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VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
VU QUY HA_CHIEN LUOC KD CTY CP XD SO 2.pdf
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  1. INTERNATIONAL EXECUTIVE MBA PROGRAM (leMBA) Chirang trinh cao hoc Quan tri kinh doanh Quoc teLUAN VAN TOT NGHIEP CHIEN LirOC KINH DOANH CONG TY CO PHAN XAY D I T N G SO 2 - VINACONEX (NGANH XD-GTVT) r • VU QUY HA IEMBA#3 THANG 05, 2007
  2. INTERNATIONAL EXECUTIVE MBA PROGRAM (leMBA) Chircrng trinh cao hoc Quan trj kinh doanh Quoc te BAN LUAN VAN N A Y Dl/OC NOP CHO TRironVG DAI HOC IRVINE (HOA KY) VA KHOA QUAN TRI KINH DOANH (TRUING DAI HOC QUOC GIA HA N O I )BAN LUAN VAN LA M O T PHAN BAT BUQC TRONG CHLTONG TRINH DAO TAO THAC SY QUAN TRI KINH DOANH QUOC TE THANG 05, 2007
  3. Phe duyet ciia Chirong trinh Cao hoc quan tri kinh doanh quoc te Chu nhiem chuang trinhToi xac nhan rang luan van nay da dap ijmg dirge cac yeu cau cua mot luan van tot nghiepthuoc chuang trinh dao tao Thac sy Quan trj kinh doanh. PGS-TS. VQCongTy Chu tich Hoi dongChung toi, ky ten duai day xac nhan rang chiing toi da doc toan bo luan van nay va congnhan ban luan van hoan toan dap ung cac tieu chuan ciia mot luan van Thac sy quan tri kinhdoanh. TS^jbiguyfn Viet Anh Giao vien huong danCac thanh vien Hoi dong(Xep thu tu ten theo bang chCr cai)TS. Nguyen Viet AnhNCS. Trhn Phuong LanTS. Pham Quang NgocPGS-TS. Ngo Thi Kim Thanh
  4. CAMKET Toi xin cam ket rang noi dung cua ban luan van nay chua dugc nop cho bat ky motchucTig trinh cap bang cao hoc nao ciing nhu bat ky mot chucTig trinh dao tao cap bang naokhac. Toi cung xin cam ket them rang ban luan van nay la no lire ca nhan cua toi. Cac ketqua, phan tich, ket luan trong luan van nay (ngoai cac phan dugc trich dan) deu la ket qualam viec cua ca nhan toi. Hoc vien — ^ w Quy Ha
  5. LOI CAM ON Toi xin chan trgng cam O i sir huong dan nhiet tinh, trach nhiem cua giang Tvien TS. Nguyen Viet Anh va Ban lanh dao - HSB, da huong dan, tao dieu kien tot nhat chotoi trong suot qua trinh nghien cuu de hoan thien khoa luan nay. Xin tran trgng cam on Cong ty Cp Xay dung so 2, Tong cong ty CP xuat nhap khauxay dung Viet Nam - Vinaconex, da tao dieu kien cung cap mot so tai lieu, thong tin trongqua trinh khao sat nghien cuu de tai. Xin chan thanh cam an tap the lop le MBA - 3, vai sir doan ket gan bo trong ca quatrinh hoc tap nghien cuu . Toi xin bay to long biet on den toan the giang vien, can bg cong nhan vien tham giacong tie giang day, phuc vu khoa dao tao le MBA -3, da tan tinh va tao dieu kien giup chungtoi hoan thanh tot khoa hoc Hoc vien VH^uyHd
  6. MUC LUC • •CHironVG 1: PHAN Md DAUl.l.Su* can thi€t va y nghia cua 6h tai 11.2. Muc tieu nghien cihi cua de tai 21.3. Pham vi nghien cmi cua de tai 31.4. Phirong phap nghien cuu 31.5. Tinh urng dung vao thyc tien cua de tai 31.6. Bo cue cua de tai 3CHLTONG 2: CO Sd LY LUAN CUA DE TAI2.1. Nhirng van de ca ban cua quan tri cbien luac 5 2.1.1. Khai niem ve chien luge va quan trj chien luge 5 2.1.2. Lgi ich va han che ciia chien luge trong hoat dong kinh doanh 6 2.1.3. Xay dung va thuc hien chien luge kinh doanh 7 2.1.4. Cac chi6n luge canh tranh chung 82.2. Phan tich moi trwotng vi mo 13 2.2.1. Moitruong kinh te 14 2.2.2. Moi truong cong nghe 15 2.2.3. Moi truong xa hoi 16 2.2.4. Moi truong dan s5, lao dong 16 2.2.5. Moi truong chinh tri, phap luat 172.3. Phan tich moi trircmg nganh - mo hinh nam lye luang canh tranh cua Porter.. 17 2.3.1. Su xu£t hien cua cac cong ty moi -dedgaciiadoi thu tiem nang 18 2.3.2. Cac doi thu canh tranh hien tai 19 2.3.3. Quyen nang cua khach hang 20 2.3.4. Quyen nang cua nha cung cap 21 2.3.5. San pham thay the 22 2.3.6. Cac ddi tugng c6 lien quan 222.4. Phan tich noi bo moi trucrng doanh nghiep 24 2.4.1. Cac nguon lire vatiem lire cua mot doanh nghiep 24 2.4.2. Di6m manh, diem yeu cua doanh nghiep 25
  7. 2.4.3. Nang lire cot loi cua mot doanh nghiep 26 2.4.4. Phan tich chu6i gia trj 27 2.4.5. Ma tran SWOT 30CHLTONG 3: PHAN TICH THLTC TRANG VE CONG TY CO P H A N XAY DLTNG SO 2VINACONEX 23.1. Tom t4t qua trinh hinh thanh va phat trien 33 3.1.1. Giai thieu ve cong ty c6 phan xay dung so 2 33 3.1.2. Co cku so huu (Dan thoi di§m 20/10/2006) 33 3.1.3. Tom tat qua trinh hinh thanh va phat trien 36 3.1.4. LTnh vuc dang ky kinh doanh 37 3.1.5. San pham djch vu chu yeu hien nay cua Cong ty 383.2 Phan tich lira chon chiln luac phat trien cho Cong ty trong giai doan 2006 -^ 2015 41 3.2.1 TAnnhin 41 3.2.2 Sumang 413.3. Phan tich moi trvimg vT mo tac dong den Cong ty CPXD So 2 42 3.3.1 Moi truong chinh tri & phap luat 42 3.2.2 Moi truong kinh te 44 3.3.3 Moi truong KHKT cua DN 47 3.3.4 Moi truong van hoa xa hoi cua DN 483.4. Phan tich moi trwong vi mo (nganh xay dyng ) theo mo hinh 5 lye luong canh tranhcua Micheal Porter 50 3.4.1 Cac Cong ty moi gia nhap thj trucmg 51 3.4.2 Sir canh tranh cua cac doi thu hien tai 53 3.4.3 Quyen lire eua Nha cung cap 54 3.4.4. Cac san pham thay the 55 3.4.5 Quyen nang cua nguoi mua 55 3.4.6 Cac doi tugng lien quan 57 3.4.7 Ma tran danh gia cac yeu to ben ngoai tac dong den Cong ty c6 phan xay dung so 2 (MatranEFE) 583.5 Phan tich moi truccng ben trong cua Cong ty c6 ph4n xay dyng so 2 61 3.5.1 Ap dung chuoi gia trj (Value chain) 61
  8. 3.5.2, Xac dinh nang lire canh tranh cot loi cua cong ty 72 3.5.3. Ap dung cong cu SWOT de danh gia nang lire va vi the cua Cong ty CPXD so 2 79CHirONG IV: CHIEN Ll/OC KINH DOANH CUA CONG TY CP XD SO 2 -VINACONEX2 TRONG GIAI DOAN 2006 - 2011 h^4.1. Cac muc tieu cua Cong ty VINACONEX2 den nam 2011 884.2. Phan tich cac chien vtac kinh doanh cua Cong ty va bien phap thyc hien 88 4.2.1. Phan tich cac chien luge kinh doanh cua Cong ty 88 4.2.2 : Nhom cac giai phap co ban thuc hien nhiem vu chien luge 944.3. Nhirng han che cua Luan van 964.4. Ket luan 96TAI LIEU THAM KHAO 98PHAN PHU LUC Phu luc 1: Giai thieu ve Cong ty me (Tong cong ty c6 phan Vinaconex) 100 Phu luc 2: Bao cao tai chinh torn tat nam 2006 da dugc kiem toan 104 Phu luc 3: Dulieu dau thau va tieu chuan danh gia ho saduthau 108
  9. CHlTONG 1 PHAN M d DAU1.1 Sy can thiet va y nghia cua de tai:Sau nam 1986, cung voi su thanh cong cua cong cugc doi moi, Viet Nam tir mot nuoc c6n6n kinh te tap trung, bao cap sang da chuyen kinh te thi truong voi toe do phat trien kinhte cao. Trong giai doan tu 1990-1997, nen kinh te Viet Nam c6 toe do tang trucmg trungbinh 8.5%. Sau cuoc khiing hoang kinh te Chau A, toe do tang trucmg kinh te giam xuongnhung van duy tri 6 muc 6-7% mot nam. Tu mot quoc gia lac hau, kem phat trien trongnhung nam thap ky 80 cua the ky 20, Viet Nam da tro thanh mot quoc gia dang phat triennhanh chong hoi nhap vao nen kinh te the gioi.Nam 2006 la cot moc dang nho danh dau hang loat nhung sir kien Ion ve kinh te va chinhtrj nhu thanh cong cua Dai hoi Dang toan quoc lan thu X, Viet Nam chinh thuc gia nhapt5 chuc thuong mai thi gioi (WTO), to chuc thanh cong Dien dan hgp tac kinh te Chau A- Thai Binh Duong. Co thi noi, nhurng ylu t5 nay gop phan tao ra mot van hoi mai chotoan nen kinh te.Tren thi gioi nganh xay dung luon dugc coi la mot nganh kinh te quan trgng, khong thethilu dugc cua nin kinh tl quoc dan. 6 nhieu nude, trong bang xep loai cac nganh taongu6n thu chu yeu va su dung nhieu lao dong cua nen kinh te, ta luon thay c6 ten nganhxay dung. Viet Nam cung khong n^m ngoai quy luat nay, ty trgng khu vuc cong nghiepva xay dung trong co c4u kinh tl chilm 41%. Xuat phat dilm la mot quoc gia nongnghiep, Viet Nam van dang tien len tren con duong Cong nghiep hoa, hien dai hoa. Theodu bao ty trgng k khu vuc cong nghiep va xay dung se ngay tang va xay dung se dongmot vai tro then chot gop phan xay dung dat nuac cong nghiep hien dai.Trong b6i canh cua toan bg nen kinh te, Cong ty Co phkn Xay dung s6 2 la mot cong tyxay dung thugc Tong cong ty xuat nhap khau va xay dung Viet Nam (VINACONEX), 1
  10. mot trong nhung Tong cong ty xay dung hang dau cua nganh xay dung vai 18 nam phattrien va truong thanh. Dugc kl thua thuong hieu noi tieng tren thi truong voi tarn nhinchien luge, nam 2003, cong ty da dugc lira chgn la mot trong nhung cong ty dau tien ciiaTong cong ty c6 phkn hoa theo dung chu truong phat trien cua Dang va Nha nuoc. Nam2006, nam vijng thoi co, Cong ty C6 phkn Xay dung so 2 la mot ba cong ty thanh viendau tien thugc T6ng cong ty dugc cac co quan chuc nang chap thuan, cho phep niem yetC philu tai Trung tarn giao dich chijrng khoan Ha Noi. Dieu nay danh dku mot buoc Ochuyen minh Ion lao cua Cong ty CP xay dung so 2, tao co hoi cho Cong ty thu hut vondku tu cho cac du an phat trien nhung cung la thach thuc doi voi Cong ty vi tir nay congty da tro thanh mot cong ty dai chung, moi hoat dong ciia Cong ty deu vi lgi ich cua cacC dong. De co the phat huy nhiJng truyen thong von co, tan dung ca hoi moi, va giam Othieu cac nguy co rui ro ciang nhu ducmg dau dugc voi cac thach thuc, Cong ty Co phanxay dung so 2 phai co mot chien luge kinh doanh dung dan va hgp ly, tan dung dugc caclgi thi canh tranh dk tro thanh cong ty vihig manh.De tai nghien cuu la tinh huong cu the cua Cong ty Co phan xay dung so 2 co y nghiathuc tiln cao. Vai nhung kiln thuc hoc thuat da dugc truyen dat qua khoa hgc, dugc suhuong din tan tinh cua cac giang vien trong nuoc va quoc te cua trucmg Dai hgc Quocgia Ha Noi, dl tai se dong gop true tiep vao chien luge phat trien ciia Cong ty ma toi laChu tjch Hoi d6ng Quan trj kiem Giam die.1.2 Muc tieu nghien cihi ciia de tai:Ung dung cac ly thuyet ve quan trj chien luge vao viec xay dung chien luge kinh doanhcho Cong ty Co phan xay dung so 2.
  11. 1.3 Pham vi nghien ciru cua de tai:De tai nghien cuu xay dung chien luge phat trien kinh doanh cu the cua Cong ty trongnam 2007 va trong giai doan den 2016. Pham vi nghien cuu cua dl tai la hai ITnh vuckinh doanh chinh ciia cong ty xay dung cong nghiep va dan dung va kinh doanh bit dongsan.1.4 Phvcmg phap nghien ciru:De tai ap dung phuong phap nghien cuu dinh tinh, nghien cuu dua tren tinh huong cu thecua Cong ty Co phan xay dung so 2. Phuong phap su dung trong de tai la phong van val4y y kien nhom (focus group), phong van cac phong, ban cua cong ty sau do ting hgp ykien tham khao ve tinh thuc te, kha nang ap dung va tinh hieu qua ciia y kien. Cac du lieula nhung bao cao cap nhat nhat ciia doanh nghiep nhung nam vira qua, bao cao ciia T6ngcong ty, bao cao va so lieu Thong ke cua Bg Xay dung, Bg Ke hoaeh va Dau tu, Phongthuong mai va cong nghiep Viet Nam...1.5 Tinh iirng dung vao thuc tiln cua de tai:De tai can cu tren nhung so lieu xac thuc ciia Cong ty, pham vi nghien cuu ciia de tai ungvai pham vi thuc tien hoat dong kinh doanh ciia doanh nghiep. De tai ap dung nhiJngkiln thuc mai nhat dugc truyen dat ve xay dung chien luge kinh doanh ciia cong ty. Detai nay se la co sd de xay dung chien luge kinh doanh ap dung trong thuc tiln.1.6 Bo cue cua de tai:Khoa luan bao gom 4 chuang vai noi dung chinh nhu sau:CHlTONG 1: PHAN M d DAUGiai thieu chung vl su ckn thilt, y nghTa, muc dich ciia de tai, pham vi, phuong phapnghien cuu, tinh ung dung thuc tien
  12. CHlTONG 2: CO S d LY LUAN CUA DE TAITong ket cac co so !y thuylt trong viec hoach dinh va xay dung chien luge kinh doanh.Tong hgp cac quy trinh trong xay dung va lira chgn chien luge. Trinh bay cac mo hinhphan tich moi truong vT mo; mo hinh nam lire lugng canh tranh eiia Micheal Porter; mohinh chuoi gia tri; mo hinh SWOT.CHlTONG 3: XAY D I T N G CHIEN LlTOC KINH DOANH CUA CONG TY COPHAN XAY DlTNG SO 2Chuang nay gioi thieu tong quan ve Cong ty Co phan xay dung so 2, ap dung cac mohinh phan tich da neu a Chuang 2 dl phan tich danh gia cu thi thuc trang ciia cong ty,neu ra tam nhin su mang ciia Cong ty, danh gia nang lire cot loi, xay dung cac chien lugephat trien kinh doanh ciia cong ty.CHlTONG 4: KET LUANSau khi dua ra chien luge kinh doanh eua Cong ty, tac gia xay dung cu the cac muc tieuciia chien luge, phan tich cac chien luge dugc lira chgn va cac buoc de thuc hien chienluge do.Chuang 4 cung dua ra nhung han chl ciia luan van va huong nghien cuu tiep theo.Ngoai ra luan van con gom co phan danh muc tai lieu tham khao, cac phu luc kem theo.
  13. CHU^OnVG 2 CO s d LY LUAN CUA DE TAI2.1 Nhirng van de co* ban cua quan tri chien luOc:2.1.1 Khai niem ve chien luOc va quan tri chien luo^c:Bat nguon tu thap ky 60 ciia the ky 20, chien luge dugc dua vao ung dung trong ITnh vuckinh doanh va thuat ng& "chien luge kinh doanh" da ra dai. Theo thoi gian, quan niem vlchien luge kinh doanh dugc phat trien dan va dugc tiep can theo cac each khac nhau.Tai buoi hoi thao to chuc tai truong kinh doanh Havard vao nam 1963, Cook da trinh bayy kien eiia minh ve chien luge la "sdch luac kinh doanh ciia doanh nghiep chu trong dennhung van de song con lien quan den lai ich cua doanh nghiep cua cap quan ly". Legge(2003) trong chuang trinh bay ve chien luge ciia to chuc da binh luan vl tac phkm ciiaHenry Mintzberg (1994) rang Nhin chung, neu ban hoi mot ai do dinh nghia ve chienluac ban se nhan duac cdu tra lai - chien luac Id mot ke hogch hoac mot dinh nghiatuomg duang - mot dinh hu&ng, mot hu&ng dan, mot qua trinh hdnh dong cho tuang lai,con du&ng ddn ban tir diem nay den diem khdc". Ban than Mintzberg lai tiep can chienluge theo mot each moi. Ong cho rang chien luge la mot mau hinh trong dong chay cacquyet djnh va chuang trinh hanh dong. Vi vay, theo ong chien luge co the co nguon gletu bat ky vj tri nao, noi nao ma nguoi ta co kha nang hgc hoi va co nguon lire trg giiipcho no. Thuc te chien luge ciia cac doanh nghiep la su ket hgp giua du djnh va dot bien.Ngoai ra, con rat nhieu eac dinh nghia khac ve chien luge nhu dinh nghTa eiia Prahaladva Hamel (1990), ciia Christensen (1997)... va nhieu nha hgc gia khac. Tuy nhien, eo ledinh nghTa vl chien luge dugc coi la thong dung nhat la dinh nghTa ciia nha lich sii kinhdoanh noi tilng ciia dai hgc Havard, ong Alfred Chandkler trong cu6n Chiln luge va cautrue: "Chiin luge Id suxdc dinh cac muc tieu ca bdn vd Idu ddi cua doanh nghiep, Id su
  14. vgch ra mot qua trinh hdnh dong vd phan phoi nguon luc can thiet de thuc hien muc tieudo ". Day la mot dinh nghTa rat eo dien ve chien luge nhung sau do da dugc rAt nhilu cacnha kinh tl hgc phat triln. Quinn (1980) trong cu6n sach rdt nli tilng ciia minh vai tieudl "Strategies for changes: Logical Incrementalism" da theo buoc Chandler dua ra motdjnh nghTa vl chiln luge co tinh djnh huong nhilu han: "Chiin luge Id mot mo hinhhoac ke hoach kit hgp nhirng muc tieu chinh, nhirng chinh sdch, nhirng chuoi hdnh dongdugc lien ket thanh tong the. Mot chien luge dugc thiet ke tot se giiip to chirc sdp xep, vdphan bo nguon luc ciia doanh nghiep thank mot cdu true duy nhat vd co tinh kha thi cancif tren kha nang noi tai, nhitng diem yeu, nhirng thay doi ve moi truong dugc du tinhtruac vd nhirng thay doi bat nga ciia nhung doi thu thong minh ".Du theo each tiep can nao thi torn lai ban chit eiia chiln luge vin la phac thao dugctuang iai ciia doanh nghiep va co the tom tk trong ba y nghTa pho biln nhdt:- Xac dinh cac muc tieu chinh, dai han ciia doanh nghiep- Dua ra dugc mot chuong trinh hanh dong tong quat; va- Lira chgn phuong an hanh dong, sap xep phan bo nguon lire de thuc hien muc tieu do.2.1.2 Lgi ich va ban che cua chien liroc trong hoat dong kinh doanh:Chien luge kinh doanh dong mot vai tro rat quan trgng trong hoat dong doanh nghiep.Dieu nay da dugc ly thuyet cung nhu thuc te chung minh. Viec hoach dinh mot chilnluge kinh doanh hieu qua se dem lai cho doanh nghiep nhung lgi ich sau:- Giiip doanh nghiep thay ro huong di cua minh trong tuang lai de nguoi quan ly xem xetva quyet dinh to chuc nen di theo huong nao va khi nao thi dat toi mot muc tieu cu thinhat djnh.- Giiip nha quan ly thky ro dugc nhung co hoi va nguy ca xay ra trong kinh doanh, dingthai giiip phan tich danh gia du bao cac dilu kien moi truong trong tuong lai, tan dung cohoi, giam nguy ca, dua doanh nghiep vugt qua canh tranh va di den thang lgi.
  15. - Giup nha quan ly dua ra cac quylt djnh dl dli pho vai tung moi truong kinh doanhmot, nang cao hieu qua san xuat kinh doanh.- Chien luge kinh doanh thi hien su phan ph6i hieu qua han thoi gian, nguon tai nguyencho cac CO hoi ket qua da xac dinh.- Chien luge kinh doanh giiip tang doanh s6 ban ra, tang nang suat lao dong va hieu quasan xuat kinh doanh, tang kha nang phong ngira va ngan chan cac nguy co cong ty se gapphai trong kinh doanh.- Khuyin khich thai do tich cue doi vai sir doi moi.- Tuy nhien, chien luge kinh doanh cung co nhung han che nhat dinh:- Doanh nghiep phai mat nhieu thai gian, chi phi cho viec xay dung chien luge.- Chien luge phai co tinh linh hoat nhat dinh, neu cung nhac se riii ro.- Giai han sai sot trong viec du bao moi truong dai han doi khi c6 the rat lan. Neu khongkhac phuc dugc su sai sot do se c6 nguy co rui ro cao.- To chuc thuc hien khong tot thi chien luge se that bai.Mac du C nhung yeu diem nhu tren nhung neu biet khac phuc va van dung tot mat tich Ocue eiia no thi chiln luge kinh doanh se gop phan khong nho mang lai thanh cong chodoanh nghiep. Vi vay, mdi doanh nghiep nen xay dung mot chien luge kinh doanh chorieng minh.2.1.3 Xay dirng va thyc hien chien lucre kinh doanh:Dk C thi xay dung dugc mot chiln luge kinh doanh, truoc het doanh nghiep phai xac Odjnh ro dugc su mang ciia minh hay noi each khac la nguyen nhan cot loi ma do dodoanh nghiep tin tai, Sau do tu su mang chung, doanh nghiep phai xac djnh dugc nhungmuc tieu ciia minh, nhung kit qua nao doanh nghiep mong muon dat dugc cung nhu thaidilm doanh nghiep mong muon dat dugc nhGng ket qua nay. Can cu tren su mang vamuc tieu ma doanh nghiep xay dung chiln luge kinh doanh hay noi each khac la kl
  16. hoach de dat dugc nhimg su mang va muc tieu do. Qua trinh xac dinh sir mang, muc ti6u va xay dung chiln luge phai tham chilu cac kit qua thu dugc tu phan tich moi truong ben ngoai dl xac dinh nhiing co hoi va nguy co phai dli mat cung nhu phan tich moitruong ben trong dk tim ra dilm manh va dilm ylu ciia doanh nghiep. Viec phan tich,xay dung va thuc hien chien luge dugc thi hien trong mo hinh duoi day. Bang 2-1 Mo hinh phan tich, xay dyng chien luOc Su mang Muc tieu Phan tich Phan tich moi truong 1 moi truong ben ngoai: ben trong: - Co hoi Cac chien luoc co the - Diem manh - De dga lira chgn - Diem yeu Nguon: Dang Ngoc Su, (2006). "Quan tri chien luge de trucmg ton vdphdt triin trong mot the giai day bien dong "2.1.4. Cac chien luac canh tranh chungMot tong cong ty can theo duoi mot so chien luge a cap tong cong ty, chien luge cipcong ty thanh vien. Chiln luge cap tong cong ty bao gom nhung djnh huong tong the veykn dk tang truong, quan tri cac cong ty thanh vien va danh muc san phim. Nhiem vu ciianhung chiln luge nay la xac djnh su menh va muc dich ciia tong cong ty; xac dinh xemting cong ty nen xam nhap vao nganh kinh doanh nao; dieu tiet cac nguon tai chinh vanguon luc khac; kilm soat moi quan he ciia cong ty vai cac doi tugng hixu quan trong 8
  17. moi truong kinh doanh. Vi vay, tong cong ty co the chgn mot trong so cac chien lugeduoi day.Chien luge tang truong thong qua hgp nhdt, thong qua thon tinh, hoac thong qua liendoanh lien ket. Tang truong thong qua hgp nhat la sap nhap 2 hoac nhieu co so mot eachtu nguyen nhhm tang them sue manh de dli mat voi cac thach thuc hoac tan dung triet dlcac CO hoi phat trien. Tang truong thong qua thon tinh la cac doanh nghiep Idn, manhthon tinh cac doanh nghiep nho de phat trien thanh mot doanh nghiep co qui mo lan,manh hon. Tang truong thong qua lien ket la tap trung nhung n5 luc, co gAng va nh&ngnguon lire cua 2 hay nhieu doi tac voi nhau de phat trien mot hoac mot vai ITnh vuc hoatdong nao do nham tang kha nang canh tranh, phan tan riii ro.Hgp nhat co the la xuoi chieu hoac ngugc chieu, ciing co the la hgp nhat toan bg hay motphan. Hgp nhat xuoi chieu tuc la doanh nghiep tu to chiic hoat dong tieu thu dau ra bingeach sap nhap, mua lai doanh nghiep phan phoi, hoac tu to chuc mang luoi phan phoi sanpham. Hgp nhat ngugc chieu la doanh nghiep tu san xuat va cung ling cac yeu to dau vaobang each sap nhap, mua lai nha cung ung hoac tu thanh lap nha cung ung rieng ciiarieng doanh nghiep. Hgp nhkt toan bg la doanh nghiep tu san xuat va cung ung toan bgmot dau vao nao do cho qua trinh san xuat hay hoan toan tu to chuc tieu thu dau ra. Hgpnhat tung phan la cong ty tu cung ung mot phan dau vao va mua them eiia nha cung ungdoc lap khac hoac to chuc ban hang thong qua cac kenh phan phoi eua chinh doanhnghiep.Mot doanh nghiep theo duoi chien luge hgp nhat co the cai thien vi the canh tranh eiiaITnh vuc kinh doanh chii chot cua doanh nghiep thong qua cac khia canh sau. Thu nhat,no han che su canh tranh trong noi bg nganh kinh doanh ciia doanh nghiep, cho phepdoanh nghiep dat gia cao hon va thu dugc lgi nhuan Ion hon. Thu hai, no cho phepdoanh nghiep dam bao chk lugng san phkm. Thu ba, cac doanh nghiep hgp nhit dgc co
  18. su chii dong trong viec lap kl hoach, phli hgp va sip xip thoi gian thuan lgi hon giuacac qua trinh lien kl nhau trong chuoi cac hoat dong tir mua nguyen vat lieu din chuyinsan pham den tay nguoi tieu dung.Mac du dugc tiln hanh nhlim dat dugc lgi thi vl chi phi thip nhung su hgp nhat dgc c6the dan den tac dong ngugc lai nlu doanh nghiep mua dku vao tu nhihig nha cung ung docong ty so hDu ma hg hoat dong kem hieu qua hon so vai nhung nha cung ung dgc lap tuben ngoai.Chien luge da dang hoa la dau tu v6n thang du vao nhilu nganh nghl khac nhau sau khidoanh nghiep da chiem dugc uu the canh tranh trong cac hoat dong hien tai cua doanhnghiep. Co cac hinh thuc da dang hoa co ban: da dang hoa ding tam (la su tham gia vaomot ITnh vuc hoat dong moi co lien he voi hoat dong hien tai ciia doanh nghiep boi sutuong ding giira mot hoac nhieu bg phan chuc nang); da dang hoa to hgp (la su tham giavao mot ITnh vuc hoat dong mai khong co lien quan din ITnh vuc hoat dong hien tai); dadang hoa theo chieu ngang (la sir phat trien mot hoac nhieu san pham mai phuc vu cackhach hang hien tai).Chien luge da dang hoa dugc nhieu doanh nghiep nghT den khi hg tao ra lgi nhuan vugtqua muc can thiet de duy tri lgi the canh tranh trong ITnh vuc kinh doanh truyen thongciia hg. Chien luge nay co the tao ra gia trj thong qua 3 khia canh. Thu nh^t la viec muava to chuc lai cac cong ty moi lam cho cac cong ty moi nay hoat dong co hieu quahon.Thu hai la su chuyen giao nang lire giiJa cac cong ty thanh vien. Doanh nghiep c6thi hy vgng bing kha nang dac biet eua minh trong mot so ITnh vuc dugc chuyen giaosang cho cac cong ty mai se giiip cai thien vj the ciia cong ty moi. Tuy nhien, neu solugng cac don vj kinh doanh ma qua nhieu thi hoat dong se khong hieu qua va se lam chiphi tang len. Ngoai ra, trong mot so truong hgp cac doanh nghiep con co the theo duoi 10
  19. chien luge on dinh hoac riit iui de bao toan luc lugng, theo quan diem "liii mot buoc detien ba buoc".Khi da theo duoi cac chien luge tren, cac doanh nghiep co the cu the cac chien luge Iondo thanh cac chien luge canh tranh (cac chien luge nay con dugc ggi la chien luge capdon vj thanh vien). Cac chien luge canh tranh nay tap trung vao viec cai thien vj the canhtranh ciia cac san pham ciia tong cong ty trong mot nganh kinh doanh hoac mot phandoan thi truong cu the. Co so ciia viec xay dung cac chiln luge dua tren nhu cau ciiakhach hang va su khac biet hoa san pham; cac nhom khach hang va phan doan thj truong;cac nang lire dac biet ciia ting cong ty. Cac chien luge nay da dugc Micheal Porter chiara thanh cac loai chinh: Bang 2-2 Porters Generic Strategies Dac tinh san pham OX) 00 Dan dau Khac biet c uon ve chi phi hoa bfl •4-» Ic •4—• S 3 a. Tap trung Tap trung vao X vao chi phi khac biet hoa o NguSn: Porter, M (1998) Competitive Strategy. The Free PressChiin luge ddn dau vi chi phi: tufc la doanh nghiep tao ra cac san pham c6 chi phi thaphon cac dli thii, tir do co kha nang dat gia Xhkp hon so voi cac dli thii. Khi theo dullchiln luge nay, doanh nghiep thuong bo qua cac phan doan thj truong khac nhau vahuong tai viec cung c4p san phkxn phuc vu "khach hang trung binh". Cac nang luc cot loi 11
