 or IEEE 1394, with eSATA becoming an option as well. DVD recorder drives are requiredto respect DVD region codes when reading a disc, but do not impose a region code on written discs unless the code has specifically been written into the discs content. DVD duplication systems are generally built out of stacks of these drives, connected through a computer-based backplane. Standalone DVD recorders When the standalone DVD recorder first appeared on the Japanese consumer market in 1999, these early units were very expensive, costing between $2500 and $4000 USD. However, as of early 2007, DVD recorders from notable brands are selling for US$200 or €150 and less, with even lower "street prices". Early units supported only DVD-RAM and DVD-R discs, but the more recent units can record to all major formats DVD-R, DVD-RW, DVD+R, DVD+RW, DVD-R DL and DVD+R DL. Some models now include mechanical hard disk drive-based digital video recorders (DVRs) to improve ease of use. Standalone DVD recorders generally have basic DVD authoring software built in; however, the appearance of the finished DVD is very basic and usually completely under the control of the unit. Some believed that DVD recorders would supersede the VCR as the standard television-recording device; however as technology progresses, in 2009 Panasonic introduced the worlds first Blu-ray disc recorder which is capable of recording both DVDs and Blu-ray discs and features built in satellite HDTV tuners. A year later, Panasonic introduced further more Blu-ray disc recorders with terrestrial HDTV tuners. DVD recorders have several technical advantages over VCRs, including: • Superior video and audio quality
DVD recorder 35 • Easy-to-handle smaller form-factor disc media, and more durable than magnetic tape. • Random access to video chapters without rewinding or fast-forwarding (serial access) • Onscreen multilingual subtitles and labeling not available on VCRs • Reduced playback wear and tear • High-quality digital copying, with little or no generation loss • Improved editing, at least on rewritable media • Playlisting • No risk of accidentally recording over existing content or unexpectedly running out of space during recording • Easy to find recordings due to chapter menus Note: in addition Blu-ray disc recorders can record full high definition videos on BD-Rs and BD-REs. It does have some disadvantages: • Slow initial access/load times due to the optical nature of the disc • Limited rewritability on DVDRW(+RW) discs (typically around 1000). DVD-RAM is better suited for high frequency re-recording (around 100,000 rewrites) • Relatively short life of the laser diodes (average of about 2 years depending on usage). However, an inconvenience exists in which DVDs recorded with DVD recorders must be finalized to view in other DVD players. (This disadvantage does not apply to DVD-RAM or DVD+RW discs, which require no finalization due to their random access nature.) Also, the implementation of MPEG-2 compression used on most standalone DVD recorders is required to compress the picture data in real time, producing results that may not be up to the standard of professionally rendered DVD video, which can take days to compress. The United States is converting its over-the-air television broadcasts to digital "ATSC" in June 2009, however this will have very limited impact in ending the need for DVD recorders to perform realtime MPEG-2 encoding or transcoding. The only setup where ATSC could conceivably eliminate MPEG-2 encoding/transcoding in a DVD recorder would be where an antenna is hooked directly into a DVD recorder that has an integrated ATSC tuner. Even then however, the DVD recorder will have to transcode the ATSC MPEG-2 into DVD-Video-compliant MPEG-2 if the ATSC MPEG-2 stream isnt already DVD-Video-compatible. This would require transcoding for all high-definition broadcasts and some if not all standard-definition broadcasts. The same general situation applies to digital cable service; only DVD recorders with integrated digital cable ("QAM") tuners can possibly avoid transcoding, and then only if the digital cable system is already sending a DVD-Video-compatible MPEG-2 stream, which again requires transcoding of all HD content and some if not all SD content. All other setups (digital cable boxs analog outputs to DVD recorder, satellite boxs analog outputs to DVD recorder, DVD recorder tuning and recording analog cable channels which are still permitted after 2/2009, etc.) usually always involve an analog step with MPEG-2 encoding being necessary inside the DVD recorder. A number of manufacturers have combined DVD recorders with mechanical hard disk drive-based digital video recorders, allowing for recording to large fixed disks, and the ability to view these recordings off the hard disk at a later date. In Japan, AVCREC recorders, which are able to record MPEG-2 or AVC high definition video from ISDB broadcast with or without re-encoding, get increasingly popular. Initially, AVCREC recorders use DVD recordable discs, but newer models are able to record onto Blu-ray discs as well onto hard disk drives.
DVD recorder 36 ATSC standalone DVD recorders As a result of the North American digital switchover, tuner-equipped devices manufactured or imported into the United States are now required by the US Federal Communications Commission to include digital tuners. This has caused most new VHS recorders to be implemented as DVD/VCR combo units, or to be manufactured without tuners. The US requirement of ATSC compatibility forces inclusion of MPEG-2 decoding hardware, which is already part of all DVD players but which otherwise would not have been needed in an analog-only VCR. An ATSC-capable DVD unit can also serve as a more-powerful alternative to digital television adapters, which allow DTV reception with older NTSC analog televisions. The DVD recorders offer additional capabilities, such as automated VCR-style timeshifting of programming and a variety of output formats, that are deliberately not included in the most common mass-market US ATSC converters. Unlike the more common digital television adapter boxes, newer DVD recorder units are able to tune both analog and digital signals - an advantage when receiving low-power television and foreign (analogue) signals. Some, however, do suffer from many of the same design limitations as the less costly converter boxes, including poorly designed signal strength meters, incomplete display of broadcast program information, incompatibility with antenna rotators or CEA-909 smart antennas and inability to add digital channels without wiping out all existing channels and rescanning the entire band. A DVD recording of an over-the-air HDTV broadcast is at DVD resolution, which is inferior to the original broadcast with 720p or 1080i resolution. Some units also provide limited USB or flash memory interface capability, often only supporting viewing of digital camera still photos or playback of MP3s with no ability to write video to these media. A small number of DVD recorders are also capable of recording to SVCD, VCD and even Audio CD formats. Recording to DVDs can be done at different speeds giving between 1 and 6 hours (even up to 8 hours on certain models) on a standard (single sided 12 cm) blank DVD. With some trade off between recording time and video quality. MiniDVD recorders 8 cm miniDVDs are widely used on some digital camcorders, primarily those meant for a consumer market ("point and shoot"); such discs are usually playable on a full-sized DVD player, but may not record on a full-sized DVD recorder system. Though popular for their convenience (in the manner of VHS-C), DVD camcorders are not considered suitable for more than casual use due to the much higher level of compression used compared to MiniDV and the difficulty of editing MPEG-2 video. References  FCC - DTV enforcement (http:/ / www. fcc. gov/ eb/ dtv/ )  "LITE-ON Black 52X CD-R 32X CD-RW 52X CD-ROM ATAPI/E-IDE CD Burner - CD / DVD Burners" (http:/ / www. newegg. com/ Product/ Product. aspx?Item=N82E16827106085). Newegg.com. . Retrieved 2009-11-15. DVD Drive (http:/ / www. drives-storage. com. au/ ) How to Fix a Stuck DVD Drive on a Laptop (http:/ / www. dreamboxok.com/How-to-Fix-a-Stuck-DVD-Drive-on-a-Laptop.html)
DVD-R DL 37 DVD-R DL Optical discs Optical discOptical disc driveOptical disc authoringOptical disc authoring softwareAuthoring softwareOptical disc recording technologiesRecording technologiesOptical disc recording modesRecording modesPacket writing Optical media types Blu-ray Disc (BD): Blu-ray Disc recordableBD-R, BD-REDVD: DVD-R, DVD+R, DVD-R DL, DVD+R DL, DVD-R DS, DVD+R DS, DVD-RW, DVD+RW, DVD-RAM, DVD-D, High-Definition Versatile DiscHVD, EcoDiscCompact Disc (CD): Red Book (CD standard)Red Book, CD-ROM, CD-R, CD-RW, 5.1 Music Disc, Super Audio CDSACD, Photo CD, CD Video (CDV), Video CD (VCD), Super Video CDSVCD, CD+G, CD-Text, CD-ROM XA, Green Book (CD-interactive standard)CD-iUniversal Media Disc (UMD) Enhanced Versatile Disc (EVD) Forward Versatile Disc (FVD) Holographic Versatile Disc (HVD) China Blue High-definition Disc (CBHD) HD DVD: HD DVD-R, HD DVD-RW, HD DVD-RAMHigh definition Versatile Multilayer Disc (HD VMD) VCDHDGD-ROMMiniDisc (MD) (Hi-MD) Laserdisc (LD) (LD-ROM) Video Single Disc (VSD) Ultra Density Optical (UDO) Stacked Volumetric Optical Disk (SVOD) 5D DVDFive dimensional disc (5D DVD) Nintendo optical disc (NOD) Standards Small Form Factor committeeSFF Parallel ATAATAPI/MultiMedia CommandsMMCMount Rainier (packet writing)Mount Rainier (packet writing) Layer Jump Recording (LJR)Mount Fuji (layer jump recording) Rainbow BooksFile systems ISO 9660Joliet (file system)JolietRock Ridge / SUSP El Torito (CD-ROM standard)El ToritoApple ISO 9660 ExtensionsUniversal Disk Format (UDF) ISO 13490 See also History of optical storage mediaHigh definition optical disc format war DVD-R DL (DL stands for Dual Layer ), also called DVD-R9, is a derivative of the DVD-R format standard. DVD-R DL discs hold 8.54 GB (7.96 GiB) per side by utilizing two recordable dye layers, each capable of storing nearly the 4.7 gigabyte (GB) (4.38 GB) of a single layer disc -almost doubling the total disc capacity. Discs can be read in many DVD devices (older units are less compatible) and can only be written using DVD-R DL compatible recorders. It is part of optical disc recording technologies for digital recording to optical disc. DVD-R DL Capacity Physical size GB GiB 12 cm, single sided 8.5 7.92 12 cm, double sided 17.1 15.93 8 cm, single sided 2.6 2.42 8 cm, double sided 5.2 4.84 DVD-R DL has compatibility issues with legacy DVD-ROM drives known as pickup head overrun. To avoid this issue, the two layers of the disc need to be equally recorded. But this is a contradiction with the sequential nature of the DVD recording. Thus DVD Forum under Pioneers lead developed a technology known as Layer Jump Recording (LJR), which incrementally record smaller sections of each layer to maintain compatibility with DVD-ROM drives.
DVD-R DL 38 Dual layer recording Dual Layer recording allows DVD-R and DVD+R discs to store significantly more data, up to 8.5 GB per side, per disc, compared with 4.7 GB for single-layer discs. DVD-R DL was developed for the DVD Forum by Pioneer Corporation, DVD+R DL was developed for the DVD+RW Alliance by Philips and Mitsubishi Kagaku Media (MKM). A Dual Layer disc differs from its usual DVD counterpart by employing a second physical layer within the disc itself. The drive with Dual Layer capability accesses the second layer by shining the laser through the first semi-transparent layer. The layer change can exhibit a noticeable pause in some DVD players, up to several seconds. This caused more than a few viewers to worry that their dual layer discs were damaged or defective, with the end result that studios began listing a standard message explaining the dual layer pausing effect on all dual layer disc packaging. DVD recordable discs supporting this technology are backward compatible with some existing DVD players and DVD-ROM drives. Many current DVD recorders support dual-layer technology, and the price is now comparable to that of single-layer drives, though the blank media remains more expensive. The recording speeds reached by dual-layer media are still well below those of single-layer media. There are two modes for dual layer orientation. With parallel track path (PTP), used on DVD-ROM, both layers start at the inside diameter (ID) and end at the outside diameter (OD) with the lead-out. With Opposite Track Path (OTP), used on DVD-Video, the lower layer starts at the ID and the upper layer starts at the OD, where the other layer ends, they share one lead-in and one lead-out. However only blank disks and drives that support the latter mode are currently available. Recordable DVD capacity comparison For comparison, the table below shows storage capacities of the four most common DVD recordable media, excluding DVD-RAM. (SL) stands for standard single-layer discs, while DL denotes the dual-layer variants. See articles on the formats in question for information on compatibility issues. Disk Type number of sectors for data (2,048B each) capacity in bytes capacity in GB capacity in GiB DVD-R (SL) 2,298,496 4,707,319,808 4.7 4.384 DVD+R (SL) 2,295,104 4,700,372,992 4.7 4.378 DVD-R DL 4,171,712 8,543,666,176 8.5 7.957 DVD+R DL 4,173,824 8,547,991,552 8.5 7.961
DVD-R DL 39 References  "Standard ECMA-382 120 mm (8,54 GB per side) and 80 mm (2,66 GB per side) DVD Recordable Disk for Dual Layer (DVD-R for DL)" (http:/ / www. ecma-international. org/ publications/ standards/ Ecma-382. htm). ecma-international.org. . Retrieved 2008-10-29.  Robert DeMoulin. "Understanding Dual Layer DVD Recording" (http:/ / www. burnworld. com/ howto/ articles/ intro-to-dual-layer. htm). BurnWorld.com. . Retrieved 2007-07-06.  "DVD players benchmark" (http:/ / www. hometheaterhifi. com/ cgi-bin/ shootout. cgi?function=search& articles=all& type=& manufacturer=0& maxprice=0& deInt=0& mpeg=0#SamsungBD-P1000 Blu-ray/ DVD Player (HDMI)). hometheaterhifi.com. . Retrieved 2008-04-01. External links • DVD-R9 and DVD+R9 Hardware, Technologies and Standards (http://www.audioholics.com/news/editorials/ DVDInsider-DVDR9.php) by The DVD Insider
CD-R 40 CD-R Compact Disc Recordable (CD-R) logo/trademark Optical discs Optical discOptical disc driveOptical disc authoringOptical disc authoring softwareAuthoring softwareOptical disc recording technologiesRecording technologiesOptical disc recording modesRecording modesPacket writing Optical media types Blu-ray Disc (BD): Blu-ray Disc recordableBD-R, BD-REDVD: DVD-R, DVD+R, DVD-R DL, DVD+R DL, DVD-R DS, DVD+R DS, DVD-RW, DVD+RW, DVD-RAM, DVD-D, High-Definition Versatile DiscHVD, EcoDiscCompact Disc (CD): Red Book (CD standard)Red Book, CD-ROM, CD-R, CD-RW, 5.1 Music Disc, Super Audio CDSACD, Photo CD, CD Video (CDV), Video CD (VCD), Super Video CDSVCD, CD+G, CD-Text, CD-ROM XA, Green Book (CD-interactive standard)CD-iUniversal Media Disc (UMD) Enhanced Versatile Disc (EVD) Forward Versatile Disc (FVD) Holographic Versatile Disc (HVD) China Blue High-definition Disc (CBHD) HD DVD: HD DVD-R, HD DVD-RW, HD DVD-RAMHigh definition Versatile Multilayer Disc (HD VMD) VCDHDGD-ROMMiniDisc (MD) (Hi-MD) Laserdisc (LD) (LD-ROM) Video Single Disc (VSD) Ultra Density Optical (UDO) Stacked Volumetric Optical Disk (SVOD) 5D DVDFive dimensional disc (5D DVD) Nintendo optical disc (NOD) Standards Small Form Factor committeeSFF Parallel ATAATAPI/MultiMedia CommandsMMCMount Rainier (packet writing)Mount Rainier (packet writing) Layer Jump Recording (LJR)Mount Fuji (layer jump recording) Rainbow BooksFile systems ISO 9660Joliet (file system)JolietRock Ridge / SUSP El Torito (CD-ROM standard)El ToritoApple ISO 9660 ExtensionsUniversal Disk Format (UDF) ISO 13490 See also History of optical storage mediaHigh definition optical disc format war A CD-R (Compact Disc-Recordable) is a variation of the Compact Disc invented by Philips and Sony. CD-R is a Write Once Read Many (WORM) optical medium, though the whole disk does not have to be entirely written in the same session. CD-R retains a high level of compatibility with standard CD readers, unlike CD-RW – which can be re-written, but is not capable of playing on many readers, and also uses more expensive media.
