Phân tích hành vi người tiêu dùng
Kh¸ch hµng lµ ai? <ul><li>Quan niÖm cña DN vÒ kh¸ch hµng </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kh¸ch hµng lµ ng­êi quan träng nhÊt trong d...
Hµnh vi mua cña kh¸ch hµng C¸c c©u hái cã liªn quan ®Õn kh¸ch hµng Qu¸ tr×nh ra quyÕt ®Þnh  C¸c yÕu tè ¶nh h­ëng
C¸c c©u hái cã liªn quan tíi kh¸ch hµng <ul><li>Kh¸ch hµng lµ ai? </li></ul><ul><li>Kh¸ch hµng sÏ mua s¶n phÈm nµo? </li><...
ThÞ tr­êng ng­êi tiªu dïng <ul><li>Nh÷ng nh©n tè nµo ¶nh h­ëng tíi hµnh vi mua hµng cña ng­êi tiªu dïng? </li></ul><ul><li...
Người tiêu dùng mua như thế nào và tại sao? Mô hình hành vi mua của khách hàng Tác động marketing & các tác động khác Đặc ...
M« h×nh hµnh vi mua cña ng­êi tiªu dïng Hép ®en  cña ng­êi mua ? ? Ph¶n øng cña ng­êi mua Marketing & c¸c t¸c ®éng kh¸c
C¸c nh©n tè ¶nh h­ëng ®Õn hµnh vi NTD C¸ nh©n Tuæi vµ chu kú sèng NghÒ nghiÖp T×nh tr¹ng vÒ kinh tÕ Phong c¸ch sèng TÝnh c...
Thảo luận <ul><li>Những thay đổi cơ bản do sự chuyển đổi từ cơ chế tập trung, quan liêu, bao cấp sang cơ chế thị trường về...
Qu¸ tr×nh ra quyÕt ®Þnh mua cña NTD NhËn thøc nhu cÇu   (vÝ dô: cÇn thay thÕ ®«i giÇy cò) T×m kiÕm th«ng tin (t×m kiÕm c¸c...
Thảo luận <ul><li>Doanh nghiệp có thể làm gì để  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tác động tới khách hàng mua SP/nhãn hiệu của họ </l...
Quyết định mua <ul><li>Thích SP chưa chắc dẫn tới ý định mua </li></ul>Quyết định mua Nguồn thông tin mới Ý kiến trái chiề...
Hành vi sau khi mua <ul><li>Mong đợi của khách hàng </li></ul>KH không  thỏa mãn ! KH thỏa mãn ! <ul><li>Cảm nhận về chất ...
Sự thỏa mãn của khách hàng <ul><li>KH thỏa mãn dẫn tới </li></ul><ul><ul><li>KH trung thành </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ít ...
C¸c nh©n tè ¶nh h­ëng ®Õn hµnh vi NTD C¸ nh©n Tuæi vµ chu kú sèng NghÒ nghiÖp T×nh tr¹ng vÒ kinh tÕ Phong c¸ch sèng TÝnh c...
Tham gia qu¸ tr×nh quyÕt ®Þnh mua cña NTD Ng­êi  quyÕt ®Þnh Ng­êi  mua Ng­êi  sö dông Ng­êi  ¶nh h­ëng Ng­êi  khëi x­íng N...
Ng­êi mua lµ c¸c tæ chøc (KH c«ng nghiÖp) <ul><li>Ai lµ ng­êi mua? </li></ul>§Æc ®iÓm cña ng­êi mua tæ chøc - It ng­êi mua...
M« h×nh hµnh vi mua cña ng­êi mua tæ chøc Tæ chøc mua hµng Trung t©m mua Qu¸ tr×nh ra  quyÕt ®Þnh mua Ph¶n øng cña ng­êi m...
Qu¸ tr×nh mua cña ng­êi mua tæ chøc NhËn thøc vÊn ®Ò M« t¶ chung vÒ nhu cÇu §Æc ®iÓm, tiªu thøc KT cña SP T×m kiÕm nhµ cun...
C¸c nh©n tè ¶nh h­ëng tíi hµnh vi mua  cña ng­êi mua tæ  chøc §Æc ®iÓm c¸ nh©n (tuæi,…) M«i tr­êng (KT, CT,…) Tæ chøc (CS,...
Tham gia qu¸ tr×nh ra quyÕt ®Þnh cña ng­êi mua tæ chøc QuyÕt ®Þnh mua “ Ng­êi  g¸c cæng” Ng­êi ra  quyÕt ®Þnh Ng­êi mua Ng...
Bµi tËp nhãm <ul><li>1.  Hµnh vi mua hµng cao cÊp (xa xØ) ë ViÖt nam </li></ul><ul><li>Kh¸ch hµng lµ ai? </li></ul><ul><li...
Bài viết  <ul><li>-  Sự thỏa mãn của khách hàng Việt Nam khi mua và sử dụng các sản phẩm/dịch vụ cao cấp (chủ yếu hàng ngo...
Bài viết <ul><li>Conduct an in-depth interview with  03 consumers  and write a brief summary of the findings. </li></ul><u...
Ph©n ®o¹n thÞ tr­êng
Ph©n ®o¹n thÞ tr­êng lµ g×? Ph©n ®o¹n thÞ tr­êng lµ chia thÞ tr­êng ra thµnh nh÷ng nhãm ng­êi mua riªng biÖt cã c¸c ®Æc ®i...