  20. ma doanh nghiep nen tap trung phat triln la nang lire dac biet trong ITnh vuc cung cip cacyeu to dau vao va qua trinh san xuit cac san phkm. Chiln luge nay co lgi thi co ban la dochi phi thap hon nen co thi dat gia ihkp hon nhung van thu dugc lgi nhuan bang lginhuan ciia cac dli thii, hoac dat gia bang cac dli thii nhung thu dugc lgi nhuan cao hon.Dong thoi neu xay ra chiln tranh gia ca thi doanh nghiep theo dull chiln luge nay co khanang dung vOng trong canh tranh tit hon so voi cac dli thii canh tranh. Doanh nghiepcung C the tao ra hang rao ngan can sir gia nhap va giam mdi de dga tu cac san ph^m Othay the bang each nay. Tuy nhien can chii y trong mot si truong hgp vi qua tap trungvao giam chi phi lam anh huong din chki lugng san phkm. Ngoai ra, viec doanh nghiepC xu huong chay theo "ao tuang ve si dong" khi muln "la tit ca cho mgi nguoi" nhung Othuc sir la cao bang thi hieu ciia mgi nguoi la mot viec lam kho.Chien luge khdc biet hoa: tuc la doanh nghiep tao ra san pham dugc khach hang cho ladgc dao va thoa man nhu cau ciia hg. Nhu vay doanh nghiep se co kha nang dat gia caohon so voi cac doi thii. Khi theo duoi chien luge nay, doanh nghiep thuc hien phan doanthj truong, cung ung san phkm dugc thilt ke danh rieng cho moi doan. Cac nang luc c6tloi can dugc quan tam la trong ITnh vuc ve nghien cuu va phat trien, Marketing. Doanhnghiep nen lira chgn su khac biet theo 3 each chat lugng, doi moi, dap ung nhu cau ciiakhach hang. Viec theo duoi chien luge nay giiip doanh nghiep tao ra hang rao ngan cansu gia nhap cao va co kha nang kiem soat gia a phan thi truong ciia minh. Tuy nhien, canchii y kha nang bat chuac su khac biet tir cac doi thii canh tranh va kiem soat chi phi vitheo duli chiln luge nay thuong kem vai chi phi cao.Chien luge Tap trung hoa: ve thuc chat doanh nghiep theo duoi chien luge nay la motnha chuyen mon hoa, co qui mo nho, thuc hien su khac biet hoa san pham hoac din dauvl chi phi trong doan thj truong ma doanh nghiep da lua chgn. Doanh nghiep chi taptrung phuc vu nhu cku ciia mot nhom hun han khach hang hoac doan thj truong. Doan 12
  21. thj truong co the dugc xac dinh theo tieu thuc dja ly, hoac mot nhanh ciia dong san pham.Khi theo duoi chien luge nay, doanh nghiep co thi phat triln mot nang luc cit loi nao donham tao ra lgi the chi phi thkp hoac khac biet hoa. Doanh nghiep co thi tap trung vaomot phan khiic duy nhat, chuyen mon hoa tuy chgn, chuyen mon hoa theo thi truonghoac chuyen mon hoa theo san pham. Vi qui mo nho ma mot si doanh nghiep co the theoduoi dong thai su din diu ve chi phi va khac biet hoa san phlm. Nlu doanh nghiep taptrung su dung phuong phap chi phi thip tuc la doanh nghiep dang canh tranh ching lainguoi dan dau ve chi phi trong cac doan thi truong ma o do khong co lgi thi chi phi. Neunguoi tap trung theo duoi phuong phap khac biet hoa san pham thi tat ca cac bien phapkhac biet san pham dang rgng mo doi voi doanh nghiep. Theo duoi chien luge nay giiipdoanh nghiep dugc bao ve truac su canh tranh trong chung muc sir khac biet san phamtao ra. Sir khac biet san pham vai mot so lugng khach hang trung thanh nhat dinh cunggop phan xay dung rao can nhap nganh va giam nguy co tu san pham thay the. Nhungmot bit lgi ciia chiln luge nay la neu cong nghe thay doi hoac thj hieu nguoi tieu dungthay doi thi co the se khong ton tai doan thi truong hoac nhom khach hang ma doanhnghiep dang phuc vu.Cac chiln luge canh tranh tren de cap den each doanh nghiep va lien ket cac quyet dinhC lien quan din san phim, thj truong, nang luc cot loi ciia mot doanh nghiep, tuc la hen Oquan din lgi thi canh tranh. Dk co the lira chgn cho doanh nghiep minh mot chien lugecuoi cung, cac nha hoach dinh chien luge phai tien hanh cac phan tich noi bg va phantich moi truong ben ngoai dk tu do hoach dinh cho doanh nghiep minh mot chien lugephu hgp nhat.2.2 Phan tich moi truong vl mo:Danh tu moi truong la dk chi cac djnh chl hay luc lugng a ben ngoai nhung lai co anhhuong din thanh qua hoat dong san xuat kinh doanh ciia doanh nghiep. Cac yeu to moi 13
  22. truong vT mo la cac yeu to co tac dong tren binh dien rgng va lau dai, nhung yeu to nayC tac dong den ca nen kinh te, ca nganh san xuit kinh doanh va do do cijng co tac dong Oden doanh nghiep va chien luge kinh doanh ciia doanh nghiep. Cac yeu to ciia moitruong vT mo bao gom: (i) Moi truong kinh tl; (ii) Moi truong cong nghe; (iii) Moitruong xa hoi; (iv) Moi truong dan so va lao dong; (v) Moi truong chinh tri/luat phap;(vi) Moi truong quoc te. Bang 2-3 Cac nhan to thuoc moi trirong ben ngoai Cac Moi triroTig toan bo nen KTQD Cac yeu to yeu to chinh tri kinh te luat phap M di truotig noi bo nganh Khach Cac doi thu hang canh tranh Doanh nghiep hien tai Cac yeu Cac nha Cac doi thu to ky cung cap tiem an Cac san pham Cac yeu thuat thay th€ to van cong hoaxa nghe hoi Nguon: Nguyen Lien Diep, Pham Van Nam, 1998, Chien luge vd chinh sdch kinh doanh, Nha xuat bdn thong ke.12A Moi truong kinh te:Moi truong kinh tl vT mo bao gim nhung ylu t l nam ben ngoai doanh nghiep, chiingkhong chi dinh huong va co anh huong true tiep den cac hoat dong quan tri ciia doanhnghiep ma con anh huong tai ca moi truong vi mo ciia cac doanh nghiep. Cac ylu t l ciiamoi truong vT mo ciing la nhung nguyen nhan chinh tao ra co hoi ciing nhu nguy ca chocac hoat dong ciia no. Viec nghien cuu ky cac ylu t l ciia moi truong kinh tl vT mo dong 14
  23. mot vai tro quan trgng khong chi trong viec hoach dinh chien luge kinh doanh ma catrong cac hoat dong quan trj ciia doanh nghiep. Nhin chung, moi truong kinh te bao gomcac yeu to:- Tong san pham quoc dan (GDP): su tang truong ciia nen kinh te se tac dong din chilnluge kinh doanh ciia doanh nghiep 6 ca hai mat cung va cau, GDP tang se lam tang nhucau ciia mgi thanh phan xa hoi dong thoi cung doi hoi cung tang len.- Lam phat: Neu lam phat gia tang se lam tang gia ca yeu to dau vao, din t6i tang giathanh va tang gia ban, nhu vay giam yeu to canh tranh va giam cau ciia nguoi tieu dung.- Ty gia hoi doai va lai suat cho vay: Yeu to ty gia hoi doai dac biet can xem xet trongxay dung chien luge kinh doanh doi voi cac doanh nghiep co cac mli quan he trenthuong truong quoc tl. Ylu t l lai su^t cho vay ciing co tac dong din chiln luge kinhdoanh vi no se anh huong toi quyet dinh huy dong von cho hoat dong san xuit kinhdoanh ciia doanh nghiep.- Tien luong va thu nhap: Chi phi tien luong la mot khoan chi phi chinh ciia doanhnghiep, co anh huong rat Ion den tong chi phi san xuat. Chi phi tien luong cao se lamtang gia thanh giam lgi the canh tranh. Day la ly do ma cac nha dau tu nuoc ngoaithuong lira chgn chien luge outsourcing tai cac nuoc dang phat trien co muc tien luongthap.Ngoai cac yeu t l chinh tren, khi xem xet moi truong kinh te, doanh nghiep ciing co thexem xet cac yeu to khac nhu chinh sach tai chinh, can can thanh toan..2.2.2 Moi trvong cong nghe:Ngay nay khong co mot doanh nghiep san xuat nao muon ton tai va phat trien ma laikhong dua vao viec ap dung nhiing thanh tuu va tien bg khoa hgc ky thuat va cong nghe.Tuy nhien cong nghe thuong xuyen bien doi, cong nghe mai lien tuc ra dai thay the congnghe cu tao ra nhiing ca hoi cung nhu nguy co rat Ion cho cac doanh nghiep. Trong kinh 15
  24. doanh cac nha quan tri phai hoach djnh mot chien luge diing dan ve ky thuat va congnghe trong tirng thai ky dong thai du bao dugc cac bien dong ve cong nghe de dap ungdugc nhu cau ciia thj truong. Trong ITnh vuc xay dung, cac cong nghe moi ve vat lieuxay dung cung nhu cac ky thuat moi trong xay lap se ... Cac nha quan tri can chii trgngvao viec ung dung cong nghe thong tin, chuyen giao cong nghe.2.2.3 Moi trircmg xa hoi:NhCing yeu to ciia moi truong xa hoi co tac dong rkt manh din tat ca cac hoat dong chilnluge. Cac yeu to cua moi truong nay co the ke den nhu van hoa, nghe nghiep, phong eachloi song, ton giao, tam ly dan toe...- Van hoa: Van hoa la mot pham tru phuc tap, mSi nha quan tri, moi doanh nghiep, moit l chuc deu thugc vl mot nin van hoa cu thi. Chiln luge kinh doanh bj anh huong truetiep boi nhung nen van hoa vi van hoa chinh la yeu to chi phoi hanh vi ung xu ciia nguaitieu dung, chi phoi hanh vi mua hang cua khach hang.- Phong each, lli sing: M6i mot phong each va loi song co nhirng dac trung rieng ciiaminh vl each suy nghT, the hien, hanh dong. Dieu nay lai chi phoi rat manh den viec hinhthanh nhung thoi quen tieu dung cung nhu quyet dinh cac dac trung ciia san pham. Muonkinh doanh hieu qua doanh nghiep phai hieu ro phong each loi song ciia xa hoi hien taiCling nhu nhan bilt xu huong ciia loi song trong tuong lai.2.2.4 Moi truong dan s6, lao dong:Dan si va muc gia tang dan so a moi quoc gia luon luon la nhiing lire lugng co anhhuong rat Ion din mgi hoat dong vl quan tri san xuat va quan tri kinh doanh cua moidoanh nghiep. Viec xay dung chiln luge kinh doanh phai can cu tren nguon nhan lirecung nhu lire lugng khach hang. Thong thuong trong chiln luge kinh doanh ciia doanhnghiep, nha quan tri phai phan tich co cku dan so de phan doan va xac djnh thj trucmgmuc tieu ciia minh. Ngoai ra chit lugng dan si hay chat lugng nguon lao dong cung la 16
  25. mot trong nhijng yeu to de doanh nghiep phai phan tich khi xay dung chien luge kinhdoanh.2.2.5 Moi truong chinh tri, phap luat:Cac chinh sach ciia Chinh phii dong mot vai tro quan trgng trong hoat dong kinh doanh.Chinh phli co the vua thiic day vilra co the han che kinh doanh. Mgi luat le, chinh sachkinh te ma Chinh phii ban hanh deu co anh huong true tiep hoac gian tiep den hoat dongciia doanh nghiep. Nha nuoc ciing co the han che va dieu chinh viec kinh doanh thongqua cac bg luat, nghi dinh, quyet dinh. Chinh sach thue co anh huong true tiep nhieu nhatden thu chi ciia moi doanh nghiep va do do la mot yeu to can tinh den khi xay dung chienluge kinh doanh cua doanh nghiep. Cac chinh sach khac nhu tai chinh tien te, kiem soatkha nang tin dung thong qua chinh sach tai chinh, luong co ban... cung co nhung anhhuong rat lan den chien luge kinh doanh. Cac nha quan tri kinh doanh o bat ki doanhnghiep nao diu phai chip hanh day dii cac chii truong chinh sach ciia Dang va Nha nuocva nghiem chinh tuan thii nhiing quy dinh hien hanh ciia phap luat la viec nay la mot doihoi mang tinh tat yeu khach quan.Tom lai cac ylu t l moi truong vT mo gom nhom cac yeu to ve moi truong kinh te, moitruong xa hoi, dan si, lao dong, chinh tri phap luat, cong nghe. Cac nhom yeu to nay c6quan he vai nhau va gay anh huong manh me den hoat dong ciia doanh nghiep. Do do,trong qua trinh xay dung chiln luge kinh doanh, nguoi quan ly phai phan tich va du baochinh xac nhit co thi cac ylu t l vT mo, giiip doanh nghiep co the ton tai va phat trien.2.3 Phan tich moi truong nganh - mo hinh nam luc luong canh tranh cua PorterBit kl cong ty nao tren thj truong dIu phai tham gia vao canh tranh. Do do mdi cong tydIu C chiln luge canh tranh ngam hoac noi. Chiln luge nay co the dugc thi hien ro rang Othong qua nghien cuu chiln luge canh tranh ciia cong ty bang van ban hoac ciing co thidugc thuc hien ngim thong qua cac hoat dong hang ngay ciia doanh nghiep. 17
  26. Micheal Porter da chi ra ro rang rang chien luge canh tranh la sir tim kiem lgi the canhtranh thuan lgi trong nganh. Bang each danh gia can than moi truong nganh, cac doanhnghiep phai danh gia tam quan trgng dli voi muc do thanh cong ciia timg lire lugngtrong sau lire lugng canh tranh: su xuat hien cua cac cong ty moi, thach thuc ciia cac sanpham thay the, quyen nang ciia khach hang, quyen nang eiia cac nha cung cip, su canhtranh giiJa cac doi thii hien co. Tung luc lugng ngay cang manh, thi doanh nghiep cang bjhan chl kha nang tang gia va thu lgi nhuan. Mac du Porter chi de cap den nam luc lugngnhung thong thuong mot luc lugng thu sau thuong dugc them vao trong qua trinh phantich danh gia - cac doi tugng lien quan khac (other stakeholders) - thuong dugc sii dungdl danh gia Chinh phii, chinh quyin dia phuong, va cac nhom doi tugng khac co anhhuong den moi truong nganh cong nghiep.Thong thuong eac nha quan tri gia se phan tich nganh bang viec danh gia moi lire lugngcanh tranh theo cip do cao, trung binh, thip. Can cu tren muc do danh gia ma nha quanly se C chiln luge kinh doanh cu the de lam tang kha nang canh tranh ciia doanh nghiep Ominh va ding nghTa vai viec se gia tang lgi nhuan. 18
  27. Bang 2-4 Mo hinh nam luc luong canh tranh cua Porter Cac doanh nghiep tiem nang Moi de doa gia nhac Quyen nang Cac doi thu canh cua nguai tranh trong nganh Quyen cung cap nang ciia Nha Sir canh tranh gia cua nguai cung cap mua Nguoi mua cac doanh nghiep dang Ion tai i i Moi de dga thay the Cac san pham thay the Nguon: Porter, M (1998). Competitive Strategy. The Free Press2.3.1 Su xuat hien cua cac cong ty mdi - de doa cua ddi thu tiem nang:Cac cong ty mai xam nhap vao mot nganh se mang theo kha nang san xuit moi, mongmuon dat dugc thj phan va cac nguon lire thay the. Do do, su xuat hien ciia cac cong tymoi se de dga cac doanh nghiep trong nganh. Moi de dga ciia doi thii tilm nang se phuthugc vao muc do cac rao can gia nhap cung nhu phan ung du kien ciia cac cong ty hientai trong nganh. Neu rao can gia nhap thap, nguy co de dga cac doanh nghiep hien taitrong nganh se cao, ngugc lai neu rao can cao, co hoi cho cac doanh nghiep hien tai trongnganh se thkp. Mot s5 nhij-ng rao can chfnh nhu: su trung thanh doi voi nhan hieu, khacbiet vl san phkm djch vu, lgi the ve chi phi, lgi the ve quy mo, yeu cau ve von, tiep cancac kenh phan phli, chinh sach ciia Chinh phii.2.3.2 Cac doi thu canh tranh hien tai: 19
  28. Trong hau het cac nganh cong nghiep, cac doanh nghiep phu thugc trong moi quan hetuang ho lln nhau. Bat cii mot chuyen dong nho ciia mot doanh nghiep trong nganh sedugc cac doanh nghiep doi thii canh tranh phan ung lai de dam bao su tuong quan lirelugng cung nhu giii viing vi the canh tranh trong nganh. Theo nhu Porter, cac doi thiicanh tranh hien tai lien quan tai cac nhan to sau:- So lugng cac doi thii canh tranh va muc do chi phli thi truong: Khi si lugng cac dlithii canh tranh it va ngang nhau ve tiem lire, tung doanh nghiep se theo doi dong tinh ciiacac doanh nghiep khac mot each can than de dam bao rang, khi mot doanh nghiep cochien luge canh tranh mai thi doanh nghiep ciia minh co the bat kjp hoac co phan ungthich hgp.- Muc do tang truong nganh - dieu kien ve cau: tang giam nhu cau ve san pham anhhuong muc do canh tranh giija cac doi thii hien tai.- Dac tinh ciia cac san pham hoac dich vu- Chi phi C djnh O- Nguon lire- Rao can ra khoi nganh: cac rao can se ngan cac doanh nghiep roi bo nganh kinh doanhcua minh nhu viec sir dung tai san nhu thi nao sau khi ra khoi nganh, chi phi co dinh ciiara khoi nganh, ylu t l tinh cam, mli quan he chiln luge giua cac don vi.- Muc do da dang ciia cac dli thii: Cac doanh nghiep canh tranh se co rat nhilu cac ytuang khac nhau dk canh tranh va thach thuc cac doanh nghiep khac, chilm ITnh thj phkn.2.3.3 QuyIn nang cua khach hang:Khach hang la nguoi tieu thu san phkm va djch cu ciia doanh nghiep. Khach hang la ylutl quylt djnh dku ra ciia doanh nghiep. Khach hang se tac dong din toan nganh congnghiep bang kha nang ep nguai ban giam gia, tang chk lugng va cung cip them dich vu. 20
  29. Mot khach hang hoac mot nhom cac khach hang c6 quyIn nang dli voi eac doanh nghiepthong qua cac nhan tl duai day:- Nhilu cong ty nho ban, so lugng khach hang it va la nhung khach hang lan- Khach hang co kha nang tu san xuat ra cac san phim hoac dich vu ma hg cin- Co nhieu cac nha cung ckp khac nhau va de dang chuyen sang mua ciia doanh nghiepkhac- Chi phi chuyen doi nha cung cap la thap- Khach hang co the mua cung liic tu nhieu cong ty.- Viec mua hang hoa, nguyen lieu, djch vu khong anh huong din chit lugng hang hoacuoi Cling hoac gia ca ban ra do do co the de dang bj thay thi ma khong anh huong xiuden san pham cuoi cung.2.3.4 Quyen nang cua nha cung capCac nha quan tri phai tim each bao dam co dugc cac nguon cung ung deu dan voi giathap boi cac nguon nay tugng trung cho nhirng bat trac - su thieu hut hoac tri hoan se lamgiam rat nhieu hieu qua ciia doanh nghiep. Do do, cac nha cung cap co the anh huongdin hoat dong kinh doanh ciia doanh nghiep thong qua kha nang ep nguoi mua chip nhingia cao hoac giam gia chat lugng san phim hoac dich vu. Cac yeu to the hien quyIn ningciia nha cung cip bao gom:- it nha cung cip va mot so nha cung cip lan thong ITnh thj truong va quan trgng doi voinguoi mua- San phim rat khac biet va chi phi chuyin dli nha cung cip la rat cao.- Cac san phim thay the khong sin co- Nguai mua la khach hang nho- Nguai mua khong co kha nang tham gia vao nganh kinh doanh ciia nha cung cip- Nha cung cip de dga tham gia vao nganh kinh doanh ciia nguai mua 21
  30. 2.3.5 San pham thay theCac sin phim thay the la nhijmg san phim co the co su khac biet nhung ciing thoa manva phuc vu mot nhu ciu tuang tu ciia nguai tieu dung. Miic do canh tranh ciia san phimthay the thip, cong ty se co kha ning thu dugc nhieu lgi nhuan hon, ngugc lai neu mucdo canh tranh ciia san phim thay the cao, cong ty se phai doi mat v6i nguy co lgi nhuangiam. Su sin co ciia cac sin phim thay thi, chi phi chuyen dich thip, nguoi cung cip sanphim thay the co lgi nhuan cao va mong muon canh tranh, chi so "gia tri - gia ca" ciiasan phim thay the cao se la nhixng ylu to quyet dinh tao ra tinh canh tranh ciia cac sanphim thay the.2.3.6 Cac doi tugng co lien quan:Luc lugng thu sau dugc them vao nam luc lugng canh tranh ciia Porter bao gom motnhom cac dli tugng lien quan. Trong thanh phin ciia moi truong quan tri co nhieu dlitugng C quan he true tilp khac nhau vai mli to chuc. Cac doi tugng nay co the ho trg Ohoac chIng lai nhiJng no lire ciia doanh nghiep. Bit ky cong ty nao hoat dong trong moitruong cung phai co moi quan he voi cac doi tugng duai diy:- Cac ngin hang, cong ty diu tu, cong ty moi gioi - ITnh vuc tai chinh ngan hang: co anhhuong din kha nang dam bao nguin von ciia cong ty.- Chinh phu, cac ca quan Chinh phii: mdi mot doanh nghiep deu phai chiu sir quan ly vatuin thii theo cac chfnh sach vl nganh ma co quan co thim quyen dat ra.- Cong ding dja phuong: mgi doanh nghiep dIu co quan he vai cong ding dia phuongminh, vai nhiJng nguai dan song chung quanh, cac t l chuc dia phuong.Sau khi phin tich cac co hoi va de dga nay sinh tu moi truong ben ngoai, cac chiln luge giathuong su dung Ma tran danh gia cac ylu to ben ngoai (ma tran EFE) dl tom tit va danh giavl tac dong ciia cac ylu t l do din doanh nghiep. Qua trinh phat triln mot ma tran EFE gIm 5buoc: 22
  31. 1) Lap danh muc cac ylu t l co vai tro quylt dinh dli voi su thanh cong ciia doanhnghiep.2) Xac djnh tim quan trgng tu 0,0 (khong quan trgng) din 1,0 (rit quan trgng) cho moi yluto. Ting cac muc phin loai nay bing 1,0.3) Phan loai tir 1 den 4 cho moi yeu to de thay each thuc ma cac chiln luge hien tai ciiadoanh nghiep phan ling 6i ylu t l do nhu thi nao, trong do 4 la phan ung tit, 3 la phanung tren trung binh, 2 la phan ung trung binh va 1 la it phan ung.4) Nhin tim quan trgng ciia moi ylu to vai phin loai ciia no dk xac dinh si dilm vl tim quantrgng5) Cong don so diem quan trgng ciia cac yeu to de xac dinh ting si dilm quan trgng ciiamli doanh nghiep Bang 2-5 Ma tran danh gia cac yeu to ben ngoai Muc do Phan loai So diem Cac nhan to chii yeu ben ngoai quan trgng quan trgng Tong cong: 1.0Nguon: Nguyen, Lien Diep vd Pham, Van Nam. 1998. "Chien luge vd chinh sdch kinhdoanh ". Nhd xuat bdn Thong ke. Trang 66-68Ting si dilm quan trgng cao nhat ma mot Doanh nghiep co the co la 4,0 va thip nhit la1,0. Ting s i dilm quan trgng trung binh la 2,5. Tong so diem quan trgng la 4 cho thayDoanh nghiep dang phan ung rit tot voi cac co hoi va moi de dga hien tai trong moi 23
  32. truong. Noi each khac, cac chiln luge ciia Doanh nghiep tin dung c6 hieu qua cac co hoihien co va toi thieu hoa moi de dga cac anh huong tieu cue co thi co eiia eac mli de dgaben ngoai. Tong so diem la 1 cho thiy ring nhung chiln luge ma Doanh nghiep dl rakhong tin dung dugc cac co hoi hoac tranh dugc cac ca hoi tu ben ngoai. 2.4 Phan tich noi bo moi trucmg doanh nghiepDk tim ra nhumg chiln luge hgp ly va co hieu qua nhit thi dilu quan trgng la phai bietmot to chuc C the va khong the lam tot nhung gi, hg dang co va khong co nhiJng tai sin Ogi. La mot phin trong hoat dong xay dung va quan ly chien luge, phin tich noi bg moitruong doanh nghiep la mot qua trinh xem xet, danh gia nhu-ng dac tinh cu thi ciia mot tlchuc bao gom: nguon luc, tiem luc, diem manh, dilm ylu va nang luc cIt loi ciia tl chiicdo.2.4.1 Cac nguon luc va tiem luc cua mot doanh nghiep:Cac nguon lire ciia mot doanh nghiep dan gian chi la nhixng tai san ma doanh nghiep sohiju de tien hanh cac hoat dong kinh doanh ciia minh. Nhiing nguon lire nay co the languon luc tai chinh, nguon lire vat chit, nguon luc v6 hinh va nguon luc to chuc. Cacnguon luc tai chinh bao gom: kha ning tra ng, cac muc tin dung, tai san rong hien c6,von C phin, du tru tien mat va bit ky mot loai tai san tai chinh nao khac. Tai sin vat Ochit ciia mot to chuc gom co nhtJng tai san huu hinh nhu nha xuong, thiet bj van phong,nguyen lieu, phuong tien san xuat, may moc. Nhin lire bao gom: kinh nghiem, kien thiic,ky ning, nhijng hieu bilt da tich liiy dugc, phim chit ciia nhin vien trong doanh nghiep.Cac nguIn lire v6 hinh gIm cac yeu to nhu nhan hieu, bang sang che, phat minh, nhanhieu thuong mai, ban quyln... Va nguon luc cuoi cung la nguon lire to chuc bao gom Ijchsu hinh thanh t l chuc, van hoa, cac he thing lao dong, cac chinh sach va nhung mli quanhe va CO cau t l chuc chinh thuc dugc su dung. Tit ca cac nguon luc dii la v6 hinh hayhijoj hinh ciia mot tl chuc dIu la nguIn glc ciia lgi the canh tranh. 24
  33. Tuy nhien cac nguon lire ciia doanh nghiep chi la nhung ylu t l diu vao cin thiet, cacnguon luc cin phai dugc xu ly hoac sii dung theo each nao do dl tao ra gia trj. Noi eachkhac, cac nguon lire khac nhau la diu vao de tao nen tiem luc ciia mot to chiic. Tiem lucC the dugc xac dinh la cac quy trinh, quyet dinh miic do hieu qua va hieu suit lam viec Ociia to chuc do. Khi cac thanh vien ciia to chuc lam viec, ket hgp cac nguon luc to chuctheo mot quy trinh hoat dong, tich liiy nhung kinh nghiem va kien thuc de thu dugc ketqua tot nhit thi cac nguon lire da dugc bien thanh tiem luc. Tiem luc ciia to chiic languon goc ciia lgi the canh tranh khi no la tiem luc tieu bilu va dong gop cho su phattrien ciia to chuc.2.4.2 Diem manh, diem yeu cua doanh nghiep:Ly do CO ban tien hanh phin tich noi bg khi xay dung mot chien luge cho doanh nghiepdo la danh gia nhung gi to chuc co va khong co, nhung gi co the lam va khong the lamhay noi each khac la danh gia nhGng diem manh, diem yeu. Diem manh la cac nguon lucma to chuc do so hiru cQng nhu co the huy dong de phat trien. Trai lai diem yeu la nhungnguon luc thieu hut hoac khong khai thac dugc can tro viec phat trien ciia doanh nghiep.Trong qua trinh xay dung mot chien luge kinh doanh, cac nha hoach dinh chiem lugethuong C ging khac phuc cac diem yeu, phat huy cac diem manh. Tuy nhien nguon lire Ociia mot doanh nghiep thuong han chl nen cac nha hoach dinh chien luge thuong chgnphuong phap giam thilu tli da anh huong ciia cac dilm ylu.Khi phan tich doanh nghiep, dl xac djnh cac diem manh va diem yeu, doanh nghiep c6thi can cu vao xu huong hoat dong kinh doanh trong qua khu. Nhiing tieu chuin nay cothi bao gIm bit cu thuoc do hoat dong kinh doanh nao nhu: ti suit tai chinh, hieu quadilu hanh, nang suit lao dong ciia nhin vien, hoac cac tieu chuin quan ly chit lugng. Qkdanh gia dugc dilm manh, dilm ylu ciia mot doanh nghiep cung cin phai xac djnh dugcmuc tieu va muc dich hoat dong cu thi va lam sao de cac ket qua kinh doanh thuc te dat 25