CD-R 41 History The CD-R, originally named CD Write-Once (WO), specification was first published in 1988 by Philips and Sony in the Orange Book. The Orange Book consists of several parts, furnishing details of the CD-WO, CD-MO (Magneto-Optic), and CD-RW (ReWritable). The latest editions have abandoned the use of the term "CD-WO" in favor of "CD-R", while "CD-MO" were very little used. Written CD-Rs and CD-RWs are, from a technical standpoint, fully compatible with the Audio CD (Red Book) and CD-ROM (Yellow Book) standards, although some hardware compatible with Red Book CDs may have Assorted CD-Rs difficulty reading CD-Rs and especially CD-RWs. They use Eight-to-Fourteen Modulation, CIRC error correction plus the third error correction layer defined for CD-ROM. CD-R recording systems available in 1990 were similar to the washing machine-sized Meridian CD Publisher, based on the two-piece rack mount Yamaha PDS audio recorder costing $35,000, not including the required external ECC circuitry for data encoding, SCSI hard drive subsystem, and MS-DOS control computer. By 1992 the cost of typical recorders was down to $10–12,000, and in September 1995 Hewlett-Packard introduced its model 4020i manufactured by Philips, which at $995 was the first recorder to cost less than $1000. The dye materials developed by Taiyo Yuden made it possible for CD-R discs to be compatible with Audio CD and CD-ROM discs. Initially in the United States, there was a market separation between "music" CD-Rs and "data" CD-Rs, the former being several times more expensive than the latter due to industry copyright arrangements with the RIAA. Physically, there is no difference between the discs save for the Disc Application Flag that identifies their type: standalone audio recorders will only accept "music" CD-Rs to enforce the RIAA arrangement, while computer CD-R drives can use either type of media to burn either type of content. Physical characteristics A standard CD-R is a 1.2 mm (0.047 in) thick disc made of polycarbonate with a 120 mm (4.7 in) or 80 mm (3.150 in) diameter. The 120 mm disc has a storage capacity of 74 minutes of audio or 650 MiB of data. CD-R/RWs are available with capacities of 80 minutes of audio or 737,280,000 bytes (703 MiB), which they achieve by molding the disc at the tightest allowable tolerances specified in the Orange Book CD-R/CD-RW standards. The engineering margin that was reserved for manufacturing tolerance has been used for data capacity instead, leaving no tolerance for manufacturing; for these discs to be truly compliant with the Orange Book standard, the manufacturing process must be perfect. Despite the foregoing, most CD-Rs on the market have an 80 minute capacity. There are also 90 minute/790 MiB and 99 minute/870 MiB discs, although they are less common (and depart from the Orange Book standard outright.) Also, due to the limitations of the data structures in the ATIP (see below), 90 and 99 minute blanks will identify as 80 minute ones. (As the ATIP is part of the Orange Book standard, it is natural that its design does not support some nonstandard disc configurations.) Therefore, in order to use the additional capacity, these discs have to be burned using overburn" options in the CD recording software. (Overburning itself is so named because it is outside the written standards, but, due to market demand, it has nonetheless become a de facto standard function in most CD writing drives and software for them.) Some drives use special techniques, such as Plextors GigaRec or Sanyos HD-BURN, to write more data onto a given disc; these techniques are inherently deviations from the Compact Disc (Red, Yellow, and/or Orange Book) standards, making the recorded discs proprietary-formatted and not fully compatible with standard CD players and
CD-R 42 drives. However, in certain applications where discs will not be distributed or exchanged outside a private group and will not be archived for a long time, a proprietary format may be an acceptable way to obtain greater capacity (up to 1.2 GB with GigaRec or 1.8 GB with HD-BURN on 99 minute media). The greatest risk in using such a proprietary data storage format, assuming that it works reliably as designed, is that it may be difficult or impossible to repair or replace the hardware used to read the media if it fails, is damaged, or is lost after its original vendor discontinues it. (Note: Nothing in the Red, Yellow or Orange Book standards prohibits disc reading/writing devices from having the capacity to read or write discs beyond the Compact Disc standards. The standards do require discs to meet precise requirements in order to be called Compact Discs, but the other discs may be called by other names; if this were not true, no DVD drive could legally bear the Compact Disc logo. While disc players and drives may have capabilities beyond the standards, enabling them to read and write nonstandard discs, there is no assurance, in the absence of explicit additional manufacturer specifications beyond normal Compact Disc logo certification, that any particular player or drive will perform beyond the standards at all or consistently. Furthermore, if the same device with no explicit performance specs beyond the Compact Disc logo initially handles nonstandard discs reliably, there is no assurance that it will not later stop doing so, and in that case, there is no assurance that it can be made to do so again by service or adjustment. Therefore, discs with capacities larger than 650 MiB, and especially those larger than 700 MiB, are less interchangeable among players/drives than standard discs and are not very suitable for archival use, as their readability on future equipment, or even on the same equipment at a future time, is not assured, even under the assumption that the discs will not degrade at all.) The polycarbonate disc contains a spiral groove, called the "pregroove" (because it is molded in before data are written to the disc), to guide the laser beam upon writing and reading information. The pregroove is molded into the top side of the polycarbonate disc, where the pits and lands would be molded if it were a pressed (nonrecordable) Red Book CD; the bottom side, which faces the laser beam in the player or drive, is flat and smooth. The polycarbonate disc is coated on the pregroove side with a very thin layer of organic dye. Then, on top of the dye is coated a thin, reflecting layer of silver, a silver alloy, or gold. Finally, a protective coating of a photo-polymerizable lacquer is applied on top Photomicrograph of the groove in a CD-R disc of the metal reflector and cured with UV-light. A blank CD-R is not "empty"; the pregroove has a wobble (the ATIP), which helps the writing laser to stay on track and to write the data to the disc at a constant rate. Maintaining a constant rate is essential to ensure proper size and spacing of the pits and lands burned into the dye layer. As well as providing timing information, the ATIP (absolute time in pregroove) is also a data track containing information about the CD-R manufacturer, the dye used and media information (disc length and so on). The pregroove is not destroyed when the data are written to the CD-R, a point which some copy protection schemes use to distinguish copies from an original CD. There are three basic formulations of dye used in CD-Rs: 1. Cyanine dye CD-Rs were the earliest ones developed, and their formulation is patented by Taiyo Yuden. CD-Rs based on this dye are mostly green in color. The earlier models were very chemically unstable and this made cyanine based discs unsuitable for archival use; they could fade and become unreadable in a few years. Many manufacturers like Taiyo Yuden use proprietary chemical additives to make more stable cyanine discs ("metal stabilized Cyanine", "Super Cyanine"). Older cyanine dye based CD-Rs, as well as all the hybrid dyes based on cyanine, were very sensitive to UV-rays and could have become unreadable after only a few days if they were exposed to direct sunlight. Although the additives used have made cyanine more stable, it is still the most sensitive of the dyes in UV rays (showing signs of degradation within a week of direct sunlight exposure). A common mistake users make is to leave the CD-Rs with the "clear" (recording) surface upwards, in order to protect it from scratches, as this lets the sun hit the recording surface directly.
CD-R 43 2. Phthalocyanine dye CD-Rs are usually silver, gold or light green. The patents on phthalocyanine CD-Rs are held by Mitsui and Ciba Specialty Chemicals. Phthalocyanine is a natively stable dye (has no need for stabilizers) and CD-Rs based on this are often given a rated lifetime of hundreds of years. Unlike cyanine, phthalocyanine is more resistant to UV rays and CD-Rs based on this dye show signs of degradation only after two weeks of direct sunlight exposure. However, phthalocyanine is more sensitive than cyanine to writing laser power calibration, meaning that the power level used by the writing laser has to be more accurately adjusted for the disc in order to get a good recording; this may erode the benefits of dye stability, as marginally written discs (with higher correctable error rates) will lose data (i.e. have uncorrectable errors) after less dye degradation than well written discs (with lower correctable error rates). 3. Azo dye CD-Rs are dark blue in color, and their formulation is patented by Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation. Azo dye is also chemically stable, and Azo CD-Rs are typically rated with a lifetime of decades. Azo is the most resistant dye against UV rays and begins to degrade only after the third or fourth week of direct sunlight exposure. More modern implementations of this kind of dye include Super Azo which is not as deep blue as the earlier Metal Azo. This change of composition was necessary in order to achieve faster writing speeds. There are many hybrid variations of the dye formulations, such as Formazan by Kodak (a hybrid of cyanine and phthalocyanine). Unfortunately, many manufacturers have added additional coloring to disguise their unstable cyanine CD-Rs in the past, so the formulation of a disc cannot be determined based purely on its color. Similarly, a gold reflective layer does not guarantee use of phthalocyanine dye. The quality of the disc is also not only dependent on the dye used, it is also influenced by sealing, the top layer, the reflective layer, and the polycarbonate. Simply choosing a disc based on its dye type may be problematic. Furthermore, correct power calibration of the laser in the writer, as well as correct timing of the laser pulses, stable disc speed, and so on., is critical to not only the immediate readability but the longevity of the recorded disc, so for archiving it is important to have not only a high quality disc but a high quality writer. In fact, a high quality writer may produce adequate results with medium quality media, but high quality media cannot compensate for a mediocre writer, and discs written by such a writer cannot achieve their maximum potential archival lifetime. Speed Drive speed Data rate Write time for 80 minute/700 MiB CD-R 1x 150 KiB/s 80 minutes 4x 600 KiB/s 20 minutes 8x 1200 KiB/s 10 minutes 12x 1800 KiB/s 6.7 minutes 32x 4800 KiB/s 2.5 minutes (see below) 48x 7200 KiB/s 1.7 minutes (see below) 52x 7800 KiB/s 1.5 minutes (see below) These times only include the actual optical writing pass over the disc. For most disc recording operations, additional time is used for overhead processes, such as organizing the files and tracks, which adds to the theoretical minimum total time required to produce a disc. (An exception might be making a disk from a prepared ISO image, for which the overhead would likely be trivial.) At the lowest write speeds, this overhead takes so much less time than the actual disc writing pass that it may be negligible, but at higher write speeds, the overhead time becomes a larger proportion of the overall time taken to produce a finished disc and may add significantly to it.
CD-R 44 Also, above 20X speed, drives use a Zoned-CLV or CAV strategy, where the advertised maximum speed is only reached near the outer rim of the disc. This is not taken into account by the above table. (If this were not done, the faster rotation that would be required at the inner tracks could cause the disc to fracture and/or could cause excessive vibration which would make accurate and successful writing impossible.) Writing methods The blank disc has a pre-groove track onto which the data are written. The pre-groove track, which also contains timing information, ensures that the recorder follows the same spiral path as a conventional CD. A CD recorder writes data to a CD-R disc by pulsing its laser to heat areas of the organic dye layer. The writing process does not produce indentations (pits); instead, the heat permanently changes the optical properties of the dye, changing the reflectivity of those areas. Using a low laser power, so as not to further alter the dye, the disc is read back in the same way as a CD-ROM. However, the reflected light is modulated not by pits, but by the alternating regions of heated and unaltered dye. The change of the intensity of the reflected laser radiation is transformed into an electrical signal, from which the digital information is recovered ("decoded"). Once a section of a CD-R is written, it cannot be erased or rewritten, unlike a CD-RW. A CD-R can be recorded in multiple sessions. A CD recorder can write to a CD-R using several methods including: 1. Disc At Once – the whole CD-R is written in one session with no gaps and the disc is "closed" meaning no more data can be added and the CD-R effectively becomes a standard read-only CD. With no gaps between the tracks the Disc At Once format is useful for "live" audio recordings. 2. Track At Once – data are written to the CD-R one track at a time but the CD is left "open" for further recording at a later stage. It also allows data and audio to reside on the same CD-R. 3. Packet Writing – used to record data to a CD-R in "packets", allowing extra information to be appended to a disc at a later time, or for information on the disc to be made "invisible". In this way, CD-R can emulate CD-RW; however, each time information on the disc is altered, more data has to be written to the disc. There can be compatibility issues with this format and some CD drives. With careful examination, the written and unwritten areas can be distinguished by the naked eye. CD-Rs are written from the center outwards, so the written area appears as an inner band with slightly different shading. Expected lifespan Real-life (not accelerated aging) tests have revealed that some CD-Rs degrade quickly even if stored normally.  The quality of a CD-R disc has a large and direct influence on longevity—low quality discs should not be expected to last very long. According to research conducted by J. Perdereau, CD-Rs are expected to have an average life expectancy of 10 years. Branding isnt a reliable guide to quality, because many brands (major as well as no name) do not manufacture their own discs. Instead they are sourced from different manufacturers of varying quality. For best results, the actual manufacturer and material components of each batch of discs should be verified.
