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PHAM VAN HAI_CHIEN LUOC KD.pdf

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  • 1. r ^ . -" ^ft*^^
  • 2. INTERNATIONAL EXECUTIVE MBA PROGRAM (leMBA) ChLTdng trinh Cao hoc Quan trj Kinh doanh Quoc te KHOA LUAN TOT NGHIEP CHIEN Ll/OC KINH DOANH • CONG TY CO PHAN XAY DLfNG • CONG TRINH GIAO THONG 872 (NGANH XD-GTVT) PHAM VAN HAI leMBA#1 THANG 10,2006
  • 3. INTERNATIONAL EXECUTIVE MBA PROGRAM (leMBA) Chifdng trinh Cao hoc Quan trj Kinh doanh Quoc te BAN KHOA LUAN NAY DLTOC NOP OHO TRLfONG DAI HOC IRVINE (MY) VA KHOA QUAN TRj KINH DOANH HSB (DAI HOC QUOC GIA H A NOI) BAN KHOA LUAN LA MOT PHAN BAT BUQC TRONG CHUONG TRINH DAO TAO THAC SY QUAN TRI KINH DOANH QUOC TE Thang 10, 20006
  • 4. Phe duyet cua Chircmg trinh Cao hoc quan trj kinh doanh quoc te Chu nhiem chucmg trinh Toi xac nhan r^ng ban khoa luan nay da dap ung dugc cac yeu cau cua mot khoa luan tot nghiep thuoc chircmg trinh dao tao Thac sy Quan tri kmh doanh. Chu tich Hoi dong Chiing toi, ky ten dual day xac nhan rang chung toi da doc toan bo khoa luan nay va cong nhan ban khoa luan hoan toan dap ung cac tieu chuan cua mot khoa luan Thac sy quan tri kinh doanh. ThS. Tran Phuong Lan Giao vien huong dan Cac thanh vien Hoi dong (Xep thu tij ten theo bang chu cai) TS. Tr§n Ooan Kim TS. Trin Dang Kham TS. Nguyen Thi Hong Thuy ThS. Trin Phu^ang Lan
  • 5. BAN CAM KET Toi xin cam ket rang noi dung ciia Ban Khoa luan nay chua dugc nop cho bat ky mot chuang trinh cap bang cao hoc nao cung nhu bat ky mot chuong trinh dao tao cap bang nao khac. Toi cung xin cam ket them rang, Ban Khoa luan nay la no luc ca nhan ciia toi. Cac ket qua, phan tich, ket luan trong Khoa luan nay (ngoai cac phan dugc trich dan) deu la ket qua lam viec cua ca nhan toi. Ngiroi cam ket Pham Van Hai
  • 6. LCn CAM ON Toi xin tran trgng cam on sir huong dan nhiet tinh, trach nhiem cua giang vien - ba Tran Phuong Lan va Ban dao tao - HSB, da huong din, tao di^u kien tot nhat cho toi trong suot qua trinh nghien cuu de hoan thanh Khoa luan nay. Xin tran trong cam on Cong ty Cp Xay dung cong trinh giao thong 872, Bo GTVT da tao dieu kien cung cap mot so tai lieu, thong tin trong qua trinh khao sat nghien cuu de tai. Xin chan thanh cam on tap the lop le MBA - 1, voi su doan ket, gan bo trong ca qua trinh hoc tap nghien cuu. Toi xin bay to long biet on den toan the giang vien, can bg cong nhan vien tham gia cong tac giang day, phuc vu khoa dao tao le MBA - 1, da tan tinh va tao dieu kien giup chung toi hoan thanh tot khoa hoc Hoc vien Pham Van Hai
  • 7. DANH MUC CAC TlT VIET TAT CLKD : Chien luge kinh doanh XD : Xay dung DN : Doanh nghiep Cong ty 872, Cong ty Cp XDCTGT 872 : Cong ty c6 phkn Xay dung cong trinh giao thong 872 GTVT : Giao thong van tai XD - GTVT : Nganh xay dung giao thong van tai GNP : Tong san pham quoc dan GDP : Tong san pham quoc ngi KHKT : Khoa hoc ky thuat KH & CN : Khoa hoc va cong nghe DNNN : Doanh nghiep Nha nuac AASHTO, ASTM : He thdng quy trinh xay dung cua Hiep hoi tu van My VN : Viet Nam XDCB : Xay dung co ban SXKD : San xuat kinh doanh GTNT : Giao thong nong thon BOT : Phuong thuc Xay dung, thu phi hoan v6n,chuyen giao BT : Phuong thuc xay dung ung von truoc, thanh toan tra cham HDQT : Hoi dong quan tri PN : Phia Nam Viet Nam BTXM : Be tong xi mang KH : K I hoach Tram trgn BT nhira : Tram trgn be tong nhua nong PMU, BQL, BQLDA : Ban quan ly du an - Dai dien Chu d^u tu NNPTNT : Nong nghiep va phat trien nong thon Duong HCM : Duong H6 Chi Minh Khu QL GTDT 1, Tp.HCM: Khu Quan ly giao thong do thj thanh ph6 H5 Chi Minh
  • 8. MUC LUC X Cam ket. Loi cam on. Danh muc cac tir viet tat. Muc luc khoa luan. Danh muc bang bieu, do thj, hinh ve. CHirONG 1: PHAN MCf DAU 1.1. Ly do chon de tai 1 1.2. Muc tieu, muc dich nghien cihi 2 1.3. Phu-ong phap tien hanh 2 1.4. Ket cau cua khoa luan 2 CHirONG 2 : COSCf LY LUAN 2.1. Mot so van de ly luan trong xay dung CLKD 4 2.2. Mot so mo hinh thuong sir dung de phan tich moi truong ben ngoai 8 2.2.1. Mo hinh PEST 8 2.2.2. Mo hinh Five force 12 2.2.3. Mo hinh Industry's succeess factors 15 2.3. Mot so mo hinh phan tich noi bo doanh nghiep 17 2.3.1. Value chain 17 2.3.2. Benchmarkinh '. 20 2.4. Mot hinh tong bop phan tich ben trong va ben ngoai -SWOT 21 2.5. Chien lu-c^c canh tranh chung 23 2.5.1. Chien luge dan dau chi phi 24 2.5.2. Chien luge khac biet hoa 26 2.5.3. Chien luge taptrung 28 2.6. Khai niem ve nang luc canh tranh cot loi 30 2.7. Cac buo'c trong xay dung chien lirffc 32
  • 9. C H U O N G 3 : P H A N T I C H THlTC T R A N G V E C O N G T Y 872 3.L Gioi thieu t6ng quan v e Cong ty Cp XDCTGT 872 36 3.2. Ap dung tong hop mo hinh PEST , Five force, Industry's succeess factors di phan tich moi truong kinh doanh nganh XD-GTVT 40 3.2.1 Moi truong ben ngoai 40 3.2.2. Moi truong nganh 47 3.2.3. Cac yeu to thanh cong trong nganh 56 3.3. Ap dung Value chain va Benchmarkinh de phan tich noi bo Cong ty 58 3.3.1. Value chain - Chuoi gia tri 58 3.3.2. Benchmarkinh - Phuong phap lay chuan 65 3.4. Phan tich canh tranh, cac chien luoc va lua chon chien lutfc cua DN .... 66 3.5. Phan tich nang luc canh tranh cot 161 cua Cong ty 872 68 3.6. Ap dung mo hinh SWOT de danh gia tong hap vj the Cong ty 872 75 CHU^ONG 4 : K E T L U A N VA K I E N N G H I 4.1. Tomtit chien luoc phat triin cua Cong ty Cp XDCTGT 872 77 4.1.1. T^m nhin 77 4.1.2. Sumang 77 4.1.3.Cac muc tieu chien luge den 2010 va 2015 77 4.1.4 Nang luc canh tranh cot loi cua Cong ty Cp XDCTGT 872 78 4.1.5. Cac chien luge chuc nang 80 a) Chien luge thj tru'ong 81 b) Chien luge cung c5, xay dung, phat tri^n hgp ly ca c^u t6 chuc quan ly dieu hanh va nguon nhan luc 86 c) Chien luge phat trien cong nghe 93 d) Chien luge huy dong von cho SXKD 94 4.2. Motsohan che va kien nghi nh4m giai quyet nhirng van d§ con ton tai... 102 4.2.1. Motsohan che, cac kien nghi giai quylt nhiing van d^ t5n tai 102
  • 10. a) Doi voi pham vi Cong ty 103 b) Doi voi nganh va nha nuoc 104 4.2.2. Han che cua khoa luan 106 4.2.3. Huong nghien cuu trong tuong lai 107 4.2.4. Ket luan 107 TAI LIEU THAM KHAO 109 PHAN PHU LUC - Bang 4-8, 4-9 Phan tich tai chi'nh DN Cong ty 872 nam 2001 -2005 Ill - Quyen va nhiem vu cua cac bg phan, to chuc trong Congty 113 - Danh muc cac du" an GTVT ggi von dau tu nu6"c ngoai 2005-2010 127
  • 11. DANH MUC BANG BIEU, DO THI, HINH VE TT Noi dung So hieu Trang thu* 1 Mo hinh PSET Hinh 2-1 9 2 So d5 Co cau canh tranh nganh Hinh 2-2 13 3 So do chuoi gia tri Hinh 2-3 19 4 So d6 cac muc tieu chuc nang cheo va chudi gia tri Hinh 2-4 19 5 K^t qua danh gia cua khach hang ve nhung yeu to thanh Bang 2-5 20 cong chu chot cua cae doi thu canh tranh 6 Mo hinh phan tich 3 cap do ben ngoai va ben trong Hinh 2-6 22 7 Ngudn gdc Igi th^ canh tranh va cac chien luge ca ban Bang 2-7 24 8 So dd cac buac Xay dung va thuc hien CLKD Hinh 2-8 33 9 So lieu gia tang von dau tu cho XD-GTVT Do thi 3-1 49 10 K^ hoach v6n dau tu giao thong duong bg 2005-2010 Do thi 3-2 49 11 S6 lieu t6c do tang luan chuyen hanh khach, hang hoa Do thi 3-3 50 qua duong bg 12 Ty trgng dau tu von nuac ngoai cho XD-GTVT Do thj 3-4 53 13 Ca cau von dau tu cho GTVT den nam 2020 Do thi 3-5 53 14 Sa do ca cau to chuc Cong ty 872 Hinh 3-6 58b 15 Chuoi gia tri lien quan den hoat dong ciia Cong ty 872 Hinh 3-7 60 16 Nhung yeu to thanh cong chu chot ciia Cong ty 872 Bang 3-8 65 17 Kinh nghiem thi cong cong trinh ciia Cong ty 872 Bang 3-9 71 18 Danh sach can bg chuyen mon ky thuat Cong ty 872 Bang 3-10 71a
  • 12. 19 Danh sach cong nhan ky thuat Cong ty 872 Bang 3-11 71b 20 Bang ke tai san hu'u hinh, v6 hinh Cong ty 872 Bang 3-12 73 21 So lugng thiet bi thi cong va phan theo gia tri Bang 3-13 74 22 Dia ban kinh doanh cua Cong ty 872 Hinh 4-1 84 23 Cac khach hang Cong ty 872 Bang 4-2 85 24 San lugng Cong ty 872 phan theo san pham Bang 4-3 85 25 Co cau lao dong ky thuat den 2010 v a 2015-C6ng ty 872 Bang 4-4 89 26 Co cau can bg chuyen mon ky thuat den 2010 v a 2015 Bang 4-5 90 27 Muc tieu dau tu thiet bj den 2010 v a 2015-C6ng ty 872 Bang 4-6 93 28 Muc tieu huy dong von den 2010 v a 2015-C6ng ty 872 Bang 4-7 96 29 Phan tich tai chinh DN Cong ty 872 nam 2001-2005 Bang 4-8 111 Bang 4- 9 112
  • 13. CHI/ONG 1 PHAN Md DAU
  • 14. CHU^ONG 1 PHAN M 6 DAU l.L Ly do chon de tai Ten de tai khoa luan tot nghiep: Xay dung chiin luacphat triin kinh doanh - Nghien cuu tinh huong Cong ty Cp Xay dung cong trinh giao thong 872 - nganh XD-GTVT Nguyen tic quan trgng trong kinh doanh, dac biet trong dieu kien kinh te thj truong hien nay la cac doanh nghiep (DN) can luon khong ngimg doi mai, nang cao kha nang thich ung voi thj truong. Hg can phai xac dinh ro DN muon di den dau? Phai di nhu the nao, bang each nao ? Mu6n vay hg phai thuc hien va lam tot viec xay dung va trien khai chien luge kinh doanh (CLKD). Co CLKD diing dan, hgp ly moi dam bao cho DN ton tai, phat trien lau dai, b^n vung dat dugc nhijug muc tieu cua DN. DN a cac nuac rat coi trgng viec xay dung CLKD. Nam 1947, chi c6 20% DN cua My c6 CLKD. Nam 1970, con so nay da len tai 100%. Nhieu nha DN My cho rang xay dung CLKD la cong viec chiem nhieu thoi gian nhat, quan trgng nhat va kho nhat. Ong Uyn Xon, chii tich Cong ty GE ( General Electric ) cua My da tung noi : "Moi ngay toi chang lam dugc may viec nhung c6 mot viec khong bao gio lam het la xay dung quy hoach tuong lai" ( Vien nghien cuu dao tao ve quan ly (2005). " Xay dung va trien khai chien luge kinh doanh con duong di den thanh cong" ). Mac du vay, hien nay, cong tac xay dung va trien khai CLKD o nhieu DN noi chung va DN trong nganh GTVT noi rieng con han che, voi nhieu DN con la ngi dung moi me, chua dugc chu trgng, con thieu hieu biet, kien thuc, ky nang. Rieng Cong ty toi dang cong tac, moi dung a viec xay dung va trien khai ke hoach kinh doanh hang nam. Con doi voi CLKD ciia DN chua dugc nghien ciiu xay dung theo dung nghia ciia "chien luge phat trien"; thuong