  34. dugc cac muc dich hay muc tieu nay. Tit ca cac t l churc diu phai xiy dung cac muc tieuciia minh o mgi cip do va danh gia cac ket qua thuc te voi muc tieu dat ra de danh gianhirng diem manh diem yeu. Ngoai ra, cac doanh nghiep cung phai so sanh cac nguon lireva tiem lire ciia minh voi cac doi thii canh tranh dk thky dugc siic manh so vai cac diuthii cung thj truong. Y kien ca nhan ciia nhung nguoi true tilp tham gia vao cac hoatdong ciia doanh nghiep ciing se giiip xac dinh cac dilm manh, dilm ylu.2.4.3 Nang luc cot loi cua mot doanh nghiep:Moi mot to chuc deu co cac tiem luc cho phep hg co the tien hanh cac hoat dong kinhdoanh. Mot so tiem luc dugc sii dung tot nhung ngugc lai mot so tiem lire chua dugc sudung that sir thoi dang. Trong qua trinh xiy dung chien luge, nha hoach djnh chien lugephai xac dinh dugc tiem luc tieu bieu hay noi each khac la ning lire cIt loi ciia to chucminh de c6 the phin biet to chuc nay vai cac doi thii canh tranh ciia hg.Dac tinh ciia nang luc noi bit ciia to chuc la no khiln cac dli thu canh tranh kho bitchuac. De nhiing nang luc noi bit nay kho bat chuac dong nghTa vol viec phai ket hgphai hoa mot chuoi phuc hgp cac ky nang va kien thuc ciia nhin vien dong thoi khai thaccac kiln thuc trong to chuc. Ngoai ra nang luc noi bit phai cho phep to chuc do su dungtheo nhilu each khac nhau (vi du: Honda phat trien cac dong ca nho, de thay thi, tiltkiem nang lugng va do tin cay cao, ap dung cho nhieu san phim o to, xe may, may citCO...).Trong khi phat triln mot tilm luc noi bit la dieu quan trgng trong xiy dung chien luge,tilm luc ciia t l chiic cung gop phin phat trien nang luc co ban va ngugc lai. Khai niemning luc co ban theo Prahalad & Hamel dua ra vao nam 1990 la cac ky nang va kha nangchinh tao ra gia trj dugc dung trong cac diy chuyen san xuit hoac cong viec kinh doanh.Khi tilm nang ciia t l chuc tra thanh co so nang lire cua to chuc thi nhiing nang lire eoban nay ciing gop phin cai thien va tang cuong tiem nang ciia to chuc. Tit ca cac to chuc 26
  35. deu phai co cac quy trinh va le loi tiln hanh cong viec. Cac ning lire co ban chii chit taora gia tri dugc tao ra tu chinh cac quy trinh le lli, tich liiy kien thuc va cac hoat dong laodong thuc te. Neu nhung nang luc chii chot dugc thiet lip, chiing se cai thien va ciing cotiem luc to chuc cung nhu gop phin phat trien nhung tiem lire nay.Viec xac dinh dugc tiem lire va nang lire chii chot ciia mot to chuc dong vai tro quantrgng trong quan ly chien luge. Diy chinh la nh&ng dilm tao nen lgi thi canh tranh ciia tlchuc. Mot to chuc co lgi the canh tranh hay khong se anh huong din ket qua hoat dongtruac mat cung nhu liu dai. Tuy mot to chuc co the dugc huong nhiJug ket qua tot deptruac mat ma khong can co lgi the canh tranh Ion nhung ve liu dai kho co the duy tri ketqua do. Neu khong co lgi the canh tranh ben vung, su tin tai va thanh cong ve liu dai ciiato chuc se khong dugc dam bao. Do do, dieu quan trgng khi hoach dinh chien luge laphai xac dinh dugc diu la nhCrng tiem luc cung nhu xac dinh dugc dau la ning lire chiichit ciia t l chuc minh de phat huy.2.4.4. Phan tich chuoi gia tri:Tit ca cac to chuc deu cin co khach hang neu to chuc do muon tiep tuc ton tai. Giathuylt ciia phin tich chuoi gia trj la khach hang muon mot gia trj nao do a cac mat hangva dich vu hg mua hoac nhin dugc. Diy la mot trong nhung phuong phap de hoach dinhchiln luge kinh doanh. Gia tri ma khach hang dugc huong xuit phat tu ba pham tru Ion:(i) san phim phai dgc dao va c6 su khac biet; (ii) gia phai thip; (iii) t l chuc cung ciphang hoa phai co kha ning dap ung nhanh cac yeu ciu cu thi va dac biet ciia khach hang.Nham danh gia kha nang cung cip gia trj ciia t l chuc, nhung nguoi hoach djnh chilnluge se phai xem xet cac hoat dong chuc nang ciia tl chuc co thi dong gop nhu thi naocho viec phat triln gia trj khach hang. "Chuoi gia tri" la mot phuong phap co he thing,danh gia tit ca cac hoat dong chiirc nang ciia t l chuc va kha nang tao ra gia tri khachhang. 27
  36. Khai niem chuli gia tri dugc Micheal Porter dua ra, do la mot cong cu xac dinh cacphuong phap phat trien gia tri khach hang. Tit ca cac t l chuc diu co mot duong lli vaquy trinh rieng cho phep tien hanh mgi cong viec kinh doanh, Moi mot hoat dong nay taora cac muc gia trj khach hang va cac chi phi khac nhau ciia tl chuc. Dilu ma cac nhaquan ly mong muon la gia trj khach hang dugc tao ra va xac nhin thong qua nhung sinphim to chuc ban ra va nhung gi ma khach hang sin sang tra cho gia tri do - cao hon chiphi tao ra gia trj do. Khi su dung chuoi gia tri, chiing ta se danh gia dugc kha nang tao ragia tri khach hang ciia mot to chuc thong qua cac hoat dong ciia t l chuc do. Noi eachkhac viec phin tich chuoi gia tri se giiip tim ra diem manh, diem yeu ciia t l chuc nay. Bang 2-6 Chuoi gia tri Ca so ha tang (cau true Hoat Nguon nhan lire dong ho Quan he khach hang trg Cong nghe, thiet bi [uc tieu Diu thiu Nguyen vat Thi cong Nghiem thu, Hau ban ;hiln luac Hoat dong va lieu dau vao xay lap thanh toan. giao (quyet / chinh chuin bi ban giao toan, bao duan hanh) Nguon: Porter, M, 1998. Competitive Strategy, The Free PressTheo nhu Porter, chin hoat dong tao ra gia tri bao gIm nim hoat dong co ban va bin hoatdong ho trg. Nhung hoat dong co ban the hien nhiing le loi va cac quy trinh ciia to chucnham dua cac nguon lire vao cong viec kinh doanh (hau cin ben trong), khai thac cacnguon luc nay biln chiing thanh hang hoa hoac djch vu ciia t l chuc (hoat dong), phanphli nhirng hang hoa va djch vu nay cho khach hang (hau cin ben ngoai), tieu thu hang 28
  37. hoa va dich vu t6i tin tay khach hang (tilp thj va doanh thu) va cung cap dich vu hau maicho khach hang (dich vu).Bin hoat dong ho trg trong chuli gia trj bao gIm (i) co so ha ting ciia cong ty gIm ritnhieu yeu t l quin tri, tai chinh, phap ly, kl hoach hoa, quan he; (ii) each quan ly nguInnhin lire gIm nhung lien quan din thue tuyin, dao tao, phat triln nguIn nhin luc, chinhsach khen thuong xu phat; (iii) trien khai cong nghe lien quan toi cac thilt bi, phin mim,phin cung, ky ning ky thuat va nhung cong nghe cong ty su dung dl chuyin nhijngnguyen lieu dau vao thanh san pham diu ra; (iv) thu mua nguyen vat lieu lien quan dinviec mua nguyen vat lieu hoac huy dong cac nguon lire diu vao.Cac hoat dong h i trg co tac dung bo trg cho nhiing hoat dong ca ban dong thoi co tiedung ho trg Ian nhau. Tuy duong nhu cac hoat dong co ban co vai tro quan trgng nhit dlivoi mot to chuc nhung cac hoat dong nay se khong the thuc hien dugc neu thieu di cachoat dong bo trg.Viec phin tich chuoi gia tri se cho phep chiing ta phin tich nhung hang muc Ion sau do dichi tiet vao cac hang muc nho hon. Bang each danh gia nhung hoat dong co ban va cachoat dong ho trg ciia mot to chuc, chiing ta co the thiy dugc mot biic tranh kha ro vetiem lire cua to chiic cung nhu thiy dugc dau la diem manh hoac dilm yeu ciia to chuc.Khi mot tl chuc tiln hanh cac hoat dong nay vai hieu qua hoac hieu suit cao han dli thiiciia minh thi t l chuc do se dat dugc lgi the canh tranh. Danh gia chuli gia trj nhin manhvao tim quan trgng ciia gia trj khach hang va kha ning tien hanh cac hoat dong co ban vaho trg tit nham tao ra cac gia tri khach hang ciia mot to chuc. Tuy nhien viec phin tichchuoi gia trj co thi gap phai kho khan khi cac hoat dong co ban ciia to chuc khong inkhop tuyet dli vai co ciu ciia hoat dong ho trg.Cac nha xiy dung chiln luge thuong sir dung Ma tran danh gia cac ylu t l ben trong (matran IFE) dk tom tat nhung phin tich, danh gia cac mat manh, mat ylu ciia cac yeu to chi 29
  38. phli hoat dong ben trong ciia doanh nghiep. Tiln trinh phat triln mot ma tran IFE cungtuong tu nhu ma tran EFE chi khac 6 buoc 3: ta cho dilm phin loai la 1 nlu do la dilmyeu Ion nhit, 2 neu do la diem yeu nho nhit, 3 nlu do la dilm manh nho nhit va 4 nlu dola diem manh Ion nhat. Bang 2-7 Ma tran danh gia cac ylu tl ben trongCac nhan to chu yeu ben trong Mire do Phan loai So diem quan trong quan trong Tong cong: 1.0Nguon: Nguyen, Lien Diep vd Pham, Van Nam. 1998. "Chien luge vd chinh sdch kinhdoanh ". Nhd xuat bdn Thong ke. Trang 92-95.Khong kl ma tran IFE co bao nhieu ylu tl, si dilm quan trgng ting cong co thi dugcphan loai thip nhit la 1, 0 cho din cao nhit la 4,0 va si dilm trung binh la 2,5. Sl diemquan trgng ting cong thip hon 2,5 cho thiy Doanh nghiep ylu vl noi bg va sl dilm caohon 2,5 cho thiy Doanh nghiep manh vl noi bg.2.4.5. Ma tran SWOTMot trong nhung each dl xay dung chiln luge kinh doanh la can cu tren ma tran SWOT.Tiln trinh phat triln mot ma tran SWOT (Ma tran dilm manh, dilm ylu, co hoi, nguy co)gIm 8 buoc:(1) Liet ke cac ca hoi ben ngoai doanh nghiep(2) Liet ke cac de dga ben ngoai doanh nghiep 30
  39. (3) Liet ke cac diem manh chii yeu ben trong doanh nghiep(4) Liet ke cac diem yeu chu yeu ben trong doanh nghiep(5) Ket hgp nhung diem manh ben trong voi ca hoi ben ngoai dl hinh thanh cac chilnluge SO(6) Kit hgp nhiing dilm ylu ben trong vai co hoi ben ngoai dl hinh thanh cac chiln lugeWO(7) Kit hgp nhung dilm manh ben trong voi nguy co ben ngoai dk hinh thanh cac chilnluge ST(8) Ket hgp nhijng diem yeu ben trong vai nguy co ben ngoai de hinh thanh cac chien lugeWT Bang 2-8 Ma tran SWOT NhGng diem manh - Sl .2. Nhirng diem yeu - Wl .2.Cac CO hoi - 0 Cac ket hgp chien luge SO Cac ket hgp chien luge WO1.2.Cac nguy co - T Cac ket hgp chien luge ST Cac ket hgp chien luge WT1.2.Nguon: Nguyen, Lien Diep vd Pham, Van Nam. 1998. "Chien luge vd chinh sdch kinhdoanh ". Nhd xuat bdn Thong ke. Trang 147-150.Trong thuc tl, cin thilt va co thi kit hgp cac ket hgp chien luge chung tren thanh cacchiln luge ting hgp dk van dung bao gIm 4 chiln luge:(1) Tin dung dilm manh ciia nha kinh doanh de khai thac co hoi co trong kinh doanh SO 31
  40. (2) Tin dung dilm manh ciia nha kinh doanh dl han chl nguy co dang din trong kinhdoanh ST(3) Tin dung co hoi xuit hien trong kinh doanh dk khic phuc dilm ylu ciia nha kinhdoanh OW(4) Toi thieu hoa diem yeu trong kinh doanh de han che nguy co dang den trong kinhdoanh WT.Tu viec nghien cuu cac ly luan chung ve CLKD, lgi the canh tranh, phin tich moi truongben ngoai va moi truong ben trong ciia cac doanh nghiep 6 Viet nam trong boi canh hoinhap hien nay, dat ra vin de cip thiet Cong ty xiy dung so 2 cin xiy dung mot CLKDgiiip ning cao nang luc canh tranh ciia cong ty de cong ty phat trien ngay cang Ion manhtrong tuong lai cung nhu dat dugc cac niem tin ciia co dong. Viec phin tich va xiy dungCLKD dugc dk cap din trong Chuong III. 32
  41. CHirONG 3 PHAN TICH THirC TRANG VE CONG TY CO PHAN XAY DU>fG SO 2 - VINACONEX 2 3.1. Tom tit qua trinh hinh thanh va phat triln 3.L1. Gioi thieu vl cong ty c6 phin xay dung s6 2 Ten don vi CONG TY CO PHAN XAY DlTNG SO 2 Ten giao djch quoc te Viet Nam Construction Joint Stock Company N^2 Ten viet tat VINACONEX N°2 Dia chi So 52 duong Lac Long Quin, Phuong Buoi, Quan Tiy Ho, Thanh phi Ha Noi Dien thoai 04.753 4256/836 1013/753 2039 / Fax: 04.836 1012 Von dieu le 20.000.000.000 ding So lugng dang ky 2.000.000 cl phin Menh gia mot co phin 10.000 dong/co phin 3.I.2.C0 cau s& hiru (Den then dilm 20/10/2006) Bang 3-1 Ca c4u set hiru So Co phan nam Ty le so hiru Gia trj vin co phan Co dong giir (%) (VND) (co phan)Tong so CO phan 2.000,000 20.000.000,000 100,00- Nha nuoc 1.020.000 10.200.000.000 51- Co dong ben ngoai 215.230 2.152.300.000 10,76Congty- CBCNV Cong ty 764.770 7.647.700.000 38,24 Nguon: Bdn cao bach cua cong ty CP Xay dung so 2 tai TTGDCK Hd Noi 33
  42. Bieu do 3-1 CO CAU SO Hiru CO PHAN 38,24% 51% m - Nha nuac • - C6 dong ben ngoai Cong ty D - CBCNV Cong ty NguSn: Bdn cao bach Cong ty CP Xay dung so 2 tai TTGDCK Hd NoiTing vin dilu le 20.000.000.000 ding la vin dilu le dang ky trong giiy chung nhinDKKD thay doi lin thu nhit, ngay 28/11/2005. Ting vin thuc gop cho den ngay31/12/2005 tai Cong ty la 11.185.200.000 ding (theo BCTC da kilm toan). Ngay17/10/2006, sl vin thuc gop cua Cong ty la 20.000.000.000 ty ding, Cong ty dang ky giaodjch ting sl 2.000.000 cl phin (menh gia 10.000 ding).Tong Cong ty Xuit nhap khiu Xiy dung Viet Nam VINACONEX nkm giu c l phin chiphli ciia Cong ty c l phin Xiy dung sl 2 la 51% tuong duong 1.020.000 cl phin.Ting so can bo cong nhin vien cua cong ty tinh din 30/9/2006 la 2050 nguoi trong do co221 can bo co trinh do dai hoc va tren dai hoc, sl lao dong phi thong chi chiem 95 nguoicon lai chu ylu la cong nhin ky thuat. 34
  43. Bieu do 3-2 Sor do to chirc cua Cong ty cl phin Xay dinig so 2 BAI HQI DONG C 6 DONG BAN K I £ M SOAT HOi D6NG QUAN TRI GIAM D 6 C CONG TY CAC PH6 GIAM D6C C6NG TY PHbNG PHONG PH6NG CAC cm TC-HC TC-KT KD BAN NHANH NHA QLDA s6icAcDOi CACDQI CAC CO cAccoC6NG XAY sdsANTRINH DV>JG XUAT SdDICH VLXD XKLD Nguon: Bdn cao bach Cong ty CP Xay dung so 2 tai TTGDCK Hd Noi 35
  44. 3.1.3 Tom tat qua trinh hinh thanh va phat triln Cong ty duoc thanh lip tu nam 1970 vai ten goi ban diu la Xong ty Xiy dung Xuin Hoa", sin phim cua Cong ty khong chi tip trung 6 khu vuc Xuin Hoa ma lan rong ra cac khu vuc phu can. Thuc hien phuong chim viia sin xuit kinh doanh vua xiy dung co so vat chat, tang cuong dpi ngu can bo quan ly ky thuat va cong nhin. Din nay, qua nhilu lin cai tien to chuc, Cong ty da co co so vat chit va doi ngu can bp quan ly dap ung tit yeu ciu hoat dong san xuit kinh doanh.Ngay 17/3/1984 thuc hien Quylt djnh sl 342 QD/BXD-TCCB hop nhit Cong ty Xay dung sl 20 va Lien hop Xiy dung nha o VTnh Phu (nha may Be tong tim lan Dao Tu) dli tenthanh Lien hgp Xiy dung nha 6 tim Ion sl 2 voi nhiem vu la tham gia xay dung nha o taithu do Ha Noi bing phuong phap lap ghep tim Ion, san phim cua Nha may Be tong DaoTu.Thing 12/1989 Bp Xiy dung ra quylt djnh dli ten Xi nghiep Lien hgp Xiy dung nha ortim Ion so 2 thanh Xi nghiep Lien hgp Xiy dung sl 2 la Doanh nghiep hang 1 true thugcBp Xiy dung voi gin 2000 can bp cong nhin vien va 7 don vi thanh vien voi nhiem vu lahoan thien cac khu nha da lap ghep o Thanh Xuin, NghTa Do va tham gia xay dung nhieucong trinh cong nghiep, din dung o cac tinh phia Bac.Thuc hien Quylt djnh s l 90/TTg cua Thu tuong Chinh phii ve viec tiep tuc sap xIp laiDoanh nghiep Nha nuoc. Ngay 15/4/1995 Bp truong Bp Xiy dung co Quylt dinh sl275/BXD-TCLD vl viec chuyin Xi nghiep Lien hgp Xiy dung sl 2 true thuoc TingCong ty Xuat nhap khiu Xiy dung Viet Nam.Ngay 9/6/1995 Bp truong Bp Xay dung c6 Quylt djnh sl 618/BXD-TCLD vl viec dliten Xi nghiep Lien hpp Xiy dung sl 2 thuoc Tong Cong ty Xuit nhap khiu Xiy dungViet Nam thanh Cong ty Xiy dung sl 2 gIm 3 xi nghiep va 3 chi nhanh tai cac tinh CaoBing, San La, Lao Cai. 36
  45. Ngay 29/9/2003 Bp Xiy dung co quylt djnh sl 1284/QD-BXD chuyin dli Cong ty hoat dong theo mo hinh Cong ty co phin voi ten gpi la Cong ty co phin Xiy dung so 2.Ngay 27/10/2003 Cong ty chinh thuc di vao hoat dong theo hinh thuc Cong ty co phin theo giiy chung nhan dang ky kinh doanh sl 0103003086 do So Kl hoach va Diu tu Thanh pho Ha Noi cip, vin dilu le dang ky la 10.000.000.000 ding, trong do ty le vin Nha nuoc la 51%.Ngay 20 thing 8 nam 2005, Dai hoi dong cl dong hpp thing nhat ke hoach tang von dieu le tir 10.000.000.000 ding len 20.000.000.000 ding. Ngay 02 thing 11 nam 2005, HDQT ciia Congty chinh thuc ra Nghj quyet so 52/HDQT nhit tri ve viec tang von dieu le len 20 ty dong.Theo Bao cao Idem toan ve bao cao phat hanh co phieu tang von dieu le cua Cong ty co phinKiem toan va Tu van A&C, den ngay 17/10/2006, von dieu le cua Cong ty co phin Xay dung so2 da tang len 20.000.000.000 dong theo Giiy chung nhin dang ky kinh doanh Cong ty co phinsua dli lin thu 1 do so K I hoach va diu tu thanh pho Ha Noi cip ngay 28 thing 11 nam 2005.Cac danh hieu thi dua, hinh thuc khen thuong cua Cong ty da dat dugc:- Nam 2003 vi 2004: Bg Xiy dung tang Bing khen "tip thi lao dong xuit sic".- Nam 2005: Cong ty nhin ca thi dua xuat sac Nganh Xiy dung, tip the lao dong xuit sac.- Ve ca nhin: Ong Vu Quy Ha - Giam doc Cong ty dugc tang danh hieu nha Doanh nghiepgioi Ha Noi nam 2006.3.1.4. LTnh vuc dang ky kinh doanhXiy dung cac cong trinh din dung, cong nghiep, giao thong duong bp cac cip, ciu cong,thuy lgi, buu dien, nen mong, cac cong trinh ky thuat ha ting do thj va khu cong nghiep,cac cong trinh duong diy, tram bien the dien den 110 KV; Thi cong san dip nIn mong,xu ly nIn dit ylu: cac cong trinh xiy dung cip thoat nuoc: lip dat duong Ing cong ngheva ap luc, dien lire;Xiy dung phat trien nha, kinh doanh bit dong san; 37
  46. Sua chiia, thay the, lap dat may moc thiet bi, cac loai kit cau be tong, kit ciu thep, cac hethong ky thuat cong trinh (thang may, dieu hoa, thong gio, phong chay, cip thoat nuoc);Sin xuit, kinh doanh vat lieu xiy dung (cat, da, soi, gach, ngoi, xi mang, cau kien be tong, betong thuong phim va cac loai vat lieu xiy dung khic dung trong xiy dung, trang tri noi thit);Tu vin diu tu, thuc hien cac du an diu tu xiy dung, lip du an, tu vin diu thiu, tu vingiam sat, quan ly du an;Kinh doanh xuit nhap khiu vat tu, may moc thiet bj, phu tiing, tu lieu sin xuit, tu lieutieu dung, nguyen lieu sin xuit, diy chuyen cong nghe, may moc, thiet bi tu dong hoa,vat lieu xiy dung, phuong tien van tai;Dai ly cho cac hang trong va ngoai nuac kinh doanh cac mat hang phuc vu cho san xuitva tieu dung.3.1.5. San pham djch vu chu ylu hien nay cua Cong tyXay dung cac cong trinh din dung, cong nghiep, giao thong duong bp cac cip...;Xay dung phat triln nha, kinh doanh bit dong sin;Trang tri noi ngoai thit;Sin xuit, kinh doanh vat lieu xay dung;Kinh doanh xuit nhap khiu vat tu, may moc, thilt bj, phu tung, tu lieu sin xuit, tu lieutieudiing V..V...Tu vin thilt kl, tu vin diu tu, giim sat thi cong. 38
  47. Bang 3-2 CAC CHI TIEU CHU YEU THE HIEN QUA BA NAM 2004 - 2005 - 2006 DVT : Trieu dong SO SO SO THI/C THl/C THUC CAC CHI TIEU CHU CUNG CUNG CUNG HIEN HIEN Hl£N DVT KI KI Ki YEU NAM NAM NAM NAM NAM NAM 2004 2005 2006 TRir6c TRI/6C TRU^dC 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 I.TONG GIA TRI SXKD Tr.dlng 227.313 133,51 291.269 128,14 414.847 142,43 1- GTSX xay lap (ca VT A cap) nt 197.719 233.999 329.604 2- GT SXCN, VLXD(Theo gia hien hanh) nt 11.334 10.778 29.650 3- Gia tri SXKD nha,DT & ha ting KT Tr.dong 18.260 46.492 55.5934-Gia tri SX, KD khac nt 0 0 0n.DOANH THU Tr.ding 181.498 107,60 231.625 127,62 392.410 169,42Trong do chia ra :1 - Doanh thu xay lap nt 170.198 176.306 324.7152- Doanh thu san xuatCN,VLXD nt 11.087 10.785 29.2723-Doanh thu KD nha,DT & ha tang KT nt 44.138 37.0234- Doanh thu khac nt 213 396 1.400n i . L^I NHU^NTRU^OC THUE Tr.dong 9.587 304,35 12.524 130,64 27,447 219,161- Lai nhuan xay lap nt 5.623 1.962 9.499 Ty suit lai nhuanXL/DT xay lip % 3,30 1,11 2,932- Lai nhuan SXCN,VLXD Tr.dong 550 695 2.867 - Ty suit lai nhuanSXCN/DTSXCN % 4,96 6,44 9,793- Lai nhuan kinhdoanh nha Tr.dong 6.306 8.729 - Ty suit lai nhuan/DTKDN % 14,29 23,583- Lgi nhuan hoat dongtai chinh Tr.dong -239 2.766 3.4854- Lai nhuan cung capdich vu khac Tr.dong 40 15 2164- Thu nhap khic Tr.dong 3.613 780 2.651 - Ty suit lgi nhuan KDkhac/DTKD khac %1 1.696 196,97 189,36 39
  48. * Ty suit lginhuin/Doanh thu % 5,28 5,41 6,99IV. NQP NGANSACH1 - Cac khoan phai nopngan sach 4.809 10.467 29.983(Ke ca nam truacchuyen sang)2- Cac khoan da nop 4.194 6.056 20.687 Nguon: Bdn cao bach Cong ty CP Xay dung so 2 tai TTGDCK Hd Noi Bieu do 1: Doanh thu bdn hang vd cung cap dich vu ciia Cong ty cac nam 2003, 2004, 2005 vd 9 thang ddu nam 2006 • Tong Doanh thu • Xay lap • Kinh doanh nha Q San mk VLXD Nam 2003 Nam 2004 Nam 2005 9 thang dau nim 2006 Bieu do 2: Ca cdu lai nhuan dat duac tu cac san Bieu do 3: Ccr cdu lai nhugn dat duQC tir cac san phdm dich vu chu yeu ciia Cong ty nam 2005 phdm dich vu chu yiu cua Cong ty 9 thang ddu nam 2006 7% 25% 58% 68% Xay lap B Kinh doanh nha • San xuat VLXD d Xay lap 0 Kinh doanh nha D San xuat VLXD NguSn: Bdn cao bach Cong ty CP Xay dung so 2 tai TTGDCK Hd Noi 40
  49. 3.2 Phan tich !ura chon chien liroc phat trien cho Cong ty trong giai doan 2006 -^20153.2.1 Tam nhin:Xay dimg Cong ty co phan xay dimg s6 2 thanh Cong ty dung dAu trong T5ng cong tyVinaconex va trong t6p nhirng Cong ty hang dau ciia nganh xay dimg trong ITnh vuc thicong xay lap va kinh doanh bat dong san. Du nang luc va trinh do th^ng th^u cac goi thhuQuoc te, tien tai tra thanh Nha tong thau EPC cac Du an xay dung cac cong trinh dandung, cong nghiep ca trung binh (500 -^ 1000 ty). Tra thanh Nha dm tu kinh doanh hkdong san tren cac ITnh vuc khu do thj , khu cong nghiep va Van phong cho thue. Tu sanxuat va lien ket san xuat VLXD de cung cap cho cac Du an cua Cong ty va thi truong,nham nang cao nang luc thuc hien Du an, thoa man nhu cau khach hang vai cac sanpham chat lugng va co tinh canh tranh cao. Phan dau dua Vinaconex 2 tra thanh thuonghieu mot Nha thau xay dung, mot Nha dau tu bat dong san c6 uy tin tren thi truong xaydung trong nuac.3.2.2 Su mang:Cong ty c6 phin xay dung s6 2 vai truyen thong 40 nam xay dung va phat trien den homnay, don bit thai ca va van hoi mai tra thanh mot Tong cong ty me con hang dau, hoatdong tren cac ITnh vuc xay dung dan dung va cong nghiep, kinh doanh bit dong san vasan xuit VLXD. Cong ty phat triSn 6n dinh la dia chi tin cay cho cac Nha dau tu, la maiim cho toan th6 CBCNV da tra thanh nguai chu thuc su, doan kk dong gop sue minhxay dung Cong ty ngay cang lan manh, dong gop vao su nghiep cong nghiep hoa, hiendai hoa dat nuac. 41
  50. 3.3. Phan tich moi tru-cnig vt mo tac dong den Cong ty CPXD So 2 Su dung mo hinh PEST de phan tich moi truong vT mo ben ngoai nhim xac dinh co hoi va thach thuc doi vdi ITnh vuc thi cong xay lip va kinh doanh bit dong san, hai ITnh vuc kinh doanh chfnh ma Cong ty dang du ki^n phat trian . 3.3.1 Moi trircmg chinh tri & phap luat: 6 Viet Nam trong nhung nam qua Dang va Nha nuoc da giu dugc mot moi truong chinh tri kha 6n dinh, do la thk chl chfnh tri Nha nuac phap quyen XHCN do Dang lanh dao ,Nha nuac cua dan, do dan va vi dan. Th^ cha chfnh trj do 5n djnh va dugc toan the nhandan Viet nam bao ve va xay dung. Trong Nghj quyat Dai hoi 10 cua Dang cong san dachi ro con duong cong nghiep hoa, hien dai hoa, xay dung dit nuac tren ca so n^n kinhta thj truong theo djnh huong XHCN. Do la nan kinh te nhiau thanh phin, trong do kinhta Nha nuoc giu- vai tro chii dao, Nha nuoc khuyan khfch kinh ta tu nhan phat triln, macua keu gpi dau tu nude ngoai. Day manh co phin hoa, thuc ta la da dang hoa so huu,bien cac Doanh nghiep 100% sd huu nha nude trd thanh cac doanh nghiep dugc sd huubdi nhieu thanh phan kinh te . Nhu vay, su on dinh e chfnh trj, ve lire lugng lao dong &dudng loi phat trien trong nhiJng nam qua va nh&ng nam sap tdi tao diau kien phat trilncho nan kinh te dat nude noi chung va cac Doanh nghiep trong nganh xay dung n6i rieng.va Phap luat: Vdi tha cha Chfnh tri la Nha nude phap quyan XHCN. Trong nhung namgan day, he thong luat da dugc chii trgng xay dung. Dac biet la mot so luat lian quan matthiat din cac Doanh nghiep nganh xay dung nhu Luat doanh nghiep nam 2005, Luat diuthiu nam 2005, Luat dit dai nam 2003, Luat nha d nam 2006, Luat xay dung nam 2005va Luat chung khoan nam 2006, Luat dau tu nude ngoai.., dam bao hanh lang phap lycho sir phat triln ciia nln kinh ta. Ca sd de cac Bo, va chinh quyan dja phuong xay dunghe th6ng cac van ban phap qui dudi luat tao khung phap ly cho cac hoat dong san xuatkinh doanh, khuyin khfch cac Doanh nghiep xay dung phat triln. 42