CD-R 45 Burned CD-Rs suffer from material degradation, just like most writable media. CD-R media have an internal layer of dye used to store data. In a CD-RW disc, the recording layer is made of an alloy of silver and other metals—indium, antimony, and tellurium. In CD-R media, the dye itself can degrade, causing data to become unreadable. As well as degradation of the dye, failure of a CD-R can be due to the reflective surface. While silver is less expensive and more widely used, it is more prone to oxidation resulting in a non-reflecting surface. Gold on the other hand, although more expensive and no longer widely used, is an inactive material, so gold-based CD-Rs do not suffer from this problem. An example of a CD-R burned in 2000 showing dye Labeling degradation in 2008. Part of the data on it has been lost. It is recommended if using adhesive-backed paper labels that the labels be specially made for CD-Rs. An unlabeled CD is well balanced, so that it vibrates only slightly when rotated at high speed. Bad or improperly made labels, or labels applied off-center, unbalance the CD and can cause it to vibrate seriously when it spins, which causes read errors and even risks damaging the drive. A professional alternative to CD labels is pre-printed CDs using a 5-color silkscreen or offset press. Many large CD replicators now offer this type of service for .03 per impression. Using a permanent marker pen is also a common practice. However, solvents from such pens can affect the dye layer. Disposal Security risk Since CD-Rs in general cannot be logically erased to any degree, the disposal of CD-Rs presents a possible security issue if they contain sensitive / private data. Destroying the data requires physically destroying the disc or data layer. Heating the disc in a microwave oven for 10–15 seconds effectively destroys the data layer by causing arcing in the metal reflective layer, but this same arcing may cause damage or excessive wear to the microwave oven. Many office paper shredders are also designed to shred CDs. CD-R discs can otherwise be made unreadable by making a visible scratch on the label, or "paint side" radially with a nail or other sharp object. Some recent burners support erase operations on -R media (Plextor, LiteOn), by "overwriting" the stored data with strong laser power, although the erased area cannot be overwritten with new data.
CD-R 46 Recycling The polycarbonate material and possible gold or silver in the reflective layer would make CD-Rs highly recyclable. However, the polycarbonate is of very little value and the quantity of precious metals is so small that it is not profitable to recover them. Consequently, recyclers that accept CD-Rs typically do not offer compensation for donating or transporting the materials.  References  Roxio history of CD-R (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20030202233907/ http:/ / www. roxio. com/ en/ support/ cdr/ historycdr. html) from Roxio Newsletter 17 January 2000. Retrieved 19 September 2009  A New Spin (http:/ / www. time. com/ time/ magazine/ article/ 0,9171,988955,00. html), TIME Magazine, August 24, 1998  Whats the difference between "data" and "music" blanks? (http:/ / www. cdrfaq. org/ faq07. html#S7-17)  Explanation of CLV, CAV, P-CAV and Z-CLV with diagrams (http:/ / cdspeed2000. com/ faq. html#4)  "CD-R Unreadable in Less Than Two Years" (http:/ / www. myce. com/ news/ cd-recordable-discs-unreadable-in-less-than-two-years-6450). myce.com. . Retrieved 2007-02-01.  "CD-R ROT" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20050204065340/ http:/ / www. pc-active. nl/ toonArtikel. asp?artikelID=508). PC-Active.com via archive.org. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. pc-active. nl/ toonArtikel. asp?artikelID=508) on 2005-02-04. . Retrieved 2007-02-01.  "Journal de 20 Heures" (http:/ / www. ina. fr/ video/ 3571726001/ 20-heures-emission-du-3-mars-2008. fr. html). . Retrieved March 3, 2008.  "CD-R & CD-RW Media Technology Primer" (http:/ / www. imation. com/ products/ cd-r_media/ la_cdrw_technology. html). imation.com. . Retrieved 2007-05-06.  CD-R Labeling (http:/ / dpfwiw. com/ cd-r. htm)  The Consumer Recycling Guide: Recycling More Obscure Materials (toxics, batteries, mercury, computers, eyeglasses, foam peanuts) (http:/ / www. obviously. com/ recycle/ guides/ hard. html)  CD Recycling Center – Suggested_programs – CD and DVD Recycling (http:/ / www. cdrecyclingcenter. com/ pages/ suggested_programs)  GreenDisk [Technotrash Pack-IT] (http:/ / www. greendisk. com/ gdsite/ pack-ITservices. aspx) External links • The CD-R FAQ (http://www.cdrfaq.org/) • Understanding CD-R & CD-RW (http://www.osta.org/technology/cdqa.htm) by Hugh Bennett • Frequently Asked Questions About Compact Discs (http://www.mscience.com/faq.html#CD)
DVD+R 47 DVD+R Optical discs Optical discOptical disc driveOptical disc authoringOptical disc authoring softwareAuthoring softwareOptical disc recording technologiesRecording technologiesOptical disc recording modesRecording modesPacket writing Optical media types Blu-ray Disc (BD): Blu-ray Disc recordableBD-R, BD-REDVD: DVD-R, DVD+R, DVD-R DL, DVD+R DL, DVD-R DS, DVD+R DS, DVD-RW, DVD+RW, DVD-RAM, DVD-D, High-Definition Versatile DiscHVD, EcoDiscCompact Disc (CD): Red Book (CD standard)Red Book, CD-ROM, CD-R, CD-RW, 5.1 Music Disc, Super Audio CDSACD, Photo CD, CD Video (CDV), Video CD (VCD), Super Video CDSVCD, CD+G, CD-Text, CD-ROM XA, Green Book (CD-interactive standard)CD-iUniversal Media Disc (UMD) Enhanced Versatile Disc (EVD) Forward Versatile Disc (FVD) Holographic Versatile Disc (HVD) China Blue High-definition Disc (CBHD) HD DVD: HD DVD-R, HD DVD-RW, HD DVD-RAMHigh definition Versatile Multilayer Disc (HD VMD) VCDHDGD-ROMMiniDisc (MD) (Hi-MD) Laserdisc (LD) (LD-ROM) Video Single Disc (VSD) Ultra Density Optical (UDO) Stacked Volumetric Optical Disk (SVOD) 5D DVDFive dimensional disc (5D DVD) Nintendo optical disc (NOD) Standards Small Form Factor committeeSFF Parallel ATAATAPI/MultiMedia CommandsMMCMount Rainier (packet writing)Mount Rainier (packet writing) Layer Jump Recording (LJR)Mount Fuji (layer jump recording) Rainbow BooksFile systems ISO 9660Joliet (file system)JolietRock Ridge / SUSP El Torito (CD-ROM standard)El ToritoApple ISO 9660 ExtensionsUniversal Disk Format (UDF) ISO 13490 See also History of optical storage mediaHigh definition optical disc format war DVD+R is part of optical disc recording technologies. It is a format for optical disc data storage that utilizes digital recording. It is similar to, but incompatible with, the older DVD-R standard. A DVD+R is a write-once optical disc with 4.7 gigabytes (GB) of storage, generally used for non-volatile data storage or video applications. History The DVD+R format was developed by a coalition of corporations—now known as the DVD+RW Alliance—in mid-2002 (though most of the initial advocacy was from Sony). The DVD+R format competes with the DVD-R format, which is developed by the DVD Forum. The DVD Forum initially did not approve of the DVD+R format and claimed that the DVD+R format was not an official DVD format until January 25, 2008. In October 2003, it was demonstrated that double layer technology could be used with a DVD+R disc to nearly double the capacity to 8.5 GB per disc. Manufacturers have incorporated this technology into commercial devices since mid-2004. As of 2007, the recordable DVD market still shows little sign of settling down in favor of either format. Since almost all new DVD writers can record to both formats, this is not an issue for most people. When creating DVDs for distribution (where the playing unit is unknown or older), using the DVD-R format is preferable, because most older (up to 2004) standalone DVD video players and DVD ROM drives cannot read discs in the later DVD+R format. On 25 January 2008, DVD6C officially accepted DVD+R and DVD+RW by adding them to its list of licensable DVD products.
DVD+R 48 Technical details DVD+R discs carry up to 4.7 GB of data, approximately the same as DVD-R. Unlike DVD+RW discs, DVD+R discs can only be written to once. Because of this, DVD+R discs are suited to applications such as non-volatile data storage, audio, or video. This can cause confusion because the DVD+RW Alliance logo is a stylized RW. Thus, a DVD+R disc may have the RW logo, but it is not rewritable. DVD+R discs must be formatted before being recorded by a DVD recorder. DVD-R do not have to be formatted before being recorded by a DVD recorder. The DVD+R format is divergent from the DVD-R format. Hybrid drives that can handle both, often labeled DVD±RW, are very popular since there is not a single standard for recordable DVDs. There are a number of significant technical differences between the dash and the plus format, although most users would not notice the difference. One example is that the DVD+R style Address In Pregroove (ADIP) system of tracking and speed control is less susceptible to interference and error, which makes the ADIP system more accurate at higher speeds than the Land Pre Pit (LPP) system used by DVD-R. In addition, DVD+R(W) has a more robust error management system than DVD-R(W), allowing for more accurate burning to media, independent of the quality of the media. Additional session linking methods are more accurate with DVD+R(W) versus DVD-R(W), resulting in fewer damaged or unusable discs due to buffer under-run and multi-session discs with fewer PI/PO errors. Like other plus media, it is possible to change the book type to increase the compatibility of DVD+R media. This is also known as bitsetting. Recordable DVD capacity comparison For comparison, the table below shows storage capacities of the four most common DVD recordable media, excluding DVD-RAM. SL stands for standard single-layer discs, while DL denotes the double-layer variants. See articles on the formats in question for information on compatibility issues. DVD capacity Disk Type Data sectors Capacity (2,048 B each) bytes GB DVD-R (SL) 2,298,496 4,707,319,808 4.7 DVD+R (SL) 2,295,104 4,700,372,992 4.7 DVD-R DL 4,171,712 8,543,666,176 8.5 DVD+R DL 4,173,824 8,547,991,552 8.5 SL / DL – Single/Dual layer Speed
DVD+R 49 Drive speed Data rate (MB/s) Data rate (Mbit/s) Write time for Single Layer DVD+R 1X 1.32 MB/s 10.56 Mbit/s 60 minutes 2X 2.64 MB/s 21.12 Mbit/s 30 minutes 4X 5.28 MB/s 42.24 Mbit/s 15 minutes 8X 10.56 MB/s 84.48 Mbit/s 7.5 minutes 16X 21.12 MB/s 168.96 Mbit/s 3.75 minutes 20x 26.40 MB/s 211.20 Mbit/s 3.00 minutes 22x 29.04 MB/s 232.32 Mbit/s 2.73 minutes  31.68 MB/s 253.44 Mbit/s 2.50 minutes 24x References  "DVD6C Announces New Licensing Program" (http:/ / www. dvd6cla. com/ news_20080125. html). . Retrieved 2008-01-25.  "What is DVD?" (http:/ / www. videohelp. com/ dvd). . Retrieved 2008-07-23.  "Understanding DVD" (http:/ / www. osta. org/ technology/ dvdqa/ dvdqa6. htm). Optical Storage Technology Association. 2004. . Retrieved 2008-09-06.  How To Choose CD/DVD Archival Media, Patrick McFarland, adterrasperaspera.com, October 30th, 2006 (http:/ / adterrasperaspera. com/ blog/ 2006/ 10/ 30/ how-to-choose-cddvd-archival-media/ )  "Increased compatibility: DVD bitsetting" (http:/ / www. cdfreaks. com/ reviews/ Increased-compatibility-DVD-bitsetting/ ). . Retrieved 2008-09-15.  "Sonys miracle DVD writer hits 24x write speed" (http:/ / www. tgdaily. com/ hardware-features/ 41556-sonyâs-âmiracleâ-dvd-burner-hits-24x-write-speed). . Retrieved 2009-02-26. External links • ISO/IEC 17344:2005, Data interchange on 120 mm and 80 mm Optical Disc using +R format (http://www.iso. org/iso/iso_catalogue/catalogue_ics/catalogue_detail_ics.htm?csnumber=40169) - technical specification • ISO/IEC 25434:2008, Data interchange on 120 mm and 80 mm optical disc using +R DL format -- Capacity: 8.55 GB and 2.66 GB per side (recording speed up to 16X) (http://www.iso.org/iso/iso_catalogue/catalogue_ics/ catalogue_detail_ics.htm?csnumber=51140) - technical specification • Official white papers (http://www.dvdrw.com/information/white-papers.htm) • Whats the difference between DVD-R and DVD+R? (http://www.dvddemystified.com/dvdfaq.html) (DVD demystified) • Why DVD+R(W) is superior to DVD-R(W) (http://www.cdfreaks.com/reviews/ Why-DVDRW-is-superior-to-DVD-RW) (opinion piece)
DVD+R DL 50 DVD+R DL Optical discs Optical discOptical disc driveOptical disc authoringOptical disc authoring softwareAuthoring softwareOptical disc recording technologiesRecording technologiesOptical disc recording modesRecording modesPacket writing Optical media types Blu-ray Disc (BD): Blu-ray Disc recordableBD-R, BD-REDVD: DVD-R, DVD+R, DVD-R DL, DVD+R DL, DVD-R DS, DVD+R DS, DVD-RW, DVD+RW, DVD-RAM, DVD-D, High-Definition Versatile DiscHVD, EcoDiscCompact Disc (CD): Red Book (CD standard)Red Book, CD-ROM, CD-R, CD-RW, 5.1 Music Disc, Super Audio CDSACD, Photo CD, CD Video (CDV), Video CD (VCD), Super Video CDSVCD, CD+G, CD-Text, CD-ROM XA, Green Book (CD-interactive standard)CD-iUniversal Media Disc (UMD) Enhanced Versatile Disc (EVD) Forward Versatile Disc (FVD) Holographic Versatile Disc (HVD) China Blue High-definition Disc (CBHD) HD DVD: HD DVD-R, HD DVD-RW, HD DVD-RAMHigh definition Versatile Multilayer Disc (HD VMD) VCDHDGD-ROMMiniDisc (MD) (Hi-MD) Laserdisc (LD) (LD-ROM) Video Single Disc (VSD) Ultra Density Optical (UDO) Stacked Volumetric Optical Disk (SVOD) 5D DVDFive dimensional disc (5D DVD) Nintendo optical disc (NOD) Standards Small Form Factor committeeSFF Parallel ATAATAPI/MultiMedia CommandsMMCMount Rainier (packet writing)Mount Rainier (packet writing) Layer Jump Recording (LJR)Mount Fuji (layer jump recording) Rainbow BooksFile systems ISO 9660Joliet (file system)JolietRock Ridge / SUSP El Torito (CD-ROM standard)El ToritoApple ISO 9660 ExtensionsUniversal Disk Format (UDF) ISO 13490 See also History of optical storage mediaHigh definition optical disc format war DVD+R DL (DL stands for Double Layer) also called DVD+R9, is a derivative of the DVD+R format created by the DVD+RW Alliance. Its use was first demonstrated in October 2003. DVD+R DL discs employ two recordable dye layers, each capable of storing nearly the 4.7 GB capacity of a single-layer disc, almost doubling the total disc capacity to 8.55 GB (or 7.96 GiB). Discs can be read in many DVD devices (older units are less compatible) and can only be created using DVD+R DL and Super Multi drives. DL drives started appearing on the market during mid 2004, at prices comparable to those of existing A DVD+R DL disc single-layer drives. However, currently (March 2011) DL media is up to twice as expensive as single-layer media. The latest DL drives write double layer discs at a slower rate (up to 12×) than current single-layer disks (up to 24×). DVD+R DL Capacity Physical size GB GiB 12 cm, single sided 8.5 7.92 12 cm, double sided 17.1 15.93 8 cm, single sided 2.6 2.42 8 cm, double sided 5.2 4.84
DVD+R DL 51 Dual-layer recording Dual-layer recording allows DVD-R and DVD+R discs to store significantly more data, up to 8.5 gigabytes per side, per disc, compared with 4.7 gigabytes for single-layer discs. DVD-R DL was developed for the DVD Forum by Pioneer Corporation, while DVD+R DL was developed for the DVD+RW Alliance by Philips and Mitsubishi Kagaku Media (MKM). A dual-layer disc differs from its usual DVD counterpart by employing a second physical layer within the disc itself. The drive with dual-layer capability accesses the second layer by shining the laser through the first semi-transparent layer. The layer change can exhibit a noticeable pause in some DVD players, up to several seconds. This caused more than just a few viewers to worry that their dual-layer discs were damaged or defective, with the end result that studios began listing a standard message explaining the dual-layer pausing effect on all dual-layer disc packaging. DVD recordable discs supporting this technology are backward compatible with some existing DVD players and DVD-ROM drives. Many current DVD recorders support dual-layer technology, and the price is now comparable to that of single-layer drives, though the blank media remain more expensive. The recording speeds reached by dual-layer media are still well below those of single-layer media. There are two modes for dual-layer orientation, parallel track path (PTP) and opposite track path (OTP). In PTP mode, used for DVD-ROM, both layers start recording at the inside diameter (ID) with the lead-in and end at the outside diameter (OD) with the lead-out. Sectors are sequenced from the beginning of the first layer to the end of the first layer, then the beginning of the second layer to the end of the second layer. In OTP mode, used for DVD-Video, the disk is recorded in the same physical way, but the sectors are sequenced from the beginning of the first layer to the end of the first layer, then the end of the second layer to the beginning of the second layer. In both modes, the layers share one lead-in and one lead-out. A common mistake that people make is to think that the disc spins first in one direction, and then another, either for PTP or OTP recording, when in fact DVD-Writers always spin a disc in the clockwise direction . A simpler way to understand whats written above is to think of the little hole in the centre of the DVD as the "inside" and the rim of the DVD as the "outside". Since dual-layer DVDs have two data layers, placed one on top of the other – Layer 0 (L0) and Layer 1 (L1), there are two ways in which these two layers may be written to - L0, inside to outside and then L1 inside to outside again (PTP), or L0 inside to outside and then L1 outside to inside (OTP). OTP is usually used for DVD-Video, to prevent the inherent delay that PTP involves: in PTP, the laser head moves from the outside edge of the DVD to the inside to start reading L1 when it reaches the end of L0. This results in the video skipping or freezing up for some time as the laser head repositions itself and the system waits to start receiving data again. Recordable DVD capacity comparison For comparison, the table below shows storage capacities of the four most common DVD recordable media, excluding DVD-RAM. (SL) stands for standard single-layer discs, while DL denotes the dual-layer variants. See articles on the formats in question for information on compatibility issues.