Tiªu thøc ph©n ®o¹n thÞ tr­êng Tiªu thøc ph©n  ®o¹n thÞ tr­êng §Þa lý Nh©n khÈu häc T©m lý XH häc Hµnh vi
Ph©n ®o¹n theo ®Þa lý <ul><li>Khu vùc: §«ng ¢u, T©y ¢u, B¾c Mü, Trung §«ng, §«ng Nam ¸... </li></ul><ul><li>Quèc gia: ViÖt...
C¸c yÕu tè nh©n khÈu häc Tuæi t¸c Giíi tÝnh Thu nhËp NghÒ nghiÖp TÝn ng­ìng
C¸c yÕu tè t©m lý x· héi TÇng líp  x· héi C¸ tÝnh Lèi sèng
Hµnh vi ng­êi tiªu dïng <ul><li>Thêi gian mua hµng </li></ul><ul><li>Lîi Ých t×m kiÕm </li></ul><ul><li>Quan hÖ gi÷a ng­êi...
Ph©n ®o¹n thÞ tr­êng KH tæ chøc C¬ së  ph©n ®o¹n  TT KH  tæ chøc Nh©n khÈu häc C¸c ®Æc ®iÓm  c¸ nh©n  C¸c nh©n tè t×nh huè...
Ph©n ®o¹n thÞ tr­êng cã hiÖu qu¶ Cã thÓ tiÕp  cËn ®­îc Cã quy m« ®¸ng kÓ Cã kh¶  n¨ng thùc  hiÖn ®­îc Yªu cÇu ®Ó ph©n ®o¹n...
§¸nh gi¸ ph©n ®o¹n thÞ tr­êng Qui m« &  ph¸t triÓn TÝnh hÊp dÉn Môc tiªu & nguån lùc c«ng ty
Bµi tËp t×nh huèng  §Õn Levis còng m¾c sai lÇm!
C¸c chiÕn l­îc chiÕm lÜnh thÞ tr­êng Hçn h¬p  Marketing cña DN ThÞ tr­êng Marketing  kh«ng ph©n biÖt Hçn hîp Mktg 1 Hçn hî...
C¸c ph­¬ng ¸n lùa chän thÞ tr­êng môc tiªu <ul><li>Bao phñ toµn bé thÞ tr­êng </li></ul><ul><li>TËp trung </li></ul><ul><l...
§Þnh vÞ s¶n phÈm <ul><li>ThiÕt kÕ mét s¶n phÈm cã nh÷ng ®Æc tÝnh kh¸c biÖt so víi s¶n phÈm cña ®èi thñ c¹nh tranh vµ t¹o c...
§Þnh vÞ S¶n phÈm <ul><li>T¹o h×nh ¶nh dùa trªn thuéc tÝnh:  Electrolux </li></ul><ul><li>T¹o h×nh ¶nh th«ng qua biÓu t­îng...
VÝ dô vÒ S¬ ®ồ định vị Giá   cả Chất   lượng Thấp Cao Thấp Cao A B
C¸c b­íc trong ph©n ®o¹n,  lùa chän & ®Þnh vÞ thÞ tr­êng 1.  X¸c ®Þnh c¬ së ®Ó ph©n ®o¹n  thÞ tr­êng 2. Ph¸t triÓn tËp hîp...
Hçn hîp Marketing Kh¸ch hµng môc tiªu Ph©n phèi KhuÕch tr­¬ng 20% OFF S¶n phÈm Con ng­êi C¬ së v/c Qu¸ tr×nh DV Gi¸
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  • Knowing customers is to identify who are current customers, potential customers. Marketers must study customer’s perceptions, preferences, shopping and buying behavior. Studying customers provides clues for developing new products, product features, prices, channels, messages, and other marketing-mix elements.
  • Consumer Behavior Consumer behavior refers to the buying behavior of final consumers -- individuals and households who buy goods and services for personal consumption. Model of Consumer Behavior Marketers control the stimuli or inputs consisting of the four Ps: Product, Place, Price, and Promotion. Environmental and situational influences, though perhaps beyond the control of the marketer, also influence many consumer choices. But what happens between the marketing stimuli input and the buyer’s response or output? That “black box” processing is the central question for marketers. Teaching Tip: You may wish to discuss the “buyer’s black box” in more detail at this stage. Students sometimes become involved in the controversy regarding the presence or absence of consciousness in consumers. Consider using a two-side in-class discussion: Side A: Experimental psychologists argue that what we call consciousness is merely a set of complex learned responses -- an ordinary physiological function. Side B: Sociologists and social psychologists argue that consciousness is greater than the sum of its physiological parts. For marketers, the issue is sometimes linked to free will: Do marketers create needs by conditioning consumers? Do marketers offer need-fulfillers to needs consumer’s create in their “black box?” Model of Consumer Behavior This CTR corresponds to Figure 5-1 on p. 143 and to the material on pp. 143-144.
