Tests of listening skill General The awareness of the ways of the differences between the spoken language and the written language To test student’s ability of discrimination and understanding the different sounds of a language
Type 1 & type 2: use to test testees’ discrimination of the different sounds of a language.
Type 3: test discrimination of sounds and other features (3a. Spelling ability, 3b. grammatical structure and 3c. Knowledge of vocabulary)
Advice simple Same stress and pitch patterns short Used to test for elementary and pre-intermediate learners
STRESS AND INTONATION TYPE1 : The type is designed to test the ability to recognize word stress or sentence stress. The testees are required to indicate the syllable which carries the main stress and show it by putting a cross in the brackets under the appropriate syllable. Written: I’ve just given three books to Bill. ( ) ( ) ( ) (X) ( ) ( ) ( ) NOTE: This test lacks context and is very artificial
STRESS AND INTONATION TYPE 2 : The examiner makes an utterance and the testees base on different tone- patterns to select the appropriate description to indicate whether they have understood the original utterance: a plain statement, a question, sarcasm, surprise, annoyance, etc. E.g.: Spoken: Tom’s a fine goalkeeper. The speaker is: A. making a straightforward statement B. being very sarcastic C. asking a question
NOTE: This type of test is sometimes difficult to construct. Since the context must be neutral, it is often hard to avoid ambiguity. There is also a danger of inventing odd interpretations or of concentrating on the rarer meanings: sarcasm, irony, incredulity. STRESS AND INTONATION
STATEMENTS AND DIALOGUES These items measure how well students can understand short samples of speech and deal with a variety of signals on the lexical and grammatical levels of phonology
STATEMENTS AND DIALOGUES TYPE 1 : It tests the ability to understand both the grammatical and lexical features of a short utterance. The testees hear a statement on tape and then choose the best option from four written paraphrases. E.g.: Spoken: I wish you’d done it when I told you. I told you and you did it then. I didn’t tell you but you did it then I told you but you didn’t do it then. I didn’t tell you and you didn’t do it then . NOTE : When constructing these items, it is advisable to keep the grammatical , lexical and phonological difficulties in the stem.
STATEMENTS AND DIALOGUES TYPE 2 : These item types are more satisfactory than TYPE 1 insofar as they are an attempt to stimulate speech situations. E.g.: Spoken: Why are you going home? A. At six o’clock. B. Yes, I am. C. To help my mother. D. By bus. NOTE : The question types should be varies as much as possible and Yes/ No questions included as well as Wh- questions.
STATEMENTS AND DIALOGUES E.g.: Spoken : Does Alison mind you playing the piano? Written : A. Yes, she’s always thinking about it. B. No, she rather likes it. C. No, she doesn’t play the piano. D. Yes, she must be careful NOTE : The question types should be varies as much as possible and Yes/ No questions included as well as Wh- questions.
TESTING COMPREHENSION THROUGH VISUAL MATERIALS Strengths: - more suitable for elementary stage of learners. - makes the testee’s performance less dependent on other skills. Weaknesses: Limiting the comprehension tests to instructions in single sentences. 9 item types in this section.
TYPE 1 Pick out the true statements and write T at the side of the appropriate statements and write F at the side of the numbers of the false statement 1. The girl and the boy both have curly hair. 2. The girl’s wearing black shoes 3. The girl’s smiling at the boy. 4. The boy’s holding her hand. 5. They look so serious.
TYPE 2 Listen to 4 sentences and then select the appropriate picture being describe: A B E C D
In future (1) will do many jobs, particularly those which are (2) by nature. It is generally doubted if they could do (3) work and in the home they would probably not do things like (4). Robots will do nothing more (5) than they have been (6) to do by human beings……
(3) any type of
(5) original or sophisticated
Understanding talks and lectures
Type 2: Blank completion - Combine listening comprehension with reading comprehension - Danger : testees could successfully complete the blank with their little understanding because the omitted words should be essential to the meaning of the whole talk. Understanding talks and lectures
Receive question paper & have a few minutes to glance
Hear the lecture and work through the questions
(true/false items recommended)
Listen to the lecture & then receive the question paper
Read it through & then listen to the lecture given a
How to construct these tests Increase the length of pauses at the end of meaningful units Keep to the normal delivery rate Take recordings of talks given by native speakers Give a talk from rough notes or record a talk The test writer/ tester Restate important points & Shorten the complex sentences
Spontaneous elements (hesitation, ungrammatical sentences…)
may cause the artificiality of the situation -> adapt written text.
Avoiding testing memorization of unimportant or irrelevant points
Completing a summary of a talk, words omitted should be essential
Test ability to be aware of important info not given in a talk
Reduce the effect of guessing
Yes The statement is true No The statement is false ? We have no information about it They had a problem taking off because they were carrying so much fuel. They started on June 15 th , 1919. It was foggy when they took off.