DVD+R DL 52 Disk Type number of sectors for data (2,048B each) capacity in bytes capacity in GB capacity in GiB DVD-R (SL) 2,298,496 4,707,319,808 4.7 4.384 DVD+R (SL) 2,295,104 4,700,372,992 4.7 4.378 DVD-R DL 4,171,712 8,543,666,176 8.5 7.957 DVD+R DL 4,173,824 8,547,991,552 8.5 7.961 References  Robert DeMoulin. "Understanding Dual Layer DVD Recording" (http:/ / www. burnworld. com/ howto/ articles/ intro-to-dual-layer. htm). BurnWorld.com. . Retrieved 2007-07-06.  "DVD players benchmark" (http:/ / www. hometheaterhifi. com/ cgi-bin/ shootout. cgi?function=search& articles=all& type=& manufacturer=0& maxprice=0& deInt=0& mpeg=0#SamsungBD-P1000 Blu-ray/ DVD Player (HDMI)). hometheaterhifi.com. . Retrieved 2008-04-01.  http:/ / www. roxio. com/ eng/ support/ compatibility_forum/ glossary. html#o • Bennett, Hugh. Understanding Recordable & Rewritable DVD. Cupertino: Optical Storage Technology Association, Apr. 2004. • Bennett, Hugh. "DVD±RW DL—D.O.A.?" EMedia Xtra May 10, 2005. External links • Double-layer DVD heats up standards battle (http://news.zdnet.co.uk/emergingtech/ 0,1000000183,39118817,00.htm) - ZDNet UK • JVCs April 2005 announcement on DVD+RW DL (http://www.jvc.co.jp/english/press/2005/ dvd-rw_development.pdf) • DVD-R9 and DVD+R9 Hardware, Technologies and Standards (http://www.audioholics.com/news/editorials/ DVDInsider-DVDR9.php) by The DVD Insider
DVD-RW 53 DVD-RW Optical discs Optical discOptical disc driveOptical disc authoringOptical disc authoring softwareAuthoring softwareOptical disc recording technologiesRecording technologiesOptical disc recording modesRecording modesPacket writing Optical media types Blu-ray Disc (BD): Blu-ray Disc recordableBD-R, BD-REDVD: DVD-R, DVD+R, DVD-R DL, DVD+R DL, DVD-R DS, DVD+R DS, DVD-RW, DVD+RW, DVD-RAM, DVD-D, High-Definition Versatile DiscHVD, EcoDiscCompact Disc (CD): Red Book (CD standard)Red Book, CD-ROM, CD-R, CD-RW, 5.1 Music Disc, Super Audio CDSACD, Photo CD, CD Video (CDV), Video CD (VCD), Super Video CDSVCD, CD+G, CD-Text, CD-ROM XA, Green Book (CD-interactive standard)CD-iUniversal Media Disc (UMD) Enhanced Versatile Disc (EVD) Forward Versatile Disc (FVD) Holographic Versatile Disc (HVD) China Blue High-definition Disc (CBHD) HD DVD: HD DVD-R, HD DVD-RW, HD DVD-RAMHigh definition Versatile Multilayer Disc (HD VMD) VCDHDGD-ROMMiniDisc (MD) (Hi-MD) Laserdisc (LD) (LD-ROM) Video Single Disc (VSD) Ultra Density Optical (UDO) Stacked Volumetric Optical Disk (SVOD) 5D DVDFive dimensional disc (5D DVD) Nintendo optical disc (NOD) Standards Small Form Factor committeeSFF Parallel ATAATAPI/MultiMedia CommandsMMCMount Rainier (packet writing)Mount Rainier (packet writing) Layer Jump Recording (LJR)Mount Fuji (layer jump recording) Rainbow BooksFile systems ISO 9660Joliet (file system)JolietRock Ridge / SUSP El Torito (CD-ROM standard)El ToritoApple ISO 9660 ExtensionsUniversal Disk Format (UDF) ISO 13490 See also History of optical storage mediaHigh definition optical disc format war A DVD-RW disc is a rewritable optical disc with equal storage capacity to a DVD-R, typically 4.7 GB. The format was developed by Pioneer in November 1999 and has been approved by the DVD Forum. The smaller Mini DVD-RW holds 1.46 GB, with a diameter of 8 cm. The primary advantage of DVD-RW over DVD-R is the ability to erase and rewrite to a DVD-RW disc. According to Pioneer, DVD-RW discs may be written to about 1,000 times before needing replacement. DVD-RW discs are commonly used to store data in a non-volatile format, such as when creating backups or collections of files. They are also increasingly used for home DVD video recorders. One benefit to using a rewritable disc is if there are writing errors when recording data, the disc is not ruined and can still store data by erasing the faulty DVD-RW discs on a spindle data. One competing rewritable format is DVD+RW. Hybrid drives that can handle both, often labeled "DVD±RW", are very popular due to the lack of a single standard for recordable DVDs. The recording layer in DVD-RW and DVD+RW is not an organic dye, but a special phase change metal alloy, often GeSbTe. The alloy can be switched back and forth between a crystalline phase and an amorphous phase, changing the reflectivity, depending on the power of the laser beam. Data can thus be written, erased and re-written.
DVD-RW 54 Drive Specifications Standard DVD-R/RW compatible drives use a 650nm red semiconductor laser diode. The average power consumption rating is 250mW to 400mW. Power consumption varies depending on the write speeds and dual layer support. Higher speed drives require more power for increased data throughput, and dual layer disks require more power to penetrate to the second layer of data. Dual layer A specification for dual-layer DVD-RW discs with a capacity of 8.5 GB was approved by the DVD Forum. However, manufacturing support for rewritable dual-layer discs did not materialize due to costs and expected competition from newer and higher-capacity formats like Blu-ray and HD DVD. References  DVD Specifications for Re-recordable Disc for Dual Layer (DVD-RW for DL) Physical Specifications, Version 2.0 External links • ISO/IEC 17342, 80 mm (1,46 Gbytes per side) and 120 mm (4,70 Gbytes per side) DVD re-recordable disk (DVD-RW) (http://www.iso.org/iso/iso_catalogue/catalogue_tc/catalogue_detail.htm?csnumber=38319) • ISO/IEC 17342:2004 (http://standards.iso.org/ittf/PubliclyAvailableStandards/ c038319_ISO_IEC_17342_2004(E).zip) - publicly available standard • Understanding Recordable & Rewritable DVD (http://www.osta.org/technology/dvdqa/) by Hugh Bennett • DVD Forum (http://www.dvdforum.org)
DVD+RW 55 DVD+RW A spindle with discs of the DVD+RW format Optical discs Optical discOptical disc driveOptical disc authoringOptical disc authoring softwareAuthoring softwareOptical disc recording technologiesRecording technologiesOptical disc recording modesRecording modesPacket writing Optical media types Blu-ray Disc (BD): Blu-ray Disc recordableBD-R, BD-REDVD: DVD-R, DVD+R, DVD-R DL, DVD+R DL, DVD-R DS, DVD+R DS, DVD-RW, DVD+RW, DVD-RAM, DVD-D, High-Definition Versatile DiscHVD, EcoDiscCompact Disc (CD): Red Book (CD standard)Red Book, CD-ROM, CD-R, CD-RW, 5.1 Music Disc, Super Audio CDSACD, Photo CD, CD Video (CDV), Video CD (VCD), Super Video CDSVCD, CD+G, CD-Text, CD-ROM XA, Green Book (CD-interactive standard)CD-iUniversal Media Disc (UMD) Enhanced Versatile Disc (EVD) Forward Versatile Disc (FVD) Holographic Versatile Disc (HVD) China Blue High-definition Disc (CBHD) HD DVD: HD DVD-R, HD DVD-RW, HD DVD-RAMHigh definition Versatile Multilayer Disc (HD VMD) VCDHDGD-ROMMiniDisc (MD) (Hi-MD) Laserdisc (LD) (LD-ROM) Video Single Disc (VSD) Ultra Density Optical (UDO) Stacked Volumetric Optical Disk (SVOD) 5D DVDFive dimensional disc (5D DVD) Nintendo optical disc (NOD) Standards Small Form Factor committeeSFF Parallel ATAATAPI/MultiMedia CommandsMMCMount Rainier (packet writing)Mount Rainier (packet writing) Layer Jump Recording (LJR)Mount Fuji (layer jump recording) Rainbow BooksFile systems ISO 9660Joliet (file system)JolietRock Ridge / SUSP El Torito (CD-ROM standard)El ToritoApple ISO 9660 ExtensionsUniversal Disk Format (UDF) ISO 13490 See also History of optical storage mediaHigh definition optical disc format war DVD+RW is a physical format for rewritable DVDs and can hold up to 4.7 GB. DVD+RW was created by the DVD+RW Alliance, an industry consortium of drive and disc manufacturers. From a business standpoint, the DVD+RW format was created largely in order to avoid paying royalties to the DVD Forum for the competing DVD-RW format. Additionally, DVD+RW supports a method of writing called "lossless linking", which makes it suitable for random access and improves compatibility with DVD players. DVD+RW must be formatted before recording by a DVD recorder. The rewritable DVD+RW standard was formalized earlier than the non-rewritable DVD+R (the opposite was true with the DVD- formats). Although credit for developing the standard is often attributed unilaterally to Philips, it was "finalized" in 1997 by the DVD+RW Alliance. It was then abandoned until 2001, when it was heavily revised (in particular, the capacity increased from 2.8 GB to 4.7GB).