  • 15. mai tarn dung 6 cac ngi dung ve "chii truong", "duong loi"; trong "suy tu", "sang kien" ciia cac lanh dao cap tren, cap DN; hoac cac ke hoach "trung han", "dai han" thuong so sai, thieu tinh khoa hoc, doi khi to ra tuy tien, mang tinh duy y chi, kho dap ung truoc yeu cau cua thi truong. Do do viec nghien cuu cac ngi dung ve xay dung CLKD cua Cong ty va phai dat cong viec nay la mot vi tri rat quan trgng, mot yeu cau cap thiet, thuc tien. Ban than toi, qua chuang trinh nghien cuu, hoc tap tai khoa dao tao IeMBA-1 do HSB to chuc. Tu yeu cau ve thuc tien ciia DN toi dang cong tac. Toi c6 nguyen vgng tap trung nghien cuu sau han ve kien thuc "Xay dung chien luge phat trien kinh doanh" va ap dung thuc te vao tinh huong ciia : Cong ty Cp Xay dung cong trinh giao thong 872 - nganh XD- GTVT. 1.2. Muc tieu, muc dich nghien cihi - Nghien cuu va he thong hoa cac ly luan ve xay dung va thuc hien CLKD, lira chon cac mo hinh phan tich c6 hieu qua doi voi viec xay dung va thuc hien CLKD. - Ap dung he thong co so ly luan va cac mo hinh tren de phan tich, danh gia moi truong ben trong va ben ngoai Cong ty, xay dung CLKD cho Cong ly 872; - De xuat, kien nghi ve chien luge phat triln cua Cong ty 872. Chi ra mot s6 vkn dh con t6n tai va huong giai quyk trong ban chiln luge nay nh^m hoan thien CLKD ciia Cong ty 872. 1.3. Phu'ong phap tien hanh - Nghien cuu djnh tinh. - Phuong phap thu thap so lieu: Phong vkn true tilp, gui philu di§u tra, dh nghi cung cap tai lieu. - S6 lieu : Su dung cac s6 lieu th6ng ke Qu6c gia, cac thong tin, s5 lieu chuyen nganh; su dung cac so lieu thu cap ve chiln luge va cac nghien cuu va bao cao truoc day Cong ty 872. 1.4. Ket cau cua khoa luan
  • 16. Khoa luan dugc trinh bay gom 04 chuang, Chuong 1- Phan ma dau Chuong 2- Co* sa ly luan : Neu mot so vdn d^ ly luan trong xay dung CLKD. Mot so mo hinh sii dung dk phan tich moi truong ben ngoai DN trong xay dung CLKD : PEST, Five force; Industry's success factors. Mot s6 mo hinh su dung dl phan tich ngi bg DN trong xay dung CLKD : Value chain. Bench marking. Mo hinh t6ng hgp phan tich moi truong ben trong va ben ngoai SWOT. Ngi dung vk cac chiln luge canh tranh chung. Khai niem ve nang luc canh tranh c6t loi va cac buac trong xay dung chien luge. ChuoTig 3- Phan tich thuc trang van de can nghien cuu : Gioi thieu tong quan ve DN. Ap dung t6ng hgp cac mo hinh PEST, Five force va Industry success factors de phan tich moi truong kinh doanh nganh XD-GTVT. Ap dung Value chain va Bechmarking de phan tich ngi bg Cong ty 872. Phan tich canh tranh, cac chiln luge canh tranh va va lira chon chien luge phat tri§n ciia DN. Phan tich nang luc canh tranh cot loi ciia Cong ty 872. Ap dung mo hinh SWOT dk danh gia tong hgp vi the ciia Cong ty 872. Chuong 4 - Ket luan va kien nghi: Tom tk chien luge phat trien ciia Cong ty 872: Tam nhin, Su mang, Chien luge canh tranh cua Cong ty 872. Nang luc canh tranh cot loi ciia Cong ty 872. Cac muc tieu chien luge den 2010 va 2015. Mot so chien luge chuc nang ciia Cong ty : Chien luge thi truong; chien luge Cling CO, xay dung, phat trien hgp ly co cau to chuc quan ly dieu hanh va nguon nhan luc ciia Cong ty; chien luge phat trien cong nghe; chien luge huy dong von. Mot so han che va cac kien nghi nham giai quyet nhung van de ton tai, huong nghien cuu trong tuong lai. Ket luan. Danh muc Tai lieu tham khao. Phan phu luc : Mot so bang bieu, ngi dung tham khao. Cac chuang sau day se gioi thieu, lam ro han cac ngi dung neu tren.
  • 17. CHirONG 2 cosd LY LUAN
  • 18. CHl/ONG 2 CO SOi LY LUAN • Chuong 2 de cap mot s6 vdn dh ve ly luan trong xay dung va thuc hien chien luge kinh doanh ( CLKD ). Mot s6 mo hinh thuong sii dung de phan tich moi truong ben ngoai, mot so mo hinh phan tich ngi bg, mo hinh t6ng hgp phan tich ben trong va ben ngoai DN. Cac chien luge canh tranh chung, khai niem ve nang luc canh tranh cot loi va cac buoc trong xay dung CLKD ciiaDN. 2.1. Mot so van de ly luan trong xay dung CLKD Theo cac hoc gia trong va ngoai nuoc: CLKD ciia DN la trong dieu kien kinh te thj truong, can cii vao diku kien khach quan va chu quan, vao nguon lire ma doanh nghiep c6 the co de dinh ra muu luge, con duong, bien phap nham dam bao sir ton tai, phat trien on dinh, lau dai theo muc tieu phat tri^n ma DN da dat ra ( Vien nghien ciiu dao tao ve quan ly (2005). " Xay dung va trien khai chien luge kinh doanh con duong di den thanh cong" ). Theo do, CLKD ciia DN bao ham 4 yeu to : Mot la DN xac dinh CLKD cua minh can phai tim hieu rat sau ve hien trang ciia DN; hai la muc tieu chien luge cua DN la muc tieu ma DN C the dat dugc trong nhung nam sap toi; ba la DN se kinh doanh san pham gi, o thi truong O nao; bon la nhung bien phap ma DN se ap dung de dat dugc muc tieu chien luge da de ra. Va ve ban chat (theo tai lieu cua Vien nghien cuu dao tao ve quan ly (2005). " Xay dung va trien khai chien luge kinh doanh eon duong di den thanh cong" ) : CLKD la the hien vi thi canh tranh ciia DN, khi xay dung CLKD, DN can phan tich hoan canh khach quan ciia minh, tim hieu nhung ca hoi va thach thiic ma hoan canh khach quan anh huong den DN. Dong thoi cung phai nghien cuu nliijug dieu kien chu quan ciia DN de biet dugc nhiJug diem manh va diem yeu cua minh. CLKD ciia DN phai ket hgp tot nhixng
  • 19. C hoi ma hoan canh khach quan mang lai voi nhung diem manh ciia DN, dong thai phai co O giai phap khac phue cho nhung thach thuc va diem yeu cua DN. Chi co nhu vay moi co the dua ra CLKD diing. CLKD eiia DN la mot md thirc kinh doanh ciia DN, xet theo khi'a canh CLKD la cuong llnh hoat dong ciia DN; phuong thuc su dung cac nguon lire; can cii de xii ly mgi van de ciia DN. CLKD la su the hien quan niem gia tri cua DN, tinh than tien thii, y chi ngoan cuong ciia nguoi lanh dao DN, phan anh su danh gia ciia nguoi lanh dao ve hoan canh khach quan, dieu kien chii quan cua DN. Chi khi nguoi lanh dao danh gia diing hoan canh khach quan va dieu kien chii quan ciia DN moi co the de ra CLKD diing dan. Neu khong CLKD se la sai lam. CLKD la susdng tao trong quan ly, c6 nghia la DN, can cu vao muc tieu nhat dinh, sap xep hinh thanh mot he thong quan ly moi huu hieu, co kha nang canh tranh. Neu mot DN chi don thuan bat chuoc DN khac thi khong the co dugc sir phat trien va phon vinh thuc su. Do do viec xay dung CLKD phai xuat phat tu tinh hinh thuc te ciia DN. Hai DN 6 cung mot khu vuc, san pham giong nhau, quy mo giong nhau nhung CLKD khong th^ hoan toan gidng nhau vi dieu kien chii quan ciia hg khac nhau. Dong thai su sang tao ve quan ly phai k^t hgp chat che voi su sang tao ve to chuc, sang tao ve ky thuat moi co the phat huy tac dung ciia CLKD. CLKD la ki hoach hanh dong cda DN, viec xay dung CLKD la quan trgng nhung thuc hien chien luge con quan trgng han nhi6u. NIU CO chiln luge nhung khong thuc hien thi chi^n luge do tra thanh v6 nghTa. Muon thuc hien dugc chien luge thi toan th6 cong nhan vien phai nam vimg chien luge, phai bien chien luge do thanh ke hoach hang nam, ke hoach ciia tung bg phan, thanh hoat dong ciia mgi nguoi va phai co tinh kha thi. CLKD mang cac dac trung sau ( theo tai lieu ciia Vien nghien cim dao tao vh quan ly (2005). " Xay dung va trien khai chien luge kinh doanh con duong di din thanh cong" ) :
  • 20. Tinh toan cue: CLKD la so do tdng the ve su phat trien ciia DN, no quyet djnh quan he eiia DN voi moi truong khach quan. Tinh toan cue ciia CLKD the hien tren 3 mat: Phai phii hgp voi xu thd phat tri^n toan cue cua DN, la cuong ITnh chi dao toan bg hoat dong ciia DN; phai phu hgp voi xu th§ phat triln cua dat nuoc ve cac mat kinh te, ky thuat, xa hoi trong mot thoi ky nhit dinh; phai phu hgp voi trao luu hoi nhap kinh te ciia the gioi. Tinh toan cue ciia CLKD doi hoi phai xem xet tat ca cac bg phan ciia DN, phai phan tich tinh hinh ciia toan DN, hoan canh toan qu6c va hoan canh quoc te. Neu khong co quan diem toan cue thi khong the co CLKD tot. Tinh nhin xa: Truoc kia nhi§u DN vi khong co quy hoach chien luge, gap viec gi lam viec ay, chay theo phong trao nen lam viec vat va ma khong hieu qua. Mot trong nhiing nguyen nhan ciia tinh hinh do la do khong n ^ dugc xu the phat trien ciia DN. Do do muon xay dung CLKD thi phai lam tot cong tac du bao xu the phat trien ve kinh te, ky thuat ciia xa hoi. Mot chiln luge thanh cong thuong la mot chien luge dua tren co so du bao diing. Tinh canh tranh: Neu khong co canh tranh thi khong can thiet xay dung va thuc hien CLKD. Do do tinh canh tranh la dac trung ban chat nhat ciia CLKD. Trong thoi dai hien nay khong C DN nao la khong hoat dong trong moi truong canh tranh. Vi vay CLKD phai O nghien cuu lam the nao de DN co dugc uu the canh tranh han doi thu va do do ma gianh dugc thang Igi trong canh tranh. Tinh rui ro: CLKD la quy hoach phat trien ciia DN trong tuong lai, nhung moi truong sinh ton ciia DN trong tuong lai la dieu khong chac chan, co the thay doi. Qua trinh thoi gian ciia chien luge cang dai thi cac nhan to khong chac chan ciia hoan canh khach quan cang nhieu, muc do khong chac chan cang Ion, nii ro ciia chien luge cang lan. Tinh nii ro ciia CLKD doi hoi nha DN phai diing cao, nhin xa, quan sat mot each than trgng, khach quan moi co the co dugc chien luge diing dan.
