Health Communication in CMC

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Health Communication in CMC

  1. 1. Health Communication in CMC By Theodoros Papadopoulos Athanasios Mangos
  2. 2. CMC <ul><li>Stands for Computer Mediated Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Technically, CMC has been around since the first electronic digital device was invented </li></ul><ul><li>It’s really been since mid-1990 because of the growing popularity of personal computers </li></ul><ul><li>Many definitions </li></ul>
  3. 3. CMC Definitions <ul><li>CMC is communication that takes place between human beings via the instrumentality of computers (Susan Herring, 1996). </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.slis.indiana.edu/faculty/herring/ </li></ul><ul><li>Computer Mediated Communication is a process of human communication via computers, involving people, situated in particular contexts, engaging in processes to shape media for a variety of purposes (John December, 1997). </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.december.com/john/ </li></ul>
  4. 4. Applications of CMC theory <ul><li>Health communication </li></ul><ul><li>Political communication </li></ul><ul><li>Legal communication </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational communication </li></ul><ul><li>Lifespan communication </li></ul><ul><li>Instructional communication </li></ul><ul><li>Visual communication </li></ul>
  5. 5. Health Communication in CMC http://www.health.com/health/
  6. 6. A story… <ul><li>Ken Walker (Scot) | Helo . . .have broblemd , , ,thhimk </li></ul><ul><li>I am wayin g stroke </li></ul><ul><li>Ken Walker, from Scotland, was participating in a regularly scheduled genealogy chatroom. At first the other members and the chatroom moderator, Richard Eastman, were sceptical. However, concern escalated once Walker’s chatting became even more erratic. Members encouraged Walker to stay alert and continue communicating, ensuring that he was part of a supportive community: </li></ul><ul><li>Ken Walker (Scot) | i am alone </li></ul><ul><li>MARY L. WITTLOCK | No you are not we are all here for you </li></ul><ul><li>After Walker managed to type his telephone number, Eastman contacted an international telephone operator, who provided Walker’s address. The telephone operator also connected Eastman with local police. Two minutes later, an ambulance arrived and Walker was rushed to the hospital, treated, and eventually released </li></ul>
  7. 7. Pioneering Community Health Online <ul><li>Tom Grundner and his colleagues in the School of Medicine at Case Western Reserve University . </li></ul><ul><li>A bulletin board was set up and developed a program called St Silicon’s Hospital and Information Dispensary </li></ul><ul><li>“ Doc in the box” was introduced </li></ul>
  8. 8. Pioneering Community Health Online. E-Medicine <ul><li>From 1984 to 1996, the system attracted six million users. </li></ul><ul><li>It was predicted that, by 2005, an estimated 88 million people in the United States alone may be using the internet for medical service and advice (Gorney, 2001). </li></ul><ul><li>Some questions that have to be answered arise from this growth. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Reasons to go Online for Health Information <ul><li>K now someone who has been diagnosed with a medical condition (81%) </li></ul><ul><li>Someone has been diagnosed with a new health problem of his/her own ( 58 %) </li></ul><ul><li>He/she is being prescribed a new medication or course of treatment (56%) </li></ul><ul><li>D eal with ongoing medical condition (47%) </li></ul><ul><li>U nanswered questions after a doctor’s visit (47%) </li></ul><ul><li>C hange his/her diet or exercise habits (46%) </li></ul><ul><li>C aregiver to someone else (38%) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Health Seekers
  11. 11. Concerns about Health Communication in CMC <ul><li>The problem is that anyone can create a health-related website. (Dr Paul Lambden, 2000) . </li></ul><ul><li>How is online health information quality to be monitored? </li></ul><ul><li>What kind of information should and shouldn’t be made available online? </li></ul><ul><li>How might patients influence their physicians’ decisions over medical treatment? Is this a good thing or a bad thing? </li></ul>
  12. 12. O nline H ealth I nformation Q uality <ul><li>It is not very accurate but it is estimated that there are over 100.000 health-related Web sites today. </li></ul><ul><li>Enter the word “health” in Google. </li></ul><ul><li>Surveys indicate that the trend towards use of the Internet for health purposes is rising (8 in 10 users). </li></ul><ul><li>It becomes obvious that the concern of harm caused by wrong to Internet users is rising too. </li></ul><ul><li>Because of this fact, many organizations were established. </li></ul>
  13. 13. O nline H ealth I nformation Q uality <ul><li>Medical Library Association (MLA) </li></ul><ul><li>H ealthfinder.gov (U.S Department of health and human Services) </li></ul><ul><li>U rac.org ( Health Care quality organization) </li></ul><ul><li>Jmir.org ( Journal of Medical Internet Research) </li></ul><ul><li>American Medical Association (AMA) </li></ul><ul><li>British Healthcare Internet Association (BHIA) </li></ul><ul><li>National Library of Medicine (NLM) </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluating Internet Health Information Tutorial (http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/webeval/webeval.html) </li></ul>