DVD+RW 56 Technical details The recording layer in DVD+RW and DVD-RW discs is a phase change metal alloy (often GeSbTe) whose crystalline phase and amorphous phase have different reflectivity. The states can be switched depending on the power of the writing laser, so data can be written, read, erased and re-written. DVD-R and DVD+R discs use an organic dye. The capacity of a single-layer disc is approximated as 4.7 × 109 bytes. In actuality, the disc is laid out with 2295104 sectors of 2048 bytes each which comes to 4,700,372,992 bytes, 4,590,208 kibibytes (KiB, binary kilobytes), 4482.625 mebibytes (MiB, binary megabytes), or 4.377563476 gibibytes (GiB, binary gigabytes). Dual layer A dual-layer DVD+RW specification was approved in March 2006 with a capacity of 8.5 GB. However, manufacturing support for rewritable dual-layer discs did not materialize due to costs and expected competition from newer formats like Blu-ray and HD DVD, which boasted up to 25 GB on a single layer. References  http:/ / www. tomshardware. com/ reviews/ dvd-burner-test,586-2. html  DVD+RW part 2: Dual Layer, volume 1; DVD+RW 8.5 Gbytes, Basic Format Specifications, version 1.0, March 2006 Further reading • ISO/IEC 17341:2009, Data interchange on 120 mm and 80 mm optical disk using +RW format -- Capacity: 4,7 Gbytes and 1,46 Gbytes per side (recording speed up to 4X) (http://www.iso.org/iso/iso_catalogue/ catalogue_ics/catalogue_detail_ics.htm?csnumber=52064) • ISO/IEC 26925:2009, Data interchange on 120 mm and 80 mm optical disk using +RW HS format -- Capacity: 4,7 Gbytes and 1,46 Gbytes per side (recording speed 8X) (http://www.iso.org/iso/iso_catalogue/ catalogue_tc/catalogue_detail.htm?csnumber=52066) • ISO/IEC 29642:2009, Data interchange on 120 mm and 80 mm optical disk using +RW DL format -- Capacity: 8,55 Gbytes and 2,66 Gbytes per side (recording speed 2,4X) (http://www.iso.org/iso/iso_catalogue/ catalogue_tc/catalogue_detail.htm?csnumber=52067) External links • Understanding Recordable & Rewritable DVD (http://www.osta.org/technology/dvdqa/) by Hugh Bennett • Why DVD+R(W) is superior to DVD-R(W) (http://www.myce.com/article/ Why-DVDRW-is-superior-to-DVD-RW-203/)
DVD-RAM 57 DVD-RAM Optical discs Optical discOptical disc driveOptical disc authoringOptical disc authoring softwareAuthoring softwareOptical disc recording technologiesRecording technologiesOptical disc recording modesRecording modesPacket writing Optical media types Blu-ray Disc (BD): Blu-ray Disc recordableBD-R, BD-REDVD: DVD-R, DVD+R, DVD-R DL, DVD+R DL, DVD-R DS, DVD+R DS, DVD-RW, DVD+RW, DVD-RAM, DVD-D, High-Definition Versatile DiscHVD, EcoDiscCompact Disc (CD): Red Book (CD standard)Red Book, CD-ROM, CD-R, CD-RW, 5.1 Music Disc, Super Audio CDSACD, Photo CD, CD Video (CDV), Video CD (VCD), Super Video CDSVCD, CD+G, CD-Text, CD-ROM XA, Green Book (CD-interactive standard)CD-iUniversal Media Disc (UMD) Enhanced Versatile Disc (EVD) Forward Versatile Disc (FVD) Holographic Versatile Disc (HVD) China Blue High-definition Disc (CBHD) HD DVD: HD DVD-R, HD DVD-RW, HD DVD-RAMHigh definition Versatile Multilayer Disc (HD VMD) VCDHDGD-ROMMiniDisc (MD) (Hi-MD) Laserdisc (LD) (LD-ROM) Video Single Disc (VSD) Ultra Density Optical (UDO) Stacked Volumetric Optical Disk (SVOD) 5D DVDFive dimensional disc (5D DVD) Nintendo optical disc (NOD) Standards Small Form Factor committeeSFF Parallel ATAATAPI/MultiMedia CommandsMMCMount Rainier (packet writing)Mount Rainier (packet writing) Layer Jump Recording (LJR)Mount Fuji (layer jump recording) Rainbow BooksFile systems ISO 9660Joliet (file system)JolietRock Ridge / SUSP El Torito (CD-ROM standard)El ToritoApple ISO 9660 ExtensionsUniversal Disk Format (UDF) ISO 13490 See also History of optical storage mediaHigh definition optical disc format war DVD-RAM (DVD–Random Access Memory) is a disc specification presented in 1996 by the DVD Forum, which specifies rewritable DVD-RAM media and the appropriate DVD writers. DVD-RAM media have been used in computers as well as camcorders and personal video recorders since 1998. Design DVD-RAM is one of three competing technologies for rewritable DVDs. Its competitors are DVD-RW and DVD+RW. DVD-RAM technology provides excellent data integrity, data retention and damage protection through a number of mechanisms and properties. Therefore, DVD-RAM is perceived by some people to be better than the other DVD technologies for traditional computer usage tasks such as general data storage, and especially data backup and archival. The Mount Rainier Format standard and SecurDisc for DVD+/-RW (which also works on DVD-RAM, CD-R, and CD-RW) somewhat lessens the DVD-RAM formats perceived advantage in the data integrity category, but not in the data retention or damage protection categories. DVD-RAM has a larger presence in camcorders and set-top boxes than in computers, although the popularity of DVD-RAM in these devices can be explained by its being very easily written to and erased, which for example allows extensive in-camera editing. The on-disc structure of DVD-RAM is closely related to hard disk and floppy disk technology, as it stores data in concentric tracks. DVD-RAMs can be accessed just like a hard or floppy disk and usually without any special software. DVD-RWs and DVD+RWs, on the other hand, store data in one long spiral track and require special packet reading/writing software to read and write data discs. Like magneto-optical (MO) technologies, DVD-RAM has numerous rectangles on the disc surface that define the boundaries of data sectors. However, DVD-RAM is not MO but a phase change medium, similar to CD-RW, DVD-RW, or DVD+RW.
DVD-RAM 58 Cartridge types Size Bare disc Non-removable cartridge Removable cartridge Empty cartridge/no disc sides single double single double single double single double 12 cm yes (type 0) none type 1 type 1 type 2 type 4 type 3 type 5 8 cm yes (type 0) none none none type 7 type 6 type 9 type 8 Specification Since the Internationale Funkausstellung Berlin 2003 the specification is being marketed by the RAM Promotion Group (RAMPRG), built by Hitachi, Toshiba, Maxell, LG Electronics, Matsushita/Panasonic, Samsung, Lite-On and Teac. The specification distinguishes between: • DVD-RAM version 1.0, recording speed 1x • * Single-sided, one layer discs with a capacity of 2.58 GB A DVD-RAM disc can be identified by many • * Double-sided one layer discs with a capacity of 5.16 GB small rectangles distributed on the surface of the • DVD-RAM version 2.0, recording speed 2x data carrier • * Single-sided, one layer discs with a capacity of 4.7 GB • * Double-sided one layer discs with a capacity of 9.4 GB • DVD-RAM version 2.1/Revision 1.0, recording speed 3x • DVD-RAM version 2.2/Revision 2.0, recording speed 5x • DVD-RAM version 2.3/Revision 3.0, recording speed 6x max • DVD-RAM version 2.4/Revision 4.0, recording speed 8x max • DVD-RAM version 2.5/Revision 5.0, recording speed 12x max • DVD-RAM version 2.6/Revision 6.0, recording speed 16x max Physically smaller, 80 mm in diameter, DVD-RAM discs also exist with a capacity of 1.46 GB for a single-sided disc and 2.8 GB for a double-sided disk, but they are uncommon. DVD-RAMs were These rectangles constitute the hard (factory originally solely sold in cartridges; recent DVD recorders can work originated) sectoring of the DVD-RAM with discs either with or without cartridge, and many devices do not support cartridges at all. Discs can be removed from cartridges for use with these drives.
DVD-RAM 59 Compatibility Many operating systems like Mac OS (Mac OS 8.6 up to Mac OS X), Linux and Microsoft Windows XP support DVD-RAM operation directly, while earlier versions of Windows require device drivers or the program InCD. Windows XP Home and Professional can only write directly to FAT32 formatted DVD-RAM discs. For UDF formatted discs, which are considered faster, a 3rd party UDF file system driver capable of writing or software such as InCD or DLA are required. Windows Vista and later can natively access and write to both FAT32 and UDF formatted DVD-RAM discs using mastered burning method or packet writing. Even though it is possible to use any file system one likes, very few perform well on DVD-RAM. This is because some file systems frequently overwrite data on the disc and the table of contents A DVD-RAM Type 2 is contained at the start of the disc. Mac OS up to 9.2 (Mac OS Classic) can read and write HFS, HFS+, FAT, and UDF formatted DVD-RAM discs directly. Mac OS X officially supports DVD-RAM formatting and writing operations. Many DVD standalone players and recorders do not support DVD-RAM. However, within "RAMPRG" (the DVD-RAM Promotion Group) there are a number of well-known manufacturers of standalone players, recorders, and camcorders that do support DVD-RAM. Panasonic, for instance, has a range of players and recorders which make full use of the advantages of DVD-RAM. Some DVD players with hardware DVD-RAM capability are sold without DVD-RAM support. As a specific example, Dell uses the TS-L632D drive manufactured by TSST in some of its laptop computers without DVD-RAM capability. However it is possible, with some difficulty, to replace the firmware with a non-Dell version which supports DVD-RAM. The newest DVD-RAM Specification, DVD-RAM2 (also called RAM2), is not compatible with DVD drives that do not specifically support reading DVD-RAM2 discs. Some high end products such as IBMs P-series frames require DVD-RAM instead of DVD-RW. Advantages • Long life — without physical damage, data is retained for an estimated 30 years. For this reason, it is used for archival storage of data.  • Can be rewritten over 100,000 times for the lowest write speed discs (DVD±RW can be rewritten approx. 1,000 times). Faster DVD-RAMs support fewer rewrites (3x speed: 100,000, 5x speed: 10,000) , but still more than DVD+RW or DVD-RW. (These are theoretical numbers. In practice they could be smaller depending on the drive, the treatment of the disc and the file system.) A DVD-RAM for DVD recorders • Reliable writing of discs. Verification done in hardware by the drive, so post-write verification by software is unnecessary. Software verification is disabled in all current DVD Video Recorders. • Disc defect management designed to safeguard data.
DVD-RAM 60 • DVD-burning software may not be required — discs can be used and accessed like a removable hard disk. Mac OS (8.6 or later) supports DVD-RAM directly. Windows XP supports DVD-RAM directly for FAT32-formatted discs only. Windows Vista is able to write directly to both FAT32- and UDF-formatted DVD-RAM discs from within Windows Explorer. Device drivers or other software are needed for earlier versions of Windows. • Very fast access of small files on the disc. • Small 2 KB disc block size wastes less space when writing small files. A miniDVD-RAM with DVD round holder • Finalization not necessary. This is an attribute of the VR recording mode and is available on other media such as DVD-RW. • Media available with or without protective cartridges; can be used in the cartridge by many devices. • In some video recorders DVD-RAM can be written to and read at the same time, allowing one program to be recorded and a different one, or an earlier part of the same one (time slip recording), to be viewed at the same time. This is an attribute of the VR recording mode and is possible, although only at lower bit rates, on other media such as DVD+RW. • Supported by some high-end security digital video recorders, such as the Tecton Darlex, as a secure and long-lasting export medium. • Holds more data when using Double Sided discs than dual-layer DVD+RW and DVD-RW - 9.4GB for DVD-RAM vs 8.5GB for DVD+RW DL and DVD-RW DL. How to open a DVD-RAM cartridge • Has write-protect tabs to prevent accidental deletion when used in a cartridge. Disadvantages • Media unavailability: Lower popularity of the format makes blank media harder to find at stores. • High-speed media unavailability: 12x media is not available in the USA, nor Europe, even though 12x drives are readily available, and 16x media may not be available anywhere except manufacturers R&D laboratories. • Higher media cost. • A hazard exists with 16x RAM2 discs in non-RAM2 drives: the disc may be ejected while spinning. Either way it is not a problem of DVD-RAM media, but the drives that do not recognize them properly. • Less compatibility than DVD+RW and DVD-RW, despite predating both formats (as noted above). References  "Using DVD-RAM discs" (http:/ / docs. info. apple. com/ article. html?artnum=60235). Docs.info.apple.com. 2004-03-02. . Retrieved 2009-09-28.  "RQ TSST TS-L632D 04 DVD-RAM flash — Page 2 - Notebook Forums and Laptop Discussion" (http:/ / forum. notebookreview. com/ showthread. php?s=668f15eb2b95fc6657bd0f598095ba5c& t=120820& page=2). Forum.notebookreview.com. . Retrieved 2009-09-28.  "Usage Of 16 X DVD-RAM Disc (RAM2 Disc)" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20080131133310/ http:/ / www. fujitsu. com/ ph/ services/ computing/ pc/ support/ drivers/ usage_dvdram. html). Web.archive.org. 2008-01-31. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. fujitsu. com/ ph/ services/ computing/ pc/ support/ drivers/ usage_dvdram. html) on 2008-01-31. . Retrieved 2009-09-28.  "HMC backup" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20070223195406/ http:/ / www. pseriestech. org/ forum/ hardware-management-console/ hmc-backup-382. html). Web.archive.org. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. pseriestech. org/ forum/ hardware-management-console/ hmc-backup-382. html) on 2007-02-23. . Retrieved 2009-09-28.
DVD-RAM 61  "Fujifilm DVD-RAM Disc" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20061017122044/ http:/ / www. fujifilmusa. com/ JSP/ fuji/ epartners/ conAVProductsDVD-RAM_Disc. jsp). Fujifilm. 2006-10-17. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. fujifilmusa. com/ JSP/ fuji/ epartners/ conAVProductsDVD-RAM_Disc. jsp) on 2006-10-17. . Retrieved 2009-08-15.  "Update: Phase Change WORM" (http:/ / www. thefreelibrary. com/ Update:+ Phase+ Change+ WORM-a060300934). West World Productions and Gale Group. . Retrieved 2007-12-29. External links • RAM Promotion Group (RAMPRG) (http://www.ramprg.com) • ECMA-330 Standard (http://www.ecma-international.org/publications/standards/Ecma-330.htm) • ISO/IEC 17592:2004 (http://standards.iso.org/ittf/PubliclyAvailableStandards/ c038411_ISO_IEC_17592_2004(E).zip) - publicly available standard • ISO/IEC 17592, 120 mm (4,7 Gbytes per side) and 80 mm (1,46 Gbytes per side) DVD rewritable disk (DVD-RAM) (http://www.iso.org/iso/iso_catalogue/catalogue_tc/catalogue_detail.htm?csnumber=38411) • Fujitsu DVD-RAM2 compatibility note (http://web.archive.org/web/20080131133310/http://www.fujitsu. com/ph/services/computing/pc/support/drivers/usage_dvdram.html) • Understanding Recordable & Rewritable DVD (http://www.osta.org/technology/dvdqa/) MiniDVD This article is about 8 cm DVDs. For other uses, see MiniDVD (disambiguation). MiniDVD (Mini DVD or miniDVD) is a DVD disc having 8 cm in diameter. The 8 cm optical disc format was originally used for music CD singles, hence the commonly used names CD single and miniCD. Similarly, the manufactured 8 cm DVDs were originally used for music videos and as such became known as DVD single. MiniDVD is known also as "3 inch DVD", referring to its approximate diameter in inches. A MiniDVD can be played back in most DVD players Conventional 12cm disc (left) compared to 8cm disc (right) that are tray loaded. The trays on players and DVD drives have an inner ring where the 8 cm disc is centered for loading in the player. Most slot loading players cannot use this format; there are exceptions, however, such as the PlayStation 3 and the Wii, but not the Wii U. Both officially support 8 cm discs. Recordable 8 cm discs are commonly used in DVD-based camcorders. Depending on variant, these discs can offer up to 5.2 GB of storage space.