  • In general, marketers can not control such factors, but they must take them into account. - Cultural factor: this factor exert the broadest and deepest influence on consumer behavior. It includes culture, subculture, social class. Culture : is the set of basic values, perceptions, wants, and behaviors learned by member of society from family and other important institutions. This is the most basic cause of a person’s wants and behavior. Cultural influences on buying behavior may vary greatly from country to country. Subculture : A group of people with shared value systems based on common life experiences and situations. It includes religions, racial groups, geographic regions. Social class : are society’s relatively permanent and ordered divisions whose members share similar values, interests, and behaviors. It is determined by a combination of factors such as occupation, income…Marketers are interested in social class because people within a given social class tend to exhibit similar buying behavior. And social classes how distinct product and brand preferences in areas such as clothing, home furnishings, leisure activity. - Social factor: Reference groups : these groups expose a person to new behaviors and lifestyles, influence (direct, indirect) the person’s attitudes and self-concept, and create pressures to conform that may affect the person’s product and brand choices. Family : The family is the most important consumer buying organization in society. Family members may strongly influence buyer behavior. The roles and relative influence of the family members vary widely in different countries and social classes. Roles and status :The person’s position in each group can be defined in terms of both role and status. A role consists of the activities people are expected to perform. Each role carries a status. People often choose products that communicate their role and status. - Personal factor: Age and lifecycle stage : People buy different goods and services over their lifetime. Tastes in food, clothes, furniture and recreation are often age related. Consumption is also shaped by the family life cycle. Occupation : it influences consumption pattern. Economic circumstances : they consist of their spendable income, savings and assets, attitude toward spending versus saving. Lifestyle : A person’s pattern of living as expressed in his or her activities, interests, and opinions. Personality and self-concept : it refers to the unique psychological characteristics that lead to relatively consistent and lasting responses to one’s own environment. Related to personality is a person’s self-concept. - Psychological factors: Motivation : A motive is a need that is sufficiently pressing to drive the person to act. Perception : It is the process by which an individual selects, organizes, and interprets information inputs to create a meaningful picture of the world. Learning : It describes changes in an individual’s behavior arising from experience. Beliefs and attitudes : A belief is a descriptive thought that a person has about something. An attitude describes a person’s relatively consistent evaluations, feelings, and tendencies toward an object or idea.
  • The consumer buying process starts long before actual purchase and continues long after. However, in more routine purchases, consumers often skip or reverse some of these stages. Marketers need to focus on the entire buying process rather than on just the purchase decision. - Problem recognition: The buyer senses a difference between his or her actual state and a desired state. The need can be triggered by internal or external stimuli. - Information seeking: Consumers are aroused to search for more information. The consumer may simply have heightened attention or may fo into active information search. The relative amount and influence of these information sources vary with the product and the consumer’s characteristics. The company should identify the consumer’s information sources and evaluate their relative importance. - Evaluation of alternatives: Consumer use information to evaluate alternative brands in the choice set. There is no simple and single evaluation process used by all consumers or by one consumer in all buying situations. - Purchasing decisions: Consumer actually buys the product. However, two factors can intervene between the purchase intention and the purchase decision. They are attitudes of others, unexpected situational factors. - Post-purchase evaluation: Consumers take further action after purchase based their satisfaction or dissatisfaction. Marketers must monitor post-purchase satisfaction, post-purchase actions.
  • In general, marketers can not control such factors, but they must take them into account. - Cultural factor: this factor exert the broadest and deepest influence on consumer behavior. It includes culture, subculture, social class. Culture : is the set of basic values, perceptions, wants, and behaviors learned by member of society from family and other important institutions. This is the most basic cause of a person’s wants and behavior. Cultural influences on buying behavior may vary greatly from country to country. Subculture : A group of people with shared value systems based on common life experiences and situations. It includes religions, racial groups, geographic regions. Social class : are society’s relatively permanent and ordered divisions whose members share similar values, interests, and behaviors. It is determined by a combination of factors such as occupation, income…Marketers are interested in social class because people within a given social class tend to exhibit similar buying behavior. And social classes how distinct product and brand preferences in areas such as clothing, home furnishings, leisure activity. - Social factor: Reference groups : these groups expose a person to new behaviors and lifestyles, influence (direct, indirect) the person’s attitudes and self-concept, and create pressures to conform that may affect the person’s product and brand choices. Family : The family is the most important consumer buying organization in society. Family members may strongly influence buyer behavior. The roles and relative influence of the family members vary widely in different countries and social classes. Roles and status :The person’s position in each group can be defined in terms of both role and status. A role consists of the activities people are expected to perform. Each role carries a status. People often choose products that communicate their role and status. - Personal factor: Age and lifecycle stage : People buy different goods and services over their lifetime. Tastes in food, clothes, furniture and recreation are often age related. Consumption is also shaped by the family life cycle. Occupation : it influences consumption pattern. Economic circumstances : they consist of their spendable income, savings and assets, attitude toward spending versus saving. Lifestyle : A person’s pattern of living as expressed in his or her activities, interests, and opinions. Personality and self-concept : it refers to the unique psychological characteristics that lead to relatively consistent and lasting responses to one’s own environment. Related to personality is a person’s self-concept. - Psychological factors: Motivation : A motive is a need that is sufficiently pressing to drive the person to act. Perception : It is the process by which an individual selects, organizes, and interprets information inputs to create a meaningful picture of the world. Learning : It describes changes in an individual’s behavior arising from experience. Beliefs and attitudes : A belief is a descriptive thought that a person has about something. An attitude describes a person’s relatively consistent evaluations, feelings, and tendencies toward an object or idea.
  • Consumer Buying Roles This CTR relates to the material on pp. 159-160. Teaching Tip: Involving students in a discussion of different consumer buying roles can be challenging. You might wish to link a discussion to social influences or family roles and have students describe purchasing responsibilities each role has. Consumer Buying Roles Include Initiator. The person who first suggests or thinks of the idea of buying a particular product or service. For example, Bill may suggest a Disney World trip for a family vacation. Influencer. The person whose views or advice carries some weight in the final decision. This person may influence the decision criteria used as well. For example, Dad&apos;s feelings about Florida may influence the Disney World trip. Decider. The person who authorizes the purchase. For example, Mom&apos;s vacation time may be limited by her schedule as an attorney, so she decides when and where the family goes. Buyer. The person who actual makes the purchase. For example, Jane may telephone the reservation at Disney World once given the authorization. User. The person who consumes the product. For example, the whole family would use the Disney product. For equipment purchases like computers at universities, it might be students enrolled in courses coming to the computer lab.