  51. Nhu vay, doi vdi cac Doanh nghiep xay dung he th6ng luat va chl do chfnh sach xaydung da kha hoan chinh va ro rang, dac biet la van ban phap qui lian quan din dit dai &thi truong nha dat . Dac dilm ciia nganh xay dung la cac san pham ciia nganh luon ginliln vdi vin dl quyln su dung dit, muc dfch su dung dit, do vay vdi viec ban hanh LuatDit dai, Luat nha d va cac nghi djnh, thong tu hudng din da tao ca hoi Idn cho cac doanhnghiep Xay dung phat triln kinh doanh Bit dong san va trien khai cac du an diu tu dugcthuan lgi.He thdng Luat dugc xay dung kha hoan chinh, nhung khi di vao thuc tl thi cac van bandudi luat doi khi con chong cheo, chua theo kip diln biln thuc tl ciia thj truong, cac coquan quan ly hanh chinh va dia phuang con de ra nhilu giiy phep eon gay philn ha chocac chii dau tu va cac doanh nghiep Xay dung. VD da Dau tu xay dung cao 6c Vanphong can qua cac budc : lam so do quyan su dung dat, xin thoa thuan quy hoach congtrinh, va phe duyet thiet ke ca sd tai sd Kian triic quy hoach, xin thoa thuan Phong chaychira chay tai Cong an, xin thoa thuan moi truong tai Sd tai nguyen moi truong, Xin thoathuan cap dien tai Dien lire TP, Xin thoa thuan XD ting ngam tai sd GTCC, xin Giayphep xay dung tai Sd Xay dung . Dk qua dugc tit ca cac budc tren nau thong dong bengiot se mat khoang 2 nam .Chinh phli ciing ban hanh cac che do chfnh sach khuyan khfch co phan hoa cac doanhnghiep nha nude . Khong chi vay Thii tudng chinh phii con ra cac quyet djnh han dinhthai gian yeu ciu cac Tdng cong ty nha nude phai co phan hoa , va 105 doanh nghiep dac6 phin hoa phai dang ky giao djch tran san chung khoan . Vdi quyet sach nhu vay, da socac doanh nghiep nha nude da va dang tren con dudng c6 phin hoa, cung cip cho thitruong chung khoan lugng hang hoa da dang vdi gia tri von hoa chilm hon 10% GDP .Mdi quan he nganh: Bg Xay dung ngay cang di diing hudng la ca quan quan ly nha nudevl Xay dung, din din tu bd che do ca quan chii quan, quan ly true tilp cac doanh nghiep 43
  52. xay dung . Bg thiic diy sir phat trien ciia nganh Xay dung thong qua cac Chuang trinhphat trian nganh xay dung ngan han va dai han, cac qui hoach kiln triic khong gian cacvung, cac khu do thj va Cong nghiep, diau tiat va quan ly hoat dong ciia thi truong xaydung bing cac luat, va thong tu, nghj dinh hudng dan thuc hien . Vdi viec tu bd chl doBo chii quan cac Doanh nghiep xay dung. Bo tao diau kien cho cac Doanh nghiep xaydung hoat dong thue su theo ca che thj truong, chju su diau tiet ciia thj truong, dong thaihuy dong va da dang hoa cac nguon von dau tu cho Xay dung .D6i vdi Cong ty co phan xay dung so 2 sau khi da trd thanh cong ty dai chiing, niam yittren san giao dich chung khoan thi yau to thj truong khong chi tac dong dan dudng loisan xuat kinh doanh ciia cong ty, ma con tac dong dan co cau ban lanh dao doanh nghiep,C che C quan chu quan, cap tran da dugc triet tieu thuc sir. O O3.2.2 Moi truong kinh te:Trong chien luge phat trian kinh te xa hoi tdi nam 2010, Chfnh phii da dat ra cac muctieu cu tha sau: Dua GDP nam 2010 len ft nhat gap doi nam 2000. Nang cao ro ret hieuqua va sue canh tranh ciia san pham, doanh nghiep va nen kinh ta; dap ung t6t hon nhucau tieu dung thiat yau, mot phan dang ka nhu cau san xuat va day manh xuat khau, ondinh kinh te vT mo; can can thanh toan quoc te lanh manh va tang du tru ngoai te; boi chingan sach, lam phat, ng nude ngoai dugc kiam soat trong gidi han an toan va tac dongtich cue den tang trudng. Tich luy noi bg nen kinh ta dat tren 30% GDP. Nhip do tangxuit khiu gip tren 2 lin nhip do tang GDP. Ty trgng trong GDP ciia nong nghiep 16 -17%, cong nghiep 40 - 41%, dich vu 42 - 43%. Ty le lao dong nong nghiep con khoang50%. (NguSn: Chien luacphdt triin kinh ti 2000 - 2010, MPI)Ca cdu kinh te xd hoi:Ty trgng dau tu cho nganh cong nghiep va xay dung nam 2005 chiem 41%), riang dau tuC sd ha ting nhieu nam qua chiem khoang 10% GDP hang nam, ke hoach dan nam 2010 O 44
  53. C ciu diu tu cho nganh cong nghiep va xay dung la 43 - 44% (Nguon: Chiin luge phdt Otriin kinh ti 2000 - 2010. MPI).Trinh do phdt trien kinh te:GDP 2001 - 2005 binh quan trong 5 nSm dat 7,51%/nam, rieng 2005 dat 8,4% tuongduong 838.000 ty dong. Trong do khu vuc kinh tl Nha nude chilm 38,4% GDP, kh6ikinh te dan doanh chiam 45,7% GDP, kinh ta co von dau tu nude ngoai chiem 15,9%. Klhoach phat trian kinh te giai doan nam 2006-^2010: GDP nam 2010 tang 2,1 lin so vdinam 2000. GDP dat 7,5-8%/nam , phin diu tang han 8%/nam, din nam 2010 GDP dat 1690-1760 ngan ty (tuang duong 94-98 ty USD), tong diu tu xa hoi khoang 40%. GDPtheo diu ngudi nam 2005 dat 640 USD (1990: 200 USD; Cac nude phat trien 2004: 825USD). Kl hoach nam 2010 dat 1050-1100 USD (Theo WB cac nude dang phat triln dutfnh dat 950 USD) (NguSn: Chiin luacphdt triin kinh ti 2000 - 2010, MPI). Sir tangtrudng GDP qua cac nam qua va ka hoach phat trian kinh te giai doan nam 2006-2010 dacho ta thay tong von dau tu vao nan kinh ta, su tang trudng kinh te Viet nam tao co hoicho cac nha san xuat va dau tu cong nghiep va xay dung cho phat trian nganh xay dungha tang trong do cd XD - GTVT.Thu nhap dau ngudi mac du chua cao, nhung cac nam deu tang; Nam 1996 la226.700d/ngudi/thang, nam 2002 la 356.100d/ngudi/thang, nam 2004 la484.400d/ngudi/thang. Rieng nam 2004 thu nhap binh quan nong thon378.400d/ngudi/thang, thanh thi: 815.400 d/ngudi/thang. Ty le ngheo 2005 con 22%(chuan mdi), du tfnh dan 2010 giam ty le ngheo con 10-11% (B ao . Ty le nay cho thaysue mua va su phat trien kinh ta se tang, thuan lgi cho viec tang SXKD. Tuy nhien ciingcho thay ring nen tan dung din muc cao nhat lao dong thdi vu, lao dong d cac khu vucnong thon nhim ha gia thanh (NguSn: Chiin luacphdt then kinh te 2000 - 2010, MPI); 45
  54. Ty le lai suit tu 2005 va 2006 tang cao: 0,9-1,2%/thang, trong tinh trang su dung v6nvay cao, cong tac nghiem thu thanh toan eham, ng ton dong se gay kho khan Idn va se latrd lire cho thuc thi chiln luge phat trian SXKD d6i cac doanh nghiep Xay dung (NguSn:Chiin luge phdt triin kinh ti 2000 - 2010. MPI).Ty gia hdi doai vdi ddng USD tuong ddi 6n djnh trong vai nam qua (t6c do tang gia nam2003 la 2,2%, nam 2004 la 0,4%, nam 2005 la 0,9%; din ngay 29/5/2006 gia giao djchbinh quan khoang I5.930d/USD) tao diau kien cho viec thanh toan quoc te, diu tu daihan mua thiet bi. Song su kim giu gia vdi mot thdi gian dai, co the xuat hien su gia tangtic do tang gia trong nhirng nam tdi, do vay can than trong trong vay ngoai te diu tu phattriln (NguSn: Chiin luge phdt triin kinh ti 2000 - 2010. MPI).Chi so gia tieu diing nhiau nam tang cao (nam 2003 la 103,2; nam 2004 la 107,7 va nam2005 la 8,4%) Nam thang dau nam 2006 ty so tiau dung tang 3,6%> (Nguon: Chiin lugephdt then kinh te 2000 - 2010, MPI). Tinh trang nay gay kho khan cho viec giai quyatthu nhap, ddi song eiia ngudi lao dong, lam chi phi nhan cong tang cao .Chinh sdch ve kinh te co lien quan den ngdnh trong nhitng nam tai:Dang va Nha nude ta da de ra phuang hudng, khang djnh 5 nam 2006 - 2010 cd y nghTaquyat djnh doi vdi viec hoan thanh thang lgi chian luge phat trian kinh ta xa hoi 10 nam(2001 - 2010). "Day manh cong nghiep hoa, hien dai hoa va phat trian kinh tl tri thuc,tao nan tang de dua nude ta ca ban trd thanh nude cong nghiep theo hudng hien dai vaonam 2020. Giu* vung on dinh chinh trj va trat tu an toan xa hoi ... Nang cao vi the ciiaViet nam trong khu vuc va tran trudng quoc ta: (Nghi quyat Dai hoi X - Dang cong sanViet nam). Chu truong phat trien nhanh hon cong nghiep va xay dung theo hudng nangcao chit lugng, siirc canh tranh va hien dai hoa; thuc hien nhat quan cac chfnh sach taomoi trudng thuan lgi cho hoat dong dau tu, kinh doanh va phat trien manh me cac loaihinh doanh nghiep; thu hiit manh nguon luc dau tu nude ngoai; trong 5 nam tdi 5n dinh 46
  55. gia tri dong tien, kiam soat lam phat; phat trien manh va nang cao hieu qua hoat dongkhoa hoe cong nghe.Nhu vay moi trudng kinh ta trong nhung nam sap tdi tao dilu kien thuc su thuan lgi chosu phat trian ciia cac doanh nghiep xay dung, va Cong ty c6 phin Xay dung so 2 -VINACONEX cung khong phai la ngoai le .3.3.3 Moi trudng KHKT cua DN:Dang, Nha nude ta chii truong: Phat trian manh va nang cao hieu qua hoat dong KH &CN. Day manh nghien eiiru va ung dung thanh tuu KH & CN, tao budc dot pha ve nangsuat, chat lugng va hieu qua trong tung nganh, tung ITnh vuc ciia nen kinh ta. Tang nhanhnang luc KH&CN noi sinh di doi vdi tang eudng tilp thu thanh tuu KH & CN thi gidi.Diy manh xa hoi hoa hoat dong KH&CN d6ng thdi Nha nude tap trung diu tu vao cacchuang trinh nghian cuu Quoc gia, phan dau dat trinh do khu vuc va Tha gidi; xay dungtiam lire KH&CN cho mot so ITnh vuc trong dilm, cong nghe cao. Chii trong cong tacdao tao, bo sung ca cha, chfnh sach su dung, dai ngo can bo khoa hoc.Co chinh sach khuyan khfch va ho trg cac Doanh nghiep doi mdi va chuyen giao congnghe, nghian cuu va ung dung thanh tuu KH&CN vao san xuat va ddi song. Phat trianquan he lian ket, dat hang giua eac don vj san xuat kinh doanh, cac to chuc va ca nhan cdnhu ciu vdi cac ca sd nghian ciru KH&CN. Khuyen khfch va ho trg cac doanh nghiep,trudc hat la cac Tong cong ty Idn, trian khai cac hoat dong nghian ciiii KH&CN. Khuyankhich phat trian cac doanh nghiep khoa hgc va cong nghe thugc mgi thanh phan kinh tl.Thuc hien chfnh sach trgng dung nhan tai, cac nha khoa hoc dau nganh, tong cong trinhky su, ky su trudng, ky thuat vien lanh nghe va cong nhan ky thuat co tay nghe cao.Day manh hgp tac quoc ta, chuyan giao cong nghe, khuyan khfch to chuc, ca nhan nudengoai diu tu vl KH&CN. 47
  56. Trinh do KHKT va cong nghe trong nganh Xay dung: Da day manh cong tac nghien cuu,ap dung chuyin giao cong nghe thi cong xay dung hien dai va ung dung cong nghe vatlieu xay dung mdi. Hien Viet nam da dat cac thanh tuu sau:-Tdi nay 90% cong viec d cac Cong ty tu van thiat ke hang dau cua nganh da su dungcong nghe thong tin va ky thuat so trong thiat ka va nghien cuu .-He thong TCVN va XD da cap nhat va ap dung cac yeu cau Cong nghe hien dai nhittrong Xay dung, tuang duang vdi tiau chuan DIN (Due ), JIS ( N h a t ) , BS ( Anh ), tiauchuin chit lugng ASTM (Hoa Ky).-Cac DN da ap dung cong nghe thong tin, cac phan mem thiet ke, quan ly, du toan. Quanly cac du an da theo xu hudng hien dai, theo thong le Quoc ta;-Luc lugng KHKT ciia nganh : Vien khoa hoc ky thuat Xay dung, Vien kian triic va Quyhoaeh, Cac Trudng DH Kien triic, Dai hgc Xay dung va cac Tong cong ty, cong ty tu vanthiat ka hien dang dam duang dugc yau cau chung va nghian cuu va ung dung khoa hoccong nghe ciia nganh .-Su phat trian ciia cong nghe thong tin, xu hudng nhat tha hoa kinh ta, nan kinh ta trfthiic; phong trao sat nhap, lian hgp tri thuc hoa, mang hoa. Diau do se thay doi moitrudng KHKT cua cac DN, day manh viec ddi mdi KHKT cua xa hoi, thiic day viecchuyan giao cong nghe va thay doi co cau nganh ngha hien nay.Yeu cau v6 cong nghe mdi nau tran lam ro lgi tha canh tranh ciia cac DN chuyen nganh,nam liy cac ca hoi ma su thay doi do mang lai, thuc hien tien bo ky thuat va nang cap kythuat d DN minh. Va la rao can khong nho cho cac doi thu tiem nang.3.3.4 Moi trudng van hoa xa hoi cua DN:Moi tru&ng xd hoi cua DN:- Xa hoi dan s6 va lao dong: 48
  57. Co ciu lao dong 2005: 12% cong chuc; 12-15% lao dong trong Doanh nghiep Nha nude;Con lai chii ylu la cac Doanh nghiep dia phuang va nong dan.Viet nam nam 2005 vdi dan s6 83,8 trieu ngudi. Du tfnh din 2010 co khoang 88,4 trieungudi, t6c do tang dan s6 la 1,14%. Dan so gia tang cao, mot mat lam han chl quy diutu, mat khac yeu cau ngay cang cao ve xay dung ha tang, va nha d.Giai quylt viec lam, tix nam 2001 - 2005 giai quyat 7,5 trieu viec lam. Kl hoach tu 2006-2010 giai quyat viec lam 1,6 trieu ngudi/nam, cd 50% la lao dong nu, dien tich nha dbinh quan dat 14 - 15 m2 san/ngudi.- va chat lugng dan so:Phat trian van hoa la nen tang xa hoi. Nam 2005 eo 85% hoe sinh trung hoc co sd hoctrong do tuoi; Nam 2010 ka hoach 100% so Tinh Thanh pho cap giao due trung hoc ca sd(Nam 2003: Co 19 Tinh, Thanh pho); Dat 200 sinh vien dai hgc va cao dang tren 10.000dan. Tu 2005 - 2010 day nghe cho 7,5 trieu lao dong trong do dai han la 25 - 30%.- Kinh nghiem, ky nang eua lao dong ngay cang cao, ty le lao dong qua dao tao nam 2005la 25%. Kl hoaeh din nam 2010 la 40%.Moi trir&ng van hod:- Xa hoi ngay cang phat trien van minh hien dai, hoi nhap quoc te. Nhung djch chuyen Qgia trj xa hoi theo hudng con ngudi quan tam nhieu dan eham soc sue khoe, dam bao hethong eham lo sue khoe, giai quyat bao hiem Y te, an toan va moi trudng san xuit, lamviec va sinh hoat...;- Trinh do dan trf ngay cang cao, van minh, cong bang, cong khai dan chii;- Xu hudng tiet kiem, chi tieu va tieu dung hgp ly; Xu hudng "Loi song phuang tay" mucdp su dung kit ciu ha tang ngay cang cao, chi phi cho nha d ngay cang Idn.- Cac DN da quan tam eac yeu to triet hoc, ton giao, ngon ngu, van hgc, nghe thuat. Vdisir anh hudng gian tilp ciia cac yeu td nay d6i vdi kinh doanh eiia Doanh nghiep. 49
  58. - Nhung yau to ve moi trudng dan so va lao dong tao ca hoi, diau kien ngay cang Idn vlxay dung ha tang, va nha d . Dong thdi cung la nguon lao dong cd tay nghl d6i dao phanbo rgng khip tai cac dia phuang tao dieu kien cho cac doanh nghiep su dung lao dong taidia phuang .Moi trudng quoc te:- Quan he kinh tl quoc ta ngay cang gia tang. Xu the nhat tha hoa nln kinh tl thi gidi vdisir phat trien eiia cac Cong ty xuyan quoc gia (Trong thap ky 60 eiia Tha ky 20, toan Thigidi chi C 7.76 Cong ty xuyan quoc gia va 27.300 Cong ty eon. Din diu thap ky 90 da OC 37.000 Cong ty xuyen quoc gia va 170.000 Cong ty con (So lieu ciia Vien nghien cuu Odao tao va quan ly nam 2005) la diau ma cac DN can quan tam.- Xu hudng hoi nhap quoc ta cung tac dong manh me den cac chfnh sach kinh tl, vadudng loi phat trian ciia dat nude . Vdi viec Viet Nam tham gia va hoat dong tich cuetrong cac to chuc ASEAN, AFTA, dac biet viec gia nhap WTO vao cuoi nam 2006, nenkinh ta Viet nam da chinh thuc hoa nhap vao nan kinh ta tha gidi, va trd thanh diem denhap dan ciia cac nha dau tu nude ngoai. Xu hudng toan cau hoa, hoi nhap Quoc te, khuvuc tao thuan lgi cho viec goi von dau tu, md rong lien kat hgp tac quoc ta cho SXKD.- Xong cac yau to tren ciing la ap luc doi vdi cac DN trong viec xay dung chien luge phattrian, tang nang lire ciia chfnh sach va can thay dugc eac yeu cau quan ly DN trong diaukien quoc ta hien nay: Coi trong muc tieu tong tha ciia xa hoi, chii y khfch le tinh than,coi trong nhan tai, xay dung van hoa doanh nghiep; doi mdi phuang thuc lanh dao.3.4. Phan tich moi trudng vi mo (nganh xay dung ) theo mo hinh 5 lye luong canhtranh cua Micheal Porter :Viec phan tich moi trudng nganh xay dung va cac doi thii canh tranh tac dong dan Congty c6 phin xay dung s6 2 se chi ra nhthig co hoi va thach thuc ddi vdi Cong ty, tim ra loidi rieng cho Cong ty tran con dudng phat triln. 50
  59. 3.4.1 Cac Cong ty mdi gia nhap thi trudngSau khi Nha nude ban hanh Luat doanh nghiep, Luat dau thau, Luat xay dung, Luat nhad va mot s6 chl do chfnh sach khuyin khfch viec diu tu xay dung bit dong san thi raocan phap ly vdi cac Doanh nghiep xay dung mdi gia nhap nganh gin nhu dugc pha bo.Theo thong ka ciia Bg xay dung, hiep hoi nha thiu, trong vong 5 nam trd lai day s6 lugngNha thau xay dung tang han 12% sau moi nam. (Nguon Hiep hoi nha thiu). D6i vdi cacDoanh nghiep mdi gia nhap nganh thi rao can tham gia du thau eac cong trinh se chii ylula ho so kinh nghiem va nang luc thi cong. Theo Luat dau thau va Nghi dinh 52 ve diuthau thi khi xet thau diam bai thau phan ho so kinh nghiem dugc cho tu 5 - 10 dilm/100diam trong do nhan manh vao 2 tieu chi:- S6 nam kinh nghiem - Doanh thu binh quan trong 3 din 5 nam gin day (Co xac nhanciia ca quan thua)- Cac cong trinh cd qui mo tuang duang da thue hien trong 3 hoac 5 nam gan day (Coxac nhan ciia Chii dau tu)- d mot sd cong trinh Chii dau tu con dua ra cac tiau ehf so dat hoac khong dat ngay tugiai doan nay, da loai ngay cac nha thau khong dii ho so kinh nghiem .Nang lire thi cong: Cung dugc eham tu 5 - 10 diam/100 diam trong do nhan manh vaocac tiau chi:- Lam chii hoac cd lien kat ... vdi cac nha cung cap xe may thi cong chuyan nganh, dacbiet nhu: Tram trgn be tong, cau thap, may khoan cgc nhdi ... Day la cac thiat bj ddi hoicac chi phi dau tu Idn ma khong de gi cac Cong ty mdi gia nhap cd dugc.- Luc lugng can bg va cong nhan ky thuat bac cao: Vf du nhu giam doc Du an phai datrai qua Cong trinh tuang tu co tham nian 5 - 1 0 nam la Giam doc Du an tuy theo timgcong trinh. Phai cd dii luc lugng ky su trong bian cha cho cac vj tri quan ly KT va dieu 51
  60. hanh tren cong trudng. Cac cong viec yau ciu ky thuat, tfnh my thuat cao phai co diicong nhan ky thuat bac cao.Nhu vay, vdi viec cho tu 10 - 20% dilm bai thiu cho H6 so kinh nghiem va nang lire baithau thi mot hang rao KT da dugc dung len cho cac Doanh nghiep mdi gia nhap nganh.Cong ty cd phin xay dung so 2 vdi gin 40 nam kinh nghiem, lire lugng ky su, CBKThon 280 ngudi, cong nhan bac cao 450 ngudi, lire lugng xe may kha hung hau co co hoiIdn dat hit s6 dilm tran khi lam bai thiu (Xem Phu luc cac ban du lieu Diu thiu). Tuyvay, thj trudng xay dung rit rong, chit lugng, qui mo, muc do phuc tap ciia cong trinhtrai rong tu nhd din Idn (tir vai tram trieu VND, din hang ty USD) tir don gian din phuctap. Do vay phan khiie thj trudng d khu vuc cong trinh nhd, ky thuat dan gian (VD: Nhadan dung qui mo nho , vua, nha cong nghiep vdi kit ciu tiln chl) thi hang rao ky thuat lagan nhu khong co, su canh tranh vdi eac Doanh nghiep mdi gia nhap la rit cao, Cong tyC phan xay dung so 2 can luu y khi lira chon Du an de dau thau va lam bai thau. OCling vdi lugng vdn FDI dd vao nude ta ngay cang tang, thi so lugng cac Nha thau nudengoai gia nhap thi trudng xay dung ngay cang Idn. Ho chiam uu tha e ho so kinhnghiem, da thi cong nhfrng cong trinh d6ng bo ky thuat phuc tap, co trinh do quan ly duan & cong nghe cao, dii nang luc t6ng thiu EPC nhung cong trinh Idn nhu Nha may nhietdien, Igc diu . Ben canh do cac nha thiu nude ngoai con co kha nang dan xIp v6n tindung cho du an, dac biet ho eo m6i quan he ban hang truyan thdng, VD cac cong trinh doCanon diu tu tran toan Thi gidi luon do Nha thiu OBAYASHI (Nhat) xay dung, hoacODA eiia Nhat thi eac Nha thiu Nhat luon thing thiu.Do vay d phan khiic thj trudng nay Cong ty c6 phin xay dung so 2 nan di theo each liendoanh, lian kit diu thiu hoac thiu phu cho eac Nha thiu nude ngoai da tao ngudn luc vanang cao nang lire thi cong va h6 so kinh nghiem, di ciing nha thau nude ngoai chilm7,5% dilm khi chim thiu (Theo ND 52 vl Qui chl diu thiu) 52
  61. 3.4.2 Su canh tranh cua cac doi thu hien taiSu canh tranh ciia cac Doanh nghiep hien tai la hit sue khac nghiet. Vdi so v6n 20 ty, quimo nhu eiia Cong ty cd phin xay dung so 2 thi trong nganh xay dung cd hang 100 Congty, trong ban than Tdng Vinaconex ciing c6 tdi 5 Cong ty co quy md tuang tu .- Tong cong ty xay dung & phat trian ha tang LICOGI: 10/25- T6ng cong ty XD Ha noi : 22/35- T6ng cong ty Song Da: Bang 3-3 So lieu so sanh ve 5 cong ty cung quy mo ciia Tong Cong ty Vinaconex Dan vi tinh: 1.000.000 VND CTCP XD s6 1 CTCP XD so 2 CTCP XD s6 3 CTCP XD s6 5 CTCP Vimeco Chi tieu 2005 2006 2005 2006 2005 2006 2005 2006 2005 2006 1. San lugng 304.977 241.714 291.269 355.093 262.000 302.000 285.091 370.000 408.253 558.068 2. Doanh thu 180.000 180.500 237.462 283.582 177.552 182.000 215.129 280.000 281.780 433.210 3. Lgi nhuan 5.098 4.236 9.765 12.459 8.200 11.100 5.300 6.600 9.210 10.600 4. Dau tu 10.572 3.000 13.715 23.766 9.905 15.600 14.904 4.497 196.500 152.013 Nguon: Bdo cao tong kit Tong cong ty xay dung Vinaconex 2005-2006Da so cac Cong ty nay dau co cung nguon goc la cac Cong ty Nha nude thuoc Bo xaydung, duac thanh lap each day 30, 40 nam, dau eo truyan thong va nang luc thi congmanh. Cac doi thii canh tranh nay, khi lam bai thau, viec dat tren 70 hoac 80 diam toithieu da qua giai doan 1 xet thau la don gian. Su canh tranh chii yau tren phuang dien kythuat la bien phap thi cong, gia thau va chat lugng djch vu. Vi du nhu: Bien phap thicong phai hgp ly, phu hgp vdi dac diem dia hinh thi cong va tinh chat cong trinh, kythuat thi cong tien tien, phan ky thuat nay thudng dugc 20 -^ 30 diam trong thang diamxet thiu.Chit lugng djch vu thi hien d tian do thi cong hgp ly, phu hgp vdi quy trinh ky thuat(Dugc 5 - 1 0 dilm trong thang dilm xet thiu), cac cam kit ung v6n (Dugc 2,5 dilm), 53
  62. cam kit bao dam chit lugng doat huy chuang vang. Canh tranh vl gia ea trong do dambao gia thip hgp ly, tran ca sd tilt kiem chi phi quan ly, va chgn chat lugng vat lieu vuadli theo yeu ciu ciia tieu chi ky thuat cua Ho so mdi thau. Nhu vay doi vdi cac doi thiicanh tranh trong nganh, viec canh tranh chii yau tran ca sd ky thuat thi cong, trinh doquan ly.3.4.3 Quyen lure cua Nha cung cap:Dli vdi nganh xay dung, nguyen vat lieu dau vao chinh nhu thep. Xi mang, cat, da, gachop lat, nhom, kinh ... khong phai la mat hang khan hiam, hien nay trong nude co ban dapung dugc. Cac DN san xuat cung cap thep cd: thep Thai nguyen, thep Viet lic, thep Viethan ... vdi san lugng luyen can thep 4,5 trieu tan/nam. Cac DN san xuit xi mang: Ximang Hoang thach, Xi mang Chin phong, Nghi son, Biit son, Hoang mai vdi san lugnggan 45 trieu tan/nam. Cac DN san xuat gach op lat; Viglacera, Taicera, Dong tam ... vdicong suat san xuat 3 trieu m2/nam. Nhu vay, cac nha cung cap dau cd cac san phamtuong doi giong nhau, su khac biet khong Idn, he thong phan phoi dan xen, chi phichuyen ddi ngudn cung cap nho nhu vay sue ep ciia Nha cung cap la khong Idn . Tuyvay, vdi khoi lugng su dung Idn thudng xuyan, lau dai thi viec lap quan he ban hang vdicac nha cung cap ed dii nang luc cung ung dau dan vdi gia chiat khau hgp ly la hat suequan trongCo mot so loai vat lieu don gian nhu cat, da, sdi thi thudng gap phai su lien kat docquyen dja phuang, viec thay ddi nguon khong de dang, chi phi chuyan doi nguon cungcap cao, day la mot dac diam ma cac DN xay dung phai ludng trudc va co bien phap ddinhan su tha phu hgp.Cong ty cd phan xay dung sd 2 chi phi mua nguyen vat lieu dau vao chiam 35% chi phiSan xuat thi can thiet phai lira chgn, su dung cac nha cung cap truyan thdng de c6 gia dau 54
  63. vao thap va 5n djnh ngudn cung cip va chit lugng cong trinh. Day ciing la ylu t6 quantrong de tang kha nang canh tranh.Cung cip von: ddi vdi Cong ty xay dung nguon von chii yau dc SXKD la :- Von phdp dinh la rat nhd ma chii yeu la tai san ed dinh va xe may thi cong nan thuc tlkhong ho trg cho v6n luu dong va dau tu cho SXKD. Vi du: - Cong ty CP XD so 2: V5nphap djnh 20 ty/400 ty Doanh thu 2006; Cong ty VIMECO: Vdn phap dinh 35 ty/400 tyDoanh thu; Cong ty CP XD so 4 Tong HN: V6n phap djnh 50 ty/600 ty Doanh thu- Von ung truac ciia khdch hdng : Gia trj ung trudc chiam 10 - 15% gia trj hgp ddng,thudng khong dii cho nhu cau giai ngan cho cac nha cung cip .- Von vay Ngan hdng: Day la nguon von chii yeu eac Cong ty xay dung su dung da lamv6n luu dong va dau tu. Chi phi su dung von tu ngudn nay ngay cang tang cao (0,95 -^1,05%/thang) lam anh hudng Idn dan hieu qua SXKD. Ben canh do eac dinh chl taichinh nhu Ngan hang, Quy tin dung ngay cang siat chat han muc cho vay, yau ciu thichap, cam co tai san . Dac biet doi vdi cac du an kinh doanh Bat dong san yeu cau voncho trian khai du an la rat Idn, VD mot du an dau tu 300 ty thi von tu cd ciia Chii dau tuphai C 45 ty. Do vay, ddi vdi Cong ty co phan xay dung sd 2 viec tap trung tang eudng Okha nang thu hdi vdn, giam lai vay Ngan hang, phat hanh tham cd phieu de tang vonphap djnh tran ca sd eac Du an dau tu xac djnh la can thilt dk dam bao hieu qua SXKD.3.4.4. Cac san pham thay the:Dac dilm ciia nganh xay dung la khong co San phim thay thi, bit cu nha diu tu nao dutrong nude hay nude ngoai cung deu phai su dung djch vu xay dung tai Viet nam, nenviec canh tranh tu eac san pham thay the la khong c6.3.4.5 Quyen nang cua ngirdi mua:Khach hang ciia Cong ty cd phan xay dung sd 2 cd 3 loai: 55