MiniDVD 62 Physical size Single layer capacity Dual/Double layer capacity 12 cm, single sided 4.7 GB 8.5 GB 12 cm, double sided 9.4 GB 17 GB 8 cm, single sided 1.4 GB 2.66 GB 8 cm, double sided 2.8 GB 5.2 GB Nintendo used a disc-based format for their GameCube system, which was a variant of an 8 cm DVD. This format is also supported by the Wii. References External links • miniDVD definition on AfterDawn.com (http://www.afterdawn.com/glossary/terms/minidvd.cfm) Blu-ray Disc Blu-ray Disc Media type High-density optical disc Encoding MPEG-2 H.264/MPEG-4 AVC VC-1 Capacity 25 GB (single-layer) 50 GB (dual-layer) 100/128 GB (BDXL) Block size 64 kb ECC Read mechanism 405 nm diode laser: 1× @ 36 Mbit/s (4.5 MByte/s) Developed by  Blu-ray Disc Association
Blu-ray Disc 63 Usage Data storage High-definition video (1080p) High-definition audio Stereoscopic 3D PlayStation 3 games Optical discs Optical discOptical disc driveOptical disc authoringOptical disc authoring softwareAuthoring softwareOptical disc recording technologiesRecording technologiesOptical disc recording modesRecording modesPacket writing Optical media types Blu-ray Disc (BD): Blu-ray Disc recordableBD-R, BD-REDVD: DVD-R, DVD+R, DVD-R DL, DVD+R DL, DVD-R DS, DVD+R DS, DVD-RW, DVD+RW, DVD-RAM, DVD-D, High-Definition Versatile DiscHVD, EcoDiscCompact Disc (CD): Red Book (CD standard)Red Book, CD-ROM, CD-R, CD-RW, 5.1 Music Disc, Super Audio CDSACD, Photo CD, CD Video (CDV), Video CD (VCD), Super Video CDSVCD, CD+G, CD-Text, CD-ROM XA, Green Book (CD-interactive standard)CD-iUniversal Media Disc (UMD) Enhanced Versatile Disc (EVD) Forward Versatile Disc (FVD) Holographic Versatile Disc (HVD) China Blue High-definition Disc (CBHD) HD DVD: HD DVD-R, HD DVD-RW, HD DVD-RAMHigh definition Versatile Multilayer Disc (HD VMD) VCDHDGD-ROMMiniDisc (MD) (Hi-MD) Laserdisc (LD) (LD-ROM) Video Single Disc (VSD) Ultra Density Optical (UDO) Stacked Volumetric Optical Disk (SVOD) 5D DVDFive dimensional disc (5D DVD) Nintendo optical disc (NOD) Standards Small Form Factor committeeSFF Parallel ATAATAPI/MultiMedia CommandsMMCMount Rainier (packet writing)Mount Rainier (packet writing) Layer Jump Recording (LJR)Mount Fuji (layer jump recording) Rainbow BooksFile systems ISO 9660Joliet (file system)JolietRock Ridge / SUSP El Torito (CD-ROM standard)El ToritoApple ISO 9660 ExtensionsUniversal Disk Format (UDF) ISO 13490 See also History of optical storage mediaHigh definition optical disc format war Blu-ray Disc (official abbreviation BD) is an optical disc storage medium designed to supersede the DVD format. The disc diameter is 120 mm and disc thickness 1.2 mm plastic optical disc, the same size as DVDs and CDs. Blu-ray Discs contain 25 GB (23.31 GiB) per layer, with dual layer discs (50 GB) being the norm for feature-length video discs. Triple layer discs (100 GB) and quadruple layers (128 GB) are available for BD-XL Blu-ray re-writer drives. Currently movie production companies have not utilized the triple or quadruple layer discs; most consumer owned Blu-ray players will not be able to read the additional layers, while newer Blu-ray players may require a firmware update to play the triple and quadruple sized discs. The first Blu-ray Disc prototypes were unveiled in October 2000, and the first prototype player was released in April 2003 in Japan. Afterwards, it continued to be developed until its official release in June 2006. The name Blu-ray Disc refers to the blue laser used to read the disc, which allows information to be stored at a greater density than is possible with the longer-wavelength red laser used for DVDs. Blu-ray Disc was developed by the Blu-ray Disc Association, a group representing makers of consumer electronics, computer hardware, and motion pictures. As of June 2011, more than 2,500 Blu-ray Disc titles were available in Australia and the United Kingdom, with 3,500 in the United States and Canada. In Japan, as of July 2010, more than 3,300 titles have been released. During the high definition optical disc format war, Blu-ray Disc competed with the HD DVD format. Toshiba, the main company that supported HD DVD, conceded in February 2008, releasing their own Blu-ray Disc player in late 2009.
Blu-ray Disc 64 History Origins The information density of the DVD format was limited by the wavelength of the laser diodes used. Following protracted development, blue laser diodes operating around 400 nanometers became available on a production basis. Sony started two projects in collaboration with Philips  applying the new diodes: UDO (Ultra Density Optical), and DVR Blue (together with Pioneer), a format of rewritable discs that would eventually become Blu-ray Disc (more specifically, BD-RE). The core technologies of the formats are similar. The first DVR Blue prototypes were unveiled at the CEATEC exhibition in October 2000 by Sony. A trademark for the "Blue A blank rewritable Blu-ray Disc (BD-RE).  Disc" logo was filed February 9, 2001. On February 19, 2002, the project was officially announced as Blu-ray Disc,  and Blu-ray Disc Founders was founded by the nine initial members. The first consumer device arrived in stores on April 10, 2003: the Sony BDZ-S77, a US$3,800 BD-RE recorder that was made available only in Japan. But there was no standard for prerecorded video, and no movies were released for this player. Hollywood studios insisted that players be equipped with Digital Rights Management before they would release movies for the new format, and they wanted a new DRM system that would be more secure than the failed Content Scramble System (CSS) used on DVDs. On October 4, 2004, the name "Blu-ray Disc Founders" was officially changed to the Blu-ray Disc Association (BDA), and 20th Century Fox joined the BDAs Board of Directors. The Blu-ray Disc physical specifications were completed in 2004. In January 2005, TDK announced that they had developed a hard coating polymer for Blu-ray Discs. Cartridges, originally used for scratch protection, were no longer necessary and were scrapped. The BD-ROM specifications were finalized in early 2006. AACS LA, a consortium founded in 2004, had been developing the DRM platform that could be used to securely distribute movies to consumers. However, the final AACS standard was delayed, and then delayed again when an important member of the Blu-ray Disc group voiced concerns. At the request of the initial hardware manufacturers, including Toshiba, Pioneer, and Samsung, an interim standard was published that did not include some features, such as managed copy. Launch and sales developments The first BD-ROM players (e.g. Sony BDP-S1) were shipped in mid-June 2006, though HD DVD players beat them to market by a few months.  The first Blu-ray Disc titles were released on June 20, 2006: 50 First Dates, The Fifth Element, Hitch, House of Flying Daggers, Underworld: Evolution, xXx (all Sony), and MGMs The Terminator. The earliest releases used MPEG-2 video compression, the same method used on standard DVDs. The first releases using the newer VC-1 and AVC formats were introduced in September 2006. The first movies using 50 GB dual-layer discs were introduced in October 2006. The first audio-only albums were released in May 2008. 
Blu-ray Disc 65 The first mass-market Blu-ray Disc rewritable drive for the PC was the BWU-100A, released by Sony on July 18, 2006. It recorded both single and dual-layer BD-Rs as well as BD-REs and had a suggested retail price of US $699. Competition from HD DVD The DVD Forum, chaired by Toshiba, was split over whether to develop the more expensive blue laser technology. In March 2002, the forum approved a proposal endorsed by Warner Bros. and other motion picture studios that involved compressing HD content onto dual-layer standard DVD-9 discs.  In spite of this decision, however, the DVD Forums Steering Committee announced in April that it was pursuing its own blue-laser high-definition video solution. In August, Toshiba and NEC announced their competing standard, Advanced Optical Disc. It was finally adopted by the DVD Forum and renamed HD DVD the next year, after being voted down twice by DVD Forum members who were also Blu-ray Disc Association members—a situation that drew preliminary investigations by the U.S. Department of Justice.  HD DVD had a head start in the high-definition video market, as Blu-ray Disc sales were slow to gain market share. The first Blu-ray Disc player was perceived as expensive and buggy, and there were few titles available. The appearance of the Sony PlayStation 3, which contained a Blu-ray Disc player for primary storage, helped turn the tide. Sony also ran a more thorough and influential marketing campaign for the format. 2006 also saw the launch of AVCHD camcorders, whose recordings can be played back on many Blu-ray Disc players without re-encoding, but not on HD DVD players. By January 2007, Blu-ray Discs had outsold HD DVDs, and during the first three quarters of 2007, BD outsold HD DVDs by about two to one. At CES 2007, Warner proposed Total Hi Def—a hybrid disc containing Blu-ray on one side and HD DVD on the other, but it was never released. In a June 28, 2007 press release, Twentieth Century Fox cited Blu-ray Discs adoption of the BD+ anticopying system as key to their decision to support the Blu-ray Disc format.  In February 2008, Toshiba withdrew its support for the HD DVD format, conceding victory to Blu-ray Disc. End of the format war and future prospects On January 4, 2008, a day before CES 2008, Warner Bros. (the only major studio still releasing movies in both HD DVD and Blu-ray Disc format) announced that it would release only in Blu-ray Disc after May 2008. This effectively included other studios that came under the Warner umbrella, such as New Line Cinema and HBO—though in Europe, HBO distribution partner, the BBC, announced it would, while keeping an eye on market forces, continue to release product on both formats. This led to a chain reaction in the industry, with major U.S. retailers such as Best Buy, Wal-Mart, and Circuit City and Canadian chains such as Future Shop dropping HD DVD in their stores. A then major European retailer, Woolworths, dropped HD DVD from its inventory. Netflix and Blockbuster—major DVD rental companies—said they would no longer carry HD DVDs. Following these new developments, on February 19, 2008, Toshiba announced it would end production of HD DVD devices, allowing Blu-ray Disc to become the industry standard for high-density optical discs. Universal Studios, the sole major movie studio to back HD DVD since its inception, said shortly after Toshibas announcement, "While Universal values the close partnership we have shared with Toshiba, it is time to turn our focus to releasing new and catalog titles on Blu-ray Disc." Paramount Studios, which started releasing movies only in HD DVD format during late 2007, also said it would start releasing in Blu-ray Disc. Both studios announced initial Blu-ray lineups in May 2008. With this, all major Hollywood studios now support Blu-ray. According to Adams Media Research, high-definition software sales in the US were slower in the first two years than DVD software sales. 16.3 million DVD software units were sold in the first two years (1997–98) compared to 8.3 million high-definition software units (2006–07).  One reason given for this difference was the smaller marketplace (26.5 million HDTVs in 2007 compared to 100 million SDTVs in 1998).  Former HD DVD
Blu-ray Disc 66 supporter Microsoft has stated that they are not planning to make a Blu-ray Disc drive for the Xbox 360. Blu-ray Disc began making serious strides as soon as the format war ended. Nielsen VideoScan sales numbers showed that with some titles, such as 20th Century Foxs Hitman, up to 14% of total disc sales were from Blu-ray, although the average for the first half of the year was around 5%. Shortly after the format war ended, a study by The NPD Group found that awareness of Blu-ray Disc had reached 60% of U.S. households. In December 2008, the Blu-ray Disc of The Dark Knight sold 600,000 copies on the first day of its launch in the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom. A week after launch, The Dark Knight BD had sold over 1.7 million copies worldwide, making it the first Blu-ray Disc title to sell over a million copies in the first week of release. Blu-ray Disc sales in United States and Canada Year Cumulative sales (millions) 2006  1.2 2007  19.2 2008  82.4 2009  177.2 2010  350 According to Singulus Technologies AG, Blu-ray is being adopted faster than the DVD format was at a similar period in its development. This conclusion was based on the fact that Singulus Technologies has received orders for 21 Blu-ray dual-layer machines during the first quarter of 2008, while 17 DVD machines of this type were made in the same period in 1997. According to GfK Retail and Technology, in the first week of November 2008, sales of Blu-ray recorders surpassed DVD recorders in Japan. According to the Digital Entertainment Group, the total number of Blu-ray Disc playback devices (both set-top box and game console) had reached 28.5 millions by the end of 2010 . Blu-ray faces competition from video on demand and from new technologies that allow access to movies on any format or device, such as Digital Entertainment Content Ecosystem or Disneys Keychest. Some commentators have suggested that renting Blu-ray will play a vital part in keeping the technology affordable while allowing it to move forward. In an effort to increase sales, studios are releasing movies in combo packs with Blu-ray Discs and DVDs as well as "digital copies" which can be played on computers and iPods. Some are released on "flipper" discs with Blu-ray on one side and DVD on the other. Other strategies are to release movies with the special features only on Blu-ray Discs and none on DVDs.
Blu-ray Disc 67 Physical media Comparison of several forms of disk storage showing tracks (not-to-scale); green denotes start and red denotes end. * Some CD-R(W) and DVD-R(W)/DVD+R(W) recorders operate in ZCLV, CAA or CAV modes. Type Diameter Layers Capacity (cm) Bytes GB GiB Standard disc size, single layer 12 1 25,025,314,816 25.0 23.3 Standard disc size, dual layer 12 2 50,050,629,632 50.1 46.6 Mini disc size, single layer 8 1 7,791,181,824 7.8 7.3 Mini disc size, dual layer 8 2 15,582,363,648 15.6 14.5 Laser and optics While a DVD uses a 650 nm red laser, Blu-ray Disc uses a 405 nm "blue" laser diode. Note that even though the laser is called "blue", its color is actually in the violet range. The smaller beam focuses more precisely, thus enabling it to read information recorded in pits that are less than half the size of those on a DVD, and can consequently be spaced more closely, resulting in a shorter track pitch, enabling a Blu-ray Disc to hold about five times the amount of information that can be stored on a DVD. The lasers are GaN (gallium nitride) laser diodes that produce 405 nm light directly, that is, without frequency doubling or other nonlinear optical mechanisms. Conventional DVDs use 650 nm red lasers, and CDs use 780 nm near-infrared lasers.