  • 21. Hien nay chiing ta dang o trong qua trinh chuyen bien tu the che kinh te ke hoach sang the chi kinh te thi truong, moi truong vT mo ciia cac DN thay doi rat lan. Do do CLKD khong nen tinh toan qua dai, de bao dam tinh linh hoat va tinh hien thuc ciia chien luge. Tinh chuyin nghiep va sang tao: Cac DN c6 the can cu vao thuc luc cua ban than de lua chon ITnh vuc kinh doanh phii hgp voi so truong va the manh ciia minh, tranh nhung nganh ma cac DN lan co the manh de giu dugc vj tri doc quyen. Dai da so DN lam dugc nhu vay d6u thanh cong, phat trien va phon vinh. Nhung tien bg ky thuat va canh tranh thj truong la khong C gioi han. Do do cac DN phai khong ngung du nhap hoac phat trien ky thuat tien O tien thich hgp. Chuyen mon hoa va sang tao ky thuat thich hgp la bien phap quan trgng de bao dam sir sinh ton va phat trien ciia DN. Do ciing la dac diem quan trgng trong CLKD ciia DN vua va nho. Tinh on dinh tuong doi: CLKD ciia DN phai co tinh on dinh tuong doi trong mot thoi ky nhat djnh. Neu khong, no se khong co y nghia chi dao doi voi hoat dong thuc tien ciia DN. Moi truong khach quan va hoat dong thuc tien ciia DN la mot qua trinh van dong khong ngung. CLKD ciing phai co kha nang dieu chinh, phu hgp voi hoan canh khach quan. CLKD khong the co dinh mot be nhung khong the thay doi mot som mot chieu ma phai tuong doi on dinh. CGng can nam vung ve su khac nhau giira chien luac, sack luac, quy hoach, ke hoach : Chien luge va chien thuat la moi quan he giira toan cue va cue bg. CLKD la muc tieu phat trien lau dai va tong hgp nhiing bien phap de dat dugc muc tieu cua DN. Chiln thuat la hanh dong cu the de dat dugc muc tieu chien luge. Chien luge va sach luge la quan he giua muc dich va bien phap. Chien luge co truoc, sach luge C sau. Sach luge phai phuc tiing chien luge va phuc vu chien luge. Chien luge quyet O dinh va anh huong den sach luge.
  • 22. Quan he giua chien luge voi ke hoach, quy hoach : Xet theo nghia rgng, ba mat nay deu la hoach dinh tuong lai va cung co the ggi chung la ke hoach. Ke hoach gom co ke hoach ngan han (1 nam), ke hoach trung han (3 - 5 nam), ke hoach dai han (tren 5 nam); xet theo nghia hep, chien luge, ke hoach, quy hoach vua co quan he voi nhau, vua c6 su khac nhau. Chien luge la linh hon ciia ke hoach, quy hoach. Ke hoach, quy hoach, the hien chien luge da dinh. Do do, chien luge la co so ciia quy hoach, quy hoach la co so cua ke hoach. Truoc het phai C chien luge, sau do phai co quy hoach va sau nija la phai co ke hoach. Tren y nghTa do, O quy hoach va ke hoach la su ke tuc cua chien luge, la cu the hoa ciia chien luge. De xay dung CLKD, viec phan tich moi truong kinh doanh co y nghTa quan trgng d6i voi DN. Moi truong kinh doanh gom: Moi truong vT mo va moi truong vi mo hay con ggi la moi truong nganh. Voi muc tieu ciia viec phan tich la phan doan, xac djnh cac co hoi va de dga va tren co so nay de xay dung va thuc hien CLKD hgp ly. Mot so mo hinh dugc su dung de phan tich ngi dung tren la : 2.2 Mot so mo hinh thucmg su dung de phan tich moi trucmg ben ngoai DN trong xay dung chien luge 2.27. Md hinh PEST : Thuong dung d^ phan tich moi truong vT mo-moi truong khach quan ciia DN. NhSm phan tich, t6ng hgp dugc nhung ylu t6 t6n tai ben ngoai DN, co anh huong quyet dinh den sir s6ng con, phat trien ciia DN. DN phai th4y dugc nhiing co hoi, thanh thiic ma moi truong khach quan mang din khong nhiing DN phai thich ung ma con phai thiic day su thay doi cua moi truong. Cac yeu to cua moi truong vT mo dugc Xhh hien qua mo hinh sau :
  • 23. Hinh 2-1 : MO HINH PEST Chinh trj (Political) Sir on dinh chinh trj; Luat lao dong; Chinh sach thue; B^o ve moi truing. Xa hoi Kinh te (Social) (Economic) Dan so, nhan khau hoc; Xu huong GNP; Phan phoi thu nhap quoc Lai suat; Lam phcit; dan; Th^t nghiep; Phong each song; Sir sin C nguon lire; O Dan tri/ van hoa. Chu ky hoat dong. Cong nghe (Technological) Phat hien cong ngh? mdi; Toe dp chuyen giao cong nghe; Chi tieu cua Chinh phu cho R&D; Toe do 15i thai cua cong nghe. - Phan tich moi trucmg chinh trj va phap luat cua DN : Moi truong chinh trj la cac yeu to chinh tri va nhiing hoan canh ma su van hanh cua cac yeu to do anh huong den kinh doanh cua DN. Cac yeu to nay bao gom: Che do chinh trj, che do chinh dang, doan the chinh tri, phuong cham chinh sach ciia Dang va Nha nuac, kliong khi chinh tri cua xa hoi. Moi truong phap luat la he thong phap luat co lien quan den DN, bao gom quy pham phap luat ciia Nha nuoc, y thiic phap luat ciia co quan tu phap, co quan hanh phap va DN.
  • 24. Anh huong ciia moi truong chinh tri va phap luat doi voi hoat dong kinh doanh ciia DN rat sau rgng, tham chi co luc co y nghia quyet dinh. Noi chung, neu mot nuoc on dinh ve chinh tri, chinh sach ro rang va nh4t quan, khong khi chinh tri t6t, phap luat nghiem minh thi cac DN C thi phat trien lanh manh, on dinh. O - Phan tich moi truong kinh te cua DN : Moi truong kinh tl ciia DN la tinh hinh kinh t§ xa hoi va chinh sach kinh tk ciia dat nuoc ma DN t6n tai va phat tri6n. Moi truong kinh ti vT mo bao g6m : co cdu kinh te xa hoi, trinh do phat triln kinh xi, chi do kinh tl va chinh sach kinh tl vT mo. Phan tich co cdu kinh ti xa hoi : Co ciu kinh xk xa hoi con dugc ggi la co cau ciia nen kinh Xt qu6c dan, bao gdm co e^u : Nganh nghi, phan phoi, trao doi, tieu dung, ky thuat, so hiju V.V.... Trong do co c^u nganh nghi la ylu t6 quan trgng nh4t. Vi vay, khi xay dung CLKD cua DN phai nghien cuu tinh hinh co cau nganh nghe. Phan tich trinh do phat triin kinh te : Trinh do phat trien kinh te la quy mo, toe do phat trien kinh tl ciia mot quoc gia, mot khu vuc va trinh do kinh te da dat dugc. Cac chi tieu the hien trinh do phat trien kinh te bao gom tong san pham quoc dan, thu nhap quoc dan, thu nhap qu6c dan tinh theo dau nguoi, toe do phat trien kinh te. Viec phan tich trinh do phat trien kinh te co the giiip doanh nghiep nam dugc xu the phat trien ciia nen kinh te. Phan tich thi che kinh ti : The che kinh te la hinh thuc to chuc kinh te cua mot nuoc. No quy dinh quan he giua nha nuac voi DN, giua DN voi DN, giiia DN voi cac nganh kinh te. Thong qua nhimg bien phap, phuong phap quan ly nhat dinh de dieu hoa tac dong den pham vi, ngi dung, phuong thuc ciia cac hoat dong kinh te xa hoi. No de ra nhiing quy tac va dieu kien ca ban, co he thong ve hinh thuc, ngi dung, con duong sinh ton va phat trien ciia DN. Nguoi lanh dao DN phai nam vung phuong huong co ban ciia cugc cai each, the che kinh te, kip thoi xay dung quan niem tu tuong va phuong thuc hanh vi phu hgp voi the che moi. 10
  • 25. Phdn tich chinh sach kinh ti cua nha nuoc : Chinh sach kinh te la muc tieu phat trien kinh te trong mot thai ky nhit dinh do Nha nuoc dat ra cung voi chien luge, sach luge de dat dugc muc tieu do. Chinh sach kinh tl ciia mot nuoc bao gom chien luge phat trien kinh te cua ca nuoc, chinh sach nganh nghi, chinh sach phan phoi, chinh sach gia ca, chinh sach thuong mai, chinh sach tiln luong, chinh sach tai chinh, chinh sach tien te. Chinh sach kinh te vT mo quy djnh pham vi va nguyen tac hoat dong ciia DN, dieu hoa quan he giiia cac DN, cac nganh, giua cue bg va toan cue, bao dam su van hanh binh thuong ciia nen kinh te quoc dan, thuc hien muc tieu va nhiem vu phat trien kinh te quoc dan. - Phan tich moi truong khoa hoc ky thuat ( KHKT ) cua DN : Moi truong KHKT ciia DN la yeu to KHKT va tap hgp nhung hien tugng xa hoi co Hen quan true tiep den yeu to KHKT o noi ma DN sinh ton va phat trien, bao gom 4 yeu to: trinh do KHKT ciia xa hoi; lire lugng KHKT; the che KHKT cua Nha nuoc; chinh sach KHKT va cac van ban phap luat ve KHKT. Trinh do KHKT la yeu to quan trgng nhat ciia moi truong KHKT ciia DN, bao gom cac ITnh vuc KHKT dugc nghien cuu va da nghien cuu thanh cong, trinh do tien tien ve khoa hoc ky thuat, trinh do van dung cac thanh qua khoa hgc ky thuat. Luc lugng KHKT xa hoi la thuc luc nghien cuu va phat trien KHKT ciia mot nuac hoac mot khu vuc. Thi chi KHKT ciia mot quoc gia quy dinh co cau, phuong thiic van hanh he thdng KHKT cua dk nuoc va tinh hinh quan he ciia no voi cac bg phan khac ciia nin kinh tl qu6c dan. Bao g6m dia vi xa hoi ciia sir nghiep KHKT va can bg KHKT, nguyen t4c thilt lap va phuong thuc van hanh cac co quan KHKT, chi do quan ly KHKT, cac kenh ling dung thanh qua KHKT. Cac ylu to noi tren deu co anh huong nhilu mat den hoat dong san xuk kinh doanh va quan ly ciia DN. Hien nay, KHKT tren thi gioi tiln bg xk nhanh. Cac nuoc phat triin da buoc vao thai dai ciia nen kinh te tri thiic. Tri thiic khong ngung dugc ddi moi, nhilu ky thuat moi ra doi va 11