  • The business market is huge. It consists of all the organizations that acquire goods and services used on the production of other products or services that are sold, rented, or supplied to others. Business markets have several characteristics that contrast sharply with consumer markets.(see slide and page 205,206- Marketing management-7th edition, Philip Kotler) (Attachment)
  • A Model of Business Buyer Behavior This CTR corresponds to Figure 6-1 on p. 185 and the material on pp. 184-186. A Model of Business Buyer Behavior The Environment. The business buyer operates in a competitive environment consisting of two categories: Marketing Stimuli. Marketer controlled stimuli consist of the product, place, price, and promotion. Other Stimuli . As with consumer markets, other stimuli consist of the forces in the economic, technological, political, cultural, and competitive environments. However, group membership in the business organization and participation in the business buying process affects how these environmental forces influence decision making. The Buying Organization. The buying organization is influenced by the overall organization -- its corporate culture and values, traditions, and procedures and regulations. The buying center and the business buying decision process also differs from consumer buying influences and is discussed on a following CTR. Buyer Responses. Buyer responses in business buying situations often consist of more alternatives than those available to consumers. Supplier choice, order quantities, delivery terms, service options, and payment terms are often more negotiable than they are to the consumer.
  • Stages in Business Buying Process This CTR corresponds to Table 6-2 on p. 194 and relates to the material on pp. 193-196. Stages in Business Buying Problem Recognition . Problem recognition can result from internal or external stimuli. They may emerge from an identified shortage or ideas for improvements recognized by buyers. General Need Description. The buyer describes the overall characteristics and quantities of the needed item. For complex items, this step may require coordinating the efforts of many specialists. Product Specification. A developmental team must translate general needs into product specifications. An engineering value analysis team may look at alternative designs to reduce production costs. Supplier Search. The buyer conducts a search for the best vendors for the product specifications. Proposal Solicitation. The buyer invites qualified suppliers to submit proposals covering the terms of supply and support. Selected proposals may be asked to make formal presentations. Supplier Selection. The buyer selects suppliers based upon a combination of technical competence and service record and reputation. Negotiation of specific terms may occur before final selection, especially on price. Order Routine Specification. The buyer specifies the details of the supplier&apos;s contract listing technical specifications, delivery terms, policies for return and warranties, and quantities needed. Sellers will seek blanket contracts binding them closer to the buyer. Performance Review. The buyer will review how the supplier contract is working for the company and may continue, amend, or drop the seller.
  • Major Influences on Business Buying This CTR corresponds to Figure 6-2 on p. 191 and the material on pp. 189-193. Major Influences on Business Buying Environmental Factors. Industrial Buyers are heavily influenced by the economic environment especially the level of primary demand, economic outlook, and the cost of money. Materials shortages are also increasing in importance. Organizational Factors . These factors stem from each organization&apos;s objectives, policies, procedures, and ways of doing business. Marketers must identify how each of these elements are manifest in a particular company. Interpersonal Factors . Interpersonal influences center on group dynamics and the interplay of personalities and organizational roles. Buyer roles within the buying unit may differ not only from organizational factors but from the interpersonal interaction of the individuals involved as well. Individual Factors. A person&apos;s age, status, education, professional specialty, and overall personality and attitudes affect how they participate in organizational buying decisions. It may be difficult for the marketer to identify individual factors directly.
  • - Initiators: Those who request that something be purchased. They may be users or others in the organization. - Users: Those who will use the product or service. In many cases, the users initiate the buying proposal and help define the product requirements. - Influencers: People who influence the buying decision. They often help define specifications and also provide information for evaluating alternatives. Technical personnel are particularly important influencers. - Deciders: people who decide on product requirements and/or on suppliers. - Approvers:People who authorize the proposed actions of deciders or buyers. - Buyers: People who have formal authority to select the supplier and arrange the purchase terms. Buyers may help shape product specifications, but they play their major role in selecting vendors and negotiating. In more complex purchases, the buyers might include high-level managers participating in the negotiations. - Gatekeepers: People who have the power to prevent sellers or information from reaching members of the buying center.
  • Market Segmentation This CTR relates to the material on pp. 237-245. Bases for Segmenting Markets Geographic Segmentation. Geographic segmentation divides the market into different geographic units based upon physical proximity. While location determines how geographic segmentation is done, it is also true that many consumer products have attribute differences associated with regional tastes. Demographic Segmentation. Dividing the market into groups based upon variables such as sex, age, family size, family life cycle, income, education, occupation, religious affiliation, or nationality are all demographic segmentations. Consumer needs often vary with demographic variables. Demographic information is also relatively easy to measure. Age and life-cycle stage, sex, and income are three major demographic bases for segmentation. Psychographic Segmentation. Psychographic Segmentation divides the market into groups based on social class, life style, or personality characteristics. Psychographic segmentation cuts across demographic differences. Social class preferences reflect values and preferences that remain constant even as income increases. Life style describes helps group markets around ideas such as health, youthful, or environmentally conscious. Personalities may transcend other differences in markets and may be transferred to products themselves. Behavioral Segmentation. Behavioral Segmentation divides markets into groups based on their knowledge, attitudes, uses, or responses to a product. Types of of behavioral segmentation are based upon occasions, benefits sought, user status, usage rates, loyalty, buyer readiness stage, and attitude.