Blu-ray Disc 68 The minimum "spot size" on which a laser can be focused is limited by diffraction, and depends on the wavelength of the light and the numerical aperture of the lens used to focus it. By decreasing the wavelength, increasing the numerical aperture from 0.60 to 0.85, and making the cover layer thinner to avoid unwanted optical effects, the laser beam can be focused to a smaller spot, which effectively allows more information to be stored in the same area. For Blu-ray Disc, the spot size is 580 nm. This allows a reduction of the pit size from 400 nm for DVD to 150 nm for Blu-ray Disc, and of the track pitch Panasonic Internal Blu-ray ROM notebook drive from 740 nm to 320 nm. See Compact Disc for information on optical discs physical structure. In addition to the optical improvements, Blu-ray Discs feature improvements in data encoding that further increase the amount of content that can be stored. Hard-coating technology Since the Blu-ray Disc data layer is closer to the surface of the disc compared to the DVD standard, it was at first more vulnerable to scratches. The first discs were housed in cartridges for protection, resembling Professional Discs introduced by Sony in 2003. Using a cartridge would increase the price of an already expensive medium, so hard-coating of the pickup surface was chosen instead. TDK was the first company to develop a working scratch-protection coating for Blu-ray Discs. It was named Durabis. In addition, both Sony and Panasonics replication methods include proprietary hard-coat technologies. Sonys rewritable media are spin-coated, using a scratch-resistant and antistatic coating. Verbatims recordable and rewritable Blu-ray Discs use their own proprietary hard-coat technology, called ScratchGuard. The Blu-ray Disc specification requires the testing of resistance to scratches by mechanical abrasion. In contrast, DVD media are not required to be scratch-resistant, but since development of the technology, some companies, such as Verbatim, implemented hard-coating for more expensive lineups of recordable DVDs. Recording speed Drive speed Data rate Theoretical Write time for Blu-ray Disc (minutes) Mbit/s MB/s Single-Layer Dual-Layer 1× 36 4.5 90 180 2× 72 9 45 90 4× 144 18 22.5 45 6× 216 27 15 30 8× 288 36 11.25 22.5 10× 360 45 9 18 12× 432 54 7.5 15
Blu-ray Disc 69 Variants Mini Blu-ray Disc The "Mini Blu-ray Disc" (also, "Mini-BD" and "Mini Blu-ray") is a compact 8 cm (~3 in)-diameter variant of the Blu-ray Disc that can store approximately 7.5 GB of data. It is similar in concept to the MiniDVD and MiniCD. Recordable (BD-R) and rewritable (BD-RE) versions of Mini Blu-ray Disc have been developed specifically for compact camcorders and other compact recording devices. Blu-ray Disc recordable "Blu-ray Disc recordable" refers to two optical disc formats that can be recorded with an optical disc recorder. BD-Rs can be written to once, whereas BD-REs can be erased and re-recorded multiple times. The current practical maximum speed for Blu-ray Discs is about 12×. Higher speeds of rotation (10,000+ rpm) cause too much wobble for the discs to be read properly, as with the 20× and 52× maximum speeds, respectively, of standard DVDs and CDs. Since September 2007, BD-RE is also available in the smaller 8 cm Mini Blu-ray Disc size.  On September 18, 2007, Pioneer and Mitsubishi codeveloped BD-R LTH ("Low to High" in groove recording), which features an organic dye recording layer that can be manufactured by modifying existing CD-R and DVD-R production equipment, significantly reducing manufacturing costs. In February 2008, Taiyo Yuden, Mitsubishi, and Maxell released the first BD-R LTH Discs, and in March 2008, Sonys PlayStation 3 gained official support for BD-R LTH Discs with the 2.20 firmware update. In May 2009 Verbatim/Mitsubishi announced the industrys first 6X BD-R LTH media, which allows recording a 25 GB disc in about 16 minutes. Unlike the previous releases of 120 mm optical discs (i.e., CDs and standard DVDs), Blu-ray recorders hit the market almost simultaneously with Blu-rays debut. BD9 and BD5 The BD9 format was proposed to the Blu-ray Disc Association by Warner Home Video as a cost-effective alternative to the 25/50 GB BD-ROM discs. The format was supposed to use the same codecs and program structure as Blu-ray Disc video, but recorded onto less expensive 8.5 GB dual-layer DVD. This red-laser media could be manufactured on existing DVD production lines with lower costs of production than the 25/50 GB Blu-ray media. Usage of BD9 for releasing content on "pressed" discs has never caught on. After the end of the format war, major producers ramped up the production of Blu-ray Discs and lowered their prices to the level of DVDs. On the other hand, the idea of using inexpensive DVD media became popular among individual users. A lower-capacity version of this format that uses single-layer 4.7 GB DVDs has been unofficially called BD5. Both formats are being used by individuals for recording high definition content in Blu-ray format onto recordable DVD media.  Despite the fact that the BD9 format has been adopted as part of the BD-ROM basic format, none of the existing Blu-ray player models support it explicitly. As such, the discs recorded in BD9 and BD5 formats are not guaranteed to play on standard Blu-ray Disc players. AVCHD and AVCREC also use inexpensive media like DVDs, but unlike BD9 and BD5 these formats have limited interactivity, codec types, and data rates.
Blu-ray Disc 70 BDXL The BDXL format supports 100GB and 128GB write-once discs  and 100GB rewritable discs for commercial applications. It was defined in June 2010. BD-R 3.0 Format Specification (BDXL) defined a multi-layered disc recordable in BDAV format with the speed of 2X and 4X, capable of 100/128GB and usage of UDF2.5/2.6. BD-RE 4.0 Format Specification (BDXL) defined a multi-layered disc rewritable in BDAV with the speed of 2X and 4X, capable of 100GB and usage of UDF2.5 as file system. BDXL discs are not compatible with existing BD drives. IH-BD The IH-BD (Intra-Hybrid Blu-ray) format includes a 25GB write-once layer (BD-R) and a 25GB read-only layer (BD-ROM), designed to work with existing Blu-ray Discs.  Software standards Filesystem Blu-ray Disc specifies the use of Universal Disk Format (UDF) 2.50 as a convergent friendly format for both PC and consumer electronics environments. It is used in latest specifications of BD-ROM, 100GB BDXL Triple layer disc made by Sharp BD-RE and BD-R.   In the first BD-RE specification (defined in 2002), the BDFS (Blu-ray Disc File System) was used. The BD-RE 1.0 specification was defined mainly for the digital recording of High Definition Television (HDTV) broadcast television. The BDFS was replaced by UDF 2.50 in the second BD-RE specification in 2005, in order to enable interoperability among consumer electronics Blu-ray recorders and personal computer systems. These optical disc recording technologies enabled PC recording and playback of BD-RE.   BD-R can use UDF 2.50/2.60. The Blu-ray Disc application (BDAV application) for recording of digital broadcasting has been developed as System Description Blu-ray Rewritable Disc Format part 3 Audio Visual Basic Specifications. The requirements related with computer file system have been specified in System Description Blu-ray Rewritable Disc Format part 2 File System Specifications version 1.0 (BDFS). Initially, the BD-RE version 1.0 (BDFS) was specifically developed for recording of digital broadcasting using the Blu-ray Disc application (BDAV application). To support UDF, these requirements are superseded by the Blu-ray Rewritable Disc File System Specifications version 2.0 (UDF) (a.k.a. RE 2.0) and Blu-ray Recordable Disc File System Specifications version 1.0 (UDF) (a.k.a. R 1.0). Additionally, a new application format, BDMV (System Description Blu-ray Disc Prerecorded Format part 3 Audio Visual Basic Specifications) for High Definition Content Distribution was developed for BD-ROM. The only file system developed for BDMV is the System Description Blu-ray Read-Only Disc Format part 2 File System Specifications version 1.0 (UDF) which defines the requirements for UDF 2.50. 
Blu-ray Disc 71 Directory and file structure All BD-ROM application files are stored under a “BDMV” directory.    • BDMV directory: contains the PLAYLIST, CLIPINF, STREAM, AUXDATA and BACKUP directories. • PLAYLIST directory: contains the Database files for Movie PlayLists. • xxxxx.mpls files: store information corresponding to Movie PlayLists. One file is created for each Movie PlayList. The filenames of these files are in the form “xxxxx.mpls”, where “xxxxx” is a 5-digit number corresponding to the Movie PlayList. • CLIPINF directory: contains the Database files for Clips. • zzzzz.clpi files: store Clip information associated with a Clip AV stream file. The filenames of these files are in the form “zzzzz.clpi”, where “zzzzz” is a 5-digit number corresponding to the Clip. • STREAM directory: contains AV stream files. • zzzzz.m2ts file: contains a BDAV MPEG-2 transport stream. The names of these files are in the form “zzzzz.m2ts”, where “zzzzz” is a 5-digit number corresponding to the Clip. The same 5-digit number “zzzzz” is used for an AV stream file and its associated Clip information file. • SSIF directory: If used, Stereoscopic Interleaved files shall be placed under this directory. • zzzzz.ssif file: is a Stereoscopic Interleaved file that is composed from two BDAV MPEG-2 transport streams. Both of the streams include an MPEG-4 MVC view video stream for left eye or right eye respectively. This file is used only when 3D video is played back. The 5-digit number “zzzzz” is the same as the number used for the AV stream file “zzzzz.m2ts” that includes the MPEG-4 MVC Base view video stream. • AUXDATA directory: contains Sound data files and Font files. • sound.bdmv file: stores data relating to one or more sounds associated with HDMV Interactive Graphic streams applications. This file may or may not exist under the AUXDATA directory. If it exists, there shall be only one sound.bdmv file. • aaaaa.otf file: stores the font information associated with Text subtitle applications. The names of these files are in the form “aaaaa.otf”, where “aaaaa” is a 5-digit number corresponding to the Font. • BACKUP directory: contains copies of the "index.bdmv” file, the “MovieObject.bdmv” file, all the files in the PLAYLIST directory and all files in the CLIPINF directory. • index.bdmv file: stores information describing the contents of the BDMV directory. There is only one index.bdmv file under the BDMV directory. • MovieObject.bdmv file: stores information for one or more Movie Objects. There is only one MovieObject.bdmv under the BDMV directory. Media format Container format Audio, video and other streams are multiplexed and stored on Blu-ray Discs in a container format based on the MPEG transport stream. It is also known as BDAV MPEG-2 transport stream and can use filename extension .m2ts.  Blu-ray Disc titles authored with menu support are in the BDMV (Blu-ray Disc Movie) format and contain audio, video, and other streams in BDAV container.  There is also the BDAV (Blu-ray Disc Audio/Visual) format, the consumer oriented alternative to the BDMV format used for movie releases. The BDAV format is used on BD-REs and BD-Rs for audio/video recording. BDMV format was later defined also for BD-RE and BD-R (in September 2006, in the third revision of BD-RE specification and second revision of BD-R specification).  Blu-ray Disc employs the MPEG transport stream recording method. That enables transport streams of digital broadcasts to be recorded as they are without altering the format. It also enables flexible editing of a digital broadcast that is recorded as is and where the data can be edited just by rewriting the playback stream.
Blu-ray Disc 72 Although it is quite natural, a function for high-speed and easy-to use retrieval is built in.  Blu-ray Disc Video use MPEG transport streams, compared to DVDs MPEG program streams. This allows multiple video programs to be stored in the same file so they can be played back simultaneously (e.g., with "Picture in picture" effect). Codecs The BD-ROM specification mandates certain codec compatibilities for both hardware decoders (players) and movie software (content).  Video High-definition video may be stored on BD-ROMs with up to 1920×1080 pixel resolution at up to 59.94 fields per second, if interlaced. Alternatively, progressive scan can go up to 1920×1080 pixel resolution at 24 frames per second, or up to 1280x720 at up to 59.94 frames per second: Resolution Aspect ratio Frame rate[a] 1920×1080 29.97-i 16:9 1920×1080 25-i 16:9 1920×1080 24-p 16:9 1920×1080 23.976-p 16:9 1440×1080[b] 29.97-i 16:9 (anamorphic) 1440×1080[b] 25-i 16:9 (anamorphic) 1440×1080[b] 24-p 16:9 (anamorphic) 1440×1080[b] 23.976-p 16:9 (anamorphic) 1280×720 59.94-p 16:9 1280×720 50-p 16:9 1280×720 24-p 16:9 1280×720 23.976-p 16:9 720×480 29.97-i 4:3/16:9 (anamorphic) 720×576 25-i 4:3/16:9 (anamorphic) a All frame rates are properly listed in frames per second. Some manufacturers will list field rate for interlaced material, but this is incorrect industry practice. To avoid confusion, only FRAME rates should ever be listed. b MPEG-2 at 1440x1080 was previously not supported in a draft version of the specification from March 2005. For video, all players are required to support MPEG-2 Part 2, H.264/MPEG-4 AVC, and SMPTE VC-1. MPEG-2 is the compression standard used on regular DVDs, which allows backwards compatibility. MPEG-4 AVC was developed by MPEG, Sony, and VCEG. VC-1 is a compression standard that was mainly developed by Microsoft. BD-ROM titles with video must store video using one of the three mandatory formats; multiple formats on a single title are allowed. The choice of formats affects the producers licensing/royalty costs as well as the titles maximum run time, due to differences in compression efficiency. Discs encoded in MPEG-2 video typically limit content producers to around two hours of high-definition content on a single-layer (25 GB) BD-ROM. The more-advanced video formats (VC-1 and MPEG-4 AVC) typically achieve a video run time twice that of MPEG-2, with comparable quality. MPEG-2 was used by many studios (including Paramount Pictures, which initially used the VC-1 format for HD DVD releases) for the first series of Blu-ray Discs, which were launched throughout 2006. Modern releases are
Blu-ray Disc 73 now often encoded in either MPEG-4 AVC or VC-1, allowing film studios to place all content on one disc, reducing costs and improving ease of use. Using these formats also frees a lot of space for storage of bonus content in HD (1080i/p), as opposed to the SD (480i/p) typically used for most titles. Some studios, such as Warner Bros., have released bonus content on discs encoded in a different format than the main feature title. For example, the Blu-ray Disc release of Superman Returns uses VC-1 for the feature film and MPEG-2 for bonus content. Today, Warner and other studios typically provide bonus content in the video format that matches the feature. Audio For audio, BD-ROM players are required to support Dolby Digital (AC-3), DTS, and linear PCM. Players may optionally support Dolby Digital Plus and DTS-HD High Resolution Audio as well as lossless formats Dolby TrueHD and DTS-HD Master Audio. BD-ROM titles must use one of the mandatory schemes for the primary soundtrack. A secondary audiotrack, if present, may use any of the mandatory or optional codecs.  Specification of BD-ROM Primary audio streams: LPCM Dolby Dolby Dolby TrueHD DTS Digital DTS-HD Master DRA DRA Digital Digital (Lossless) Surround Audio (Lossless) Extension Plus Max. Bitrate 27.648 Mbit/s 640 4.736 18.64 Mbit/s 1.524 Mbit/s 24.5 Mbit/s 1.5 3.0 Mbit/s kbit/s Mbit/s Mbit/s Max. 8 (48 kHz, 5.1 7.1 8 (48 kHz, 5.1 8 (48 kHz, 96 kHz), 5.1 7.1 Channel 96 kHz), 96 kHz), 6 (192 kHz) 6 (192 kHz) 6 (192 kHz) Bits/sample 16, 20, 24 16, 24 16, 24 16, 24 16, 20, 24 16, 24 16 16 Sample 48 kHz, 96 kHz, 48 kHz 48 kHz 48 kHz, 96 kHz, 48 kHz 48 kHz, 96 kHz, 48 kHz 48 kHz, frequency 192 kHz 192 kHz 192 kHz 96 kHz Bit rate For users recording digital television programming, the recordable Blu-ray Disc standards initial data rate of 36 Mbit/s is more than adequate to record high-definition broadcasts from any source (IPTV, cable/satellite, or terrestrial). BD Video movies have a maximum data transfer rate of 54 Mbit/s, a maximum AV bitrate of 48 Mbit/s (for both audio and video data), and a maximum video bit rate of 40 Mbit/s. This compares to HD DVD movies, which have a maximum data transfer rate of 36 Mbit/s, a maximum AV bitrate of 30.24 Mbit/s, and a maximum video bitrate of 29.4 Mbit/s. Application format • BDAV or BD-AV (Blu-ray Disc Audio/Visual)    – a consumer-oriented Blu-ray video format used for audio/video recording (defined in 2002) • BDMV or BD-MV (Blu-ray Disc Movie)      – a Blu-ray video format with menu support commonly used for movie releases • BDMV Recording specification – (defined in September 2006 for BD-RE and BD-R).  • RREF – (Realtime Recording and Editing Format) – a subset of BDMV designed for realtime recording and editing applications
