Carbohydrates, Fats, andProteins Nutrients that Provide Calories
Carbohydrates Carbohydrates are the major components of most plants. Plants make carbohydrates on their own through photosynthesis. Separated into two categories Simple Complex
Functions of Carbohydrates Main source of energy Spare protein from being burned so it can be used to build and repair Dietary fiber can help lower blood cholesterol Part of connective tissues, some hormones and enzymes and genetic material.
Nutrition of Carbohydrates Provide 4 calories per gram Main source of body’s energy Body uses carbs before calories from protein and fat.
Simple Carbohydrates Sugars Natural Refined
Sugars (Simple Carbohydrates) Divided into two categories Single sugars (monosaccharide) Double sugars (disaccharides) Names of sugars usually end in –ose Monosaccharides are the building blocks of complex carbs
Monosaccharides Glucose (also called dextrose) Body’s main source of energy Body converts other sugars into glucose for use by the body Found in fruits and honey Fructose Sweetest natural sugar Found in honey and fruit Galactose Not found alone in nature
Disaccharides Sucrose Cane sugar Combination of glucose and fructose Maltose Does not occur in nature Lactose Natural only in milk
Complex Carbohydrate Also known as polysaccharides Starch Fiber
Starch Made up of many glucoses linked together Found only in plant foods Found in grains Wheat, corn, rice, rye, barley, and oats Thickens liquids when heated (gelatinization)
Fiber Edible but not digestible Fiber moves through the body unchanged Two categories Soluble (swells in water) Insoluble (does not swell as much) Found in dried beans, peas, lentils, Also found in the peelings of fruits and vegetables.
Fiber continued Found in whole grains. Whole grains include Endosperm Bran germ
Dietary recommendations 130 grams each day for children and adults. Use sugars in moderation. Women need at least 38 grams of carbohydrates from fiber a day. Men need at least 25 grams of carbohydrates from fiber a day.
Fats (Lipids) Include: Fats (Solid at room temperature) Oils (Liquid are room temperature) Cholesterol Lecithin
Functions Account for 15-25% of body weight 50% of fat stores are right under skin Fat provides 9 calories per gram
Types of Fats Saturated fat (worst for you) Found in animal foods Some vegetable oils are high in saturated fat Coconut, palm kernel, and palm oil Mono-unsaturated Olive oil , canola oil, and peanut oil Poly-unsaturated (best for you) Safflower, corn, soybean, sesame, and sunflower oil
Trans fats Naturally occur in meat and dairy foods Most come from hydrogenated fat Artificially solidified oil Found in margarine, shortening Has a longer shelf life Makes unsaturated fats, saturated
Cholesterol Found in animal products High levels in blood can lead to heart problems
Dietary recommendations No more than 20-35% of calories should come from fats Less than 10% of calories should come from saturated fat You should consume no more than 300 milligrams of cholesterol a day.
Protein Building block of cells Made up of long chains of amino acids 20 different kinds of amino acids 9 amino acids must come from food Essential amino acids
Function of Protein Protein is a part of every cell in your body Build and maintain body tissues Needed most during pregnancy and infancy Also needed for healing after surgery or infections Found in hormones, and all antibodies Transport minerals, vitamins, fats and oxygen through body Maintain acid base balance and water balance in body
Sources of Protein Complete Proteins Meat, poultry, eggs, and dairy products Incomplete Beans Rice Grains
Incomplete proteins Combine Beans with grains Beans and rice Combine a grain with a small amount of a full protein food Mac and cheese Pork and egg fried rice
Dietary recommendations Between .85 and 1.5 grams of protein per kilogram of body weight Varies based on age, and based on whether a person is pregnant or lactating
Sources Drummond, Karen, and Lisa Brefere. Nutrition for Food Service and Culinary Professionals. Fifth. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and sons, 2004. Print.