  • 26. dugc ap dung nhanh chong khien cho toan bg nen kinh te cac nuac phat trien dugc tri thiic hoa, mang hoa. Dieu do se thay doi moi truong KHKT ciia cac DN, day manh viec d6i moi KHKT ciia xa hoi, thiic day viec chuyen giao cong nghe va thay doi co cau nganh nghe hien nay. Cac DN can nhan ro su thay doi do va nam lay co hoi ma su thay doi do mang lai, thuc hien tien bg ky thuat va nang cap ky thuat 6 DN minh, - Phan tich moi trucmg van hoa xa hoi cua DN : Moi truong xd hoi ciia DN bao gom su hinh thanh va bien dong ciia cac tang lop xa hoi, co cau dan cu, tinh hinh di chuyen ciia dan cu, co cau quyen luc xa hoi, phuong thiic sinh hoat va lam viec ciia mgi nguoi. Hien trang va su bien dong ciia nhiing yeu t6 do diu co thi anh huong den hoat dong kinh doanh cua DN. Moi truong van hod ciia DN bao gom cac yeu to triet hgc, ton giao, ngon ngij, van hgc, nghe thuat. Anh huong ciia cac yeu to nay d6i voi kinh doanh cua DN ph4n Ion la anh huong gian tiep khong the coi nhe. 2,2,2, Md hinh Five force Nganh nghi la loai hinh cong nghiep dugc phan chia theo tinh chit, dac dilm ciia san phkm hoac dich vu va vai tro ciia no trong nen kinh tl quoc dan. Trong bat ky nganh nghi nao, moi DN dIu phai chiu siic ep canh tranh vl 5 mat. Do la, sue ep canh tranh ciia DN moi ra nhap nganh; siic ep canh tranh giiia cac DN ciing nganh; sue ep canh tranh ciia san ph4m thay thi, dich vu thay thi; anh huong ciia nha cung ckp; anh huong ciia nguoi tieu diing hoac khach hang. Mo hinh phan tich 5 luc lugng ciia M.Porter, giiip cac nha chiln luge phan tich cac luc lugng tren - co* cau canh tranh nganh, dugc torn xk 6 so do sau : 12
  • 27. Hinh 2-2 : Sa do Co* cau canh tranh nganh Doanh nghiep moi tham gia thi truing Siic ep cua doanh nghiep mai tham gia thi trucmg Sire ep, nang luc Sure ep, nang luc Canh tranh giua dam phan cua dam phan cua cac doanh nghiep nguoi tieu dung, nha cung cap cung nganh khach hang Siic ep ciia san pham hoac dich vu thay the San pham thay the - Sue ep cua doanh nghiep mdi tham gia thi trudng : DN moi tham gia thi truong co the la mot DN moi thanh lap hoac mot DN truoc day kinh doanh san pham khac, bay gio kinh doanh nhieu san pham, Nhiing DN nay mang den cho nganh ay nang luc san xuat moi, dong thai cung doi hoi mot thi phan nhat dinh. Siic ep canh tranh nay lan hay nho la do khi tham gia thi truong, DN do phai chi phi nhieu hay it va muc do phan ling ciia cac DN khac khi DN ay tham gia thi truong; phu thugc vao nhirng rao can ra nhap nganh cao hay thap. - Sue ep cda san pham thay the : San pham thay the la san pham co cong dung tuong tu. Neu Igi nhuan cua san pham thay the lan thi siic ep canh tranh 1cm (sue ep vl gia thanh, gia ban) va khien cho DN bi dong. Neu nha san xuat san pham thay the nhanh chong phat triin san xuat thi nganh do se bi uy hiep manh. Neu nguoi tieu dung chap nhan san phdm thay thi mot each thuan Igi ve kinh te ciing nhu ve tam ly thi su uy hiep do cang Ion. 13
  • 28. - Site ep tit ngu&i tiiu diing; khach hang : Khach hang ciia DN co the la nguoi tieu diing true tilp, nhung hang hoa tieu dung, khi nguoi tieu dung yeu cau gia hang phai re hon, chat lugng hang hoa tit hon, dich vu hau mai tot hon thi do ciing la mot sue ep doi voi nganh ay; Song cac khach hang ciing co the la nha phan phoi, hoac dai ly. Van de la, ai la khach hang chu yeu, co siic manh dam phan ma DN phai dac biet quan tam; Nhiing hang hoa dac thu, phuc vu chung cho cong dong xa hoi ( ha tang Giao thong ...) thi siic ep doi voi DN la " Nguoi dat hang"- cac Chu dau tu, hg dua ra cac tieu chi ve quy each, chat lugng, cong nghe san xuat, thai gian hoan thanh, "gia tran"...doi hoi cac DN phai c6 nang luc san sang dap ung, trong qua trinh canh tranh "dau thau", "chgn thau". - Canh tranh giira cac DN ciing nganh : Su canh tranh giira eac DN cung nganh bgc 16 qua hinh thai canh tranh, tinh chat canh tranh. Su canh tranh co lien quan den cac yeu to sau: + Dac tinh ciia nganh, DN co the can cu vao sir phan cong ciia nganh, vi tri ciia nganh trong qua trinh san xuat xa hoi, nguon lire ma nganh do su dung, co ckx ky thuat, viln canh ky thuat cua nganh de phan tich dac tinh ky thuat ciia nganh. Thong qua su phan tich do dl bilt dugc dac tinh ciia nganh va co doi sach thich hgp. + Co ciu quy mo DN trong mot nganh thuong co hai dang, dang thit nhdt la cac DN lan thi rat Ion, cac DN nho thi rk nho. Trong truong hgp nay tinh hinh canh tranh khong gay g^t lam vi cac DN Ion da chilm dugc vi tri chilm ITnh tuyet dli. Dang thu hai la cac DN lan khong phai la lan lam, cac DN nho khong phai la nho lim. Trong truong hgp nay, tinh hinh canh tranh se gay git vi thuc luc cac DN trong nganh khong chenh lech nhau nhilu. + Co cau so lugng DN trong mot nganh, noi chung, nlu so lugng DN trong mot nganh nhieu thi dieu do chiing to quy mo thj truong Icm, nhiing tra ngai ciia viec tiln vao thi truong ay tuong doi nho, s6 lugng DN Ion trong nganh tuong ddi it. NIU S6 lugng DN trong mot 14
  • 29. nganh it thi dilu do chimg to quy mo thi trucmg nho, so lugng DN Ion tuong doi nhieu, vice tiln vao thi truong nay co nhieu tro ngai. + Co ciu thi truong trong nganh, tinh hinh cung cau tren thi truong, cung vugt qua cau, cung ciu can ddi hay cung khong dii ciu. NIU cung khong dii cau thi can nghien ciiu hinh thiic tien vao thi truong bing uu thi nao do. NIU cung cau can doi thi phai ciing co the manh cua minh. NIU cung lan hon cau thi phai can nhic viec tao ra the manh canh tranh hoac nit lui khoi nganh do. - Sire ep, nang luc dam phdn cua nha cung cap : Cac nha cung cap nguyen lieu, vat tu co kha nang tang gia hoac ha thip chit lugng san pham hoac vua tang gia vua ha thap chat lugng san pham. Cac DN quan tam den kha nang dam pham voi cac nha cung cap de giai quyet, dat dugc nhiing yeu cau chinh: Quy each, chat lugng; kha nang cung ling ve so lugng; gia; kha nang ling von, quay vong von. Tuy nhien doi voi nhiing mat hang nha nuoc chi dao ve gia, sir thay doi gia la mot van de can giai quyet voi Chii dau tu trong qua trinh xay dung, quyet toan cong trinh. Viec phan tich hien trang, xu the, cuong do tong hgp ciia 5 siic ep tren, quylt dinh miic do gay gat ciia canh tranh va kha nang gianh thang Igi ciia DN va quylt dinh tinh chit ciia DN trong nganh do. 2,2.3, Md hinh Industry's success factors - Cac yeu to thanh cong trong nganh Tu sir phan tich tren, chiing ta can chi ra dugc cac ylu tl thanh cong ciia nganh - thi lire; ylu tl nao trong chu6i day chuyin co anh huong, quylt dinh din thanh cong trong CLKD cua cac DN trong nganh. Viec xac dinh dugc vi tri, muc do anh huong cua cac ylu t l nay se giiip cac chiln luge gia xay dung dugc CLKD co tinh kha thi, dat thing Igi. Co the neu vi du ve chuoi day chuyin trong san xuat hang hoa, voi cac ylu t l la: 15
  • 30. Nguyen lieu San xuat Marketing Phan phoi Hau ban tho hang Vai tro, do anh huong ciia cac yeu to thanh cong nganh giiia cac nganh co khac nhau. Cac yeu to do cung co the dugc djch chuyen thay doi theo thoi gian do su thay doi, phat trien, tiln hoa ciia xa hoi. Chinh vi vay CLKD can phai luon cap nhat va thich ung. Nghien cuu mot s6 nuac tren thi gioi ( qua giao dich lam viec voi mot so doi lac Han Quoc, Nhat Ban, ADB, WB... ), hg dua ra cac tieu chi khi lira chgn nha thau trong nganh xay dung noi chung va XD-GTVT noi rieng, do la : Nha thau, truoc tien phai vugt qua dugc "vong 1" - vong nang luc va ky thuat. Nhung DN dat dugc cac tieu chi tai vong 1, thi mai vao dugc "vong 2"- vong gia. a) Tiiu chi vi nang luc cda DN, dugc de cap nhu sau ; - Nang luc co san, da dat dugc : Ket qua hoat dong SXKD tu 3-5 nam, kinh doanh phai co lai, dat doanh thu o miic do nao do, theo yeu cau; co so lugng can bg, lao dong nhat dinh dap ling chat lugng, co kinh nghiem va san sang dap ling; co so lugng thiet bi nhat dinh, dap ling chat lugng va cong nghe va sin sang dap ung; da kinh qua, thuc hien thanh cong mot s6 san pham, hgp dong tuong tu; - Nang lire sSn sang huy dong dap ung cho mot cong viec, du an cu thi, vl: Can bg du an chii chot, lao dong, thiet bi va von luu dong. Truoc yeu ciu ciia mot du an, cac DN co thi c6 chiln luge lien danh; lien kit dl dap ung. Qua yeu cau ve cac tieu chi tren ciia Chii diu tu, thi viec giai quylt mli quan he voi hg la rit quan trgng, nham co dugc nhung thong tin, su hilu bilt truoc vl du an giiip DN co thoi gian can thilt dk chuin bi. Co the noi day la mot trong nhiing ylu tl thanh cong chii chit cua DN XD-GTVT. 16
  • 31. b) Tiiu chi vi Ky thuat, cong nghi san xudt la su hilu bilt va trien khai ky thuat san xuat, cong nghe thi cong cong trinh, san xuat san pham dap ling theo yeu cau ciia don dat hang; sir hon han khi ap dung nhiing giai phap, cong nghe tien tien (dugc chap nhan ) de tang cuong chat lugng, day nhanh tien do. c) Tieu chi vi Gia, c6 y nghTa quylt dinh khi trong mot top DN tuong duong ve nang lire, ky thuat, cong nghe ( tieu chi a va b neu tren ). Do vay cac DN cung can giai quyet chien luge gia, mot trong nhiing yeu to quan trgng quyet dinh thanh cong. d) Cac nha cung cdp tin dung, doi voi cong trinh BT, BOT ( phuong thiic thuc hien du an cac nuac dang ap dung pho bien hien nay ), ngoai yeu cau mot phan von san c6 ciia nha thau, DN con phai co dugc nha cung cap tin dung cho du an. 2.3. Myt so mo hinh phan tich noi b9 doanh nghiep 2,3 L Value chain ( chudi gia tri) Gia tri ciia mot DN tao ra dugc do bang khoi lugng ma nguoi mua san sang tra cho san pham hay dich vu. DN co lai neu gia tri tao ra do lan hon chi phi. De dat dugc mot Igi the canh tranh, cac bg phan chiic nang ciia DN hoac phai tao ra mot gia tri voi chi phi thap hon so vai doi thii canh tranh, hoac la phai lam cho san pham cua minh khac biet voi san pham cua doi thii canh tranh nham tao ra miic ban cao han tren thi trucmg. Va nhu vay c6 nghia la DN phai theo duoi chien luge chi phi thap hoac chien luge khac biet hoa san pham. Michel Porte, xuat phat tu su phan tich " Moi cong ty la mot tap hgp cac hoat dong dk. thuc hien nham thiet ke, san xuat, ban hang, giao hang va ho trg pham". Moi hoat dong dIu lam tang gia tri san pham. "Chuoi gia tri" dugc phan chia thanh cac hoat dong chinh va nhirng hoat dong ho trg. Nhiing hoat dong chinh la : Hau can ngi bg, san suit, hau cin ben ngoai, marketing va ban hang, dich vu sau ban hang. Nhiing hoat dong ho trg la : Chiic nang quan 17