Blu-ray Disc 74 Java software support At the 2005 JavaOne trade show, it was announced that Sun Microsystems Java cross-platform software environment would be included in all Blu-ray Disc players as a mandatory part of the standard. Java is used to implement interactive menus on Blu-ray Discs, as opposed to the method used on DVD-video discs. DVDs use pre-rendered MPEG segments and selectable subtitle pictures, which are considerably more primitive and rarely seamless. At the conference, Java creator James Gosling suggested that the inclusion of a Java Virtual Machine, as well as network connectivity in some BD devices, will allow updates to Blu-ray Discs via the Internet, adding content such as additional subtitle languages and promotional features not included on the disc at pressing time . This Java Version is called BD-J and is a subset of the Globally Executable MHP (GEM) standard; GEM is the worldwide version of the Multimedia Home Platform standard. Player profiles The BD-ROM specification defines four Blu-ray Disc player profiles, including an audio-only player profile (BD-Audio) that does not require video decoding or BD-J. All three of the video-based player profiles (BD-Video) are required to have a full implementation of BD-J, with varying levels of hardware support. Feature BD-Audio BD-Video Grace Period [d] Bonus View BD-Live[e] Blu-ray 3D Profile 1.0 Profile 1.1 Profile 2.0 Profile 5.0 Profile 3.0 [c] Built-in persistent memory No 64 KB 64 KB 64 KB 64 KB? No Optional 256 MB 1 GB 1 GB Local storage capability[a] Secondary video decoder (PiP) No Optional Mandatory Mandatory Mandatory No Optional Mandatory Mandatory Mandatory Secondary audio decoder[b] Virtual file system No Optional Mandatory Mandatory Mandatory Internet connection capability No No No Mandatory Mandatory a This is used for storing audio/video and title updates. It can either be built-in memory or removable media, such as a memory card or USB flash memory. b A secondary audio decoder is typically used for interactive audio and commentary. c Profile 3.0 is a separate audio-only player profile. The first Blu-ray Disc album to be released was Divertimenti, by record label Lindberg Lyd,   and it has been confirmed to work on the PS3. d Also known as Initial Standard profile. e Also known as Final Standard profile. On November 2, 2007, the Grace Period Profile was superseded by Bonus View as the minimum profile for new BD-Video players released to the market. When Blu-ray Disc software not authored with interactive features dependent on Bonus View or BD-Live hardware capabilities is played on Profile 1.0 players, it is able to play the main feature of the disc, but some extra features may not be available or will have limited capability. BD-Live The biggest difference between Bonus View and BD-Live is that BD-Live requires the Blu-ray Disc player to have an Internet connection to access Internet-based content. BD-Live features have included Internet chats, scheduled chats with the director, Internet games, downloadable featurettes, downloadable quizzes, and downloadable movie trailers.   Note that while some Bonus View players may have an Ethernet port, these are used for firmware updates and are not used for Internet-based content. In addition, Profile 2.0 also requires more local
Blu-ray Disc 75 storage in order to handle this content. With the exception of the latest players and the PlayStation 3, Profile 1.0 players cannot be upgraded to be Bonus View or BD-Live compliant.   Region codes As with the implementation of region codes for DVDs, Blu-ray Disc players sold in a specific geographical region are designed to play only discs authorized by the content provider for that region. This is intended to permit content providers (motion picture studios, etc.) the ability to support product differences in content, price, release date, etc., by region. According Regions for the Blu-ray standard: "Blu-ray Disc for Video". . Retrieved September 14, to the Blu-ray Disc Association, "all 2009. A/1: The Americas (except Greenland), and their Dependent territorydependencies, Blu-ray Disc players...(and) Blu-ray East Asia (except mainland China and Mongolia), and Southeast Asia. B/2: Africa, Disc-equipped computer systems are Middle East, Southwest Asia, Europe (except Belarus, Russia and Ukraine), Australia, required to support regional coding." New Zealand, and their Dependent territorydependencies. C/3: Central Asia, East Asia (mainland China and Mongolia only), South Asia, Eastern Europe (Belarus, Russia and However, "Use of region playback Ukraine only), and their Dependent territorydependencies. codes is optional for content providers..." Some current estimates suggest 70% of available [movie] Blu-ray Discs from the major studios are region-code-free and can therefore be played on any Blu-ray Disc player, in any region. Movie studios have different region coding policies. Among major U.S. studios, Paramount Pictures and Universal Studios have released all of their titles region-free.  Sony Pictures and Warner Bros. have released most of their titles region-free.   Lionsgate and Walt Disney Pictures have released a mix of region-free and region-coded titles.  20th Century Fox and MGM have released most of their titles region-coded.  The Blu-ray Disc region coding scheme divides the world into 3 regions, labeled A, B, and C. • Region A includes most North, Central and South American and Southeast Asian countries plus the Republic of China (Taiwan), Japan, Hong Kong, Macau and Korea. • Region B includes most European, African and southwest Asian countries plus Australia and New Zealand. • Region C contains the remaining central and south Asian countries, as well as the Peoples Republic of China and Russia. In circumvention of region coding restrictions, stand-alone Blu-ray Disc players are sometimes modified by third parties to allow for playback of Blu-ray Discs (and DVDs) with any region code. Instructions (hacks) describing how to reset the Blu-ray region counter of computer player applications to make them multi-region indefinitely are also regularly posted to video enthusiast websites and forums. Unlike DVD region codes, Blu-ray region codes are verified only by the player software, not by the optical drives firmware.
Blu-ray Disc 76 Digital rights management The Blu-ray Disc format employs several layers of digital rights management (DRM).  This has led to extensive criticism of the format by organizations opposed to DRM, such as the Free Software Foundation. High-bandwidth Digital Content Protection Blu-ray equipment is encouraged to implement High-bandwidth Digital Content Protection (HDCP). Given certain flags in the media streams, a Blu-ray Disc can enforce its reproduction in a lower resolution whenever a full HDCP-compliant link is not established all the way from the Blu-ray drive to the rendering devices (i.e. display and speakers). Advanced Access Content System The Advanced Access Content System (AACS) is a standard for content distribution and digital rights management. It was developed by AS Licensing Administrator, LLC (AACS LA), a consortium that includes Disney, Intel, Microsoft, Panasonic, Warner Bros., IBM, Toshiba, and Sony. Since appearing in devices in 2006, several successful attacks have been made on the format. The first known attack relied on the trusted client problem. In addition, decryption keys have been extracted from a weakly protected player (WinDVD). Since keys can be revoked in newer releases, this is only a temporary attack, and new keys must The AACS decryption process. continually be discovered in order to decrypt the latest discs. This cat-and-mouse game has gone through several cycles. BD+ BD+ was developed by Cryptography Research Inc. and is based on their concept of Self-Protecting Digital Content. BD+, effectively a small virtual machine embedded in authorized players, allows content providers to include executable programs on Blu-ray Discs. Such programs can: • examine the host environment to see if the player has been tampered with. Every licensed playback device manufacturer must provide the BD+ licensing authority with memory footprints that identify their devices. • verify that the players keys have not been changed. • execute native code, possibly to patch an otherwise insecure system. • transform the audio and video output. Parts of the content will not be viewable without letting the BD+ program unscramble it. If a playback device manufacturer finds that its devices have been hacked, it can potentially release BD+ code that detects and circumvents the vulnerability. These programs can then be included in all new content releases. The specifications of the BD+ virtual machine are available only to licensed device manufacturers. A list of licensed commercial adopters is available from the BD+ website . The first titles using BD+ were released in October 2007. Since November 2007, versions of BD+ protection have been circumvented by various versions of the AnyDVD HD program.  Other programs known to be capable of circumventing BD+ protection are DumpHD (versions 0.6 and above, along with some supporting software), MakeMKV, and two applications from DVDFab (Passkey and HD Decrypter ).
Blu-ray Disc 77 BD-ROM Mark BD-ROM Mark is a small amount of cryptographic data that is stored separately from normal Blu-ray Disc data, aiming to prevent illegal replication of the discs. The cryptographic data is needed to decrypt the copyrighted disc content protected by AACS. A specially licensed piece of hardware is required to insert the ROM-Mark into the media during replication. In consequence, sector-by-sector copies of a disc made with a regular recorder will lack the ROM-Mark data, and will be unreadable on standard players. Backward compatibility Though not compulsory, the Blu-ray Disc Association recommends that Blu-ray Disc drives be capable of reading standard DVDs and CDs, for backward compatibility. A few early Blu-ray Disc players released in 2006 could play DVDs but not CDs.   Ongoing development Although the Blu-ray Disc specification has been finalized, engineers continue to work on advancing the technology. Quad-layer (100 GB) discs have been demonstrated on a drive with modified optics and standard unaltered optics. Hitachi stated that such a disc could be used to store 7 hours of 32 Mbit/s video (HDTV) or 3 hours and 30 minutes of 64 Mbit/s video (Cinema 4K). In August 2006, TDK announced that they have created a working experimental Blu-ray Disc capable of holding 200 GB of data on a single side, using six 33 GB data layers. Also, behind closed doors at CES 2007, Ritek revealed that they had successfully developed a High Definition optical disc process that extends the disc capacity to ten layers, which increases the capacity of Front of an experimental 200GB rewritable Blu-ray Disc. the discs to 250 GB. However, they noted that the major obstacle is that current read/write technology does not support the additional layers. JVC has developed a three-layer technology that allows putting both standard-definition DVD data and HD data on a BD/(standard) DVD combination. If successfully commercialized, this would enable the consumer to purchase a disc that can be played on DVD players and can also reveal its HD version when played on a BD player. Japanese optical disc manufacturer Infinity announced the first "hybrid" Blu-ray Disc/(standard) DVD combo, to be released February 18, 2009. This disc set of the TV series "Code Blue" featured four hybrid discs containing a single Blu-ray Disc layer (25 GB) and two DVD layers (9 GB) on the same side of the disc. In January 2007, Hitachi showcased a 100 GB Blu-ray Disc, consisting of four layers containing 25 GB each. Unlike TDK and Panasonics 100 GB discs, they claim this disc is readable on standard Blu-ray Disc drives that are currently in circulation, and it is believed that a firmware update is the only requirement to make it readable to current players and drives. As of April 2008, a joint licensing agreement for Blu-ray Disc has not yet been finalized. A joint licensing agreement would make it easier for companies to get a license for Blu-ray Disc without having to go to each individual company that owns a Blu-ray Disc patent. For this reason, a joint licensing agreement was eventually made for DVD by the DVD6C Licensing Agency. In December 2008, Pioneer Corporation unveiled a 400 GB Blu-ray Disc (containing 16 data layers, 25 GB each) that will be compatible with current players after a firmware update. Its planned launch is in the 2009–10 time frame
Blu-ray Disc 78 for ROM and 2010–13 for rewritable discs. Ongoing development is under way to create a 1 TB Blu-ray Disc as soon as 2013. At CES 2009, Panasonic unveiled the DMP-B15, the first portable Blu-ray Disc player, and Sharp introduced the LC-BD60U and LC-BD80U series, the first LCD HDTVs with integrated Blu-ray Disc players. Sharp has also announced that they will sell HDTVs with integrated Blu-ray Disc recorders in the United States by the end of 2009. Set-top box recorders are not being sold in the U.S. due to fears of piracy. However, personal computers with Blu-ray recorder drives are available. On January 1, 2010, Sony, in association with Panasonic, announced plans to increase the storage capacity on their Blu-ray Discs from 25GB to 33.4 GB via a technology called i-MLSE (Maximum likelihood Sequence Estimation). The higher-capacity discs, according to Sony, will be readable on current Blu-ray Disc players with a firmware upgrade. No date has been set to include the increased space, but according to Blu-ray.com "it will likely happen sometime later this year." On July 20, 2010, the research team of Sony and Japanese Tohoku University announced the joint development of a blue-violet laser, which will help in creating Blu-ray discs with a capacity of 1 TB (dual layer). Blu-ray 3D The Blu-ray Disc Association (BDA) created a task force made up of executives from the film industry and the consumer electronics and IT sectors to help define standards for putting 3-D film and 3-D television content on a Blu-ray Disc. On Dec. 17, 2009 the BDA officially announced 3D specs for Blu-ray Disc, allowing backward compatibility with current 2D Blu-ray players. The BDA has said, "The Blu-ray 3D specification calls for encoding 3D video using the "Stereo High" profile defined by Multiview Blu-ray 3D logo. Video Coding (MVC), an extension to the ITU-T H.264 Advanced Video Coding (AVC) codec currently supported by all Blu-ray Disc players. MPEG4-MVC compresses both left and right eye views with a typical 50% overhead compared to equivalent 2D content, and can provide full 1080p resolution backward compatibility with current 2D Blu-ray Disc players." This means the MVC (3D) stream is backward compatible with H.264/AVC (2D) stream, allowing older 2D devices and software to decode stereoscopic video streams, ignoring additional information for the second view. Sony has released a firmware upgrade for PlayStation 3 consoles that enables 3D Blu-ray Disc playback. They previously released support for 3D gaming on April 21, 2010 (followed by the availability of 3D movies). Since the version 3.70 software update in August 9, 2011, the PlayStation 3 can support DTS-HD and DTS-HD HR while playing 3D Blu-ray. Dolby TrueHD is used on a small minority of Blu-ray 3D releases, and remains unsupported by the PS3. The PS3 can play 3D Blu-ray content at full 1080p, however 3D video games are limited to 720p. Variations AVCHD AVCHD was originally developed as a high definition format for consumer tapeless camcorders. Derived from the Blu-ray Disc specification, AVCHD shares a similar random access directory structure, but is restricted to lower audio and video bitrates, simpler interactivity, and the use of AVC-video and Dolby AC-3 (or linear PCM) audio. Being primarily an acquisition format, AVCHD playback is not universally supported by all devices that support Blu-Ray Disc playback. Nevertheless, many such devices are capable of playing AVCHD recordings from removable media, such as DVDs, SD/SDHC memory cards, "Memory Stick" cards, and hard disk drives.
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