  64. - Cac chii dau tu: Nhihig ngudi dai dien cho nha dau tu la cac Ban quan ly du an. Dl baove cho chii diu tu, ho thudng lira chon nha thau thong qua dau thau. Hd so mdi thiu vatieu chi eham thiu chinh la thi hien yau cau ve kinh ta, ky thuat ciia chii diu tu thi hien quyen ciia chii dau tu. Tu khi c6 luat dau thau va nghi djnh 52 va quy chl diu thiu, cac chii dau tu dat dugc muc dich ciia minh la lira chon dugc nha thau cung cip cho minhmot san pham diing nhu du dinh. Tat nhien Luat diu thau ciing bao ve lai nha thiu ch6nglai viec eac chii dau tu lam dung quyan ciia minh mot each khdng minh bach. - Cac nha dau tu nude ngoai, cac tdng thau nude ngoai: Cac cong ty xay dung trong nudecung cap cho hg dich vu xay dung la cac thanh pham hoan chinh hay cac ban thanhphim. Ddi vdi ddi tugng nay sir tin tudng lin nhau dugc dua lan hang diu. Cac nha thiuxay dung va Cong ty ed phan xay dung so 2 phai chju ap lire la lam the nao dk dap ungva xay dung dugc long tin ciia hg vdi minh, lam tha nao dam bao chat lugng, tien docong trinh. Vdi ddi tugng nay gia ca khdng phai la tit ca. Doi khi long tin doi vdi ho bitnguon tu su thong thao ngoai ngir, sir hiau biat luat quoc ta hay mot Idi gidi thieu ....,nhung cuoi ciing vin la sir nd lire ciia nha thau xay dung de hoan thanh tron ven hgpdong. Ddi vdi doi tugng khach hang nay, quyen nang cua ngudi mua la rat Idn, ho co thide dang doi Cong ty xay dung khac, cat hay giam gia trj hgp ddng, nhat la vdi cac hgpdong thau phu. Ben canh do, Idi gidi thieu ciia hg vdi eac ke hoaeh tilp theo la hit sue edtrong lugng. Tuy vay khi chju ap lire idn vl tiln do, chit lugng cong trinh, thi nha thiuxay dung cung nhan lai dugc mot hieu qua tdt trong kinh doanh.- Cac khach hang la doi tugng ciia hoat dong kinh doanh bat dong san: Quyan nang ciiadoi tugng khach hang nay thay ddi phu thuoc vao su nong lanh ciia thj trudng Bat dongsan. va lau dai, quyen nang cua hg la rat Idn bdi nhung ly do sau:• Kha nhieu cong ty nhay vao ITnh vuc kinh doanh nay do thiy dugc lgi nhuan cao nenkhach hang cd nhiau lira chgn. 56
  65. • Hoat dong kinh doanh Bit dong san chii yeu dua vao v6n vay ngan hang , chi phi si!rdung von cao ( lai suit 0,95- 1.15% thang ), do vay neu khdng ban hang, thu h6i v6nnhanh thi lai trd thanh thua lo. Ddi vdi Cong ty cd phan xay dung sd 2, day la mang hoatdong het sue quan trong. Quyen nang ciia khach hang dugc quan tam ngay tu liic lap du-an. Do la viec xac dinh muc tiau khach hang phuc vu (cao cip, trung cip hay binh dan),tuong ung vdi no la viec dap lirng cac nhu ciu su dung ciia ho, phuang thue triln khaihgp dong mua ban, mua diirt, ban doan hay su dung tin dung ngan hang ho trg va cu6icung la quy chl quan ly khu nha (hay toa nha) sau khi khach hang don vl d (hau chungcu). Cong ty co phan xay dung so 2 - Vinaconex dugc su dung thuong hieuVINACONEX la thuong hieu eo tin nhiem cao tren thj trudng bit dong san phia bie, vuala thuan lgi trong kinh doanh bat dong san nhung cung la ap lire Idn, trong viec vua giiJgin uy tin thuong hieu vua dam bao gia mua canh tranh tren thj trudng.3.4.6 Cac doi tuong lien quan:Ngoai 5 lire lugng canh tranh d tran cac Cong ty XD vdi dac diam ciia minh con bj anhhudng bdi cac doi tugng khac dudi day :Chinh phu vd cac ca quan chinh phu: Vdi mot cong ty quy md nhu cong ty co phan xaydung so 2 nam trong mot Tdng Cong Ty cd phan nha nude Vinaconex, su anh hudng veche do chfnh sach quan ly nganh ma Bd xay dung, Bd Tai nguyan mdi trudng. Bo Giaothong van tai v..v,...dat ra la rat Idn. Thi trudng xay dung co the tang manh, giam di haychuyen tir dja phuang nay, nganh nay sang dja phuang khac, nganh khac phu thuoc nhiauvao chian luge phat trien kinh te ciia chfnh phii . Dac biet cac chinh sach trong quan lydau tu, quy hoaeh vung kinh ta, chinh sach quan ly dat dai, han cha hay khuyan khich suphat trian thi trudng bat ddng san cd tac dong rat Idn tdi sir phat trien ciia nganh xaydung . Vdn dau tu phat trian tu tu nguon ngan sach nha nude va dja phuang chiem 40% 57
  66. t6ng dau tu xay dung. Viec phan bo vdn ludn chiu su dinh hudng va dilu chinh ciia chinh phli. Cong dong dia phuang: Mot cong ty xay dung khong hoat dong bo hep trong pham vi mot nha may hay mot dja phuang lai thudng gay 6 nhiem moi trudng nen su tac dong va anh hudng cac co quan quyln lure d cac dja phuang la hit sue Idn .Ben canh do khi hoat dong d cac dja phuang, cac cong ty xay dung luon phai c6 ging nhan dugc su ling ho thong cam ciia cac ca quan va nhan dan dia phuang do . 3.4.7 Ma tran danh gia cac yen t6 ben ngoai tac dong den Cong ty cd phan xay dung so 2 (Ma tran EFE)Danh muc cac ylu td ben ngoai tac dong dan thanh cong ciia Doanh nghiep theo phantich:- Moi trudng chinh trj on dinh- He thong luat kha hoan chinh, dac biet cac luat lien quan den hoat dong xay dung.- He thong van ban dudi luat con eham, chong cheo, hay thay doi. Cac dja phuang condua ra cac giay phep con.- Doi mdi trong phuang phap quan ly Doanh nghiep va dau tu ciia ca quan chii quan.- Tang trudng kinh ta muc cao- Ty trong dau tu Nha nude cho edng nghiep va xay dung cao, lugng vdn dau tu FDI Idn.- Thu nhap binh quan dau ngudi tang, dan so tang nhanh, dac biet su tang co hoc cua danso Thanh phd.- Nha nude khuyen khfch phat trian nhanh cac khu dd thj va nha d.- Trinh do khoa hoc & cong nghe nganh xay dung kha phat trien.- Chi phi trang bj va doi mdi thiet bj xay dung Idn.- Canh tranh gay git giua cac Nha thau xay dung.- Gia ca vat lieu dau vao tang cao lien tuc. 58
  67. - Chi phi su dung v6n vay Ngan hang cao.- Diu tu vao bit ddng san doi hoi von Idn ngay cang chiu nhilu riii ro.- Ng dong XDCB Idn, thdi gian thanh toan keo dai.- Ngudi mua co quyan nang Idncan cu vao thuc tl SXKD Cong ty e6 phin xay dung so 2 trong nhung nam qua, dac bietla 3 nam 2004, 2005, 2006 sau co phan hoa, sau khi tham khao y kiln cac lanh dao dT6ng Cong ty Vinaconex, cac can bd quan ly d cac phong ban chuc nang ciia Cong ty,chiing toi xac dinh tam quan trgng ciia cac yeu to tren va cho diam phan loai (1 -^ 4) dlthiy dugc kha nang ma chian luge ciia Cong ty phan ung vdi eac yau to do nhu thi nao. 59
  68. Bang 3-4 Bang ma train danh gia cac yeu to tac dong cua moi trudng ben ngoai Cac y^u to chu yeu ben ngoai Muc do Phan So diem Quan trong loai Quan trongMoi trudng chinh tri dn dinh 0,08 3 0,24 He thong luat kha hoan chinh, dac biet cac luat lien 0,08 3 0,24quan dan hoat dong xay dung. He thong van ban dudi luat con eham, chong cheo, 0,07 4 0,28hay thay doi. Cac dia phuang con dua ra cac giiy phepcon.Doi mdi trong phuang phap quan ly DN & dau tu ctia 0,06 3 0,18ca quan chu quan.Tang trudng kinh te muc cao 0,07 4 0,28Ty trong dau tu NN cho cong nghiep va xay dung cao 0,04 3 0,12thu hiit von dau tu FDI Idn.Thu nhap binh quan dau ngudi tang, dan so tang 0,07 4 0,28nhanh, dac biet su tang co hoc ciia dan so Thanh pho.Nha nude khuyan khich phat trien nhanh cac khu do 0,05 3 0,15thj va nha d.Trinh do khoa hoc & cong nghe nganh XD kha phat 0,05 3 0,15trian.Chi phi trang bj va doi mdi thiat bj XD Idn 0,05 3 0,15Canh tranh gay gat giua cac Nha thau XD 0,04 2 0,08Gia ca vat lieu dau vao tang cao lien tuc. 0,05 2 0,1Chi phi su dung von vay Ngan hang cao. 0,07 1 0,07Diu tu vao bit dong san doi hoi von Idn ngay cang 0,08 2 0,16chju nhiau riii ro.Ng dong XDCB Idn, thdi gian TT keo dai. 0,06 2 0,12Ngudi mua cd quyen nang Idn 0.08 2 0.16Tong cong 1 2.78Nhan xet Vdi so dilm binh quan giam 2,78/4 ta thiy Doanh nghiep da nim bit dugc cohoi va phan ung kha tdt vdi eac m6i de doa tir moi trudng ben ngoai. 60
  69. 3.5 Phan tich moi trydng ben trong ciia Cong ty co phan xay dung so 23.5.1 Ap dung chuoi gia tri (Value chain)Trong nganh xay dung cac boat dong chfnh dugc trian khai cu tha thanh cac hoat dong:(i) dau thau va chuan bj du an; (ii) nguyan vat lieu dau vao; (iii) thi edng xay lip; (iv)nghiem thu, thanh toan, ban giao; (v) hau ban giao (quyat toan, bao hanh). Ca so ha tang (cau true va lanh dao) van hoa, tai chinh Hoat Nguon nhan lire dong ho Quan he khach hang trg Cong nghe, thiet bj [uc tieu Dau thau Nguyen vat Thi cong Nghiem thu, Hau ban ;hien luac Hoat dong va lieu dau vao xay lap thanh toan, giao (quyet / chinh chuan bi ban giao toan, bao duan hanh)a. Cac hoat dong ho tra :C(f s& ha tdng Doanh nghiep• Ve ca cdu td chirc Cong ty:Cong ty CPXD so 2 la sir tilp ndi va phat triln eiia Cong ty XD sd 2 cd truyln thong 40nam xay dung va phat triln nen dugc thua hudng he thong ca sd ha tang bat dong sannhu tru sd Cong ty (rong 1000m2 tai 52 Lac Long Quan, Ha ndi), kho tang, mo vat lieuxay dung va xe may thiat bi thi cong. Cong ty co phan xay dung sd 2 hien nay la Congty C phan dai chiing nhung Nha nude van nam giu 51 % cd phan . OCo quan quyln lire cao nhat ciia Cong ty la Dai hoi dong co dong. Hoi dong quan trj gom05 ngudi, thay mat Dai hoi d6ng cd dong quan ly boat ddng SXKD ciia Cong ty, chi dao 61
  70. trien khai cac van dl ma Dai hoi dong e6 dong da thdng qua giam sat Giam d6c cong tydieu hanh san xuat.Ban kiam soat gdm 03 thanh vian, trudng ban kiam soat la thanh vian Hoi ddng quan tri.Ban kiem soat cd nhiem vu kiam tra, giam sat hoat dong ciia HDQT, Ban dilu hanh vahoat dong SXKD ciia Cong ty.Bo may diau hanh ciia Cdng ty theo chl do mot thii trudng. Giam d6c cong ty la ngudidai dien phap luat ciia Doanh nghiep, dieu hanh moi hoat dong SXKD ciia Cong ty, thuchien Nghj quyat ciia Dai hoi ddng co dong & HDQT. Cac phd giam doc la ngudi giiipviec Giam doc dugc giam doc uy quyen thay mat diau hanh cac mang hoat dong ciiaCong ty.Cac phong ban va chi nhanh la cac Co quan tham muu, giiip viec Ban lanh dao va HDQTdieu hanh SXKD tren cac mat chuyan mon nghiep vu.Giam doc Cdng ty true tiep chi dao tdi cac Ddi san xuat. Trong tuang lai gin Cong ty sephat trian theo ca cau Cdng ty me con, Chi nhanh hoac cac Doi san xuat se phat trienthanh cac Cong ty con. Cong ty me chi dau tu von va djnh hudng SXKD, Cong ty con tuchju trach nhiem va ket qua SXKD. Nhu vay bo may diau hanh Cong ty het sue gon nhekhong chong cheo, phat huy dugc nang lire ciia doi ngu can bo dong thdi qui dinh rotrach nhiem d tung khau ciia qua trinh san xuat. Bo may san xuat ciia Cdng ty qua 3 namC phan hoa da tung budc hoan thien va hoat dong tran tru, diau hanh tot qua trinh san Oxuit mang lai hieu qua cao trong SXKD.Tuy vay, cung da c6 nhung biau hien bat cap, khi qui mo san xuat ngay cang Idn (Sanludng thuc hien tir 180 ty nam 2003 da len tdi 450 ty nam 2007), ITnh vuc san xuit ngaycang rong, doi hdi tfnh chuyan nghiep cao han, do vay cap thiet phai phat trien theo mohinh Cong ty me cdng ty con . 62
  71. Van hoa doanh nghiep eiia CT nim chung trong VH doanh nghiep ciia VINACONEXnhung cung da ed nhihig net tu hao rieng vl truyln thing va thanh cong ciia CT trongnhihig nam diu sau cd phin hoa.- Noi bo CT doan kit, tinh ky luat cao, can bo co trinhdo, nang dong, ed trach nhiem.• Quan ly tdi chinh:Tir mot nan tai chinh cd nhieu ng ton dong keo dai, sau khi c6 phin hoa (thang 10 nam 2003)cong tac tai chinh ciia don vj luon dugc quan tam dac biet. Chi dao thu h6i vdn nhanh, kianquylt, diit dilm, tir day da khac phuc dugc tmh trang ng ton dong keo dai, nguon tai chinh ciiadon vi ngay cang lanh manh ed uy tin vdi Ngan hang, dam bao dii von cho thi cong va dau tu,lgi nhuan dat cao. Viec da dang hoa hoat dong san xuat kinh doanh da pha tha dgc canh, manglai cho Cong ty nhiau nguon thu, dac biet la cac nguon thu tir hoat ddng kinh doanh Bit dongsan, san xuat Vat lieu XD khong chi dii cung cap von cho hoat dong do ma con ho trg tot choboat dong thi cong xay lap .Mot trong nhung thanh cdng nhat trong cong tac tai chinh la nang cao vong quay ciiading v6n trong SXKD, dac biet he so thanh toan nhanh nam 2006 da tang lan dan 1,13lin gip 2 lin so vdi nam 2005 (0,6), vdi tdc do tang trudng cao Doanh thu tang 45,3%,lgi nhuan tang 142,31%, vdn chii sd hihi tang 87,42% so vdi KH nam 2006. Tu dd giamlai vay ngin ban. Phong Tai chinh K I toan phdi hgp vdi phong Diu thiu va QLDA,phong Kinh doanh va PT Nba, cac doi diy manh cdng tac thanh quylt toan, thu hdi v6n.Cong tac thu h6i vdn da thi hien trong chi tieu doanh thu cao, la tian dk cho viec cungung v6n thi cong, d6ng thdi giam viec phai tra lai vay Ngan hang nang cao hieu quaSXKD.Nam 2006 Phong Tai chinh K I toan kit hgp vdi cac phong ban trong Cong ty dudi su chidao ciia Ban Giam ddc thue hien thanh cong viec dua Cd philu ciia Cong ty giao djch taiTrung tam Giao dich Chung khoan Ha Noi. Cd philu cua Cdng ty C6 phin Xay dung so 63
  72. 2 - VC2 sau khi chinh thuc giao dich tai TTGDCK Ha Ndi lien tuc tang trudng chung tosu tin tudng va ky vgng ciia cac nha dau tu vao Cong ty la rit Idn. Ddng thdi la mot trongnhung C phiau co eac chi so tot, dn dinh nhat ciia TTGDCK Ha Noi. O Bang 3-5 Cac chi tieu tai chinh thirc hien qua 3 nam 2004,2005,2006 Dan vi tinh: Trieu dong Don vi Thuc hien Thuc hien Thuc hien TT Chi tieu tinh nam 2004 nam 2005 nam 2006 1 Doanh thu thuan Trieu dong 181.498 236.849 392.410 2 Lgi nhuan trudc thue Trieu dong 9.587 13.967 27.447 Ty suat lgi nhuan trudc 3 % 5,11 5,84 6,94 thua/Doanh thu thuan Khiu hao TSCD (ty le BQ 4 Trieu dong 5.057 5.464 4.951 10%) 5 Lai C tuc O % 17 17 17 NguSn: Bdo cdo tong kit cong ty Vinaconex 2 2004-2006Cac chi tiau lgi nhuan cao tao dilu kien xay dung trich lap cac quy nhu du phong taichinh, diu tu phat triln, phiic lgi, dao tao, khen thudng. Do vay v6n chii sd hihi cua congty tu 10 ty vao thang 9/2003 khi c6 phin hoa da tang lan hon 42 ty vao 31/12/2006 .• Ve luc lieang lao dong: Bang 3-6 Nhan luc nam 2005 va 2006 So lugng lao dong (ngudi) stt Trinh do 31/12/2005 31/12/2006 1 Trinh do tren dai hgc 2 3 2 Trinh do Dai hoc 184 218 3 Trinh dp Cao ding, trung cip, nghiep vu 60 59 4 Cong nhan ky thuat tir Bac 5 - 7 125 125 5 Cdng nhan ky thuat 1612 1550 64
  73. Lao dong phd thong 120 95 Tong so 2103 2050 Nguon: Bdo cdo tong kit cong ty Vinaconex 2 2004-2006Ngudn nhan lire tren chinh la nguon lire vd cung quy gia ciia Cdng ty. Trong nhirng namqua, Cdng ty ludn chii trong viec dao tao nang cao trinh do ky thuat, ngoai ngu ciia doingu ky su va CBKT qua cac khoa dao tao ngan ban va dai han. Hang nam lire lugng congnhan ky thuat dugc boi dudng nang cao tay nghl, thi nang bac . Quy dao tao ciia cong tyqua 3 nam da len tdi han 500 trieu dap ung dii chi phi dao tao va nghien cuu ung dungtien bo ky thuat vao san xuat. Doi ngu cong nhan nay da gin bo trudng thanh cung Congty qua hang chuc nam, nhieu con em trong sd ho da tilp budc trd thanh CBCNV ciiaCong ty , tao nen ngudn luc lao dong doi dao, co tay ngha cao va gin bo vdi truyln th6ngciia Cong ty.Ban lanh dao cong ty la nhixng cac bp tam huylt, c6 trinh dp va nang luc KHKT cao, c6kinh nghiem trong thi cong, nhay ben trong san xuat kinh doanh, virng vang trong quanly. Dpi ngu can bp doan ket, dong tam hiep lire cung nhau chung sue xay dung cong ty .• Ve quan he khdch hdng:Cong ty quan he tdt vdi cac Ban QLDA, cac Lanh dao tai cac dia phuang nhu Ha noi,VTnh phiic, Ha tay ... Do tao dung dugc uy tin, qua chit lugng va tiln do cac cong trinhxay dung ma Cdng ty da cd dugc khach hang Idn nhu Bp thuong mai, Uy ban dan toeTW, Kho bac Nha nude TW, Vietnam Airline, Benh vien quan y 108, Bp Y te ...Khach hang Cong ty trong cac Du an co vdn dau tu nude ngoai chiam tdi gan 50% doanhthu Cong ty. Cong ty da trd thanh doi tac, ban hang truyan thong vdi cac hang POSCO(Han quoc), SHIMIZU, TAISEI, ..., OBAYASHI (Nhat ban), Nuiphao Vika (Canada),Jaeobsen (Na uy); Fujikasui (Dai Loan). Trong lien doanh lien kat xay dung cac Cong ty 65
  74. C v6n FDI d Viet Nam vdi ddi tugng khach hang nay Cong ty la nha cung cip dich vu Oxay dung trong nude uy tin va tiem nang .Khach hang ciia cac Du an kinh doanh bit ddng san : qua mot s6 Du an bit dong san dathuc hien, Cdng ty da giu dugc chu tin vdi khach hang, ngu6n tiln ung trudc ciia lugngkhach hang nay khong chi cung cip dii cho Du an ma con la ngudn lire ho trg cho cachoat dong thi cong xay dung khac. Bao ve va phat huy thuong hieu Vinaconex, Cong tydang dan trd thanh Nha dau tu kinh doanh bit dong san eo uy tin tren thi trudng.Nhu vay Cdng ty cd mdi quan he rit t6t vdi mpi d6i tugng khach hang. Cac quan he nayla C sd quan trgng dc Cdng ty phat trian san xuat vdi doanh thu tang trudng 15% moi Onam, lgi nhuan nam sau cao han nam trudc. Dam bao co hdi phat triln cho Imh vuc kinhdoanh bat dong san va san xuat vat lieu xay dung. Quan he khach hang t6t cung khingdinh kha nang canh tranh cao ciia Cong ty trong thi trudng xay dung.• Cong nghe vd thiet bi:Cong ty lam chii va ung dung nhiau cong nghe va giai phap ky thuat tien tian trong thicong xay dung, nhu cpc khoan nhoi, cpc barret, ung dung cac kit ciu du ung luc vugtnhip lo^» cac kat cau lap ghep, coppha trugt vdi nha cao tang ... ap dung bien phap thicong topdown cho thi cong nha cao tang co nhieu tang ham. Cac ung dung cong nghe doday nhanh tian dp thi cdng, nang cao chat lugng cong trinh va quan trgng la nang cao khanang canh tranh ciia Cdng ty dap ung mpi yau cau ciia khach hang. Mae du da su dungcac phin mIm cdng nghe thong tin cho cong tac QLDA, thiat ke, quan ly tai chinh,nhung vl ca ban ha ting cdng nghe thong tin ciia Cong ty con manh miin, chap va chuading bp, do vay cdng tac quan ly chi dao san xuat con chua kip thdi, so lieu thong tinchua chinh xac.v l thilt bj thi cdng: Cong ty da diu tu nhieu may moc trang thilt bi de cd tha chii dongtrong thi cdng xay lip: nhu can ciu thap dap ung xay dung dugc nha cao ting, day truyen 66
  75. nghiln sang da 120 tin/h, tram trdn be tong thuong phim 60 m3/h vdi ddng bd xe vanchuyan va bam ba tdng 100 m3/h ... va hang van m2 c6p pha thep djnh hinh, giao ch6ng.Da so cac trang thilt bi nay dugc duy tri bao dudng phuc vu t6t va nang cao he s6 sirdung, nen da khiu hao gin hit, tao dilu kien cho Cong ty co ngudn v6n diu tu themtrang thiet bi may mdc dap ung yau ciu ngay cang cao ciia cac H6 so mdi thiu va congtac xay dung.b. Cac hoat dong ca ban:• Ddu thdu vd chudn hi du dn ddu tuDiu thiu la hoat ddng diu tian dl dam bao ngu6n viec lam cho Cong ty. Phong DT &QLDA vdi 40 ky su da dii trinh dp lam bai thiu va hoan thanh cac goi thiu Qu6c tl(Bing tilng Anh) vdi gia tri hang chuc trieu USD. Hang nam Phdng hoan thanh thingthiu vdi gia tri hang tram ty. Vdi viec su dung cac phin mIm thilt kl kiln triic va kit ciuPhong dang timg budc nhan thau cac cong trinh design and build nang cao hieu qua diuthau, giam riii ro trong xay dung.Cung vdi thuong hieu Vinaconex, Cong ty da day manh cong tac tilp thj. D6i vdi caccong trinh cd von dau tu trong nude, Cdng ty co gang khai thac thong tin vl cong trinh tirtrong qua trinh lap du an, thiat ka... dQ dua vao ke hoach tham du dau thau. Doi vdi caccong trinh c6 vdn dau tu nude ngoai, tan dung lgi tha da co quan he, uy tin tu trudc,Cong ty luon tranh thii cac mdi quan he, bam sat cac cong trinh tir khi hinh thanh du an,cung vdi cac nha dau tu, cac nha thau chinh nude ngoai tham gia lap du an, chao gia, diuthau..., tu van cho hg cac dieu kien dac thii ciia thj trudng Viet Nam. Qua do, nang caouy tin cua Cdng ty vdi eac ddi tac nude ngoai, tao ca hoi hgp tac khi cd diau kien.Cong tac trian khai dau thau budc dau dugc chuyen mon boa tu cac khau tinh toan khoilugng, khao sat thj trudng, xay dung gia, lap bien phap thi cdng, hd so nang luc, phaply... Cdng tac xay dung dan gia luon la yeu to tien quyat trong cdng tac dau thau. Cong 67
  76. ty thudng xuyen nim bit thong tin thi trudng, xay dung don gia hgp ly, linh hoat trongkhau ap dung dinh muc, don gia Nha nude vao viec xay dung gia thanh, tranh hien tugngap dung mot each may moc, dap khudn. Bang 3 7 - KET QUA THANG THAU QUA CAC NAMTT Nam Tdng gia trj Cong trinh lien doanh So sanh % CTLD vdi (Trieu dong) (Trieu dong) cac cong trinh con lai Doanh thu 1 Doanh thu San lugng Sanluong , - thuc ta • ^ thucta 1 2 3 4 5 i 6 7 = 5/3 8 = 6/4 1 Nam 2004 197.719 181.498 58.666 56.721 29,67% 31,25% 2 Nam 2005 234.386 231.625 97.886 " 74.037 " 41,76%" 31,96% 3 Nam 2006 362.247 392.410 183.007 159.265 50,52% 40,59% Nguon: Bdo cdo tong kit cong ty Vinaconex 2 2004-2006• Qudn ly cdc yeu to ddu vao:Day la cong tac quan ly cac ngudn nguyan lieu dau vao dam bao diu tu mua sim thilt bi,chi phi khau nay chilm ty trpng Idn trong chi phi cau thanh san pham (60-70%) dongthdi la ylu t6 quan trpng dam bao chit lugng cong trinh. Nhan thuc ro diau nay nhamgiam chi phi san xuit, nang cao chit lugng cong trinh, Cdng ty da lap qui trinh quan lyvat tu - thiet bi dau vao nhu sau:Budc 1: Can cu vao yau ciu ky thuat ciia thilt kl va h6 so mdi thiu. Dpi cong trinh lirachon vat lieu trinh CDT phe duyet. Mau lira chpn phai di kem hd so chit lugng cua Nhasan xuat hoac cung cap.Btrdc 2: Lira chpn Nha cung capUu tian lira chpn cac Nha cung cip truyln th6ng dk nhan dugc ty le trilt khiu cao va cothi keo dai thdi gian chiam dung von . 68
  77. Vdi khoi lugng Idn vat tu hoSc gia trj Idn e thiat bj may moc thi lira chgn thong quachao gia canh tranh hoac dau thau.Birdc 3: Cdng ty ky Hgp ddng mua ban vdi Nha cung capDo viec cong ty quan ly H D nen Cong ty c6 tha quan ly chat so lugng, chit lugng v attu dua vao cong trinh, phu hgp vdi tian dp thi cong .Budc 4: Cong ty giai ngan cho Nha cung cap theo Hgp ddng va tiln dp cung cip hang vlCong ty C giu lai mot phan tian dk dam bao trach nhiem bao hanh ciia Nha cung cip. OHgp dong chi kat thiic khi Cong ty ky bien ban doi chiau cong ng va hai ben ky thanh lyHgp dong.• Cong tdc trien khai thi cong xdy Idp:Cong ty da day manh dugc cdng tac quan ly chat lugng, tian dp thi cdng timg cong trinh,hang muc cdng trinh. Viec giam sat, quan ly chat lugng, tien dp cong trinh dugc phancong cu the tdi timg ddng chi Phd Giam doc, cac dong chi lanh dao trong Cong ty. Cacdong chi dugc phan cdng nhiem vu thudng xuyan kiam tra hien trudng hang tuan, hppgiao ban vdi Chu dau tu, Tu van giam sat. Ban quan ly cong trinh dc kip thdi nam battinh hinh, cd cac bien phap chi dao quyat liet nau can thiet.Doi vdi nhung cdng trinh c6 gia tri, quy mo Idn, yeu cau ky thuat phuc tap, Cong ty dathanh lap cac Ban diau hanh true tiap chi huy tai hien trudng, don doe ky thuat, chatlugng, tien dp, thanh quyet toan, thuc hien nghiem tiic cong tac nghiem thu noi bp. Vdicac cong trinh con lai va gan dja ban Ha Noi, Cdng ty duy tri kiem tra hien trudng, duytri tot cong tac nghiem thu noi bp. Mot so cong trinh co yeu cau ky thuat cao, tinh chatphuc tap, Cong ty da phoi hgp chat che vdi dpi cong trinh lap bien phap thi cong, tien dpchi tiat va tuan thii tuyet ddi trong qua trinh thi cong.Cac nguon vat tu chinh dua vao su dung cho cong trinh dau dugc Cdng ty giam sat chat cheva chat lugng cung nhu sd lugng thong qua cac hgp dong cung cap ma Cong ty true tiep ky 69
  78. kat. Qua dd, Cdng ty cung da quan ly chat che dugc qua trinh giai ngan mua vat tu. Cong tythudng xuyan duy tri chl dp bao cao tinh hinh thi cdng djnh ky dl lanh dao Cong ty nim bitva C bien phap diau chinh kip thdi khi can thiet. Cac cdng trinh do Cong ty thi cong, dac Obiet la cac cdng trinh trpng diam ciia Tong Cong ty nhu: Nha may nude Song Da, Tmng tamHoi nghi quoc gia, dudng Lang Hoa Lac, tru sd Kho bac Nha nude TLT. .. diu dat tiln dp vadam bao chat lugng. Tich cue khai thac thj trudng xay dung trong nude dong thdi md rongquan he vdi cac d6i tac truyln th6ng nude ngoai nhu Nhat Ban, Han Qudc tu do da tningthiu nhieu cong trinh nhu: Nha may Canon 04 tai khu Cong nghiep Bic Thang Long; Nhamay Canon 05 tai khu Cdng nghiep Qua V6; Nha may may KIDO tai Hung Yan; Nha mayMabuchi tai khu Cdng nghiep Hoa Khanh Da Ning v..v... Cac cong trinh do don vi damnhan thi cdng luon dugc chii dau tu danh gia cao ve chat lugng, tiln dp xay dung va ve smh,an toan lao dong, tu do uy tin ciia Cong ty co phan Xay dung s6 2 ngay cang dugc nang cao.Ban canh viec ciing cd, xiet chat quy trinh quan ly kinh ta va ky thuat, Cdng ty con ap dungthanh cong cac bien phap thi cong tien tian nhu "top down method" cho viec thi cong 2 tingham ciia cong trinh Tru sd Kho bac Nha nude TU dam bao an toan cho nha lien ka, hay thicong nha 24T2 khu Trung Hoa Nhan Chinh vdi bien phap trugt loi giam thdi gian thi cdng con8 ngay cho 1 tang.• Cong tdc nghiem thu, thanh todn, bdn giao dua vdo sit dung.Cong tac nghiem thu thanh toan la tien dt quyat dinh cho cdng tac thu hoi von . Day lamat cong tac ma cong ty het sue quan tam va da phai sii" dung nhieu nguon lire can bpky thuatCong tdc nghiem thu: Tat ca cac budc chuyan tiap giai doan thi cong deu phai dugcnghiem thu, h6 sa nghiem thu g6m: Ban ve hoan cdng, Bien ban nghiem thu ciing dugccac ban CDT, TVGS, TVTK va Nha thiu ky. H6 sa nghiem thu va hoan cong quan ly 70