  • Segmenting Business Markets This CTR corresponds to Table 8-3 on p. 247 relates to the material on pp. 245-246. Major Segmentation Variables for Business Markets Demographics . Industry segmentation focuses on which industries buy the product. Company size can be used. Geographic location may be used to group businesses by proximity. Operating Variables. Business markets can be segmented by technology (what customer technologies should we focus on?), user/nonuser status (heavy, medium, light), or customer capabilities (those needing many or few services). Purchasing Approaches. Five approaches are possible. Segmentation can be by purchasing function organization (centralized or decentralized), power structure (selecting companies controlled by a functional specialty), the nature of existing relationships (current desirable customers or new desirable customers), general purchase policies (focus on companies that prefer some arrangements over others such as leasing, related support service contracts, sealed bids), or purchasing criteria (focus on noncompensatory criteria such as price, service, or quality). Situational Factors. Situational segmentation may be based upon urgency (such as quick delivery needs), specific application (specific uses for the product) or size of order (few large or many small accounts). Personal Characteristics. Personal comparisons can lead to segmentation by buyer-seller similarity (companies with similar personnel and values), attitudes toward risk (focus on risk-taking or risk-avoiding companies), or loyalty (focus on companies that show high loyalty to their suppliers.
  • Effective Segmentation This CTR relates to the material on pp. 248-249. Requirements for Effective Segmentation Measurability . This refers to the degree to which the size and purchasing power of the segments can be measured. The accuracy and availability of measures of market potential are important. Accessibility. This refers to the degree to which a market segment can be reached and served. Identifying a segment is useless if the marketer has limited access to the customer. Substantiality. This refers to the degree to which the segments are large or profitable enough to service. Actionability . This is the degree to which an effective marketing program can be designed for attracting and serving segments. Company resource limitations figure prominently in actionability issues.
  • Evaluating Market Segments Segment Size and Growth. The company must collect and analyze data on current dollar sales, projected sales-growth, and expected profit margins for each market segment. Segment Structural Attractiveness. Long run attractiveness includes an assessment of current and potential competitors, the threats of substitutes, and the power of buyers and suppliers. Company Objectives and Resources. The company’s resources and core business strengths should also fit well with the market segment opportunities. Evaluating Market Segments This CTR relates to the material on pp. 259-250.
  • Market Coverage Strategies This CTR corresponds to Figure 8-3 on p. 250 relates to the discussion on pp. 250-254. Market Coverage Strategies Undifferentiated Marketing . This strategy uses the same marketing mix for the entire market. This strategy focuses on the common needs of the market rather than differences in it. Undifferentiated marketing provides economies of scale on product costs but may be limited in application. Differentiated Marketing. This strategy targets several market segments and designs separate marketing mixes for each of them. Product and marketing variation also helps company image and may produce loyalty in consumers as they change segments. Concentrated Marketing. This strategy commits a company to pursue a large share of one or more submarkets. Economies and segment knowledge and service are strengths of this approach but risk due to smaller market size is greater.