  • 32. ly vat tu, ehiic nang nghien cuu va phat triin, chiic nang quan ly nhan lire, co so ha tang ciia DN ( xem so do Chuoi gia tri - Hinh 2-3, trang 19 ). Viec phan chia cac hoat dong trong Chuoi gia tri tao dilu kien kilm tra chi phi va kit qua thuc hien trong tung hoat dong. Tao dieu kien cho viec tim each cai tien tung hoat dong cung nhu viec phoi hgp giiia chiing, tuong ung voi chien luge nham tao ra gia trj ciia tung san pham cu thi ciing nhu ciia ca DN. D6ng thoi, qua thong tin tinh bao thu thap dugc ve cac doi thii canh tranh, uoc tinh chi phi, ket qua ciia hg de co can cu so sanh voi DN minh, tim each tao ra gia tri vugt trgi han doi thii. Cac hoat dong ho trg, trg giiip cho cac hoat dong chinh, dugc neu cu the hon nhu sau : Chirc nang qudn ly vat tu, kiem soat sir luu chuyen vat tu qua chuoi gia tri tu cung cap den san xuat va di vao phan phoi. Hieu qua cua viec luu chuyen nay co the tao ra gia tri ( giam hao hut; trung chuyen; ton kho...). G6p phan kiem soat chat lugng dau vao trong qua trinh che tao, ket qua lam tang chat lugng dau ra, tao dieu kien tang gia ban; Chuc nang nghien cuu vdphdt trien, thuc hien viec phat trien cac san pham moi va cac cong nghe che tao. Phat trien cong nghe co the ha thap chi phi che tao, tao ra cac san pham hap dan hon, co the ban o miic gia cao hon. Nhu vay, nghien ciiu va phat trien c6 anh huong den cac hoat dong che tao va marketing; Nguon nhan lice, " Nguon nhan luc la ten ggi chung ve nang lire nguoi lao dong cua doanh nghiep, la tai san quy bau nhat ciia doanh nghiep. Nhan luc co to chat cao va bg may t l chuc C hieu qua la nhan to quan trgng de doanh nghiep thanh cong " ( Vien nghien cuu dao tao O ve quan ly (2005). " Xay dung va trien khai chien luge kinh doanh con duong di din thanh cong ) ; Co so ha tang cua DN, c6 dac trung hoi khac biet voi nhiing hoat dong ho trg khac. Ngi dung nay la khung canh chung ciia toan DN ma trong do xay ra tit ca cac hoat dong tao ra 18
  • 33. gia tri. Co so ha ting bao gim co ciu tl chiic, cac he thong kiem soat va van hoa ciia DN. Quan ly cip cao thong qua sue manh lanh dao c6 thi chii dong hinh thanh co so ha tang cua DN va qua do tat ca cac hoat dong tao ra gia tri khac dugc thuc hien. Hinh 2-3 : So* do Chuoi gia tri Co so ha tang ( cau tnic, lanh dao ) HOAT Quan ly nguon nhan luc DQNG MUC HO Nghien cuu va phat trien TRgf TIEU Quan ly vat tu CHIEN Hau can San xuat, Hau can Ban hang. Dich vu HOAT ngi bg ( Che tao ben ngoai Marketing hau mai DONG vat tu,vat (xuat di) LLTOC lieu dau CHINH vao) De dat dugc nhung muc tieu toi cao ve hieu qua, chat lugng, doi moi san pham va thoa man khach hang thi DN phai co nhiing chien luge voi su phoi hgp mot so hoat dong de tao ra gia tri khac biet. Nhiing muc tieu nay co the dugc xem nhu nhiing muc tieu cheo giiia cac bg phan tao gia tri khac nhau ciia mot DN. Tom tat theo so do sau : Hinh 2-4 : So* do Cac muc tieu chuc nang cheo va chuoi gia trj Thoa man khach hang Chuoi gia tri Cac muc tieu chuc nang cheo ^' '' 1 ' '' 1f Co so ha tang Chat lugng Hieu qua Nhan lire R&D Quan ly vat tu Chi tao N 7 ^ 7 A^ ^ Marketing / / Doi moi 19
  • 34. 2,3,2. Md hinh Benchmarking Mo hinh nay giiip xac dinh vi tri, dinh vi mat manh, mat yeu ciia DN so voi doi thii canh tranh, giiip xac dinh kha chuan vi the canh tranh cua DN minh. Phuong phap iy chu4n gIm bay buoc nhu sau : ( 1 ) Xac dinh nhung tieu tri, chuc nang nao c4n l4y chudn; ( 2 ) Xac dinh nhiing biln kit qua chii chit cin do luong; ( 3 ) Phat hien nhung cong ty vao loai tot nhat; ( 4 ) Lugng thanh tich ciia cac cong ty gioi nhat; ( 5 ) Lugng thanh tich cua cong ty minh; ( 6) Xay dung chuang trinh va nhung bien phap de thu hep khoang each; ( 7 ) Thue hien va theo doi kit qua ( Philip Kotler ( 2003). " Quan tri Marketinh", nguoi dich: TS Vu Trgng Hung .NXB Thong ke ). Bang 2-5 : Ket qua danh gia cua khach hang ve nhirng yeu to thanh cong chu chot cua cac doi thu canh tranh. ^ T i e u chi Muc dp biet den Chat lugng Phan phoi Ho trg Doi ngu TenDN^^ cua kh^ch h^ng san pham san pham ky thuat ban hang DN-A E — tuy?t v6i E tuy?t vdi — P-kem P - kem G-tIt DN-B G-tot G-t6t E - tuyet voi G-tIt E - tuyet voi DN-C F — binh thud^ng P- kem G-tIt F— binh thucmg F— binh thu6rng Philip Kotler {20031 " Oudntri Marketinh ", nsudi dich: TS '^w Trons Huns. Van de quan trgng la DN phai thu thap nhiing so lieu moi ve tinh hinh kinh doanh cua tung dii thii canh tranh, cu the la muc tieu thu-doanh thu, san lugng, thi phan, Igi nhuan tren vin dau tu, miic su dung n ^ g lire v.v...Cac thong tin do la nhung so lieu thu cap, loi din, kinh nghiem nhan doan va phan tich ciia lanh dao DN. Dong thai phai that chi tilt, khoa hgc khach quan khi danh gia chuan cho chinh DN cua minh de so sanh voi doi thii canh tranh. Viec thu thap thong tin tinh bao, do hoi ve cac doi thu canh tranh co thi phan thanh 4 loai khai thac thong tin chinh : ( 1 ) Tu nhung nguoi moi tuyen va cong nhan vien ciia dii thii 20
  • 35. canh tranh; ( 2 ) Tu nhiing nguoi co quan he lam an voi cac doi thii canh tranh; ( 3 ) Tu nhung tu lieu da xuit ban va nhung tai lieu cong; ( 4 ) Tu each theo doi doi thii, phan tich nhung bang chiing vat chat; Viec khai thac thong tin can tuan thu theo khuon kho ciia phap luat va quy tac dao due. Bang 2-5, trang 20 neu ket qua ciia mot cong ty khi yeu cau khach hang danh gia ba doi thii canh tranh cua minh : A, B,C. Voi tieu chi danh gia gom 5 ngi dung. DN - A dugc xem la DN san xuat san pham chat lugng cao va co lire lugng ban hang gioi. Nhung A con yeu ve khau phan phoi san pham va ho trg ky thuat; DN - B manh ve khau phan phii san pham va co lire lugng ban hang tuyet voi; DN - C c6 cac tieu chi deu yeu kem. Qua bang thong tin tren ggi y cho ta co the tan cong DN - A ve mat phan phoi san pham va ho trg ky thuat; DN - C ve hau het cac mat, nhung DN - B thi khong c6 mat yeu nao ro ret. Cling C nhiing y kien phe phan ve viec y lai qua miic vao phuong phap nay, co the bop O nghet tinh sang tao boi lay thanh tich ciia nhung cong ty khac lam diem xuat phat cho DN minh; hoac mot khi tap trung qua nhieu ve doi thii canh tranh ma lo la, sao nhang viec cai tien hon nixa nhiing so truong ciia cong ty. Nhieu DN su dung phuong phap lay chuan - Bechmarking va hg cho rang phuong phap nay van la mot trong nhirng nguon y tuong tot nhat de nang cao chat lugng va kha nang canh tranh. 2.4. Mo hinh tong hop phan tich ben trong va ben ngoai - SWOT : Moi truong khach quan ciia DN khong ngung thay doi, mang lai cho DN nhiing co hoi tilm tang. Nhung chi khi nao DN co nhiing dieu kien chii quan nhat dinh thi nhiing co hoi do mofi C the tro thanh hien thuc. Kinh nghiem cho thay, nhieu DN c6 moi truong khach quan O rat thuan Igi nhung hg thieu mot vai yeu to chii quan nen da bo tugt co hoi. Ngugc lai, co 21
  • 36. nhung DN mac du co moi truong khach quan khong thuan Igi nhung do phat huy dugc so truong doc dao ma thanh cong. Do do viec phan tich ting hgp cac yeu tl khach quan va chii quan ciia DN co y nghia quan trgng. Hinh 2-6 : Mo hinh phan tich 3 cap do moi truong ben trong va ben ngoai Phan tich SWOT : Thi manh (Strengths), yeu diem (Weakness), co hoi (Opportunitines) va nguy C (Threats). Phan tich SWOT la chia khoa ciia phat trien chien luge, lam ro the manh O ngi luc ciia to chiic va nhung diem yeu va cac co hoi, nguy co tu ben ngoai. Strengths va Weaknesses la cac yeu to ngi tai ciia DN con Opportunities va Threats la cac nhan to tac dong ben ngoai. SWOT cho phep phan tich cac yeu to khac nhau co anh huong tuong doi den kha nang canh tranh ciia DN, viec danh gia cac dii* lieu dugc sap xep theo dang SWOT duoi mot trat tu logic giiip nguoi dgc hieu dugc cQng nhu co thi trinh bay va 22
