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Le Thi Thanh Thao Nguyen Thi Ngoc Anh Nguyen Thi Thanh Hau Ly Thi Kim Cuong
The Lexical Approach Michael Lewis, 1993 What is “The Lexical Approach”? Types of Lexis Principles of LA Considerations on LA Procedure Implications Recommendation Conclusion
Lexical Approach I. What is “The Lexical Approach”? Concentrating on developing learners’ proficiency with lexis, or words and word combinations. Reflecting a belief in the centrality of the lexis to - language structures - language use - multiword lexical units or “chunks”
Lexical Approach II. Types of Lexis 1 “Lexical chunk” are groups of words that can be found together in language
Example: "in my opinion," "to make a long story short,” “by the way,” “at the end of the day,” “Do you mind if I…” “That will never happen to me”
2. Collocation refers to the regular occurrence together of words
Example collocations of verbs with nouns:
Do my hair/ the cooking/ the laundry Make my bed/ a promise/ coffee/ a meal
Lexical Approach II. Types of Lexis (Cont) 3. Idioms: dead drunk, cost the earth, keep your feet on the ground 4. Similes: as old as the hills, as still as dead, as hungry as a wolf, as easy as A.B.C 5. Connectives: finally, to conclude, whereas, meanwhile, consequently 6. A conversational gambit is an opening used to start a conversation with someone : Guess what! Tell you what, Hello, how are you? …
Lexical Approach III. Principles of LA Language = Grammar + Vocabulary Observe – Hypothesis – Experiment Circle (Present – Practise - Produce) Gramaticalized lexis--not lexicalized grammar Holistic - not atomistic Lexicon-is-prime
IV. Considerations on designing LA class Objectives Syllabus Roles of teachers Roles of learners Materials
Considerations on designing LA class Objectives
To realize a syllabus and accompanying materials based on lexical rather than grammatical principles.
To cover the most frequent words together with their patterns and uses.
2. Syllabus Subsumes a structural syllabus Indicates how the structures which make up syllabus should be exemplified. Specify the basic meanings of English: the most common, most important and most basic meanings Common topics and related tasks are the backbone. Considerations on designing LA class
Considerations on designing LA class 3. The teacher’s roles Teacher’s talk is the major source of learner’s input Organizing the technological system, providing scaffolding to help learners The teacher methodology: Task Planning Report
Considerations on designing LA class 4. The learner’s roles Replace the idea: the teacher is “ the knower” the learner is “the discoverer” Data analyst
Considerations on designing LA class 5. Materials TYPE 1 Course packages TYPE 2 Collection of vocabulary teaching activities TYPE 3 “print-out” version of computer corpora in text format TYPE 4 Computer concordance Programs
Concordancers and Corpora Corpus : a collection of examples of texts/utterances of a language Concordancer : computer software which analyses corpora. See : http://www.collins.co.uk/Corpus/CorpusSearch.aspx http://sara.natcorp.ox.ac.uk/lookup.html
Guessing the meaning of vocabulary items from context.
Noticing and recording language patterns and collocations.
Working with dictionaries and other reference tools.
As a suggestion of Woolard (2000):
Reexamine the course books for collocations and adding exercises.
Develop activities that Ss themselves can discover collocations (in and outside of the classroom)
V. Procedure Another suggestion from Hill (2000): Classroom procedures involve: a) teaching individual collocations b) making Ss aware of collocations c) extending the already-known of Ss by adding collocation restrictions to known vocabulary d) storing collocations through encouraging Ss to keep a lexical notebook.
VI. Implications Provide input: text and discourse Provide activities ask sts to work actively on the chunks Give sts chance for practicing of those chunk productively Repeat and recycle activities with those expressions
Refer to only one component of communicative competence.
Lack the full characterization of an approach or method.
Still an idea in search of an approach and a methodology.
We, Ts, should spend less time explaining English language grammar, more time exposing Ss to useful language and doing awareness arising activities. The way we view language affects the way we teach it.