  • Steps in Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning Market Segmentation. Market segmentation is the process of dividing a market into distinct groups of buyers who might require separate products or marketing mixes. All buyers have unique needs and wants. Still it is usually possible in consumer markets to identify relatively homogeneous portions or segments of the total market according to shared preferences, attitudes, or behaviors that distinguish them from the rest of the market. These segments may require different products and/or separate mixes. Market Targeting. Market targeting is the process of evaluating each market segment&apos;s attractiveness and selecting one or more segments to enter. Given effective market segmentation, the firm must choose which markets to serve and how to serve them. Discussion Note: In targeting markets to serve the firm must consider its resources and objectives in setting strategy. Market Positioning. Market positioning he process of formulating competitive positioning for a product and a detailed marketing mix. Marketers must plan how to present the product to the consumer. Discussion Note: The product&apos;s position is defined by how consumers view it on important attributes. Steps in Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning This CTR corresponds to Figure 8-1 on p. 235 and relates to the material on pp. 235-237.
  • quan tri nhan luc

    1. 1. Phân tích hành vi người tiêu dùng
    2. 2. Kh¸ch hµng lµ ai? <ul><li>Quan niÖm cña DN vÒ kh¸ch hµng </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kh¸ch hµng lµ ng­êi quan träng nhÊt trong doanh nghiÖp cña chóng ta </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chóng ta phô thuéc vµo kh¸ch hµng </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kh«ng ph¶i lµ g©y khã dÔ cho c«ng viÖc cña chóng ta, mµ chÝnh lµ môc tiªu phôc vô cña chóng ta </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hä còng nh­ chóng ta víi nh÷ng nhu cÇu, mong muèn riªng cña m×nh, vµ muèn ®­îc h­ëng nh÷ng g× tèt ®Ñp nhÊt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Khi hä tíi víi chóng ta lµ hä ®· cã thiÖn chÝ víi chóng ta </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>KH mang mong muèn cña hä tíi cho ta, C«ng viÖc cña chóng ta lµ tho¶ m·n nh÷ng mong muèn ®ã </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>KH xøng ®¸ng ®­îc h­ëng sù ®èi xö lÞch sù vµ ©n cÇn c¶u chóng ta </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kh¸ch hµng tr¶ l­¬ng cho chóng ta. </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Hµnh vi mua cña kh¸ch hµng C¸c c©u hái cã liªn quan ®Õn kh¸ch hµng Qu¸ tr×nh ra quyÕt ®Þnh C¸c yÕu tè ¶nh h­ëng
    4. 4. C¸c c©u hái cã liªn quan tíi kh¸ch hµng <ul><li>Kh¸ch hµng lµ ai? </li></ul><ul><li>Kh¸ch hµng sÏ mua s¶n phÈm nµo? </li></ul><ul><li>Kh¸ch hµng sÏ mua nh­ thÕ nµo? </li></ul><ul><li>Khi nµo kh¸ch hµng sÏ mua? </li></ul><ul><li>Kh¸ch hµng muèn mua s¶n phÈm ë ®©u? </li></ul><ul><li>V× sao kh¸ch hµng muèn mua s¶n phÈm? </li></ul>
    5. 5. ThÞ tr­êng ng­êi tiªu dïng <ul><li>Nh÷ng nh©n tè nµo ¶nh h­ëng tíi hµnh vi mua hµng cña ng­êi tiªu dïng? </li></ul><ul><li>Ng­êi tiªu dïng ra quyÕt ®Þnh mua hµng nh­ thÕ nµo? </li></ul>
    6. 6. Người tiêu dùng mua như thế nào và tại sao? Mô hình hành vi mua của khách hàng Tác động marketing & các tác động khác Đặc điểm Người mua Quá trình ra QĐ của người mua Quyết định của người mua
    7. 7. M« h×nh hµnh vi mua cña ng­êi tiªu dïng Hép ®en cña ng­êi mua ? ? Ph¶n øng cña ng­êi mua Marketing & c¸c t¸c ®éng kh¸c
    8. 8. C¸c nh©n tè ¶nh h­ëng ®Õn hµnh vi NTD C¸ nh©n Tuæi vµ chu kú sèng NghÒ nghiÖp T×nh tr¹ng vÒ kinh tÕ Phong c¸ch sèng TÝnh c¸ch X· héi Nhãm ¶nh h­ëng Gia ®×nh Vai trß vµ ®Þa vÞ T©m lý §éng c¬ Sù nhËn thøc Häc hái NiÒm tin vµ th¸i ®é V¨n hãa V¨n hãa Nhãm v¨n hãa nhá TÇng líp x· héi Ng­êi mua
    9. 9. Thảo luận <ul><li>Những thay đổi cơ bản do sự chuyển đổi từ cơ chế tập trung, quan liêu, bao cấp sang cơ chế thị trường về văn hóa (VD: chủ nghĩa các nhân và chủ nghĩa tập thể), giá trị tiêu dùng (VD: chủ nghĩa vật chất, chủ nghĩa dân tộc chủ nghĩa trong tiêu dùng), phong cách sống,…? </li></ul><ul><li>Ảnh hưởng của những thay đổi trên đối với hành vi của NTD? </li></ul>
    10. 10. Qu¸ tr×nh ra quyÕt ®Þnh mua cña NTD NhËn thøc nhu cÇu (vÝ dô: cÇn thay thÕ ®«i giÇy cò) T×m kiÕm th«ng tin (t×m kiÕm c¸c cöa hµng, kiÓu d¸ng, gi¸, ý kiÕn cña ng­êi kh¸c) §¸nh gi¸ c¸c ph­¬ng ¸n thay thÕ (Lo¹i nµo lµ phï hîp? Cã kh¶ n¨ng mua? Ph¶n øng cña ng­êi kh¸c) QuyÕt ®Þnh mua hµng (Sù lùa chän theo lý trÝ hoÆc theo c¶m gi¸c) §¸nh gi¸ sau khi mua (Quan s¸t sù ph¶n øng tõ nh÷ng ng­êi kh¸c, ®é bÒn so víi giÇy cò)
    11. 11. Thảo luận <ul><li>Doanh nghiệp có thể làm gì để </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tác động tới khách hàng mua SP/nhãn hiệu của họ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Đưa khách hàng sang các giai đoạn khác của quá trình ra quyết định mua hàng </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Quyết định mua <ul><li>Thích SP chưa chắc dẫn tới ý định mua </li></ul>Quyết định mua Nguồn thông tin mới Ý kiến trái chiều Yếu tố tình huống bất ngờ Rủi ro về tài chính
    13. 13. Hành vi sau khi mua <ul><li>Mong đợi của khách hàng </li></ul>KH không thỏa mãn ! KH thỏa mãn ! <ul><li>Cảm nhận về chất lượng SP </li></ul>Kết quả So với