  • 37. thao luan dl di din viec ra quylt dinh de dang hon.. De xay dimg CLKD, phan tich SWOT thuong dugc kit hgp voi PEST va mot so mo hinh khac ( xem hinh 2-6, trang 22). Dk thuc hien phan tich SWOT cho vi thi canh tranh ciia mot DN, nen tu dat cac cau hoi : - Strengths : Lgi thi ciia DN la gi ? Cong viec nao DN lam tit nhat ? Nguin lire nao DN ckn, C thi sii dung ? LTU thi ma nguoi khac thiy dugc 6 DN la gi ? Phai xem xet van de tren O phuong dien ban than DN va ciia nguoi khac. Cac uu thi thuong dugc hinh thanh khi so sanh voi doi thii canh tranh. - Weaknesses : Cac yeu diem. Co the cai thien dieu gi ? Cong viec nao minh lam tot nhat ? Can tranh lam gi ? Phai xem xet van de tren co so ben trong va ca ben ngoai. Nguoi khac co the nhin thay yeu diem ma ban than DN khong thay. Vi sao doi thii canh tranh co the lam tot hon ? Liic nay phai nhan dinh mot each thuc te va doi mat voi su that. - Opportunities : Co hoi tot dang 6 dau ? Xu huong dang quan tam da biet ? Co hoi co the xuat phat tir su thay doi cong nghe va thi trucmg du la quoc te hay trong pham vi hep, tu su thay doi ve chinh sach cua nha nuoc co lien quan tai ITnh vuc hoat dong ciia DN, tir su thay doi khuon mau xa hoi, cau tnic dan so ..., tu cac su kien dien ra trong khu vuc. Phuong thiic tim kiem hiiu ich nhat la ra soat lai cac uu the ciia ban than DN va tu dat cau hoi lieu cac uu the ay co mo ra co hoi moi nao khong. Ciing co the lam ngugc lai, ra soat cac yeu dilm ciia minh va tu dat cau hoi lieu co co hoi nao xuat hien loai bo dugc chiing. - Threats : Nhung tro ngai dang gap phai ? Cac doi thu canh tranh dang lam gi ? Nhiing doi hoi dac thu ve cong viec, ve san pham hay dich vu co thay doi gi khong ? Thay dii cong nghe C nguy co gi vai DN hay khong ? Co van de gi vl ng qua han dong tien ? Lieu co ylu O diem nao dang de doa cong ty ? Cac phan tich nay thuong giiip tim ra dugc nhiing viec ckn phai lam va bien yeu diem thanh trien vgng. 2.5. Cac chien luac canh tranh chung 23
  • 38. Cac DN theo duoi chien luge c4p cong ty de dat dugc lgi the canh tranh, hoat dong tot hon doi thii, nhkm dat dugc doanh thu cao hon trung binh. Cac DN thuong lira chgn tu ba chien luge C ban : Dan dau ve chi phi, khac biet hoa san pham va tap trung. O Bang 2-7 : Nguon goc loi the canh tranh va cac chien luuc canh tranh co* ban Dan dau Khac biet hoa Tap trung ve chi phi san pham Khac biet hoa Thap Cao Thap den cao san pham (chii yeu bang (chii yeu bang ( gia hoac tinh dgc gia) tinh dgc nhat) nh4t) Phan doan Thap Cao Thap thj truong (thi truong dai (nhieu doan thi ( mot hoac mot so tra) trucmg) doan thi truong) Kha nang San xuat va quan Nghien cuu va Bat ky loai kha rieng biet ly nguyen lieu phat trien, ban va nang rieng biet Marketing nao 2.5,1,Chien luac Dan dau vi chi phi La chien luge de co the san xuat hang hoa hoac djch vu 6 chi phi thap hon cac doi thu. Chien luge nay co hai lgi the co ban. Thu nhdt, vai chi phi thap hon, nguoi dan dau ve chi phi co the dat gia thap hon doi thii nhung van thu dugc lgi nhuan bang cac doi thu. Neu cac DN trong mot nganh dat cac gia tri tuong tu cho cac san pham cua minh thi nguoi dan dau ve chi phi C the thu dugc lgi nhuan cao hon vi co chi phi thap hon. Thu hai, neu su canh tranh O trong nganh tang va cac DN canh tranh bang gia thi nguoi dan dau ve chi phi c6 kha nang dung virng trong canh tranh ban cac DN khac boi chi phi thap hon ciia minh. - Cac giai phap chien luffc : Lira chgn miic khac biet hoa san pham thap. Viec khac biet hoa san pham thuong ton kem. Do vay chi phi cho viec nay khong qua chenh lech so voi miic doi thii khac biet hoa; de miic khac biet hoa dat dugc chi phi thap nguoi dan d^u vl chi phi 24
  • 39. thuong bo qua cac doan thi truong khac nhau, thuong quan tam den thi truong 6 pham vi rgng Ion, thuc te cac DN thuong dat gia thap hon cac doi thii canh tranh cua minh de hap dan khach hang den voi cac san pham ciia minh; nguoi dan dau ve chi phi phat trien cac kha nang rieng biet cua minh trong san xuat va quan ly nguyen vat lieu de tang tinh hieu qua, ha thap chi phi so voi doi thii. - Loi the : Mot each chung nhat, cac bien phap de DN dat dugc lgi the ve chi phi thay doi theo tung nganh va co cau nganh. Co the lgi the bat nguon tu quy mo san xuat, dgc quyen cong nghe, uu dai ve nguyen lieu, cau thanh san pham, miic do dich vu, quy trinh ky thuat... Lgi the ciia moi chien luge co ban dugc mo ta tot nhat theo mo hinh 5 luc lucmg ciia Porter. Din dau ve chi phi dugc bao ve khoi cac doi thii canh tranh trong nganh bang lgi the chi phi ciia minh; chi phi thap ciing co nghia la no se it bi anh huong han cac doi thii canh tranh tir viec tang gia cac dau vao neu c6 cac nguoi cung ung co siic manh va it anh huong boi su giam gia doi voi san pham ciia minh neu co nhung nguoi mua c6 siic manh hon; sir dan dau ve chi phi thuong doi hoi phan lan viec lam tang siic manh mac ca true dien voi nguoi cung; neu cac san pham thay the bat dau vao thi truong, vai chi phi thap nguoi dan dau ve chi phi C the giam gia de canh tranh, duy tri dugc thi phan ciia minh; O Voi lgi the ve chi phi, nguoi dan dau ve chi phi tao ra hang rao ra nhap nganh. Cac DN khac muon ra nhap nganh that kho khan co su phu hgp ve chi phi hoac gia ciia nguoi dan dku vl chi phi. Nguoi dan dau ve chi phi co vi the tuong doi an toan chung nao co the duy tri lgi thi chi phi ciia minh va gia la chia khoa cho con so nguoi mua dang ke. - Bat loi : Nhimg nguy co chinh ciia phuong phap dan dau ve chi phi kn nkp trong kha nang cac doi thii tim each san xuat voi chi phi thap hon va tan cong lai nguoi dan d^u vl chi phi bang chinh "so truong" ciia nguoi do. Kha nang ciia cac doi thii co thi dl dang b^t chuoc cac phuong phap ciia nguoi dan dau ve chi phi la mot moi de doa dii voi chiln luge dan dku 25
  • 40. ve chi phi; co nii ro la nguoi dan dku vl chi phi, chi suy nghi vl giam chi phi, co thi khong theo doi dugc nhiing thay dii trong thi hilu ciia nguoi tieu diing, co thi ra quyet dinh giam chi phi nhung anh huong ro net den cau ve san pham. Tom lai, cin luu y la viec theo duli chiln luge chi phi th4p khong loai tru kha nang chuyen mon hoa. Vkn dl quan trgng la san phkm phai dugc khach hang chap nhan khi so sanh voi san phkm canh tranh. Vi vay, chi phi Xhkp chi co uu thi canh tranh nlu DN dam bao mot muc do khac biet hoa san phdm nh4t dinh dugc nguoi tieu dung nhan biet va chap thuan. 2.5.2. Chien iu(rc khac bi^t hoa san pham Muc dich ciia chiln luge khac biet hoa la de dat dugc lgi the canh tranh bang viec tao ra san pham, hang hoa hoac dich vu ma dugc nguoi tieu diing nhan thiic la dgc dao nhat theo nhan xet cua hg. Kha nang cua mot DN khac biet hoa san pham de thoa man nhu cau ciia nguoi tieu diing theo each ma cae doi thii canh tranh khong the co, nghia la no co the dat gia cao hon dang ke so voi miic trung binh cua nganh. Kha nang tang doanh thu bang each dat gia cao ( chii khong phai bang giam chi phi nhu nguoi dan dau ve chi phi) cho phep nguoi khac biet hoa san pham hoat dong tot hon cac doi thii canh tranh ciia minh va nhan dugc lgi nhuan cao hon. - Cac giai phap chien luac : Su di biet hoa san pham co the dat dugc theo ba each chu ylu : chat lugng, doi moi va tinh thich nghi voi khach hang. Viec doi moi rat quan trgng dii voi san pham cong nghe phiic tap. Su hap dan ciia san pham doi voi nhung mong dgi vl glc cua sir khac biet hoa. Mot di mat tam ly ciia khach hang co the tro thanh nguIn goc cua khac biet hoa san pham, Su hap dan co the la ylu to gan lien voi dia vi hoac long kieu hanh ciia cac nhom theo do tuoi va cac nhom kinh te xa hoi. Thuc te, co so ciia khac biet hoa san pham la vo tan. 26
  • 41. Mot DN theo duli chiln luge khac biet hoa san phkm co gang tu lam khac biet hoa cang nhieu mat hang cang tot. No cang bat chuoc cac doi thu ciia minh it bao nhieu thi cang bao ve dugc kha nang canh tranh bay nhieu va sir hap dan thi truong ciia no cang manh me va rgng khap. Noi chung, nguoi khac biet hoa san pham chia thi truong thanh nhieu doan. DN cung ling san pham dugc thiet ke danh rieng cho moi doan va quyet dinh tro thanh nguoi khac biet hoa rgng Ion, nhung DN co the lira chgn chi phuc vu cae doan thi truong ma 6 do co lgi the khac biet hoa dac biet. Cuoi ciing, trong viec quyet dinh theo duoi kha nang rieng biet nao, DN khac biet hoa san pham tap trung vao chiic nang to chiic cung cap cac nguon goc ciia lgi the khac biet hoa san pham ciia minh. Sir khac biet hoa san pham la co so cho sir doi moi va kha nang cong nghe phu va thugc vao chiic nang nghien cuu va phat trien. - Loi the va bat loi: Sir khac biet hoa san pham ve cong viec khac cac doi thii canh tranh, long trung thanh ciia khach hang vai nhan hang la mot tai san vo cung c6 gia tri. Cac DN moi buoc phai tao ra kha nang rieng ciia minh de co the canh tranh voi cac hang hien tai va la viec rat ton kem. Moi de doa ciia cac san pham thay the phu thugc vao kha nang cac doi thii voi san pham thoa man ciing nhiing nhu cau ciia khach hang ma cac san pham ciia nguoi khac biet hoa quan tam, pha vo long trung thanh ciia khach hang doi voi nhan hieu san pham ciia DN. Cac DN khac biet hoa phai tap trung nhieu vao hoat dong truyen thong giao tilp dl cung cap nhiing thong tin, tinh chat doi dao va su khac biet ve san pham ciia minh. Viec khac biet hoa san pham khong cho phep DN xem nhe van de chi phi, phkn chenh lech gia phai lan hon chi phi bo sung de tao ra su khac biet ve san pham, dat miic chi phi tuong duong hoac gan tuong duong voi cac doi thu canh tranh. Vi vay, can phai giam chi phi o nhiing phan nao khong lam anh huong den tinh khac biet ciia san ph4m. 27
