The lexical approach

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  • 1. The Lexical Approach Michael Lewis, 1993
    • Group’s members:
    Le Thi Thanh Thao
    Nguyen Thi Ngoc Anh
    Nguyen Thi Thanh Hau
    Ly Thi Kim Cuong
  • 2. The Lexical Approach Michael Lewis, 1993
    What is “The Lexical Approach”?
    Types of Lexis
    Principles of LA
    Considerations on LA
    Procedure
    Implications
    Recommendation
    Conclusion
  • 3. Lexical Approach
    I. What is “The Lexical Approach”?
    Concentrating on developing learners’ proficiency with lexis, or words and word combinations.
    Reflecting a belief in the centrality of the lexis to
    - language structures
    - language use
    - multiword lexical units or “chunks”
  • 4. Lexical Approach
    II. Types of Lexis
    1 “Lexical chunk” are groups of words that can be found together in language
    • Example: "in my opinion," "to make a long story short,” “by the way,” “at the end of the day,” “Do you mind if I…” “That will never happen to me”
    2. Collocation refers to the regular occurrence together of words
    • Example collocations of verbs with nouns:
    Do my hair/ the cooking/ the laundry
    Make my bed/ a promise/ coffee/ a meal
  • 5. Lexical Approach
    II. Types of Lexis (Cont)
    3. Idioms: dead drunk, cost the earth, keep your feet on the ground
    4. Similes: as old as the hills, as still as dead, as hungry as a wolf, as easy as A.B.C
    5. Connectives: finally, to conclude, whereas, meanwhile, consequently
    6. A conversational gambit is an opening used to start a conversation with someone : Guess what! Tell you what, Hello, how are you?

  • 6. Lexical Approach
    III. Principles of LA
    Language = Grammar + Vocabulary
    Observe – Hypothesis – Experiment Circle (Present – Practise - Produce)
    Gramaticalized lexis--not lexicalized grammar
    Holistic - not atomistic
    Lexicon-is-prime
  • 7. IV. Considerations on designing LA class
    Objectives
    Syllabus
    Roles of teachers
    Roles of learners
    Materials
  • 8. Considerations on designing LA class
    Objectives
    • To realize a syllabus and accompanying materials based on lexical rather than grammatical principles.
    • 9. To cover the most frequent words together with their patterns and uses.
  • 2. Syllabus
    Subsumes a structural syllabus
    Indicates how the structures which make up syllabus should be exemplified.
    Specify the basic meanings of English: the most common, most important and most basic meanings
    Common topics and related tasks are the backbone.
    Considerations on designing LA class
  • 10. Considerations on designing LA class
    3. The teacher’s roles
    Teacher’s talk is the major source of learner’s input
    Organizing the technological system, providing scaffolding to help learners
    The teacher methodology:
    Task
    Planning
    Report
  • 11. Considerations on designing LA class
    4. The learner’s roles
    Replace the idea: the teacher is “ the knower”  the learner is “the discoverer”
    Data analyst
  • 12. Considerations on designing LA class
    5. Materials
    TYPE 1
    Course
    packages
    TYPE 2
    Collection of
    vocabulary
    teaching
    activities
    TYPE 3
    “print-out”
    version of
    computer
    corpora
    in text format
    TYPE 4
    Computer
    concordance
    Programs
  • 13. Concordancers and Corpora
    Corpus : a collection of examples of texts/utterances of a language
    Concordancer : computer software which analyses corpora. See :
    http://www.collins.co.uk/Corpus/CorpusSearch.aspx
    http://sara.natcorp.ox.ac.uk/lookup.html
  • 14. V. Procedure
    • Procedural sequences vary depending on which of the employed materials and activities.
    • 15. Classroom procedures usually include the use of activities:
    -> draw Ss’ attention to lexical collocations
    -> enhance Ss’ retention and use of collocations
  • 16. Classroom activities
    • Listening and Reading intensively and extensively.
    • 17. Repetition and recycling of activities.
    • 18. Guessing the meaning of vocabulary items from context.
    • 19. Noticing and recording language patterns and collocations.
    • 20. Working with dictionaries and other reference tools.
  • As a suggestion of Woolard (2000):
    • Reexamine the course books for collocations and adding exercises.
    • 21. Develop activities that Ss themselves can discover collocations (in and outside of the classroom)
    V. Procedure
  • 22. V. Procedure
    Another suggestion from Hill (2000):
    Classroom procedures involve:
    a) teaching individual collocations
    b) making Ss aware of collocations
    c) extending the already-known of Ss by adding collocation restrictions to known vocabulary
    d) storing collocations through encouraging Ss to keep a lexical notebook.
  • 23. VI. Implications
    Provide input: text and discourse
    Provide activities  ask sts to work actively on the chunks
    Give sts chance for practicing of those chunk productively
    Repeat and recycle activities with those expressions
  • 24. VII . Recommendations
    Important sources
    • The COBUILB Bank of English Corpus
    • 25. The Cambridge International Corpus
    • 26. The British National Corpus
    Use corpora but be corpus-based, not corpus-bound
    Concentrate on items - no direct translational equivalence
    Text and discourse, rather than sentence-based
    LA is not the lexical syllabus
  • 27. VIII . Conclusion
    • Refer to only one component of communicative competence.
    • 28. Lack the full characterization of an approach or method.
    • 29. Still an idea in search of an approach and a methodology.
    We, Ts, should spend less time explaining English language grammar, more time exposing Ss to useful language and doing awareness arising activities.
    The way we view language affects the way we teach it.
  • 30. References
    http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/think/knowledge-wiki/chunks
    http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/think/articles/lexical-approach-1-what-does-lexical-approach-look
    http://grammar.about.com/od/c/g/chunkterm.htm
    http://www.cc.kyoto-su.ac.jp/information/tesl-ej/ej09/r10.html