    14. 14. Sự thỏa mãn của khách hàng <ul><li>KH thỏa mãn dẫn tới </li></ul><ul><ul><li>KH trung thành </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ít chuyển sang nhà cung ứng/SP khác </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mua lặp lại </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mua số lượng lớn </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Truyền miệng’/ WOM thuận cho DN </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. C¸c nh©n tè ¶nh h­ëng ®Õn hµnh vi NTD C¸ nh©n Tuæi vµ chu kú sèng NghÒ nghiÖp T×nh tr¹ng vÒ kinh tÕ Phong c¸ch sèng TÝnh c¸ch c¸ nh©n X· héi Nhãm ¶nh h­ëng Gia ®×nh Vai trß vµ ®Þa vÞ T©m lý §éng c¬ Sù nhËn thøc HiÓu biÕt NiÒm tin vµ th¸i ®é V¨n hãa V¨n hãa Nhãm v¨n hãa nhá TÇng líp x· héi Ng­êi mua
    16. 16. Tham gia qu¸ tr×nh quyÕt ®Þnh mua cña NTD Ng­êi quyÕt ®Þnh Ng­êi mua Ng­êi sö dông Ng­êi ¶nh h­ëng Ng­êi khëi x­íng Nh÷ng ng­êi tham gia vµo qu¸ tr×nh quyÕt ®Þnh mua
    17. 17. Ng­êi mua lµ c¸c tæ chøc (KH c«ng nghiÖp) <ul><li>Ai lµ ng­êi mua? </li></ul>§Æc ®iÓm cña ng­êi mua tæ chøc - It ng­êi mua h¬n - Mua sè l­îng lín h¬n - Nhu cÇu cã ®Þnh h­íng - Mèi quan hÖ gi÷a ng­êi cung cÊp vµ kh¸ch hµng gÇn gòi h¬n - Qu¸ tr×nh mua mang tÝnh chuyªn nghiÖp - Th­êng mua trùc tiÕp §Æc ®iÓm cña ng­êi tiªu dïng - NhiÒu ng­êi mua - Mua víi sè l­îng nhá - Nhu cÇu hay thay ®æi - Qu¸ tr×nh mua kh«ng mang tÝnh chuyªn nghiÖp - C¸c ®Æc ®iÓm kh¸c
    18. 18. M« h×nh hµnh vi mua cña ng­êi mua tæ chøc Tæ chøc mua hµng Trung t©m mua Qu¸ tr×nh ra quyÕt ®Þnh mua Ph¶n øng cña ng­êi mua M«i tr­êng
    19. 19. Qu¸ tr×nh mua cña ng­êi mua tæ chøc NhËn thøc vÊn ®Ò M« t¶ chung vÒ nhu cÇu §Æc ®iÓm, tiªu thøc KT cña SP T×m kiÕm nhµ cung øng Xem xÐt c¸c b¶n chµo hµng Lùa chän nhµ cung øng ChuÈn bÞ ®¬n/ hîp ®ång mua hµng Xem xÐt møc ®é tho¶ m·n sau mua
    20. 20. C¸c nh©n tè ¶nh h­ëng tíi hµnh vi mua cña ng­êi mua tæ chøc §Æc ®iÓm c¸ nh©n (tuæi,…) M«i tr­êng (KT, CT,…) Tæ chøc (CS, c¬ cÊu TC,…) Nh÷ng ng­êi tham gia qu¸ tr×nh mua Ng­êi mua
    21. 21. Tham gia qu¸ tr×nh ra quyÕt ®Þnh cña ng­êi mua tæ chøc QuyÕt ®Þnh mua “ Ng­êi g¸c cæng” Ng­êi ra quyÕt ®Þnh Ng­êi mua Ng­êi g©y ¶nh h­ëng Ng­êi sö dông
    22. 22. Bµi tËp nhãm <ul><li>1. Hµnh vi mua hµng cao cÊp (xa xØ) ë ViÖt nam </li></ul><ul><li>Kh¸ch hµng lµ ai? </li></ul><ul><li>C¸c yÕu tè ¶nh h­ëng hµnh vi mua? </li></ul><ul><li>Kh¸ch hµng muèn mua s¶n phÈm ë ®©u? </li></ul><ul><li>V× sao kh¸ch hµng muèn mua s¶n phÈm (®éng c¬ mua)? </li></ul><ul><li>Nh÷ng s¶n phÈm cao cÊp phæ biÕn hiÖn nay mµ KH th­êng mua? </li></ul><ul><li>2. Hµnh vi mua hµng ngÉu høng </li></ul><ul><li>C¸c yÕu tè ¶nh h­ëng hµnh vi mua ngÉu høng? </li></ul><ul><li>Sù kh¸c nhau gi÷a nam & n÷ trong mua ngÉu høng? </li></ul>
    23. 23. Bài viết <ul><li>- Sự thỏa mãn của khách hàng Việt Nam khi mua và sử dụng các sản phẩm/dịch vụ cao cấp (chủ yếu hàng ngoại nhập như quần áo hàng hiệu, đồ điện tử, điện thoại di động, cho con học trường quốc tế,…)? </li></ul><ul><li>- Những yếu tố quyết định mức độ thỏa mãn của KH khi mua/sử dụng hàng cao cấp? </li></ul>
    24. 24. Bài viết <ul><li>Conduct an in-depth interview with 03 consumers and write a brief summary of the findings. </li></ul><ul><li>Topic of the interview : </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional vs. modern people </li></ul><ul><li>The meaning of “ traditional ” and “ modern ”? </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics of “ traditional person ” & “ modern person ” (appearance, attitude, values, behaviors)? </li></ul><ul><li>The relationship between “traditional person”/ “modern person” and buying imported products </li></ul>
    25. 25. Ph©n ®o¹n thÞ tr­êng
    26. 26. Ph©n ®o¹n thÞ tr­êng lµ g×? Ph©n ®o¹n thÞ tr­êng lµ chia thÞ tr­êng ra thµnh nh÷ng nhãm ng­êi mua riªng biÖt cã c¸c ®Æc ®iÓm vµ nhu cÇu t­¬ng ®èi gièng nhau Ph©n ®o¹n thÞ tr­êng gióp cho doanh nghiÖp cã thÓ ph¸t triÓn mét ch­¬ng tr×nh marketing riªng biÖt cho mét ®o¹n thÞ tr­êng ®· lùa chän. §iÒu nµy kh«ng thÓ lµm ®­îc víi c¶ thÞ tr­êng A A A A A B B B C
    27. 27. Tiªu thøc ph©n ®o¹n thÞ tr­êng Tiªu thøc ph©n ®o¹n thÞ tr­êng §Þa lý Nh©n khÈu häc T©m lý XH häc Hµnh vi
    28. 28. Ph©n ®o¹n theo ®Þa lý <ul><li>Khu vùc: §«ng ¢u, T©y ¢u, B¾c Mü, Trung §«ng, §«ng Nam ¸... </li></ul><ul><li>Quèc gia: ViÖt nam, Th¸i lan, Trung Quèc... </li></ul><ul><li>MiÒn: B¾c, Trung, Nam </li></ul><ul><li>TØnh, thµnh phè </li></ul><ul><li>Thµnh thÞ, ngo¹i «, n«ng th«n... </li></ul><ul><li>QuËn, huyÖn, x·, ph­êng </li></ul>Kh«ng ph¶i mäi ng­êi ë gÇn nhau ®Òu gièng nhau!