  79. chit lugng dugc lap theo sat trinh tu thi cong va diing vdi hudng din ciia Nghi Dinh 209-CP vl Quan ly chit lugng cdng trinh.Cong tdc thanh quyet toan: Tran ea sd Bien ban nghiem thu va hoan cong, can bp kythuat tinh kh6i lugng thuc hien, thdng nhat vdi chii diu tu va tu vin giam sat. Viec apdan gia de tinh gia trj thanh toan theo giai doan hoac quylt toan cong trinh thudng thuchien nhu sau :- Neu la dan gia, khdi lugng da co trong Ho so du thau thi ap dung ngay dan gia do .- Nau la khoi lugng phat sinh thi nha thau phai phan tich chi tiat don gia hoac tham dinhgia tai Bp Tai chinh da Chu dau tu de trinh cap chii quan dau tu phe duyet khdi lugng vadon gia phat sinh . Thuc tl day la khau phuc tap, keo dai thdi gian quyet toan va la khaunii ro Idn doi vdi nha thau .- Bk kit thiic cong tac thanh quyat toan, nha thau phai hoan chinh Ho so hoan cong, Hosa quan ly chit lugng va Ban t6ng quyet toan dk Chii dau tu dua di kilm toan, va nhathiu chi dugc thanh toan theo sd lieu kiam toan .- Viec mo ta qua trinh thanh quylt toan nhu tran ma thuc ta Cong ty 2 va toan bp eac nhathiu phai trai qua, dl cho thiy trong qua trinh nay nha thiu luon phai chiu thiet thoi, niiro Idn, thudng thi qua trinh quylt toan dai ban thdi gian thi cdng, khiln nha thiu lang phithdi gian, nhan lire, bj u dpng vdn, lai vay Ngan hang tang, day la nguyan nhan chinhlam nhilu cdng ty Xay dung bj thua 16 .- Cong ty CPXD sd 2 do cd m6i quan he tot vdi eac chii diu tu , ludn quan tam sau satdin cong tac thanh quyet toan ( m6i cong trinh diu cu CBKT chuyan trach lam cong tacthanh quylt toan ) nen eo ban quylt toan nhanh , gpn cac cong trinh, chi tiau thu h6i v6nqua cac nam diu dat tren 85%o san lugng thuc hien, la ylu td quylt dinh dam bao hieuqua san xuat kinh doanh . 71
  80. Cong tdc bdn giao dua vdo su dung: Cac cong trinh sau khi hoan thanh ban giao dugcbao hanh theo diing Nghi djnh 16 CP cua chinh phii, 12 thang d6i vdi cong trinh nhom B,24 thang ddi vdi cac cdng trinh nhom A . Trong thdi gian bao hanh, nha thiu bing chiphi ciia minh phai sua chu-a hu hdng ciia cong trinh nlu do loi ciia minh va bi giu lai 5%gia trj quyat toan dan hat thdi gian bao hanh .Cac Cong trinh thuoc du an kinh doanh Bit dpng san thi thdi gian bao hanh va duy tri "hau chung cu " la rit phuc tap, nlu khong lam t6t se anh hudng tdi thuong hieu va suthanh cong ciia cac du an tilp theo. D6i vdi cong ty CPXD so 2 sau khi thue hien du ankhu chung cu Trung van, Xuan dinh diu xay dung Quy chl quan ly khu chung cu ngaytu diu va dugc cac khach hang dong gop y kiln va cam kit thuc hien. Trong t6ng quylttoan diu tu dau danh 4% gia tri xay lip cho cong tac duy tu bao tri , do vay vin dl hauchung cu dugc giai quyat kha dn thoa, khach hang hai long, thuong hieu eiia Cong tydugc nang cao.3.5.2. Xac dinh nang luc canh tranh cot loi eua cong tySu dung mo hinh Value chain chiing ta da phan tich, ra soat lai mgi boat dpng ho trg vaqua trinh san xuat kinh doanh ciia cong ty da tao ra cac san pham phuc vu khach hang,qua do cung tim ra dugc d khau nao, boat dpng nao tao ra dugc bao nhieu gia trj gia tang(value add), va khau nao tao ra dugc gia tri gia tang nhiau nhat, dap ung dugc nhiau nhitnhu cau ciia khach hang chinh la khau tha hien nang luc canh tranh cao ciia doanhnghiep. Vdi viec ap dung mo hinh nam luc lugng canh ciia Michael Porter de phan tich,tac gia da thiy dugc sir canh tranh giua cac doanh nghiep trong nganh Xay dung , vadanh gia lgi thi canh tranh ciia Cong ty vdi tung doi tugng . Ket hgp cac kit qua phantich tran, so sanh vdi thue trang ciia cac Cong ty xay dung d Viet nam chiing ta tim radugc nang lire canh tranh cdt loi ciia Cdng ty CPXD so 2 : 72
  81. • Cong ty hoat ddng dtr&i thuang hieu VINACONEX mot thuang hieu ndi tiingtren thi tru&ng Xdy dung Viet nam vd qudc ti vi cdc mat:va tam nhin chian luac:Chiin luge C6 phan hod : Tu nam 1998 VINACONEX la doanh nghiep XD diu tien xinphep dugc tiln hanh Cd phin boa Cong ty true thugc diu tien, va din nay 38/40 Cong tytrue thugc VINACONEX da c6 phin hoa xong, hudng loi t6i da cac chl dp, chinh sachciia Chinh phii nhim khuyin khich c6 phin hoa trong giai doan diu ( nhu nghj dinh41/CP ho trg tai chinh cho giai quylt Lao ddng doi du sau CP hoa, hay chinh sach mien100% thul thu nhap trong 2 nam diu sau CP hoa.... ). Nam 2004 VINACONEX cung laT6ng cong ty nha nude diu tien dugc Thii tudng Chinh phii cho phep lam thi dilm c6phan hoa Tdng cdng ty . Thang 10/2006 Tdng cong ty da c6 phin hao thanh cong, dgtphat hanh IPO dau tian chi vdi 50ty co phieu, Tdng cong ty da thu dugc han lOOOtythang du von va dugc Chinh phii cho phep giu* lai bd xung quy diu tu phat trien . Cong tyCPXD so 2 ciing da hoan thanh co phan hoa vao nam 2003 va thang 12/2006 Cong ty la1 trong 2 Cdng ty dau tien ciia VINACONEX dang ky giao djch tran san giao dich chungkhoan HaSTC vdi gia co phieu tren thi trudng luon d muc cao , tao diau kien thuan lgicho viec huy dpng von dau tu .Chien luge da dang hod san phdm : ngoai ITnh vuc thi cong xay lap, xuat khau lao dpngva kinh doanh xuit nhap khau truyan thong, VINACONEX la Tong cong ty XD dautian dau tu phat trien manh mang san xuat cong nghiep den nay VINACONEX dang dautu xay dung eac nha may Ximang vdi tong cong suat 4,5 trieu tan/nam , trong do bao Ximang VINACONEX diu tien san xuit tai Tram nghiln Cat lai TP Ho Chi Minh da comat tren thj trudng . Cac nha may san xuat nude sinh boat vdi tong cong suat hon 600nghin m3/ngay dam Idn nhat Mien Bac. Cac nha may san xuat da nhan tao op latBRESTERSTONE xuit khiu vdi doanh so 22 trieu USD/nam, 6ng cdt sgi thuy tinh, vat 73
  82. tu nganh nude.. .da mang lai hon 15% ty trpng doanh thu eiia Tdng cong ty. Kinh doanhBit dpng san, phat trian cac khu dd thi mdi cung la mang boat dpng kinh doanh rit thanhcong ciia VINACONEX , dian hinh la Khu do thi Trung hoa - nhan chinh vdi thdi gianhoan thanh ky luc trong 5 nam hien dang la Khu do thi ddng bp va dep nhit Thii do vdiha ting hoan chinh, phong each kien tnic hien dai, diam nhin la thap VINACONEX 34tang cao nhit Ha noi, va dich vu chung cu chu dao. Dau tu va phat triln Chuoi Khu dothi va khu Cong nghiep tay nam Ha noi vdi true xuong song la Dudng Lang - Hoa lac mdrong, va nha may va he thong cap nude vdi cong suat 600 nghin m3/ ngay dam .va khoa hoc cong nghe :VINACONEX luon di dau trong nghian cuu va ung dung khoa hpe cong nghe vao thuctiln san xuat. Dd la cdng coppha trugt thi cong Silo sue chua Idn, trugt loi nha cao ting.Cong nghe be tdng du ung lire keo sau tai cong trudng xay dung, hay be tong du unglire keo trudc tai nha may, san xuat cac dam cau vdi khoang vugt Idn cau kien be tongphiic vu lip ghep xay dung nha cao tang vdi thdi gian thi cdng 8 ngay /tang . Tdng congty cung da tu thiet ke va xay dung thanh cong toa nha 34 tang cao nhat Ha noi vdi ket cauloi cung va lap ghep bang cac cau kien be tong du ung luc san xuat tai nha may. Lien katvdi Nha thiu SHIMIZU Nhat ban thi cong cau Bai chay cau day vang co khoang vugtIdn nhit Chau A vdi cong nghe thi cong mong tru bang thiing chim va due hang dam ...Ve hoi nhap va lien doanh lien kat:VINACONEX la T6ng cong ty XD di diu trong lien doanh, lien kit va hdi nhap qu6e tl.Cac can bd chii chdt ciia Tdng cong ty diu su dung thanh thao tilng Anh, thong hieu cacmiu hgp ddng Qu6c tl nhu fidic, INCOTERM ... cac tieu chuin nude ngoai nhu JIS (cua Nhat), BS ( ciia Anh ), ASTM ( ciia My )...Tir nam 1994 T6ng cong ty da ciingHang TAISEI Nhat thanh lap cong ty lian doanh VINATA din nay doanh thu ciiaVINATA da len tdi han 100 trieu USD/ nam. Hay mdi day lien doanh vdi Cong ty 74
  83. POSCO E & C ciia Han qu6c diu tu xay dung khu dd thj mdi Bic An khanh hien dai va Idn nhit Miln Bic vdi dien tich gin 300 ha, v6n diu tu 2 ty USD .... La Cdng ty con trong tap doan VINACONEX, Cong ty CPXD s6 2 da nhan dugc dinh hudng phat triln chiln luge diing din ciia T6ng cong ty, dugc su dung cac thanh qua nghien cuu va phat triln KHCN ma khong phai mit chi phi ban quyln, giam thilu chi phi quang cao tilp thj vi tan giao djch cua Cong ty la VINAC0NEX2 da chua dung trong no mot thuong hieu n6i tilng . Cong ty con cd co hoi tham gia nhung du an diy tilm nang ciia T6ng cdng ty ma khdng tdn chi phi nghian cuu va dan xIp du an. Khi quan he vdi cac CO quan chinh quyln cai tan VINACONEX luon co uy tin va dugc ton trpng dac biet la d thanh phd Ha noi hien nay mot lanh dao cu ciia VINACONEX dang dam nhiem chuc vu pho chii tich. • Cong ty CO nguon nhan luc co chdt lu&ng cao, ca sd ha tdng manh : Ban lanh dao Cdng ty la cac can bp c6 trinh dp KHKT, c6 kinh nghiem thi cong , co nang lire quan ly, nhay ben trong kinh doanh, djnh hudng diing cho sir phat triln ciiacong ty . Do la nhung con ngudi cd tam huyet , doan kat chung sue xay dung cong tythem vung manhDpi ngu can bp ky thuat vdi han 200 can bp co trinh dp dai hpe va tren dai hpe, day lanhiing ky su kinh qua thuc ta cdng trudng, giau kinh nghiem thi cong, thanh thao ngoaing&, C trinh dp quan ly du an, nang lire lam bai thau chuyen nghiep, co kinh nghiem lam Oviec vdi cac doi tac nude ngoai . Hang nam Cong ty lian tue tuyan dung bo xung va cucan bp di du cac khoa dao tao ngan ngay va dai ngay dt cap nhat kien thuc ky thuatduong dai . Cdng ty cd nh&ng chl dp dai ngo xiing dang da tang thu nhap nhu chl dpluong, thudng theo muc dp hoan thanh cong viec, ( binh quan mot ky su cd thu nhapcung 90 trieu / nam ), phu cap trach nhiem, Co phieu uu dai va tao nhieu ca hoi thangtian cho cac can bd tre. 75
  84. Luc lugng cdng nhan vdi ban 125 CN ed tay ngha tir bac 5 - 7 va ban 1650 CN ky thuatla ngudn lao ddng lanh nghe quy gia .Cong ty da dugc thua hudng mot co sd vat chat va xe may thi cdng vdi gia tri rit thip tucong ty nha nude trudc khi co phan hoa, ba nam qua Cdng ty lai tich luy them nen denhom nay Cong ty da quan ly cd so do gan 1 trieu m2 dit tai Ha noi va VTnh phiic, dugcUBNH TP Ha ndi giao nghien cuu chuan bj dau tu 500 nghin m2 dit. Toan bd xe may vathiat bi thi cong con gia trj su dung cao, nhung da khiu hao gin hit. Nln tai chinh ciiaCong ty vung manh, he so quay vong v5n nhanh, du vay ngin han khong co, vay trungva dai han thap chi phi tra lai vay rat nho, Cong ty khong nhijng cung cip dii v6n choboat dpng san xuat KD ma con cd diau kien dau tu tai chinh vao cac du an. C6 philu cuaCong ty cd gia cao tran san giao djch tao diau kien huy dpng von cho cac du an diu tuvdi chi phi su dung von thap.• Cdng ty cd mdi quan hi khdch hdng tdt:Cong ty C quan he tot va su tin nhiem ciia cac chii dau tu , cac BQL du an Idn dam bao Ocho Cong ty mot lgi the canh tranh khi tham du thau. Cong ty la ban hang truyen thongcua cac nha thau nude ngoai, cac nha dau tu nude ngoai ( chiem 50%) san lugng thi congciia Cong ty ). Cdng ty co kinh nghiem trong kinh doanh bat dpng san va dugc khachhang tin nhiem .Ma trdn danh gia nhitng yeu to ben trong Tong Cong ty (Ma tran IFE)Lap danh muc cac yau td ben trong Tong Cong ty (ea hdi va de dpa) anh hudng denthanh cdng ciia doanh nghiep theo phan tich d tran:1. Lanh dao cd tam huylt, cd tim nhin chiln luge, co quan he tdt vdi chinh quyan djaphuang.2. Co ca sd ba tang manh3. Co kinh nghiem trien khai cac du an dau tu . Cd chuyan mon sau ve ITnh vuc nay 76
  85. 4. Co thj trudng truyln thong vl xay lap, san xuat VLXD5. Co lire lugng CBCNV cd trinh dp ky thuat cao, ngoai ngu t6t va co kinh nghiem.6. Co quan he tdt vdi cac ngan hang thuang mai va cac td chuc tin dung, tai chinh lambmanh7. C6 lire lugng thiat bj xe may chuyan nganh Idn va gia tri tai san thip8. Thuang hieu VINACONEX cd uy tin tren thj trudng.9. Cac phdng ban chuc nSng dieu hanh san xuat con chua khoa hpe, chua bai ban.10. Cac du an dau tu day tiem nang eiia ciia Tong Cong ty11. Thiet bi xe may cd trinh dp cong nghe d muc dp trung binh kho dap ung dugc yeucau phat trien ciia san xuat kinh doanh.12. Ha tang cong nghe thdng tin con thap13. Co cau td chuc bat dau cd nhung bat cap ve quy mo san xuat va luc lugng san xuitCan cu vao ket qua san xuat kinh doanh ciia Tong Cong ty, sau khi liy y kien ciia cacchuyan gia va tham khao y kian ciia lanh dao Tong Cong ty va cac phdng ban chuc nang,chiing toi xac djnh tam quan trpng ciia cac yau to va phan loai tu 1 din 4 dt thiy eachthuc ma chian luge hien tai eiia doanh nghiep phan ung vdi cac ylu t6 thi nao (vdi loai 1la diam yau Idn nhat, 2 la diam yau nhd nhat, 3 la diem manh nho nhat va 4 la diem manhIdn nhat) va lap thanh ma tran sau: 77
  86. Bang 3-8 Ma trdn danh gia cdc yeu td ben trong Tdng Cdng tyVINACONEX Cac nhan to chu yeu ben trong Tong Cty Mure do Phan loai So diem quan trong quan trong 1. Lanh dao c6 tam buyat, cd tim nhin chiln 0,08 4 0,32 luge, C quan he tot vdi chinh quyln dja phuang. O 2. Co C sd ha tang manh O 0,09 4 0,36 3. Co kinh nghiem trien khai eac du an diu tu . 0,08 4 0,32 Co chuyen mon sau ve ITnh vuc nay 4. Co thj trudng truyan thong ve xay lip, san xuit 0,08 3 0,24 VLXD5. Co lire lugng CBCNV co trinh dp ky thuat cao, 0,08 3 0,24ngoai ngu tot va ed kinh nghiem.6. Co quan he tdt vdi cac ngan hang thuang mai 0,07 3 0,21va cac to chuc tin dung, tai chinh lamb manh7. Co luc lugng thiat bj xe may chuyan nganh Ion 0,06 4 0,24va gia tri tai san thap8. Thuang hieu VINACONEX cd uy tin tren thj 0,08 4 0,32trudng.9. Cac phong ban chuc nang diau hanh san xuat 0,06 2 0,12con chua khoa hpe, chua bai ban.10. Cac du an dau tu day tiem nang ciia ciia Tong 0,07 2 0,14Congty11. Thiat bj xe may ed trinh dp cong nghe d muc 0,05 2 0,10dp trung binh kho dap ung dugc yeu cau phattrien cua san xuat kinh doanh.12. Ha tang cong nghe thdng tin con thap 0,06 2 0,1213. Co cau to chuc bat dau cd nhCrng bat cap va 0,06 2 0,12quy mo san xuat va lire lugng san xuat Tong cong: 2,85Nhan xet: Doanh nghiep dang tuang doi manh va cac yau to noi bp, neu biat phat huydiem manh, khac phuc nhung diam yau thi doanh nghiep se phat trian on dinh va banvirng. 78
  87. 3.5.3. Ap dung cong cu SWOT de danh gia nang luc va vj the cua Cong ty CPXD so2Sau khi su dung md hinh Value Chain dk phan tich cac nang lire ndi tai eiia doanhnghiep, tim ra cac dilm manh, ylu, cac ban chl ciia ban than doanh nghiep, sau khi thamkhao y kiln eac can bp chii ch6t ciia cong ty va cac chuyen gia ciia trudng B6i dudng canbp Quan ly nganh Xay dung, tac gia dua ra cac danh gia tran cac mat sau :NhCrng diem manh :Cong ty dugc su dung thuang hieu VINACONEX ciia Cong ty me . Day la thuang hieunoi tiang tran thi trudng vdi tam nhin chiln luge, ludn di diu trong cong nghe Xay dungva chat lugng san pham. Cdng ty luon nhan dugc su chi dao va dinh hudng diing dinciia Tdng Cong ty. Nguon viec tu Cong ty me luon chiam tu 20 tdi 30% san lugng ciiaCTCong ty C ba day truyan thdng 35 nam do vay ka thua dugc be thong ca sd vat chit, xe Omay thiat bj thi cong. Dpi ngu can bp giau kinh nghiem, dpi ngu edng nhan tay ngha cao.Co cau to chuc ciia cdng ty hoan thien tinh gian, da dugc van hanh dn djnh va hieu quacao trong nhirng nam qua . Cac phdng ban ciia Cong ty hoan thien c to chuc, chi daonghiep vu sau sat, tham muu hieu qua cho Ban lanh dao .Dpi ngu lanh dao cdng ty co nang lire quan ly, trinh dp KHKT cao, cd tim nhin chienluge, C quan he tdt vdi cac chinh quyan d cac dja phuang . Djnh hudng phat trian ciia OCong ty diing din va luon dugc dilu chinh, hoan thien phu hgp vdi sir phat trian ciianganh xay dung, va cac chl dp chinh sach, djnh hudng phat triln ciia nha nude. Ty letang trudng qua ba nam sau cd phin boa dn dinh d muc cao tran 15% .Quan ly tai chinh chat che nln nip, lgi nhuan cao .Tai chinh ciia CT lanh manh, du vayngin ban it, vay trung va dai han d muc an toan so vdi v6n chii sd huu . Qua ba nam co 79
  88. phan hoa vdn chii sd huu eua CT tu 10 ty da len han 42 ty VND . Co uy tin vdi cac nganhang va to chuc tin dung.Cdng ty da xay dung dugc he th6ng cac ban hang truyen thong la eac CT XD nudengoai nhu Shimizu, Obayashi, Toda, Nishimatsu, Penta ocean, Fujita, Posco, Huyndai...tao nguon cong viec Idn va dn djnh (chilm ty trpng 50% gia tri san lugng)Cong ty cd quan he khach hang t6t, tao dugc uy tin va su tin nhiem vdi cac khach hangtruyan thong la cac BQL c6 cac nguon von dau tu Idn .Dpi ngu Can bp ky thuat ciia CT trudng thanh nim vung ky thuat va cong tac quan if duan . Da so ky su tai Phong DT va QLDA co trinh dp ngoai ngu t6t, tu tin khi lam viec vdicac ddi tac nude ngoai. Cong ty co lire lugng CNKT doi dao, co tay ngha caoCong ty cd kinh nghiem trong trien khai cac du an kinh doanh bit dpng san, tilp tucdugc giao nghien cuu quy hoach phat trian mot so khu do thj d Ha noi va VTnh phiic .Noi bp CT doan ket, tinh ky luat cao, can bd cd trinh dp, nang dpng, co trach nhiem.Van hoa doanh nghiep ciia CT nim chung trong VH doanh nghiep Ciia VINACONEXnhung cung da cd nhirng net tu hao rieng va truyen thdng va thanh cdng ciia CT trongnhirng nam dau sau co phan hoa.Nhirng diem yeu :Dilm ylu va thach thue Idn nhit ciia CT la vdi quy mo va ea sd vat chit nhu ciia CTtrong nganh XD cd hang tram cong ty. Cac thi manh ciia CT so vdi cac CTXD khackhong phai la tuyet ddi. Do vay su canh tranh la bet sue khdc liet.CT van la cong ty CP nha nude nen chl dp thu nhap, dai ngo van phai theo chl dp nhanude, khong cao do vay chua thu hiit dugc nhan tai, ciing nhu giu chan dugc can bp treC nang lire. O 80
  89. Von chii sd huu ciia cdng ty eon nho nen chua manh dan tilp can dugc vdi cac du an diu tu can vdn Idn . Viec da dang boa san pham va nganh ngha kinh doanh ciia CT vin chi bo hep trong pham vi T6ng Cdng ty, va nhiing nganh gin nen chua tao su dot pha va net rieng biet. Xe may thilt bi thi cong ciia Cdng ty eo muc dp cong nghe trung binh, nhilu thilt bi da hu hong, lac hau nan cap thiat phai doi mdi va dau tu bo xung . Ha ting c6ng nghe thong tin ciia Cdng ty con thip lai khong d6ng bp chip va nen chua phuc vu hieu qua cho viec quan ly cac ngu6n lire ciia Cong ty va dilu hanh san xuit, nhit la khi dia ban hoat ddng ciia Cong ty trai rong trong pham vi ca nude . Mo hinh ciu tnic ciia cdng ty hien nay d dang Cong ty quan ly true tilp cac dpi san xuit da thi hien nhijng bit cap trd nan " chat trpi " khi cong ty diy manh da dang cac nganhngha kinh doanh va ddi hdi tinh chuyen nghiep cao trong moi ITnh vuc kinh doanh .Cff hoi:Moi trudng chinh tri 6n djnh. He th6ng luat dugc xay dung kha hoan chinh tao hanh langphap ly cho SXKD .Sau khi Viet nam chinh thuc dugc gia nhap WTO san chai chung ciia nln kinh tl thigidi, hang loat ca hoi se dugc tao dung, md mang, lan song dau tu nude ngoai manh medo vao Viet Nam do la ca hoi hang dau cho nganh xay dung,GDP Viet nam tang d muc tren 8% trong lien tuc nhiau nam, ty trpng dau tu ciia nhanude cho Xay dung va Cdng nghiep cao ,Nha nude ban hanh nhieu chinh sach khuyen khich dau tu trong nude, nen hang loat duan dau tu dugc trien khai tao ngudn viec Idn .Dan so tai cac thanh pho tang cao, thu nhap diu ngudi dac biet la dan thanh pho tang cao,nan chi phi cho nha d tang, nhu cau nha d tang cao . 81
  90. Cling vdi sir phat trian cua nan kinh te, sir hoi nhap ciia VN vao nln kinh the gidi hangloat CO hoi kinh doanh mdi, ITnh vuc kinh doanh mdi xuit hien, yeu ciu chiing ta phaichpn Ipc va nam bat de phat trian da dang hoa kinh doanh.Cac du an diu tu diy tilm nang ciia T6ng cong ty dang dugc c6 phin hoa va keu gpi gopvon dau tu ma CT luon dugc uu tian tham du.Sau khi niam yat tran san giao dich, vdi gia co philu ciia Cong ty cao ban gip nhilu linmenh gia la co hdi de thu hiit vdn dau tu vdi chi phi su dung v6n rit thip.Thach thucRat nhieu cac cong ty cd cung quy md cung boat ddng trong ITnh vuc thi cong xay lipcanh tranh nhau rat quyat liet.Von dau tu FDI tang m^nh, keo theo cac nha thau nude ngoai vdi nang lire va kinhnghiam vugt trdi tham nhap thj trudng .Cac van ban dudi luat ban hanh eham, chong cheo mau thuan, lai hay thay doi . Cacchinh quyan dja phuang thudng dat ra cac " giay phep eon " gay kho khan cho viec trienkhai du an .Chi phi cho cac du an kinh doanh bat dpng san tang cao, riii ro dau tu tai chinh vao batdpng san Idn .Gia nguyan vat lieu dau vao tang cao lian tuc, mot so vat lieu chinh va may moc thiet bichju anh hudng Idn ciia sir bien dpng gia ca the gidi, gay nii ro Idn cho cac du an thdigian thi cong dai.Muc s6ng toan xa hoi tang cao, ddi hoi chi phi tien luang tang cao lam mat lgi the canhtranh vl gia nhan cdng . Trong khi dd su thay doi gia thanh cdng trinh khong theo kjplam anh hudng tdi hieu qua san xuit kinh doanh . 82
  91. Cac thii tuc thanh quyat toan cong trinh phuc tap, keo dai lam cho ng dpng trong xaydung ca ban ngay cang Idn .Vdi viec Viet nam gia nhap WTO, hang rao bao ho cho eac doanh nghiep trong nude bidd bo, CO cha thj trudng la thu thach thuc sir ddi vdi cac doanh nghiep . Bang 3-9 Ma tran SWOT O- Nhung ca hoi: T- Nhung thdch thuc, nguy 1. Moi trudng chinh trj dn ca dinh, He thdng luat dugc 1 -Rat nhieu cac cong ty co xay dung kha hoan chinh tao cung quy mo cung hoat hanh lang phap ly cho SXKD dpng trong ITnh vuc thi cong xay lap canh tranh nhau rit 2. Viet nam chinh thuc dugc quyat liet. gia nhap WTO 2.Von diu tu FDI tang 3. GDP Viet nam tang d muc manh, keo theo cac nha thau tran 8% trong lian tuc nhilu nude ngoai vdi nang luc va nam, ty trgng dau tu cua nha kinh nghiem vugt trpi tham nude cho Xay dung va Cong nhap thj trudng . nghiep cao. 3.Cac van ban dudi luat ban 4. Nha nude ban hanh nhieu hanh eham, chong cheo mau chinh sach khuyan khich diu thuin, lai hay thay doi . Cac tu trong nude, nen bang loat chinh quyan dia phuang du an dau tu dugc trian khai thudng dat ra cac " giay tao ngudn viec Idn . phep con " gay kho khan cho viec trien khai du an . 5.Dan so tai cac thanh phd tang cao, thu nhap dau ngudi 4. Chi phi cho cac du an dac biet la dan thanh phd kinh doanh bat dpng san tang cao, nan chi phi cho nha tang cao, nii ro dau tu tai d tang, nhu ciu nha d tang chinh vao bat dpng san Idn . cao . 5. Gia nguyen vat lieu dau 6. Sir hoi nhap ciia VN vao vao tang cao lien tuc, mot nen kinh the gidi hang loat so vat lieu chinh va may CO hoi kinh doanh mdi, ITnh moc thiat bj chiu anh hudng vuc kinh doanh mdi xuat Idn eiia sir bian dpng gia ca hien, yau cau chiing ta phai the gidi, gay nii ro Idn cho chpn Ipc va nam bat de phat cac du an thdi gian thi cong trien da dang hoa kinh dai. doanh. 6. Muc song toan xa hoi tang cao, doi hoi chi phi tien 7. Cac du an dau tu day tiem luang tang cao lam mat lgi nang ciia Tdng cdng ty dang tbi canh tranh vl gia nhan dugc C phan boa va keu gpi O 83
  92. gop von dau tu ma CT ludn cong. dugc uu tien tham du. 7. Cac thii tuc thanh quylt 8. Sau khi niem yat tran san toan cong trinh phuc tap, giao djch, vdi gia co philu keo dai lam cho ng dpng ciia Cdng ty cao han gip trong xay dung ca ban ngay nhiau lan menh gia la ca hoi cang Idn . de thu hiit von dau tu vdi chi phi siir dung vdn rat thip. 8. Hang rao bao ho cho cac doanh nghiep trong nude bi ddbd.S - Nhimg diim manh Phoi hgp (S/0) Phoi hgp (S/T) 1. Cong ty dugc su dung 1. Chien luge tham nhap thi 1. Chiln luge phat triln theothuang hieu VINACONEX trudng hudng san pham ngay cangciia Cong ty me2. Cong ty co ba day truyan (S1,S3,S4,S7, 0 1 , 0 2 , 0 3 , cd chat lugng, co gia tri gia 06, 07) tang caothong 35 nam do vay kathua dugc he thdng co sd 2. Chian luge phat triln thj (S3,S4, S5,S6,T2,T3,T6)vat chat, xe may thiat bi thi trudng 2. Chien luge tang eudngcong. Dpi ngu can bp giau (Sl, S2, S3, S4,S6,02,03,04, lien doanh lien ket, md rongkinh nghiem, dpi ngu cdng 05,06,08) thj trudng, xay dung thuangnhan tay ngha cao.3. Co cau to chuc ciia cong 3. Chien luge phat trian san hieu manhty hoan thien tinh gian, da pham theo hudng uu tian (S2,S3, S4, S5,S7,T3,T5)dugc van hanh dn dinh va nganh ngha dau tu xay dunghieu qua cao trong nhirng va kinh doanh BDS, tapnam qua. trung theo hudng cac san4. Dpi ngu lanh dao cong ty pham C chat lugng cao OC nang lire quan ly, trinh O (S2, S3, S4, 02, 03, 05,dp KHKT cao, cd tam nhin 06,08)chian luge, cd quan he tdtvdi cac chinh quyen d cacdia phuang.5. Quan ly tai chinh chat chenan nap, lgi nhuan cao. Taichinh ciia CT lanh manh, duvay ngan ban it, vay trungva dai han d muc an toan sovdi vdn chii sd hihi.6. Cong ty da xay dungdugc he thdng eac ban hangtruyan thdng la cac CT XDnude ngoai7. Cong ty ed quan he khachhang tot.8. Dpi ngu Can bd ky thuatciia CT trudng thanh namvihig ky thuat va cdng tacquan li du an. 84
