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Lecture on articles

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  • 1. Articles
  • 2. • The Article is a kind of determiner used to identifies or classifies the noun. • In the English language, the articles are classified into 3 kinds: 1. Indefinite articles ( a, an) 2. Definite articles (the) 3. Zero articles (Omission of articles)
  • 3. I. Indefinite articles ( a, an) A. “a, an” and common nouns 1. “A, an” are used with countable singular nouns in general sense. EX: A small car is more practical than a big one. 2. “A, an” are used with the meaning : One- each- every
  • 4. 3. “A, an” are used with nouns of occupation, politic,.. etc. Ex: A teacher, an artist, a spy,… A politician, a president, a mayor,…
  • 5. 4. A, an are used to refer to illnesses: I’ve got a headache, a cold, a pain in my heart,…. 5. A, an are used in idiomatic expressions: - To be in a hurry, to be at a loss, as a rule, …
  • 6. 6. A, an are used after the following words: what, such, many, quite, half,.. What an interesting story! Such a beautiful day! He is quite a good fellow. Half an hour Many a (great number) famous film star has been ruined by drug.
  • 7. B. “A. an” and proper nouns 1. A, an can be used before a title ( Mr., Mrs. Miss,…with a sense of “ a certain person I don’t know. A Mr. Dan phoned and left a message for you.
  • 8. 2. “A, an” are used with nouns of nationality, religion. Ex: An American, a German, A Chinese,… A Christian, a Buddhist, An Islam,…
  • 9. II. Definite articles (the) A. The and common nouns A common noun is used with THE when both the speaker( writer) and listener( reader) know exactly which one (s) is / are mentioned. There are 4 cases in which the speaker assumes the listener knows exactly which one (s) is / are meant.
  • 10. 1.There is only one in our world or immediate surroundings. 1.1. There is only one in our world. a. b. The sun is shining. We must take care of the environment. 1.2. There is only one in our immediate surroundings( in our country, neighborhood, house,...). a. b. The roses are beautiful. There is a vase on the TV.
  • 11. 1.3. Even though there may be more than one in the area, we use the with park, cinema, movies, bus, and train because we can figure out that it is the one closest or most convenient to us, or the one we usually go to. a. b. I took the bus to the town. I went to the park yesterday.
  • 12. 2. The person or thing is identified in the context (or conversation) through what has been mentioned or what is going to be mentioned, so the reader knows “ which specific one” is mentioned.
  • 13. 2.1. Text- reference back (what has been mentioned) a. b. I bought a skirt and a dress. The dress is much more expensive than the skirt. I took a taxi to the airport today and the driver told me that the planes were running late.
  • 14. 2.2. Text- reference forward (what is going to be mentioned) a. b. She is studying the history of Vietnam. How did you get the mud on your coat.
  • 15. 3 . There is only person or thing that can be meant logically. In this case the word like only, most, first, last, make clear that only one can be meant. a. b. He is the most popular teacher in this school. Mary hurt herself on the forehead.
  • 16. 4. The class as a whole is referred to. In this case one example stands for the whole class; as a result, “ THE” is used with singular count noun. a. b. The peacock is the nicest of all animals. Life would be more difficult without the telephone.
  • 17. B. Proper nouns and THE Most proper nouns do NOT have an article, but sometimes, “ THE” is the part of the name. Here is the list:
  • 18. 1. Plural names: - People: The Taylors, The Jonhsons - Countries: The Netherlands, The Midlands, The United States,.. - Groups of Islands: The Bahamas, The Philippines, - Ranges of mountains: The Himalayas, The Alps,…
  • 19. 2. Names with the compass point in them The North, The West, The North West,…
  • 20. 3. Names consisting of a common noun with post modification.      The District of Colombia The Tower of London The Great wall of China The Bank of England The House of Commons
  • 21. 4. Names consisting of proper nouns and common nouns      The White House The Grand Hotel The British Museum The Tate Gallery The British Broadcasting Coorporation
  • 22. 5. Names of water ways, big bodies of water     Rivers: The Avon, The Nile river, The Thame Seas: The North sea, The Red sea, The Black sea, The China sea,.. Oceans: The Pacific, The Atlantic, The Indian ocean, The Mediterranean,.. Canals: Suez Canal, Panama canal,..
  • 23. 6. Names of people to refer to the people of that country in a general sense       The Vietnamese The Chinese The Germans The Italians The French The Americans.
  • 24. III. Zero article A. Zero article and common nouns Zero article is used with plural countable, abstract nouns, and material nouns in general sense. Ex: Cats catch mice. Women are fighting for their rights. life is short, and art is long. Gold is valuable metal. 1.
  • 25. 2. Zero article is needed with names of meals, colors, illnesses, seasons,… in general sense. Ex: Breakfast is ready. I like blue. Influenza often occurs in spring.
  • 26. 3. Zero article is used with names of subjects, art, sports, games, means of transport with by, headline news,…. Ex: Chemistry is an interesting subject to learn. She is studying fine art. Football is the most popular sport. They play chess when they have time. We went there by bus. Fire in Dong Xuan market is unidentified.
  • 27. 4. Zero article is used with fixed phrases.       Arm in arm Hand in hand Day by day Face to face From beginning to end From west to east
  • 28. 5. Zero article is used with some special places.      Go to church Go to school Go to bed Go to market Go to prison
  • 29. B. Zero article and proper nouns 1. 2. 3. Personal names: Dr. Watson, President Barrack Obama,… Calendar items: festivals, months, days of the week. Geographical names: Continents, countries, states, counties, cities, towns, lakes, mountains,

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