  14. 14. O nline H ealth I nformation Q uality <ul><li>In order to achieve health information quality, users have to follow these steps: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consider the source </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Know the site’s purpose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Look for the evidence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Check the date </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Know the target audience </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Kinds of Available Information <ul><li>Two major categories </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriate </li></ul><ul><li>Health information about routine daily afflictions that people have to deal with </li></ul><ul><li>Advice about serious diseases and information about prevention </li></ul><ul><li>Advice about medication </li></ul>
  16. 16. Kinds of Available Information <ul><li>Inappropriate </li></ul><ul><li>Unorthodox methods of medical treatment </li></ul><ul><li>Do-it yourself methods from “pseudo-doctors” </li></ul>
  17. 17. Influence of Patients <ul><li>Online health information has big impact in people and specifically, health seekers </li></ul><ul><li>16% of online health information seekers said that online health had a major impact, and 52% said a minor impact, on their own health care routine or the way they helped care for someone else </li></ul>
  18. 18. Conclusions <ul><li>Health communication in CMC affects peoples’ life </li></ul><ul><li>The number of health seekers increases every year </li></ul><ul><li>Online health organizations try to guarantee for the quality of information they provide </li></ul>
  19. 19. Conclusions <ul><li>Users have to make their own research for everything that concerns health but, in addition, they have to have doctors’ opinion </li></ul><ul><li>Users should try to reach information that has been validated from authorized organizations. </li></ul><ul><li>Health advisors should try to give only educational information about health and always encourage users to advise their doctors </li></ul>
  20. 20. References <ul><li>Matthew S. Eastin, Credibility Assessments of Online Health Information: The Effects of Source Expertise and Knowledge of Content, School of Journalism and Communication The Ohio State University </li></ul><ul><li>Eve-Lynn Nelson et.al, Evolving Pediatrician Perceptions of a Telemedicine Program, Center for TeleMedicine and TeleHealth, University of Kansas Medical Center #Department of Pediatrics, University of Kansas Medical Center </li></ul><ul><li>Pamela Whitten et.al, Telehospice: Using Telecommunication Technology for Terminally Ill Patients, Michigan State University, University of Kansas Medical Center </li></ul>
  21. 21. References <ul><li>Marlene M. Maheu, Exposing the Risk, yet Moving Forward: A Behavioral E-Health Model Director of Telehealth and Ehealth, Alliant University </li></ul><ul><li>Pamela Whitten, et.al, Ehealth: Market Potential and Business Strategies Department of Telecommunications, Michigan State University, USA </li></ul><ul><li>Ahmad Risk; Joan Dzenowagis, Review Of Internet Health Information Quality Initiatives World Health Organization Department of Health Information Management and Dissemination </li></ul>
  22. 22. References (cont.) <ul><li>ANGELA COULTER et.al, NOVEMBER 2006,Assessing the quality of information to support people in making decisions about their health and healthcare </li></ul><ul><li>Fox, Susannah. Health Information Online. Washington, DC: Pew Internet & American Life Project, May 17, 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>Pew Internet & American Life Project November 2004 Survey (N=537). </li></ul><ul><li>Susannah Fox, Associate Director, Online Health Search 2006 Most internet users start at a search engine when looking for health information online. Very few check the source and date of the information they find. October 29, 2006 PEW INTERNET & AMERICAN LIFE PROJECT 1615 L ST., NW – SUITE 700 WASHINGTON, D.C. 20036 </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/webeval/webeval.html </li></ul>
  23. 23. References (cont.) <ul><li>http://www.december.com/cmc/mag / </li></ul><ul><li>http://jcmc.indiana.edu/ </li></ul><ul><li>http://jcmc.indiana.edu/vol6/issue4/ </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.com.washington.edu/cmc/weblinks_chpt_focusAreas/weblinks_focusUn4.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.jmir.org/2001/4/e28 </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.pickereurope.org/Filestore/Downloads/Health-information-quality-web-version-FINAL.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.mlanet.org/resources/userguide.html </li></ul><ul><li>http:// www.pslgroup.com/psl.nsf/default?Openform </li></ul>
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