  93. 9. Cong ty cd kinh nghiemtrong trien khai cac du ankinh doanh bat dpng san.10. Noi bd CT doan kat,tinh ky luat cao, can bp cdtrinh dp, nang dpng, cdtrach nhiem.W-Nhitng diem yiu Phoi hop (W/0) Phoi hgp (W/T)l.Cac thi manh ciia CT so 1. Chian luge nang cao nang 1. Chiln luge tilp thivdi cac CTXD khac khong lire quan ly, nang luc chuyen (W6, T2, T3, T4)phai la tuyet ddi. mon cua CBCNV. 2. Chian luge dau tu va phat2.Cha dp thu nhap, dai ngo (W1,W2,W3, 0 1 , 0 6 , 0 7 ) trian cong nghe, thiat bi hgpvan phai theo che dp nha 2. Chiln luge d6i mdi cdng ly trong tung giai doannude, khong cao do vay nghe, diu tu trang thiet bi (W4, W2, T2, T3)chua thu hiit dugc nhan tai, thich hgpcung nhu giu chan dugc canbp tre C nang luc. O (W4, 04, 0 3 , 0 5 , 0 8 )3.v6n chii sd hiru eua congty con nhd nan chua manhdan tilp can dugc vdi cacdu an diu tu can vdn Idn .4.Xe may thilt bi thi cdngciia Cong ty c6 muc dp cdngnghe trung binh, nhiau thiatbi da hu hong, lac hau nencip thilt phai ddi mdi vadiu tu bo xung .5.Ha ting cong nghe thdngtin ciia Cong ty con thip laikhong d6ng bd chap va nenchua phuc vu bieu qiia choviec quan ly cac ngudn lireciia Cong ty va dieu hanhsan xuat.6. Md hinh ciu tnic eiiacong ty hien nay da tha hiennhung bat cap 85
  94. Qua viec phan tich va tim ra cac ca hdi, thach thuc, dilm manh, dilm ylu eua Cong ty vatap hgp chiing vao ma tran SWOT , chiing toi xay dung va lira chgn mot s6 chiln lugegiiip cong ty khai thac t6t ca hoi, nang cao nang lire canh tranh, ban chl nii ro, khac phucnhirng ylu kem dl phat triln san xuit kinh doanh :Chiin luac I: Phdt trien da doanh, da dang hod ngdnh nghe, tren ca sd cdc linh vuc sanxudt kinh doanh chinh cua Cdng ty vd dinh hu&ng cua Tdng cdng ty bao gom: Thi cdngxdy dung cdc cdng trinh ddn dung vd CN, Ddu tu kinh doanh bdt ddng san, sdn xudtcdng nghiep vd VLXD, trong do phdn ddu nang cao ty trong ITnh vuc ddu tu kinh doanhbdt dpng sdn (chien luac xdm nhap vdphdt triin thi trudng)Chiin luac 2: Ca cdu lai bp mdy td chuc, tdng eudng phdt trien ngudn nhdn lire, ddim&i cdng tdc qudn ly, gidm chi phi trong sdn xudt kinh doanh (chiin luge phdt triinnguon nhdn luc),Chiin luge 3: Khdng ngirng ddi m&i cdng nghi sdn xudt, ddu tu trang thiit hi mdymdc thi cong thich hap v&i quy trinh phdt trien sdn xudt kinh doanh nham khdngngitng ndng cao nang luc canh tranh, tao ra sdn phdm cd gid tri gia tdng cao & cdcITnh vuc sdn xudt kinh doanh cua Cdng ty (chien luac ddu tu vd phdt trien cdng nghevd thiit bi),Chiin luge 4: Tdng cu&ng cdng tdc lien doanh, v&i cdc doanh nghiep trong nu&c vdeac doanh nghiep nu&c ngoai, di khdng ngieng ndng cao ndng luc vd sire canh tranheua Cdng ty, Xdy dung vdn hod doanh nghiep, dua thuang hieu VINACONEX 2 tr&thdnh thuang hieu manh trin thi tru&ng (Chiin luac lien doanh liin kit vdmarketing),- Trong Chuang 3 chiing tdi tap trung vao phan tich cac anh hudng cua moi trudng banngoai va moi trudng ben trong tdi boat dpng san xuat kinh doanh ciia Cong ty , qua do 86
  95. danh gia nang lire canh tranh e6t loi cua cdng ty , thong qua t6ng hgp ma tran SWOTxay dung chian luge phat triln ciia cdng ty theo md hinh eac chien luge co ban :- Chiln luge xam nhap va phat trian thi trudng .- Chiln luge ngu6n nhan lire- Chiln luge dau tu phat trien nang luc thiet bi va CN .- Chian sluge lien doanh, lian kat. 87
  96. CHirOfNG 4 CHIEN LtTgfC KINH DOANH CUA CONG TY CP XD SO 2 - VINACONEX2 TRONG GIAI DOAN 2006 - 2016 4.1. Cac muc tieu cua Cong ty VINACONEX2 den nam 2016: Cdc chi tieu chii yeu: Tdng gia tri san xuat kinh doanh: 1000 ty dong Tong doanh thu: 800 ty dong Lgi nhuan: 50 ty Lao dpng binh quan: 4.000 ngudi Thu nhap binh quan: 3,00 trieu dongCa cdu ngdnh nghe vd ty trong doanh thu theo timg ngdnh: Xay lip : 60% Diu tu xay dung va kinh doanh BDS: : 20% San xuit cdng nghiep va VLXD: : 10% Cac dich vu khac : : 10% Nguon: Bdo cdo tong kit cong ty Vinaconex 2 2004-2006Trong do phin dau tang ty trgng doanh thu tu ITnh vuc dau tu kinh doanh bat dpng san.4.2. Phan tich cac chien luge kinh doanh cua Cong ty bien phap thyc hien :4,2,1, Phdn tich cdc chien luac kinh doanh cua Cdng ty:Can cu vao cac chi tieu chien luge ciia Cong ty den nam 2016, chiing toi di vao phantich 4 chiln luge kinh doanh ciia Cong ty, xem xet nhung uu nhugc diam va tim ra cacbien phap thuc hien .Chiin luac 1: Phdt triin da doanh, da dang hod ngdnh nghi, trin ca s& cdc ITnh vuc sdnxudt kinh doanh chinh cua Cdng ty vd dinh hu&ng cua Tdng cdng ty bao gdm: Thi cdng 88
  97. x^ dung cdc cdng trinh ddn dung vd CN, Ddu tu kinh doanh bdt dpng sdn, sdn xudt cdng nghiep vd VLXD, trong do phdn ddu ndng cao ty trpng ITnh vuc ddu tu kinh doanh bdt dpng sdn (chiin luac xdm nhap vdphdt triin thi tru&ng) Trong chiln luge phat triln eiia minh Tong cong ty VINACONEX da djnh hudng cho cac thanh Don vi thanh vien phai da doanh, da dang hoa cac san phim ciia minh . Vdi C6ng ty CPXD s6 2 viec da doanh trudc hit pha thi doc canh chi ed ngu6n thu tu xay lip. Nhung da doanh nhung nganh nghl gi phai dua tren nang luc noi tai va kha nang sd trudng cua cong ty . Vdi ITnh vuc thi cong xay dung la nganh nghl truyln thdng nen nhit thilt phai di sau phat triln ca vl chilu rong la dja ban boat dpng, lan chilu sau la san lugng thuc hien, hieu qua kinh doanh, nang cao nang lire canh tranh trong ITnh vuc naybang each dau tu trang thiat bi de nang cao nang lire thi cdng, ha gia thanh san phimbang bien phap ky thuat thi cdng tien tiln, tiet kiem chi phi quan ly, dilu hanh du an .Manh dan di vao cac ITnh vuc xay dung khac nhu ciu, dudng, cang biln, ha tang, congtrinh cap thoat nude ...LTnh vuc dau tu kinh doanh bat dpng san da thuc hien trong nhiJUg nam qua, chii ylu doPhong KD va Phat trian nha va Chi nhanh sol Quang minh thuc hien , Mac du cac du anda thuc hien xong nhu khu chung cu Trung van, Xuan dinh con nho nhung da mang laihieu qua cao, va quan trpng la da co kinh nghiem trien khai du an KD bat dpng san ,nim vihig che dp chfnh sach trong ITnh vuc quan ly dat dai va nha d . Viec thuc hiennghiem chinh cac nghTa vu vdi Thanh pho da xay dung dugc moi quan he vdi cac coquan quan ly nha nude, va dugc tin nhiem giao nghien cuu quy hoach va dau tu cac khudo thj Kim lu, Hoang mai, Phii dien Minh khai... Kinh doanh bit ddng san khong chi taonen doanh thu Idn ma con tao ngu6n viec 6 djnh cho kinh doanh xay lap . Vdi cac tian desin cd viec day manh Kinh doanh bit dpng san thanh mot ITnh vuc san xuat chfnh eiiaCdng ty la hoan toan hien thuc . 89
  98. San xuat Cong nghiep va vat lieu xay dung trudc hit cung cip cho nhu ciu su dung ciia Cong ty, no lam tang gia trj gia tang cua cong doan cung cip diu vao trong chuSi gia tri (value chain ) , giiip Cong ty chii dpng ban trong thi cong xay dung .San xuit cong nghiep va VLXD dugc phat triln theo hai hudng, Cong ty tu diu tu san xuit nhu betong thuang pham, da xay dung, da op lat, ciu kien beton .... hoac gop v6n diu tu vao cac du an dau tu nhu nha may ximang, san xuit da 6p lat cao cip, san xuit vat tu nganh nude...Ngoai ra cong ty cin diy manh cac boat dpng dich vu nhu thilt kl, cho thue thilt bi, tuvan dau tu.... de da dang boa san phim va nang cao kha nang phuc vu cac nhu ciu eiiakhach hangChiin luge 2: Ca cdu lai bd mdy td chitc, tdng cu&ng phdt triin ngudn nhdn luc, ddim&i cdng tdc qudn ly, gidm chi phi trong sdn xudt kinh doanh (chiin luac phdt triinngudn nhdn luc),Nhu d chuang 3 da phan tich, cau tnic Cong ty - Dpi da trd nan chat ehpi vdi san lugngkinh doanh Idn va ITnh vuc boat dpng kha rong ciia cdng ty nhu hien nay . Dk da doanh,da dang hoa san pham va phat trian san xuat vdi mot san lugng Idn doi hoi phai ciu tniclai theo hudng Cong ty me cong ty con vdi cac cdng ty con la cac cdng ty kinh doanhchuyen nganh ...Dau tu phat trian ngudn nhan lire luon la nguyen nhan ciia mpi thanh cong, trong giaidoan tdi nam 2016 de dam bao muc tang trudng ban 15%/nam , Cong ty can chii trpngdanh mot ngudn lire thich dang cho cdng tac phat trian ngudn nhan lire tren ca ba doituong : Can bd quan ly, can bd ky thuat va lao dong lanh ngha .Dpi ngu can bd quan ly cau CT da sd da tot nghiep tu trudc nam 95, co kinh nghiam thicong, nhiet tinh tam huyet vdi cdng viec, nhung tu duy quan ly con theo kiau bao cap,chip va, do vay cin dao tao lai dl b6 xung kiln thuc KHCN hien dai, trinh dp cong nghethong tin va hpe each quan trj kinh doanh theo co chl thj trudng, trong khung canh hoi 90
  99. nhap kinh ta Qudc ta . Ben canh do phai lien tue lam cong tac quy hoach, b6i dudng canbp tre, tao ngudn ka can va cung cip can bp quan ly cho cac ITnh vuc kinh doanh, va caccong ty con mdi phat trian . Vdi ban 200 can bp KT hien eo dl dap ung dugc nhjp dp tang trudng ciia cong ty, cinlien tuc td chuc thi tuyIn dung dk bd xung can bp ky thuat . Trong cong tac tuyln dungmdi cung con de cung cip ky su, ky thuat cho cac nganh mdi kinh doanh . Cur can bp kythuat di hpe cac Idp dao tao, boi dudng ngin ngay vl KHCN, ngoai ngu, quan ly kinh tl,CNTT . Ban canh do dl nang cao chit lugng doi ngu CBKT va dao tao dugc chuyen giadiu nganh, cong ty cin khuyin khich CBKT di hpe nang cao sau dai hpe, hoacnghiencuu sinh .Cdng ty co chinh sach dinh ky dao CBKT giua cdng trudng va phongban, de tich luy kinh nghiem thi cong ciia CBKT va dua cac quy trinh quan ly sat banvdi thue tian .La dan vj thi cong xay lap nen neu khong co dpi ngu cong nhan cao vl tay nghe, nhiluva so lugng thi cdng ty khong tha chii dong hoan thanh dugc ka hoach va dam bao ondjnh dugc chat lugng edng trinh . Dpi ngii ban 1500 CN cd tay ngha gan bo vdi cong tyla nguon vdn quy, nhung trong 3 nam qua so lugng CN cdng ty su dung binh quan han2200 ngudi, nhu vay lugng CN hgp dong ngan han qua Idn (tran 25% ) day la nii ro choCong ty vl chit lugng va tiln dp cong trinh .Ban canh do cong nhan bac cao da nhieutu6i, trd thanh to, dpi trudng nan viec b6i dudng nang cao tay nghl ca e ly thuylt vathuc hanh cho lire lugng CN tre phai duy tri thudng xuyen .Trong giai doan hien nay khi GDP tang d muc hon 8% nam, hang loat ca hoi kinh doanhmd ra, cac Cong ty mdi thanh lap, cac Cdng ty nude ngoai su dung chiln thuat "san daungudi" de nhanh chong chilm ngu6n nhan luc ky thuat cao, ngudn CN cd tay ngha, thiviec, phat triln ngu6n nhan lire edn phai dua ra cac chinh sach, chl dp dai ngo, ca hoithang tiln xung dang de giu gin va duy tri nguon nhan luc . 91
  100. Chien luac 3: Khdng ngitng ddi m&i cdng nghe sdn xudt, ddu tu trang thiit bi mdymdc thi cdng thich hgp v&i quy trinh phdt triin sdn xudt kinh doanh nhdm khdngngitng ndng cao ndng luc canh tranh, tao ra sdn phdm cd gia tri gia tdng cao & cdcITnh vuc sdn xudt kinh doanh cua Cdng ty (chiin luge ddu tu vd phdt triin cdng nghivd thiit bi).Nhu d tran da phan tich, Cong ty dang sd hihi 1 lire lugng xe may thilt bj vdi cong nghed tam trung binh, nhung da nang cao nang lire canh tranh ciia edng ty, phu hgp vdi congnghe thi cong tien tiln, va dap ung kh6i lugng thi cong ngay cang tang, tit ylu phai diutu tham dl nang cao nang lire xe may thi cong . Viec diu tu phai dam bao may moc thicong mdi co cong nghe tian tien va diu tu dl dap ung nhu ciu kinh doanh da dang ciiaCong ty. Ha tang Cdng nghe thong tin ciia Cong ty cung can dau tu nang cip dk co thi ung dungPhan mam quan ly ngudn lire (ERP), nham nang cao nang lire quan ly ciia cong ty, tandung tdi da cac ngudn lire da tao ra cac san pham co chat lugng cao, gia ca canh tranh.Vdi ha tang CNTT dong bd, Cdng ty eo the pho cap su dung cac phin mIm d6 hoa, thiltka, tinh toan kat cau, du toan, nham cung cap cac san pham djch vu da dang ban chokhach hang, va nang cao gia trj gia tang cho cdng tac thi cong xay lap, tien tdi trd thanhnha thiu design and build va nha tong thau EPC .Chiin luac 4: Tdng cu&ng cdng tdc lien doanh, v&i cdc doanh nghiep trong nu&c vdcdc doanh nghiep nu&c ngoai, de khdng ngitng ndng cao ndng lite vd sue canh tranhcda Cdng ty. Xdy dung vdn hod doanh nghiep, dua thuang hieu VINACONEX 2 tr&thdnh thuang hieu manh tren thi tru&ng (Chiin luac liin doanh lien kit vdmarketing).Trong nhirng nam qua viec lien doanh lien ket vdi eac nha thau nude ngoai da dem laiban 50 % san lirgng xay lip cho doanh nghiep, Cong ty da cd nhiau ddi tac truyan thong. 92
  101. nhung da s6 hg la nhung nha thiu xay dung nen viec lien doanh, lian kit chi bo hep trongITnh vuc diu thiu thi cong xay lip . Khi Viet nam gia nhap WTO, hoi nhap vao nln kinhtl thi gidi chiing ta phai md cua cho cac nha diu tu nude ngoai vao Viet Nam, se xuithien hang loat ca hdi kinh doanh da cung cip san phim, dich vu cho thi trudng trongnude va xuat khau ( xuit khau tai cho , va xuit khiu ra nude ngoai) . Viec hgp tac liendoanh vdi eac ddi tac nude ngoai giiip Cong ty tilp can dugc cong nghe mdi, tan dungdugc moi quan he thi trudng, va nang lire tai chinh eiia Cac d6i tac nude ngoai, ciia hp .Trong ITnh vuc dau tu bat ddng san vdi kinh nghiem da co, quy hoach hgp ly, tam nhinkien tnic rong md, thiet ka sang trpng, nang lire maketing chuyen nghiep va tiem lire taichinh cac doi tac nude ngoai thudng dem dan gia tri vugt trpi cho cac du an bat dpngsan. Do vay viec chon dugc cac d6i tac nude ngoai tot se nang cao gia tri thuang hieuciia Cdng ty, va Cdng ty se phat trian nhanh chong .Trong ky nguyan ciia hgp tac va hoi nhap, viec lian kat giiJa cac doanh nghiep trong nudevdi nhau cung bet sue quan trpng . Cac doang nghiep thudng c6 cac lian ket doe giua cacdoanh nghiep cung nganh Xay dung vdi nhau dk nang cao nang luc canh tranh trong dauthiu, dk hoi dli sue manh thuc hien eac du an BOT, BT, va cac chuang trinh phat trilnma Chinh phii khuyin khich . Lien ket ngang cua cac doanh nghiep trong cac ITnh vuckinh doanh khac nhau { nhu Ngan hang lian kit voiu XD, kinh doanh thuang mai lien ketvdi ngan hang va XD ....) dl bd xung nang lire cho nhau, md rong ITnh vuc kinh doanh,xam nhap thi trudng .Viec xay dung van boa doanh nghiep nang cao ngu6n lire canh tranh, xay dung hinh anh,thuang hieu la nhung viec lam mang tinh chiln luge va khong tha thiau nau muon doanhnghiep phat triln on djnh va bin vung . Tuy nim trong mdi truong van hao doanh nghiepciia VINACONEX, nhung Cdng ty van phai tim ra va xay dung nhung ban sac rieng Vanhao doanh nghiep eiia minh . 93
  102. 4.2.2 : Nhom cac giai phap cw ban thuc hien nhiem vu chien luac : Bk thue hien nhihig muc tieu chiln luge neu tran. Cong ty cin thuc hien eac giai phap sau : - Hoan chinh co ciu Cong ty theo hudng Cong ty me, con nhim chuyen mon hoa cac nganh kinh doanh, thanh lap cac cong ty con khi thdi chin mudi . Diu tu tai chinh vao cac cong ty eon va cac cdng ty lien kit nhim t6i da hoa lgi nhuan va thi manh thuang hieu VINACONEX . Xay dung lai dieu le id chuc hoat dpng cong ty theo co ciu mdi. - Tian hanh da doanh, da dang hoa san phim, trudc mit nim bit co hoi trd thanh nha diu tu kinh doanh BDS va san xuat vat lieu xay dung , cung cip dich vu xay dung, cho thua may thi cong, nlu quy mo du an dii Idn thi thanh lap eac cong ty con chuyan nganh dl thuc hien du an nhu : Cong ty kinh doanh Bit dong san, Cong ty san xuit da XD, Congty tu van Xay dung... . Chii dong tham gia gop v6n vao cac du an Diu tu san xuit congnghiep ciia Tdng edng ty nhu : Ximang Yen binh. Vat tu nganh nude, Da 6p lat cao cip- Kien toan bd may quan ly quy trinh quan ly ciia CT, phan dinh ro chuc nang, nhiem vuciia cac bd phan trong cdng ty ,vdi phuang eham giao viec di doi vdi trach nhiem, quylnhan, va quyan lgi.- Tang eudng cdng tac dao tao, bo xung dpi ngii can bp lam cong tac diu thiu va quan lidu an, quan li tai chinh, cu can bp tham gia cac khoa dao tao ky su tu van thiat ke, tuvan giam sat, td chuc cac Idp hpe ngoai ngu ngoai gid ngay tai CT. Thu hiit va khuyenkhich nhan tai bang cac chinh sach nhu nang cao thu nhap, co phieu thudng, ban can hptra gop.. .tao nhieu ea hdi cho cac can bp tre thang tian .- Thiet lap mdi quan he mat thiet vdi cac trudng dai hoc Xay dung, Kien triie, Giaothong, Thuy Lgi ...tai trg hpe bdng cho cac sinh vien dl tilp nhan dugc cac sinh vien tientiln. Lien ket vdi eac trudng day nghl, trudng dao tao chuyen nganh Xay dung , cac dia 94
  103. phuang dl hgp tac va dat hang dao tao, chii trpng lire lugng CNKT cho cac nganh nghlchuyen mon con thilu, cac ky su gioi cho eac nganh nghl chinh ciia Cong ty, dap ungdugc nhu cau cap thiat va lao dpng eiia cac don vi trong tung thdi ky.- Cd ka hoach dao tao, bdi dudng, quy hoach cho tung vi tri lanh dao tu cip Cong ty dincac phong ban, dpi va cac Cong ty con nham dap ung su phat trian san xuat kinh doanhngay cang nhanh va da dang. Cac can bp dugc dao tao phai bai ban, co chuyan mon vatrinh dp quan ly, dao di^e va sue khoe tot. Cap hpe bong cho cac can bp va ky su thamgia cac khoa hoc cao hpe chuyan nganh, cao hpe quan try kinh doanh ( nam 2007 cu 2can bon hpe tai Dai hpe Quoc gia)- Tilp tuc viec diu tu xe may, thilt bi dl tang eudng nang lire thi cong xay lip ciia CT .Truac mit diu tu hoan chinh day chuyin SX Betong thuang phim vdi gia tri dau tu blxung 7 ty , diu tu ciu thap, thilt bi thi cong phin ngim ciia Cong trinh ... Vdi gia tri diutunam2007 1 a l 3 t y .- Triln khai viec dien tu boa cac khau quan li trong CT, chii trpng viec n6i mang caccong trudng trpng dilm vdi CT, ap dung d6ng bp cac modul phan mIm ERP dl quan Ift6t hon cac nguon luc ciia CT.- Phat hanh c6 philu ra cdng chiing dl thu hiit v6n diu tu, mSi dgt phat hanh dugc ginvdi du an diu tu cu thi dk quan li va phat huy hieu qua v6n diu tu va gift long tin ciiaC dong . O- Tang eudng cong tac tilp thj va thu thap thong tin dk tim eac ca hdi diu tu BDS, dau tuvdi nhilu hinh thuc linh boat nhu tu diu tu, lian doanh, lien kit. Thuc hien hgp tac dautu vdi cae nha diu tu nude ngoai cd tilm luc nhim nang cao hieu qua eua cac Du an nhugiai doan 2 du an Quang minh, Khu do thi Kim lu, Dai kim Ha ndi. Tilp tuc nghian cuudiu tu cac du an van phong va can hp cao cip cho thua, khu dd thi mdi, khu Cong nghieptai TP Ha noi, tinh VTnh phuc. Hung yan. Ha tay va cac tinh thanh pho khac co lgi the. 95
  104. 4.3. Nhung han che cua Luan van. Do thdi gian cd han, Luan van ciia tdi chic chin kho tranh khoi nhirng ban chl. - LTnh vuc san xuit kinh doanh cua Cong ty CPXD sd 2 - VINAC0NEX2 chii ylu la thi cong xay dung cac cdng trinh dan dung va cong nghiep . Nhung pham vi nghian cuu cua da tai lai them ITnh vuc kinh doanh BDS, mot ITnh vuc ma cong ty mdi ra nhap nhung dem lai hieu qua cao va Cong ty dudinh diy manh phat triln trong thdi giam tdi, do vay su phan tich hai ITnh vuc chua can d6i, ITnh vuc kinh doanh BDS con hdi hgt . - Do dilu kien thdi gian co ban, va nang luc han chl nan viec liy s6 lieu tham khao dl nghien cuu va phan tich trong luan van con chua dugc diy du va phong phii . Ban than ngudi vilt cd thuc tien, nhung tinh ly thuyat khong cao, nan trong phan tich thudng apdat y nghT chii quan .- Cac kat luan ve lira chpn chien luge dugc nghien cuu tren co sd ea ly luan va thuc tiensan xuit kinh doanh ciia trudng hgp cu Cong ty CPXD s6 2 - VINACONEX 2 nan tinhkhai quat eiia nghian cuu chua cao, khi ap dung vdi cac Cong ty khac dac biet la cacCong ty ngoai nganh Xay dung can phai dugc nghien cuu tham.4.4. Ket luan:Trong cdng cugc doi mdi ciia dat nude, su phat trian ciia eac doanh nghiep dong gop motphan khong nhd vao su phat trien on djnh va ban viJng ciia nln kinh tl Viet Nam. Tranbudc dudng boat dpng san xuat kinh doanh, viec xay dung va lira chpn chien luge kinhdoanh thich hgp ddng vai tro rat quan trpng. Viec chpn de tai: "Xay dung chien luge sanxuit kinh doanh cua Cdng ty CPXD sd 2 - VINAC0NEX2 " ciia tdi xuit phat tu yeuciu cip thiet ciia doanh nghiep ma toi la Chu tjch HDQT kiam Giam ddc cong ty . Toimong ring vdi cac ly thuylt da dugc hpe, ung dung cac hpe thuylt vl canh tranh, cac mohinh xay dung chian luge canh tranh, cac mo hinh phan tich ban ngoai, phan tich moitrudng ndi bd ciia doanh nghiep va bang phan tfch theo eac ma tran EFE, SWOT, luan 96
  105. vSn da xay dirng chien luge kinh doanh ciia Cong ty trong thdi ki 5 nam sip tdi . Toi hyvong rang, bang cdng sue nghien cuu ciia minh, dugc sir phan tich va dong gop ciia cacThiy giao, Chian luge kinh doanh eua Cong ty se hoan chinh ban, kha thi hon, va vdicuong vi cua minh Tdi se su dung cac chien luge kinh doanh do vao cong tac lanh dao vachi dao san xuat kinh doanh . Toi tin tudng rang vdi viec thuc hien eac chian luge do segop phan giiip cho Cdng ty nam bat tot ban cac ca hoi, phat huy cac lgi the canh tranh,han chl tdi da cac nii ro, thach thuc de boat dpng san xuat kinh doanh ciia Cong ty ngaycang phat trien dn djnh va ban virng, gop phan vao sir nghiep xay dung dat nude. 97
  106. TAI LIEU THAM KHAO1. Chandler, AD Jr, 1990, Scale and Scope: The Economics of Industrial Competition, Havard University Press, Cambridge.2. Christensen, CM, 1997, The Inonvators of dilemma, HBS Press, Boston, MA.3. Dao Duy Huan, Chiin luge kinh doanh trong todn cdu hoa nen kinh ti, Nha xuit ban thdng kl, 2004.4. Grant, R.M., 2002, Contemporary strategy analysis: Concepts, techniques, applications, Blackwell, London, 4*^ ed.5. Hamel and Prahalad, C.K, 1993, Strategy as stretch and leverage, Havard Business Review, March/April.6. Jonhnson, G. and Seholes, K., 2002, Exploring Corporate Strategy: text and cases. Prentice Hall, Harlow, 6*^ ed7. Mintzberg, H., 1990, The design school: Reconsidering the basic premises of strategic management, Jon Wiley and Sons Limited8. McGee, H. Thomas & D. Wilson, 2005, Strategy analysis and practice. The McGraw Hill companies9. Ministry of Construction Website, www.moc.gov.vn10. Ministry of Planning and Investment website, www.mpi.gov.vn11. Lynch, R., 2003, Corporate Strategy, Pearson, Hariow, 3"^ ed.12. Nguyen, Lian Diep va Pham, Van Nam. 1998, Chien luge vd chinh sdch kinh doanh. Nha xuit ban Th6ng ke13. Phan Lan Anh, 2004, Qudn ly chien luge, Nha xuit ban khoa hpe ky thuat14. Prahalad, C.K & Gary Hamel, The core competence of the corporation, Havard Business Review, May-June 1990 98
  107. 15. Porter, M.E, 1998, Competitive Advantages, Creating and sustaining superior performance. First Free Press Edition, The Free Press16. Porter, M.E, 1998, Competitive Strategy, Techniques for analyzing Industries and competitors. First Free Press Edition, The Free Press17. Quinn, JB, 1978, Strategic Change: Logical Incrementalism, Sloan Management Review, Fall.18. Wheelen, T.L & Hunger, J.D, 2002. Environmental Scanning and industry analysis. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddler River, NJ, 8^ ed.19. Wheelen, T.L & Hunger, J.D, 2002, Strategic management and business policy. Prentice hall. Upper Saddle River, NJ, 8 * ed. ^" 99
  108. PHU LUC 1 GlOfI THIEU VE CONG TY ME (TONG CONG TY CO PHAN VINACONEX) 3,1, Cdng ty me Ten Cong ty : TONG CONG TY CO P H A N X U A T NHAP K H A U VA X A Y D U N G VIET NAM Ten giao dich qudc tl : VIETNAM CONSTRUCTION AND IMPORT EXPORT JOINT STOCK CORPORATION Tan viat tat VINACONEX Tru so Toa nha Vinaconex, Khu Do thj Trung Hoa Nhan Chfnh, phuong Nhan Chinh, Thanh Xuan, Ha Noi Dien thoai : 04.224 9292 Fax : 04.224 9208 Email : Vinaeonexfaifpt.vn Website : www.vinaconex.com.vnTong Cong ty Xuat nhap khau Xay dung Viet Nam VINACONEX nam giu co phan chiphdi cua Cong ty c6 phin Xay dung s6 2 la 51% tuong duong 1.020.000 e6 phin.Can cu Giiy chung nhan dang ky kinh doanh Doanh nghiep Nha nuoc so 110729 capngay 25/05/1996, thay d6i lin thu 20 ngay 13/07/2004 eua So Ke hoaeh va Diu tu thanhph6 Ha Noi, nganh nghl kinh doanh cua Tdng Cong ty VINACONEX nhu sau: 100