  • 42. Cac cong nghe linh hoat moi cho phep cac hang theo duoi chien luge khac biet hoa san pham 6 chi phi Xhkp, tiic la ca dan dku vl chi phi va khac biet hoa san ph4m. Cho phep hang thue hien khac biet hoa san phkm dk san xuk nhilu san pham o miic chi phi co the so sanh dugc voi nguoi dan dau ve chi phi. Mot each khac dl nha san xuk khac biet hoa san phkm co the thuc hien dugc lgi the theo quy mo san xuk la tiln hanh tieu chuin hoa nhieu bg phan cau thanh sii dung trong san pham cuoi ciing ciia no. Mot hang ciing co thi giam gia chi phi san xuk va marketing neu no han che so model trong dong san phkm bing viec ban trgn goi cac "phuong an" san pham chii khong phai de cho nguoi tieu dung quylt dinh hg can cac phuong an nao. He thong luu kho kip thai ciing C thi giiip giam chi phi, cai thien chat lugng va do tin cay ciia san pham ciia DN. O Theo duli chiln luge kit hgp la eo lgi nhat va cac DN nhanh chong tranh thii lgi the tu san xuk mai, quan ly nguyen lieu va phuong phap marketing. 2.5,3. Chien luac tap trung Chiln luge tap trung khac voi hai chien luge tren chii yeu vi no dinh huong phuc vu nhu cau ciia mot nhom hiiu ban nguoi tieu diing hoac doan thi truong. DN theo duoi chien luge trgng tam hoa chii trgng vao viec phuc vu mot doan thi truong cu the, doan do co the dugc xac dinh theo tieu thiic dia ly, loai khach hang hoac mot nhanh ciia dong san pham. Thong qua hoac khac biet hoa san pham hoac chi phi thap. Ve ban chat DN tap trung la mot nha khac biet hoa san pham hoac nha dan dau ve chi phi. Mot dac diem niia la DN tap trung canh tranh voi nguoi khac biet hoa san pham chi trong mot hoac mot so it doan thi truong phat trien chat lugng san pham khac biet hoa thanh cong vi hg C kien thiic chi ve mot tap hgp nho khach hang hoac ve khu vuc. Hon niia, viec tap O 28
  • 43. trung vao nhiing chuoi nho san pham doi khi cho phep nguoi ta tap trung dua ra su doi moi nhanh hon la DN khac biet hoa Ion. - Cac giai phap chien luo'c: Doi voi cac nhom khach hang, DN tap trung chgn cac doan de canh tranh trong do chii khong phai la toan bg thi truong nhu nguoi dan dau ve chi phi hoac thoa man mot so Ion cac doan nhu nguoi khac biet hoa san pham noi chung; DN sii dung chien luge tap trung co the co nhieu each de phat trien lgi the canh tranh va dieu do giai thich tai sao c6 qua nhieu DN nho so voi DN lan. Mot DN tap trung co nhieu co hoi de phat trien cac hoat dong rieng ciia minh va canh tranh voi cac DN chi phi thap va khac biet hoa dang C xu huong Ion hon len. Chien luge tap trung tao ra mot co hoi cho nha kinh doanh O tim each lap day " khoang trong " nhu cau can thiet ciia khach hang. - Loi the va bat loi: Canh tranh ciia DN tap trung bat nguon tu nguon goc kha nang rieng biet ciia no - hieu qua, chat lugng, doi moi, hoac tinh thich nghi voi khach hang. No dugc bao ve truoc cac doi thii canh tranh 6 chung muc ma no co the cung cap hang hoa va djch vu ma cac doi thu khong the thuc hien dugc. Nhung voi cac nha cung ling co siic manh thi DN tap trung a vao the bat lgi vi mua nguyen lieu voi khoi lugng nho va vi the, quyen lire thugc ve nguoi cung ling. Nhung chimg nao ma no con chuyen dugc phan tang gia (gia nguyen lieu) sang cac khach hang trung thanh (gia ban cuoi cung) thi bat lgi nay co the khong phai la van de Ion. Va viec tao ra long trung thanh doi voi khach hang ciing lam giam moi de doa tu cac san pham thay the. Mot lgi the khac ciia chien luge tap trung la no cho phep DN tiln gan voi khach hang va phan ling kjp thai voi nhung nhu cau dang thay dii ciia hg. Vi nguoi tap trung san xuat khoi lugng it nen chi phi san xuat ciia no thuong cao hon cua DN dan dau chi phi; cac chi phi cao hon cOng co the lam giam kha nang lgi nhuan nlu nguoi tap trung buoc phai dau tu nhieu vao viec phat trien mot kha nang rieng biet; doan thi truong ciia nguoi tap trung co the bat ngo bien mat vi sir thay doi cong nghe hoac thay dii so thich 29
  • 44. ciia nguoi tieu diing. Su biln mk cac doan thi truong ciing la mot ly do tai sao nhieu DN nho lai bi that bai; nguy co cac DN khac biet hoa san pham se canh tranh gianh giat cac doan thi truong ciia nguoi tap trung. 2.5.4. Su be tac chien luac M6i mot chiln luge dIu doi hoi DN thuc hien nhiing su lira chgn nhat quan san pham/thi truong/kha nang rieng biet dl tao lap lgi the canh tranh. Noi each khac, mot DN phai dam bao lam phu hgp ba bg phan cau thanh trong chien luge kinh doanli cap cong ty neu tren. Do do, vi du: Mot cong ty chi phi thap khong the tan cong vao doan thi truong cao cap nhu cong ty khac biet hoa san pham. Su lira chgn chien luge cap DN thanh cong doi hoi chii y nghiem tiic den tat ca cac yeu to ciia kl hoach canh tranh. Cae DN khong co ke hoach can thiet cho sir thanh cong ciia chien luge da lira chgn se la "cac cong ty bi mac ket a giua" vi hg da thuc hien sir lira chgn san phkm thi truong ma khong dam bao dat dugc hoac duy tri lgi the canh tranh (hoac chi phi thap, hoac khac biet hoa san pham). Viec mat kha nang kiem soat doi voi chien luge co ban rat de xay ra tru phi DN quan ly theo doi sat cong viec kinh doanh va moi truong kinh doanh, lien tuc dieu chinh sir lira chgn san pham thi truong de phu hgp voi cac dieu kien nganh dang thay doi. Tom lai, viec quan ly thanh cong chien luge canh tranh noi chung doi hoi nhiing nha quan ly chien luge chii y den hai van de chinh. Thii nhat, su dam bao rang cac quyet dinh san pham/thi truong/kha nang rieng dugc dua ra la dinh huong theo mot chien luge canh tranh nhat dinh. Thii hai, can giam sat moi truong de sao cho cac nguon goc ciia lgi the canh tranh ciia DN phu hgp voi cac co hoi va cac moi de doa. 2.6. Khai niem ve nang luc canh tranh cot 15i 30
  • 45. " Nang lire co ban ciia DN giong nhu re cay. Than cay la san pham co ban ciia no. Canh va la cay la san pham cuoi ciing". " Co nguoi noi, mot con gio manh co the lam cho than cay bi gay nhung chi can re cay con, tiic la nang luc co ban ciia DN con thi may nam sau, DN c6 the song lai. Do do, nang luc eo ban cua DN coi nguon uu the canh tranh ciia DN " ( Vien nghien cuu dao tao ve quan ly (2005). " Xay dung va trien khai chien luge kinh doanh con duong di den thanh cong" ) . Nang lire co ban, cot loi ciia DN co 4 dac trung: Mot la, no co gia tri, co the giiip DN tao ra gia tri, giam gia thanh, nang cao hieu qua kinh doanh. Hai la, no co tinh dgc dao, ket hgp vai cac nguon lire bang mot phuong thiic dgc dao. Ba la, no co tinh chat ngi sinh, sir san sinh ciia no la ket qua tac dong Ian nhau giiia cac don vi, cac ca nhan trong to chiic, thong qua su phoi hgp va to chiic cac nguon lire ky thuat ciia DN tao ra nang lire co ban cua DN. Bon la, nang lire eo ban ciia DN dugc hinh thanh trong qua trinh hgc tap, tich liiy ciia DN, khong the mua dugc tren thj truong, nguoi khac kho bat chuoc. Xet theo quan diem ngan ban, uu the canh tranh ciia DN la gia thanh thap, tinh nang san pham tot, dich vu hau mai tot. Nhung xet theo quan diem dai han, nang lire sang tao con quan trgng hon uu the hien tai, boi vi bat ky uu the nao ciia DN ciing khong the keo dai mai nhiing uu the, no eo the se dan dan mat di do su thay doi cua ky thuat, su thay doi ciia thi truong va doi thu ciing co the bat chuoc. Nang lire co ban ciia DN la mot loai siic manh canh tranh gan lien voi to chiic. DN phai khong ngung vun dap va phat trien no moi co thi giii dugc uu the canh tranh lau dai trong hoan canh thi truong luon luon thay dii. Nang lire co ban ciia DN do 4 ylu tl tao thanh: Mot la, tri thiic va nang luc ky thuat ciia cong nhan vien, bao gom tri thiic va ky nang cua ca nhan cong nhan vien va tl chdt, co c^u tri thiic ciia toan bg cong nhan vien. Hai la, he thing ky thuat cua DN tiic la he thing, cong nang ky thuat ckn thilt dl thuc hien chiln luge kinh doanh ciia DN. Ba la, he thing quan ly 31
  • 46. ciia DN, toan bg thi manh cua DN dugc hinh thanh qua cac che do, quy dinh ciia DN, co cau tl chiic ciia DN, kl hoach to chiic, su lanh dao, khich le, chi huy ciia DN va nghe thuat lanh dao ciia nguoi lanh dao. Bdn la, quan niem gia tri va he thong van hoa ciia DN, bg phan hgp thanh quan trgng ciia DN. Viec phdn tich nang luc ca bdn cua DN phai giai quyit 3 van de : - Nang lire co ban ciia DN la gi, hien trang nhu the nao ? De giai quyet van de nay can di sau phan tich cac nguon lire ciia DN, he thong ky thuat, quan ly va van hoa DN. - Tac dung ciia nang luc co ban doi voi the manh canh tranh ciia DN? Noi chung, nang lire C ban ciia doanh nghiep cang dgc dao thi thoi gian giir dugc the manh canh tranh cang dai, O the manh canh tranh cang virng. Ngugc lai, neu tinh dgc dao kem thi nguoi khac de bat chuoc, thoi gian giii dugc uu the canh tranh cang ngan, dia vi uu the cang kem. - Lam the nao de phat trien, boi duong nang luc co ban ciia DN ? Viec phat trien, boi duong nang luc co ban ciia DN thong thuong bao gom viec dau tu va tai tao nguon nhan lire, khong ngung nang cao to chat ky thuat ciia cong nhan vien, kip thoi doi moi co cau to chiic quan ly de no C the van hanh thong suot, hai hoa MOI moi truong khach quan. Khong ngung nghien O cuu, sang tao, hinh thanh uu the ky thuat dgc dao cua DN, nuoi duong van hoa DN, khiln cho kha nang quy tu ciia DN ngay cang manh. 2.7. Cac buuc trong xay dung chien luge Xay dung va thuc hien CLKD noi chung ihuang trai qua 3 buoc : Phan tich moi truong khach quan, dieu kien chii quan ciia DN; thiet ke phuong an chien luge kinh doanh; thuc hien, danh gia va hoan thien CLKD. So dl cac buoc Xay dung va thuc hien chiln luge kinh doanh dugc mo ta tai Hinh 2-8, trang 33. a) Phdn tich hoan cdnh khach quan vd diiu kien chu quan cua DN 32