    29. 29. C¸c yÕu tè nh©n khÈu häc Tuæi t¸c Giíi tÝnh Thu nhËp NghÒ nghiÖp TÝn ng­ìng
    30. 30. C¸c yÕu tè t©m lý x· héi TÇng líp x· héi C¸ tÝnh Lèi sèng
    31. 31. Hµnh vi ng­êi tiªu dïng <ul><li>Thêi gian mua hµng </li></ul><ul><li>Lîi Ých t×m kiÕm </li></ul><ul><li>Quan hÖ gi÷a ng­êi tiªu dïng vµ s¶n phÈm </li></ul><ul><li>Møc ®é sö dông </li></ul><ul><li>Møc ®é trung thµnh </li></ul><ul><li>C¸c giai ®o¹n trong qu¸ tr×nh mua </li></ul><ul><li>Th¸i ®é ®èi víi s¶n phÈm </li></ul>
    32. 32. Ph©n ®o¹n thÞ tr­êng KH tæ chøc C¬ së ph©n ®o¹n TT KH tæ chøc Nh©n khÈu häc C¸c ®Æc ®iÓm c¸ nh©n C¸c nh©n tè t×nh huèng C¸c biÕn sè ho¹t ®éng C¸ch tiÕp cËn mua hµng
    33. 33. Ph©n ®o¹n thÞ tr­êng cã hiÖu qu¶ Cã thÓ tiÕp cËn ®­îc Cã quy m« ®¸ng kÓ Cã kh¶ n¨ng thùc hiÖn ®­îc Yªu cÇu ®Ó ph©n ®o¹n thÞ tr­êng cã hiÖu qu¶ Cã thÓ ­íc l­îng ®­îc
    34. 34. §¸nh gi¸ ph©n ®o¹n thÞ tr­êng Qui m« & ph¸t triÓn TÝnh hÊp dÉn Môc tiªu & nguån lùc c«ng ty
    35. 35. Bµi tËp t×nh huèng §Õn Levis còng m¾c sai lÇm!
    36. 36. C¸c chiÕn l­îc chiÕm lÜnh thÞ tr­êng Hçn h¬p Marketing cña DN ThÞ tr­êng Marketing kh«ng ph©n biÖt Hçn hîp Mktg 1 Hçn hîp Mktg 2 Hçn hîp Mktg 3 §o¹n TT 3 Marketing ph©n biÖt §o¹n TT 2 §o¹n TT 1 §o¹n TT 3 Hçn h¬p Marketing cña DN §o¹n TT 2 Marketing tËp trung §o¹n TT 1
    37. 37. C¸c ph­¬ng ¸n lùa chän thÞ tr­êng môc tiªu <ul><li>Bao phñ toµn bé thÞ tr­êng </li></ul><ul><li>TËp trung </li></ul><ul><li>Chuyªn m«n ho¸ theo s¶n phÈm </li></ul><ul><li>Chuyªn m«n ho¸ truyÓn chän </li></ul><ul><li>Chuyªn m«n ho¸ theo thÞ tr­êng </li></ul>1 2 3 §o¹n thÞ tr­êng SP1 SP2 SP3
    38. 38. §Þnh vÞ s¶n phÈm <ul><li>ThiÕt kÕ mét s¶n phÈm cã nh÷ng ®Æc tÝnh kh¸c biÖt so víi s¶n phÈm cña ®èi thñ c¹nh tranh vµ t¹o cho nã mét h×nh ¶nh riªng biÖt </li></ul><ul><li>Kh¸ch hµng bÞ ch×m ngËp trong qu¸ nhiÒu qu¶ng c¸o cña qu¸ nhiÒu hµng ho¸ ==> T¹o h×nh ¶nh ®Æc tr­ng, dÔ nhí </li></ul>
    39. 39. §Þnh vÞ S¶n phÈm <ul><li>T¹o h×nh ¶nh dùa trªn thuéc tÝnh: Electrolux </li></ul><ul><li>T¹o h×nh ¶nh th«ng qua biÓu t­îng: Pepsi; Bia C orona </li></ul>
    40. 40. VÝ dô vÒ S¬ ®ồ định vị Giá cả Chất lượng Thấp Cao Thấp Cao A B
    41. 41. C¸c b­íc trong ph©n ®o¹n, lùa chän & ®Þnh vÞ thÞ tr­êng 1. X¸c ®Þnh c¬ së ®Ó ph©n ®o¹n thÞ tr­êng 2. Ph¸t triÓn tËp hîp c¸c ®o¹n thÞ tr­êng 3. X©y dùng th­íc ®o ®é hÊp dÉn 4. Lùa chän ®o¹n thÞ tr­êng 5. X©y dùng chiÕn l­îc ®Þnh vÞ cho tõng ®o¹n TT 6. Ph¸t triÓn Marketing hçn hîp cho tõng ®o¹n TT §Þnh vÞ thÞ tr­êng Lùa chän ®o¹n thÞ tr­êng môc tiªu Ph©n ®o¹n thÞ tr­êng
    42. 42. Hçn hîp Marketing Kh¸ch hµng môc tiªu Ph©n phèi KhuÕch tr­¬ng 20% OFF S¶n phÈm Con ng­êi C¬ së v/c Qu¸ tr×nh DV Gi¸
    43. 43. Bài tập nhóm (3 người)

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