  109. - Nhan thiu, tdng thiu thi cdng xay lip va hoan thien eac cdng trinh dan dung, cdngnghiep, giao thdng, san bay, bin cang, thuy Ipi, duong him (giao thdng, thuy lai), vanhoa, tha thao, vui choi, giai tri, du Ijch, khach san, cdng sd, trudng hpe, benh vien, cip nude, thoat nude, buu dien, cdng trinh thuy dien, nhiet dien, phong dien, dien nguyen tu,dudng day va tram biln thi dien din 500 kV, cae cdng trinh ky thuat ha ting, khu dan cu, khu dd thj, khu cdng nghiep, khu chl xuit, khu edng nghe cao; nhan thiu thi cdng cacedng trinh d nude ngoai;- Tu vin, tdng thiu tu vin diu tu va xay dung cae du an diu tu xay dung cac loai hinhcdng trinh neu d muc 1, bao gdm: lap du an diu tu, tu vin diu thiu, tu vin giam sat vaquan ly du an, tu vin thilt bi cdng nghe mdi va thilt bj tu ddng boa; khao sat dia hinh,dja chit thuy van, do dac cdng trinh; thi nghiem; thilt kl; thim tra du an diu tu, thim tradl an thilt kl, thim tra thilt kl ky thuat va tdng du toan; kilm djnh chit lugng cdng trinhva cac dich vu tu van khac;- Dau tu kinh doanh phat trian nha va ha tang dd thj, khu dan cu, khu kinh tl mdi, khucdng nghe cao, khu cha xuat, khu cdng nghiep;- Kinh doanh dich vu nha nghi va khach san, du Heb I r hanh, van chuyen khach du Hch; C- Djch vu cho ca nhan va cac td chuc nude ngoai thue nha;- Khai thac, kinh doanh nude sach, nang lugng, dien;- Kinh doanh xuit nhap khiu vat tu, may mdc, thilt bi, phu tung, tu lieu san xuit, tu lieutiau dung, nguyan phu lieu san xuit, tieu dung, day chuyan cdng nghe-tu ddng hoa, vatlieu xay dung, hang thu cdng my nghe, hang ndng lam thuy san, hang tieu dung, phuongtien van tai, xe gan may;- Lam dai ly tieu thu cho cae hang trong va ngoai nude cae mat hang phuc vu san xuit vatiau diing theo quy dinh cua phap luat; 101
  110. - Nghien eu-u, ung dung, chuyin giao cdng nghe mdi, thilt bj tu ddng hoa phuc vu choxay dung, san xuit vat lieu xay dung va kinh doanh bit ddng san;- Che tao, lip dat, sua chua, bao dudng cac thilt bi day chuyin cdng nghe va thilt bj tuddng hoa;- Dua lao ddng va chuyen gia Viet Nam di lam viec cd thdi ban d nude ngoai;- Khai thac, san xuat, cha bien, kinh doanh cac loai cau kien va vat lieu xay dung baogdm: da, cat, sdi, gach, ngdi, xi mang, kinh, tim Igp, nhua dudng va cac vat lieu khacdung trong xay dung va trang tri ndi ngoai thit;- Thuc hien cac dich vu khac nhu: cung cap, lap dat sua chua bao hanh diau hoa khdngkhi, dien lanh, thiet bi phong chdng chay nd, thang may; kinh doanh, dich vu giao nhanva van chuyan hang boa, cac loai cau kien siau trudng, sieu trpng, vat lieu xay dung;- Dai ly ban ve may bay cho cac hang trong va ngoai nude;- Xuit nhap khau va kinh doanh bia, rugu; Kinh doanh thudc la;- Det may cdng nghiep;- Khai thac thu mua, chl biln hang ndng, lam san (go trdn, gd so chl, go tinh cha, ca phenhan va ndng san cac loai);- Trdng, eham sde, tu bo, bao quan rung, trdng cay cdng nghiep va chan nudi gia sue, giacam;- Khai thac va san xuit kinh doanh nude udng tinh khilt;- Kinh doanh ban le xang dau;- Kinh doanh djch vu an udng, nude giai khat, banh keo, hang cdng nghe pham, my phamva qua luu niem.- Kinh doanh khai thac ciu cang, bde xIp hang hoa va cho thue kho bai; Van tai hang hoabing dudng bd, dudng sdng va dudng biln; 102
  111. - Td chuc cac boat ddng lien quan dan giao due, dao tao tir bac mim non din trung hocphd thdng, giao due dao tao hudng nghiep, dao tao ngoai ngu va tu vin du hoc; Kinhdoanh cac nganh nghe khac theo quy djnh ciia phap luat. 103
  112. PHU LUC 2 BAO CAO TAI CHINH TOM TAT NAM 2006 DA DUOC KIEM TOANI. BANG CAN DOI KE TOANSTT Ndi dung Sd du dau ky Sd du cuoi ky I Tai san luu ddng va dau tu ngan han 232.989.448.748 252.032.000.060 1 Tian 9.862.252.164 23.708.188.888 - Tien mat 127.762.159 243.515.994 - Tian gui 9.734.490.005 23.464.672.894 2 Cae khoan dau tu tai chinh ngan ban 45.000.000.000 40.000.000.000 3 Cac khoan phai thu 75.122.162.101 103.487.060.479 4 Hang tdn kho 102.576.913.982 82.883.710.901 5 Tai san luu ddng khac 428.120.501 1.952.039.792 II Tai san ed dinh va dau tu tai chinh dai ban 18.486.475.702 27.261.940.140 1 Tai san ed dinh 14.039.782.334 17.498.244.490 - Nguyen gia TSCD hiru hinh 36.206.336.277 42.636.015.164 - Gia tri hao mdn luy kl TSCD hihi hinh (22.166.553.943) (26.994.850.674) - Nguyan gia TSCD vd hinh 0 1.895.000.000 - Gia tri hao mdn luy kl TSCD vd hinh 0 (37.920.000) 2 Cac khoan diu tu tai chinh dai ban 1.165.000.000 3.405.000.000 3 Chi phi XDCB dd dang 3.281.693.368 0 4 Cac khoan ky quy ky cugc dai ban 0 0 5 Chi phi tra trudc dai han 0 10.113.091 6 Cac chi phi khac 0 0 7 Bit ddng san diu tu 0 6.348.582.559 - Nguyen gia bit ddng san dau tu 0 6.665.399.077 104
  113. - Gia trj hao mdn luy kl bit ddng san diu tu 0 (316.816.518)Ill Tdng cdng tai san 251.475.924.450 279.292.940.200IV Ng phai tra 219.445.603.778 228.938.209.278 1 Ng ngan han 216.024.835.618 222.951.210.5?>A2 Ng dai ban 3.420.768.160 5.980.938.7443 Ngkbac 0 0V Ngudn vdn chu sd huu 32.030.320.672 50.354.730.922 1 Ngudn vdn va quy 32.030.320.672 50.354.730.922 - Ngudn vdn kinh doanh 11.185.200.000 20.000.000.000 - Cd phiau quy 0 0 - Thang du vdn 55.704.400 230.300.000 - Vdn khac cua chu sd hiru 0 1.626.681.773 - Cac quy 6.822.235.937 10.124.460.016 - Lgi nhuan chua phan phdi 13.967.180.335 18.373.289.1332 Ngudn kinh phi 0 0VI Tdng ngudn vdn 251.475.924.450 279.292.940.200 105
  114. II. KET QUA HOAT DONG SAN XUAT KINH DOANHSTT Chi tieu 2005 2006 1 Doanh thu ban hang va djch vu 236.849.571.322 392.410.467.641 2 Cac khoan giam tru 0 0 3 Doanh thu thuin vl ban hang va dich vu 236.849.571.322 392.410.467.641 4 Gia vdn hang ban 212.994.353.050 355.973.018.049 5 LN gdp va ban hang va cung cip djch vu 23.855.218.272 36.437.449.592 6 Doanh thu hoat ddng dau tu tai chinh 348.707.140 401.925.230 7 Chi phi tu hoat ddng diu tu tai chinh 374.766.830 816.167.157 Lgi nhuan tu boat ddng diu tu tai 8 (26.059.690) (414.241.927) chinh 9 Chi phi ban hang 0 0 10 Chi phi quan ly doanh nghiep 10.736.395.013 11.225.935.507 11 Doanh thu khac 1.764.809.301 2.667.990.035 12 Chi phi khac 890.392.535 17.507.136 13 Lgi nhuan khac 874.416.766 2.650.482.899 14 Lgi nhuan trudc thue 13.967.180.335 27.447.755.057 15 Thua thu nhap phai nop 0 6.351.438.527 16 Lgi nhuan sau thua 13.967.180.335 21.096.316.530 17 Thu nhap tren mdi ed phiau 13.310 13.868 18 Cd tue trdn mdi cd phiau 17% 17% 106
  115. III. CAC CHI TIEU TAI CHINH CO BANSTT Chi tieu Don vi 2005 2006 tinh 1 Co ciu tai san % - Tai san cd dinh/Tdng tai san 7,35 9,76 - Tai san luu ddng/Tong tai san 92,65 90,24 2 Co cau ngudn vdn % - Ng phai tra /Tdng ngudn vdn 87,26 81,97 - Ngudn vdn chu sd huu/Tdng ngudn vdn 12,74 18,03 3 Kha nang thanh toan lan - Kha nang thanh toan nhanh 0,25 0,29 - Kha nang thanh toan hien hanh 1,15 1,22 4 Ty suat lgi nhuan % - Ty suat lgi nhuan trudc thue/Tdng tai san 5,55 9,83 - Ty suat lgi nhuan sau thue/Doanh thu thuan 5,84 5,33 - Ty suat lgi nhuan sau thue/Ngudn vdn chu sd 45,49 42,75 huu 107
  116. PHU LUC 3 Dir LIEU DAU THAU VA TIEU CHUAN DANH GIA HO SO DlT THAUGoi thau "Thi cong xay lap hang muc cong trinh chinh" thuoc dy an dau tu* xay dyng Vien Huyet hoc - TruySn mau TW L BANG DCT LIEU DAU THAUMuc Khoan Ndi dung Tin goi thdu: Gdi thau Thi cdng xay lap hang muc cdng trinh chinh" thudc du an dau tu xay dung Vien Huyat hpe - Truyan mau TW. Pham vigdi thdu: Thi cdng xay dung hang muc cdng trinh chinh: Phan cpc khoan nhdi thi nghiem; - Pb^n cpc khoan nhdi; Phan mdng; Phan kat cau; Phan kian true; Phan cap dien trong nha; - Phan thdng gid trong nha; - Ph§n cap, thoat nude trong nha. Theo ban ve thiat ka da dugc pha duyet. Can cit phdp ly: - Luat diu thau sd 61/2005/QHll ngay 29/11/2005 eua Qudc Hdi nude Cong hoa xa hdi chu nghTa Viet Nam - Quyat dinh sd 3834/QD-BYT ngay 29/10/2004 va Quyat dinh sd 3273/QD-BYT ngay 31/8/2006 cua Bd Y Ta k viec pha duyet va phe duyet lai Du an dku tu: Xay dung Vien Huylt hpe - Truyan mau TW. - Quyat djnh so 3780/QD-BYT ngay 27/9/2006 cua Bd Y Ta k viec pha duyet ke hoach diu thiu gdi thiu "Thi cdng xay idp hang muc cdng trinh chinh" thudc du an d k tu Xay dung Vien Huyet hpe - Truyan mau TW. Dan du thdu: Do ngudi cd tham quyan cua Nba thiu ky hoac ngudi dugc ngudi cd th^m quyan cua Nha th^u uy quyan (ed giiy uy quyan kem theo). Hinh thuc ddu thdu: Diu thiu rong rai trong nude. Phuang thitc ddu thdu: Mot tui hd so 108
  117. Tiin do thuc hien gdi thdu: 36 thangNgudn vdn de thuc hien gdi thdu. Vdn Ngan sach XDCB tap trung.Tu each phdp nhdn cda Nhd thdu: khi cd du cac diau kien sau day:+ Giiy chung nhan dang ky kinh doanh dugc cip theo quy dinh cuaPhap luat hoac cd quyat dinh thanh lap ddi vdi cac td chuc khdng cddang ky kinh doanh; Cd dang ky hoat ddng trong ITnh vuc xay dungcac cdng trinh dan dung va cdng nghiep.+ Hach toan kinh te ddc lap;+ Khdng bj eo quan cd tham quyan kat luan e tinh hinh tai chinhkhdng lanh manh, dang lam vao tinh trang pha san hoac ng dpngkhdng cd kha nang thanh toan; dang trong qua trinh giai tha hoac dangvi pham hgp ddng vdi eac Chu dau tu khac.Nang lye va kinh nghiem cua Nha thau:Ndng luc tdi chinh:+ Doanh thu trung binh trong 3 nam 2003, 2004, 2005 dat > 250 tiddng/nam.+ Lgi nhuan cd tang trudng.+ Tai san luu ddng trung binh trong 3 nam 2003, 2004, 2005 tu 100 tiddng trd lan.+ Von luu ddng Nha thiu du kiln cip cho gdi thiu nay (kha nang vaytin dung ngan hang va cae ngudn tai chinh khac)Kinh nghiem:+ Sd nam kinh nghiem boat ddng trong ITnh vuc xay dung cac cdngtrinh dan dung cua Nha thiu tij 15 nam trd lan.+ Cd it nhit 3 hgp ddng tuong tu gdi thiu {vk quy md kat ciu, tinhchit, gia tri) do Nba thiu thue hien vdi tu each la Nha thiu chinh toanbd khdi lugng trong 3 nam gin day (2003, 2004, 2005) (cd chungminh bing cac ban chup hgp ddng cd cdng chung).+ Cd kinh nghiem da thuc hien toan bd khoi lugng cua it nhat 01 cdngtrinh cip dac biet, hoac 02 cdng trinh cip 1, hoac 05 cdng trinh cap IItuong tu, cd qui md > 9 ting (cd ting him va cpc khoan nhdi) cd yeuciu ky thuat tuong tu thuc hien trong 3 nam gin day vdi tu each lanha thiu chinh.Sd luang, ndng luc can bo : 109
  118. * Nha thau phai dam bao cac dieu kien sau day: + Cd du kian true su, ky su va cu nhan kinh te thudc chuyen nganh phli hgp vdi loai edng trinh thi cdng xay dung; cd kinh nghiem > 5 nam cdng tac trong ITnh vuc xay dung co ban; + Cd du cdng nhan ky thuat phu hgp vdi cdng viec dam nhan, cd trinh dp tay nghe phu hgp vdi yau ciu thi cdng; + Cd thiat bi thi cdng chinh da thi cdng xay dung cdng trinh; - Cau thap: Cd it nhit 01 cai ed chiau cao > 60m, dp vuon ciia cin >40m hoac 02 cai cd chiau cao > 60m, dp vuon eua cin >30m.- May khoan cpc nhoi: cd it nhit 03 cai cd chieu dai cin khoan >50m, dudng kinh khoan tu 1 din 1.4m.- May bom be tdng: cd it nhit 01 cai cd kha nang bom cao 60m.- Xe van chuyan ba tdng: cd it nhit 05 chiac.- Tram trdn ba tdng thuong phim: cd it nhit 01 tram.- Van thang: cd it nhit 02 cai, chiau cao nang tdi thiau 60m.+ Da thi edng it nhit 1 edng trinh cip dac biet, hoac 2 cdng trinh cip 1cd qui md va tinh chat tuong tu (Quy md > 9 ting, cd ting him va cpckhoan nhdi).* Chi huy trudng cdng trinh phai cd bing dai hoc trd len thudc chuyennganh phu hgp vdi loai cdng trinh va dap ung cac diau kien: Cd thdigian lidn tuc lam cdng tac thi cdng xay dung cdng trinh vdi tu each lanhan su thudc nha thau quan ly tdi thieu 7 nam; Da la chi huy trudngcdng trudng cua 1 cdng trinh cap dac biet, hoac 2 cdng trinh cip 1 cdqui md va tinh chat tuong tu (nha cd quy md > 9 tang, cd tang ham vacpc khoan nhdi).* Cd it nhat trung binh 15 cdng nhan ky thuat trong mdi dpi chuyannganh thi cdng nhu (cdng tac be tdng, edng tac mdc, ne, cdng tac giacdng lap dat cdt thep, thi cdng dien, nude... cac cdng viec khac lianquan den gdi thau).* Cae can bd chu chdt (nhu: Can bp ky thuat, kinh ta,. . .) cd trinh dpchuyan mdn thuc hien gdi thau, phai cd ban chup ed cdng chung bangtdt nghiep dai hpe.* Dam bao sd lugng, chit lugng, thiet bj may mdc, cdng nhan ky thuat 110
  119. thuc hien got thau. 5 1 Dia chi Bin mdi thdu: Vien Huyat hpe - Truyln mau TW, sd 78 - dudng Giai Phdng - Ha Ndi. 2 Thdi gian nhan dugc van ban yeu ciu giai thich lam rd hd so mdi thiu khdng muon hon 10 ngay trudc thdi diem ddng thiu. 6 Tai lieu sua ddi hd so mdi thiu (nlu ed) se dugc Ban mdi thiu gui din tit ea eac Nha thiu nhan hd so mdi thiu trudc thdi dilm ddng thiu tdi thieu 5 ngay. 7 1 Ngdn ngit su- dung: Ngdn ngu su dung trong ho so du thiu la tilng 2 Viet Ddi vdi cac tai lieu khac cd lian quan nhu catalog, ban ve ky thuat bang tieng nude ngoai phai dugc djch sang tilng Viet. 8 Ndi dung yiu cdu vi Bdo dam du thdu: - Hinh thuc bao dam: Bao dam du thau cd tha nop bang tiln mat hoac giay bao dam do ngan hang phat hanh (theo miu d phu luc). - Gia tri va ddng tiln bao dam du thiu: 1.500.000.000 6 (Mot ty, nam tram trieu ddng chan), bang ddng tian Viet Nam . - Hieu lire eua bao dam du thau: bang bieu luc hd so du thau cdng ba muoi ngay la 150 ngay. 9 Th&i gian hodn trd bdo ddm du thdu cho Nhd thdu khdng trdng thdu: Trong vong 30 ngay ka tu ngay cdng bd kat qua dau thau. 10 Loai hap ddng: Hgp ddng diau chinh gia 11 Trong biiu gid, Nhd thdu phdi phdn tich cdc ndi dung cdu thdnh cua gid dit thdu theo cdc yeu cdu sau: Gia du thau neu tren diu phai bao gdm cac ndi dung tdi thiau dudi day: a) Tdng gid: Bao gdm tdng gia cac phin viec eua hang muc cdng trinh chinh (theo bilu tdng gia d phu luc). b) Gid cdc hang muc: Gdm chi phi cho cac cdng viec can thuc hien dl hoan thanh toan bd hang muc. Chi phi cho mot edng viec dugc xac djnh tren ca sd eac ylu td chi phi va khdi lugng cdng viec can thuc hien (theo bilu gia eac hang muc d phu luc). Cac vin de lian quan den 111
  120. khdi lugng cdng viec dugc xac dinh nhu trong phan Phu luc khdi lugng cua Hd so mdi thau. c) Gid cdng viec (dan gid tdng hap): Gdm toan bp eac ylu td chi phi cin thilt nhu vat lieu, nhan cdng, may, chi phi chung, true tilp phi khac, chi phi cdng trinh tam, thu nhap chiu thul tinh trudc va thul V.A.T va cac loai le phi, bao hilm khac dugc tinh theo qui dinh tai thdng tu sd 04/2005/TT-BXD, dk hoan thanh mot don vi cdng viec. Co sd dl tinh cae ylu td chi phi se phai dugc nau diy du, rd rang, co giai thich cu thi ly do ap dung. Nha thiu phai cd bang chilt tinh gia du thau. d) Thu gidm gid: Trong trudng hgp Nha thiu cd thu giam gia cd thi nop cung vdi hd so du thau hoac nop rieng, song phai dam bao nop tdi Ben mdi thau trudc thdi diam ddng thau. Trong thu giam gia cin neu rd ndi dung giam gia va viec phan bd chi tiet giam gia vao cac hang muc cu tha trong gia du thau. Trudng hgp khdng neu chi tiat thi dugc hiau la giam dau theo ti le cho tong hang muc trong gia du thau.12 Dong tien du thdu: Ddng tien Viet Nam13 Tai lieu ehirng minh tu each hop le, kinh nghiem va nang luc cua Nha thiu: 1 Tdi lieu chung minh tu each phdp nhdn: a) Ddi vdi Nha thau ddc lap: Phai ed eac tai lieu qui djnh tai muc 3 ciia bang nay. b) Ddi vdi Nha thau lidn danh: Phai cung cap cae tai lieu sau day: + Cae tai lieu neu tai muc a khoan nay ddi vdi tung thanh vien trong lidn danh: + Van ban thoa thuan lien danh giua cac thanh vien phai nau day du ten va chu ky ciia cac thanh vien tham gia, noi va ngay ky thoa thuan lien danh, edng viec va gia tri tuong ung ciia tiing thanh vien, trach nhiem chung va trach nhiem rieng ciia tung thanh vien trong viec thuc hien gdi thiu, tan thanh vien dung diu lien danh la dai dien lam dau moi dl giai quylt cac vin dl lian quan din qua trinh dau thau. + N I U Nha thiu lien danh vdi mot Nha thiu khac phai dang ky vdi Chii diu tu khi tham gia mua hd so mdi thiu, hoac trong qua trinh lap hd so du thiu Nha thiu thiy cin lien danh vdi mot Nha thiu khac thi phai thdng bao cho Chu diu tu bing van ban va dugc su ddng y ciia 2 112
  121. Chu diu tu mdi dugc phep lien danh. Tdi lieu chu-ng minh kinh nghiem vd ndng luc cda Nhd thdu: Theo diing qui dinh trong muc 4 ciia bang nay.14 Hieu luc cua Hd sa du thdu: Hd so du thau phai cd hieu luc tdi thilu 120 ngay ke tij thdi dilm ddng thiu.15 Sd luang hd sa du thdu phdi nop : 01 bd goc va 05 ban chup. Cae hd so du thiu phai bao dam cd ciing ndi dung va muc dich. Trong trudng hgp cd sai khac thi ban goc se la ban cd can cu phap ly dl ddi chilu.16 Cdch trinh bdy cdc thdng tin trin tui dung hd sa du thdu: Toan bd hd so du thau se dugc niem phong kin trong phong bi va ghi ro d ngoai phong bi la: Ho so^ du thau Goi thiu: Thi cdng xay lip hang muc cdng trinh chinh thudc du an diu tu xay dung Vien Huyet hpe - Truyan mau TW Noi nhan: Phong 311, Vien Huylt hpe- Truyln mau TW Dia chi: sd 78 - Dudng Giai Phdng - Ha Ndi. (Khdng dugc md trudc 09 gid 30 phiit, ngay 08 thang 11 nam 2006) Thdi diim ddng thdu: 09 gid 00 phiit, ngay 08 thang 11 nam 200617 Md thdu: Viec md thau se dugc tien hanh cdng khai vao liic 09 gid18 30pbut, ngay 08 thang 11 nam 2006 Th&i gian chudn bi hd sa du thdu: Tu Ngay 12/10/2006 dan trudc 0919 gid ngay 08 thang 11 nam 2006 (tiJ ngay phat hanh den trudc thdi diem ddng thau). Ho sa du thdu cda Nhd thdu se bj loai bd niu khdng dap ung mot20 trong cdc diiu kien tien quyit: + Khdng cd ban chup giiy dang ky kinh doanh cd cdng chung; + Khdng ddc lap e tai chinh; + Kbdng nop ban ban gde, chi nop ban chup hd so du thau; + Thdi ban hieu luc ciia hd so du thiu ngin hon thdi han qui djnh trong hd so mdi thau; + Thilu cbiJ ky hgp le trong don du thiu; + Hd so du thiu ed gia du thiu khdng cd djnh, chao theo hai muc gia, gia du thiu cd kem dilu kien trai vdi yau ciu ciia hd so mdi thau; + Khdng cd bao dam du thiu hoac cd bao dam du thiu nhung khong hgp qui dinh trong hd so mdi thau; 113
  122. + Nha thiu khdng dap ung cac yeu ciu vl kinh nghiem va nang luc theo tieu chuan danh gia so bd ciia hd so mdi thiu; + Khdng khai theo cac phu luc, tai lieu kem theo khac theo yau ciu ciia hd so mdi thau.21 Nba thau phai gui thu chap nhan vao thuong thao hoan thien hgp ddng trong vong 10 ngay ka tu ngay thdng bao tning thau.22 Thdi gian bao hanh khdng it hon 24 thang.23 Gia tri bao hanh: 5% gia tri Hgp ddng.24 Dieu chinh hop dong; Theo qui dinh ciia Phap luat hien hanh 114
  123. n. TIEU CHUAN D A N H GIA VA NOI DUNG XAC DINH GIA DANH GIA 1. Tieu chuin danh gia ve kinh nghiem va nang luc cua Nha thau:TT Ndi dung Muc yeu ciu tdi thieu de dugc danh gia la dap ung yeu cau A Tieu chuan Ten Nha thau cd trong danh sach mua hd so mdi Dat ve tu* each thiu. Nha thau Hd so du thau nop diing dia diem va thdi han qui Dat va hd so du" djnh trong hd so mdi thau. thau Cd Bao dam du thau hgp le. Dat Cd sd lugng ban gdc, ban chup hd so du thau diing Dat qui dinh trong Bdng du- lieu ddu thdu Cd giay dang ky kinh doanh hgp le (cd cdng Dat chung). Don du thau hgp le. Dat B Tieu chuan Cd kinh nghiem da thuc hien toan bd khdi lugng Dat ve nang lye ciia it nhit 01 cdng trinh cap dac biet, hoac 02 cdng kinh trinh cap 1, hoac 05 cdng trinh cip II tuong tu, cd nghiem. qui md > 9 ting, cd tang ham va cpc khoan nhdi, cd yeu ciu ky thuat tuong tu thuc hien trong 3 nam gin day vdi tu each la nha thau chfnh. Cd bao cao tai chinh ciia 03 nam 2003, 2004, 2005 Dat dugc CO quan cip tren xac nhan, hoac co quan thue hoac kiam toan xac nhan. Doanh thu trung binh nam trong 3 nam gan day Dat (2003, 2004, 2005) dat > 250 ti ddng. Bd tri nhan luc thuc hien cdng trinh dap ung yeu Dat ciu qui dinh vl nang luc trong hd so mdi thiu. Ghi chd: Nhd thdu phdi dat tdt cd cdc tiiu chudn neu trin thi m&i duac danh gidve mat ky thuat. 115
  124. 2. Tieu chuan danh gia ve mat ky thuat de chon danh sach ngin Budc 1: Danh gia ve mat ky thuat de ebon danh sach ngin. Viec danh gia e mat ky thuat de chpn danh sach ngan dugc dua tran cac yeu ciuva tieu chuin danh gia da dugc quy dinh trong hd so mdi thiu. Tieu chuan danh gia ve ky thuat va chat luong dl chon danh sach ngin:TT Can cir de tinh diem Diem toi Ghi da chuI Tieu chuan ve ky thuat, chat luong: 801 Muc dp dap ung ddi vdi eac yeu cau va ky thuat, chat lugng vat tu, 20 nguyan vat lieu, thiat bj xay lap nau trong hd so thiat ka va hd so mdi thau: * Co bdng ke vd cam kit sir dung vat tu, nguyen vat lieu, thiet bi xdy lap 20 bin, dep, chdt luang cao han yeu cdu ghi trong ho sa thiet ke vd ho sa mai thdu, loai xudt sac duac danh gid tir 16 den 20 diem * Co bdng ke vd cam kit sir dung vat tu, nguyen vat lieu, thiet bi xdy lap 15 dgt yeu cdu ghi trong ho sa thiet ke vd ho sa mai thdu, loai trung binh duac danh gid tir 06 den 15 diem * Co bdng ke vd cam kit sir dung vat tu, nguyen vat lieu, thiet bi xdy lap 0 CO loai khong dam bdo chdt luang ghi trong ho sa thiit ki vd ho sa mai thdu, loai kem , hoac khong co bdng ke, hoac ke khong day du khong duac tinh diem2 Tinh hgp ly va kha thi eiia cac giai phap ky thuat, bien phap td chuc thi 15 edng va mat bing td chuc thi cdng hgp ly: * Co cdc gidi phdp ky thuat tien tiin, phu hap tuyet doi vai cong trinh, 15 bien phdp thi cong khoa hoc, sdng tao duac danh gid tir II den 15 diem * Co cdc gidi phdp ky thuat chdp nhan duac vai dieu kien cua cong trinh, 10 khong CO anh huong xau din cdc cdng trinh ben canh hoac lien ki duac danh gid tir 05 din 10 diim * Gidi phdp ky thuat khong phii hop vai diiu kien cua cong trinh, co dnh 0 hu&ng xdu tai cdng trinh ben canh hoac hang muc lien ki khong duac tinh diem3 Cae bien phap dam bao dilu kien ve sinh mdi trudng, phdng chdng chay 10 - 116
  125. nd va an toan lao ddng dam bao: * Co cdc bien phdp dam bdo dieu kien ve sinh moi tru&ng, phong chong 10 chay no vd an todn lao dong tot, xudt sac duac ddnh gid tir 07 den 10 diem * Co cdc bien phdp ddm bdo dieu kien ve sinh moi tnr&ng, phong chong 06 chay nd vd an todn lao dong dgt yeu cdu tdi thieu duac danh gid tir 01 den 06 diem * Co mot trong ba gidi phdp sinh moi tru&ng, phong chong chay no vd an 0 todn lao dong khong ddm bdo yeu cdu khong duac tinh diem4 Muc dp dap ung eua may mdc thiat bj thi cdng: Thuyat minh viec bd tri 10 may mdc thiat bj thi edng day dii e sd lugng, hgp ly vd chiing loai va tien dp huy ddng: * Bd tri mdy moc thiit bi thi cong day du ve sd luang, hap ly ve chung 10 logi vd CO tien do huy dong den cong trinh phii hap v&i ki hogch thi cdng ciia cong trinh duac ddnh gid tir 07 den 10 diim * Bd tri mdy mdc thiet bi thi cong day du ve so luang, du vi chiing logi vd 06 COtiendo huy dong din cdng trinh khdng chdng cheo v&i ke hogch thi cong cua cdng trinh duac ddnh gid tir 01 din 06 diem * Bo tri mdy mdc thiet bi thi cong thira hoac thieu ve sd luang hoac khdng 0 hap ly vi chung logi hoac tiin do huy dong den cdng trinh khdng phii hap v&i ki hogch thi cdng khong duac tinh diem5 Cd so dd tdng tiln dp thi edng, bilu dd bd tri nhan lire va phdi hgp giita 15 cac cdng doan thi cdng hgp ly: * Mire do hap ly vd khoa hgc cua tdng tien do thi cdng 08 * Mire do hop ly cua bieu do huy dong nhdn luc 076 Cac bien phap dam bao chit lugng cdng trinh 10 * Cd ddng ky thi cdng cdng trinh dgt chdt luang cao 02 * Sir dung vat tu, nguyen vat lieu vd thiet bi xdy lap di thi cdng xdy dung 03 cdng trinh * Cd he thong qudn ly chdt luang ISO 9001-2000 02 * Cd de xudt bien phdp dp dung tiin bo ky thuat m&i trong thi cdng xdy 03 lap 117
  126. • Tieu chuan ve kinh nghiem va nang luc cua nha thiu 201 Nha thiu cd nhiau kinh nghiem thi cdng cac cdng trinh xay dung dan 10 dung, y tl cd yeu ciu ky thuat, chit lugng cao; Da thuc hien toan bd khdi lugng cua it nhit 01 cdng trinh cip dac biet, hoac 02 cdng trinh cip I, hoac 05 cdng trinh cip II tuong Ur, cd qui md > 9 ting, cd ting him va cpc khoan nhdi, cd yau ciu ky thuat tuong tu thuc hien trong 3 nam gan day vdi tu each la nha thiu chinh2 Cd sd lugng, trinh dp can bd, cdng nhan tham gia thi cdng cdng trinh 05 hgp ly. Chi huy trudng hang 1 la ky su XD cd kinh nghiem > 7 nam da chi huy trudng cdng trinh cap dac biet, cip I hoac 2 cdng trinh cip II cd quy md > 9 tang va cd ting him va cpc khoan nhoi. Cd dii KSXD, KS chuyan nganh cap thoat nude, dien, phu trach ATLD, KS kinh ta cd kinh nghiem > 5 nam. Cd dii cdng nhan ky thuat diing nganh nghe, cd chung nhan la dang lam viec hgp phap cho Nha thau.3 Muc dp dap ling nang luc e tai chinh ciia Nha thau: 05 * Doanh thu trung binh nam trong 3 nam (2003, 2004, 2005) dgt > 04 500 ty dong * Doanh thu trung binh nam trong 3 nam (2003, 2004, 2005) dgt > 02 400 ty ddng den 500 ty ddng * Doanh thu trung binh nam trong 3 nam (2003. 2004, 2005) dgt > 01 250 ty ddng den 400 ty ddng. * Cam kit irng vdn > 20% gid tri hgp ddng, khong tinh lai nhimg vdn 01 thi cdng ddm bdo chdt luang vd tiin do Tong cong: I + II 100 Nhd thdu nao co long so diem > 80 diem dugc chgn vdo danh sdch ngdn vd tieptuc ddnh gid & bu&c 2 - Bu&c ddnh gid tdi chinh thuang mgi. 118

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