  • 47. - Phan tich hoan canh khach quan ciia DN : Day la buoc dau tien ciia viec xay dung CLKD. Ngi dung phan tich moi truong ben ngoai DN. Muc dich ciia buoc nay la tim hieu nhiing co hoi va kho khan ma hoan canh khach quan co the gay ra cho DN trong qua trinh phat trien tilp theo, tir do ma xac dinh phuong huong, tu tuong kinh doanh, muc tieu, CLKD. - Phan tich dieu kien chii quan cua DN: Muc dich phan tich la de xac dinh diem manh, diem ylu ciia DN, tu do tim ra phuong huong chien luge kinh doanh ciia DN tren co so phat huy thi manh, khac phuc diem yeu. Hinh 2-8 : So* do cac buffc Xay dung va thuc hi^n chien luac kinh doanh Phan tich hoan canh Phan tich hoan canh khach quan cua DN • chu quan cua DN 1 1 1 1 ' " 1 1 1' Phirong Thiet ke, Sich hirdug Myc Tu- lu-a chpn lu-Q-c cua vi Tieu tirdTig con c^c b9 ITnh virc chien chien duong, phan kinh luvc lir^-c bifn chirc doanh phip de nSng dat du"Q*c 1 1 ^r Chien u(Xi kinh z Thuc hien chien Danh gia va hoan doanh luac kinh doanh thien CLKD i i ii (Theo tai lieu cua Vien nghien cuu dao tao ve qudn ly (2005). " Xay dung vd trien khai chiin luoc kinh doanh con duong di din thanh cong") 33
  • 48. b) Thiet kephuang an chien luac kinh doanh Buoc nay bao gom viec xac dinh phuong huong va pham vi, tu tuong chien luge, muc tieu chien luge, thiet ke va lira chgn con duong, bien phap kinh doanh, sach luge ciia cac ciia cac bg phan chuc nang. - Lira chgn phuong huong va pham vi kinh doanh, kinh doanh san pham gi, tren thi truong nao, linh vuc ky thuat nao. Day la ket qua cua viec phan tich moi truong khach quan va dieu kien chii quan ciia DN. - Xac lap tu tuong chien luge : Sau khi phan tich moi truong khach quan, dieu kien chii quan ciia DN thi phai xac lap tu tuong chi dao toan bg boat dong san xuat, kinh doanh. Do la trilt ly kinh doanh ciia DN, la quan niem gia tri va chuan muc hanh vi ciia DN va ciing la linh hon ciia CLKD. - Xac lap muc tieu chien luge ciia DN : Muc tieu chien luge la thanh qua ly tuong ma DN du kien dat toi trong mot thoi ky nhat dinh theo tu tuong kinh doanh, phuong huong phat triin ciia DN trong dieu kien khach quan, chii quan va kha nang cua DN. Do la mot trong nhiing ngi dung co ban cua CLKD, - Thiet ke va lira chgn CLKD : Sau khi phan tich moi truong khach quan va dilu kien chii quan, can de ra mot so phuong an nham thuc hien muc tieu CLKD va phuong huong kinh doanh, phan tich. Khi danh gia cac phuong an phai xac dinh tieu chuin danh gia. Tieu ehu4n do phai xet den lgi ich tong the, lau dai ciia DN, phai tinh truong hgp nii ro, tinh In djnh, Xhc do phat trien, lgi nhuan .. .neu uu va khuyet dilm tung phuong an, chgn phuong an tli uu. - Sach luge eiia cac bg phan chuc nang : Sau khi xac djnh CLKD ciia DN ckn xay dung sach luge ciia cac bg phan chiic nang de nhung nguoi quan ly cac bg phan chuc nang nhan thiic ro trach nhiem cua hg, tir do hoan thien, phat triin chiln luge ting thi ciia DN. 34
  • 49. c) Thuc hien, danh gia, hoan thien chien luac kinh doanh Sau khi hoan thanh cac buoc noi tren, CLKD ciia DN da hinh thanh, can to chiic thuc hien. - Thuc hien CLKD : Thong qua nhilu bien phap hanh chinh va kinh te de to chiic, can bg nhan vien cong nhan va toan tam toan y trien khai thuc hien muc tieu chien luge. Muon vay thi phai lap ke hoach, ap dung cac bien phap, dong vien, to chiic, khich le, kiem tra de CLKD dugc quan triet den tung bg phan ciia DN. - Danh gia va hoan thien chien luge : Trong khau nay can kiem tra, danh gia hieu qua chien luge, tim ra do chenh lech giira chien luge da dugc thiet ke va tinh hinh thue hien chien luge, cac nguyen nhan. Hoan thien chien luge nham thuc hien muc tieu cuoi ciing cua chien luge, Tren day, da neu nhiing ngi dung co ban, co so ly luan de phuc vu cho viec nghien cuu xay dung CLKD ciia DN. Cac co so ly luan do se dugc ap dung nham thuc hien xay dung CLKD cua DN-C6ng ty Cp Xay dung cong trinh giao thong 872, se dugc thuc hien tiep o phan sau. 35
  • 50. CHirONGS PHAN TICH THlTC TRANG VAN D i CAN NGHIEN CUtJ
  • 51. CHirONG 3 PH AN T ICH TH U C TRANG VAN DE CAN NGHIEN ClTU Chuong 3, voi ngi dung giai thieu ting quan vl Cong ty 872; ap dung tong hgp cac mo hinh PEST, Five force va Industry's success factors de phan tich moi truong kinh doanh nganh XD-GTVT; ap dung mo hinh Value chain va Bechmarkinh de phan tich ngi bg C5ng ty 872; I phan tich canh tranh, cae chiln luge canh tranh va lira chgn CLKD ciia Cong ty 872; phan tich nang lire canh tranh cot loi ciia Cong ty 872; ap dung mo hinh SWOT de danh gia tong hgp vi the ciia Cong ty 872. 3.L Gioi thieu tong quan ve DN-C6ng ty Cp Xay dung cong trinh giao thong 872 I - Tru so dang ky ciia Cong ty : + Dia chi: Km 9, duong Giai Phong, huyen Thanh Tri, thanh pho Ha Ngi. i + Dienthoai: 04.8611316/8612957; Fax: 04.8614059; E.mail: congtycophan872@vnn.vn + Giay chiing nhan dang ky kinh doanh so 0103002955, ngay cap 25-9-2003, noi dang ky kinh doanh : TP.Ha Ngi - Nganh nghe kinh doanh : Xay dung cac cong trinh giao thong trong va ngoai nuoc (cau, duong, san bay, ben cang); xay dung cac cong trinh kien tnic cong nghiep va dan dung (san lap, xay lap cac ket cau, lap dat thiet bi dien chieu sang; duong day va tram dien den 35KV, lap dat he thong cap thoat nuoc ); xay dung cac cong trinh thuy lgi; dau tu xay dung cac cong trinh co sa ha tang cum dan cu; do thi, giao thong van tai; thi nghiem vat lieu, giam sat cac cong trinh; siia ehiia xe may, thiet bi thi cong, san xuat va gia cong co khi; xuat nhap khau vat tu thiet bi, phu tung, hang hoa; kinh doanh vat tu chuyen nganh GTVT; kinh doanli bat dong san; kinh doanh thuong mai, dich vu du lich, khach san; van tai hanh khach hang 36
  • 52. hoa; kinh doanh vat lieu xay dung; dai ly mua, dai ly ban, ky gui hang hoa; thiet ke cong trinh cau duong bg. - Dia ban da va dang kinh doanh : Cac tinh Bac, Trung, Nam -Viet Nam; nuoc Lao. - San lugng chii ylu la XD-GTVT, binh quan trong 03 nam ( 2003-2005 ) la 103 ty. - Tu thang 8-2003, dugc chuyen doi tu DNNN - thugc Bg GTVT sang Cong ty co phan, co dong thanh lap Cong ty : Tong Cong ty Xay dung cong trinh giao thong 8-Bg GTVT gop 50% vIn, lao dong Cong ty 872 gop 49 % von va ngoai DN gop 1 % von dieu le. Qua trinh phat trien va truong thanh : Cong ty Cp Xay dung cong trinh giao thong 872, tien than la Tong dgi Thanh nien xung phong 572 nhiem ky IIL Dugc thanh lap thang 5 nam 1972 . True thugc Ban xay dung 64 ( Nay la Tong Cong ty Xay dung cong trinh giao thong 8- Bo GTVT ). Suot 18 nam lien tuc, don vi lam nhiem vu Quoc te tren mat tran GTVT tai Lao. Ba nam dau phuc vu cuoc khang chien chong My - Nguy cho den ngay Lao gianh toan thang, lap nen Nuac Cong hoa Dan chii Nhan dan Lao 2-12-1975. Ke do la 15 nam phuc vu hai nhiem vu chien luge xay dung va bao ve to quoc Lao. Hang nghin lugt can bg, cong nhan, thanh nien xung phong ciia don vi da vugt qua muon van kho khan, gian kho, by sinh de hoan thanh xuat sac nhiem vu Quoc te ve vang. Tu nam 1990 den nay, Cong ty hoat dong XD-GTVT trong nuoc voi co che moi, Cong ty da phat huy truyen thong, vuon len, khong ngung doi moi, tang truong, thuc hien nghiem nghia vu voi Nha nuoc va khong ngung cai thien doi song vat chat tinh than ciia nguoi lao dong. Can bg cong nhan vien doan ket, gan bo, mot long xay dung Cong ty ngay cang phat trien . Cac giai doan lich su : - Giai doan 1972-1975 : Nhiem vu chii yeu cua Tong dgi Thanh nien xung phong 572 la mo duong va dam bao giao thong giiip Lao.Voi tong so lire lugng lao dong ban dau khoang 37
  • 53. 2.500 nguoi. Tong dgi Thanh nien xung phong 572 da phan dau voi tinh than ''Song bam cau duong, chet kien cuong diing cam" ; " Dich pha, ta siia ta di, Dich cii pha, ta cii di" Tat ca vi nhiem vu Quoc te tren mat tran dam bao giao thong. Gop phan lam nen chien thang ve vang ciia hai dan toe Viet - Lao - Giai doan 1976-1989: Buoc vao giai doan moi. Chuyen huong nhiem vu sang xay dung cong trinh GTVT giiip Lao khoi phuc va phat trien kinh te. Ngay 29-09-1975, Tong dgi Thanh nien xung phong 572 dugc chuyen thanh Cong truong 572 thugc Lien hiep cac xi nghiep Giao thong 8. Den nam 1982 doi ten thanh Xi nghiep Xay dung Duong 572 thugc Lien hiep cac xi nghiep Giao thong 8, nam 1989 doi ten thanh Xi nghiep Xay dung Cong trinh 572, thugc Lien hiep cac xi nghiep Giao thong 8 ( nay la Tong Cong ty Xay dung cong trinh giao thong 8 ). Liic nay luc lugng gom 423 lao dong, 09 don vj san xuat, 08 phong ban nghiep vu . Trong suot qua trinh cong tac, du bat ky hoan canh kho khan nao, Xi nghiep Xay dung Cong trinh giao thong 572 ciing luon neu cao y chi quyet tam, hoan thanh xuat sac nhiem vu. Gop phan lam tron nhiem vu Quoc te quang vinh. - Giai doan 1990-2001: Cuoi nam 1989, Xi nghiep Xay dung cong trinh giao thong 572 chuyen dan ve nuoc xay dung cac cong trinh theo phuong thiic moi. Ngay 9-01- 1992, dii ten Xi nghiep Xay dung Cong trinh 572 thanh Cong ty Xay dung cong trinh 572. Liic nay Cong ty hach toan dgc lap va co 06 don vi san xuat, 05 phong ban nghiep vu. Den-nam 1995 dii ten thanh Cong ty Xay dung Cong trinh giao thong 872, thugc Ting Cong ty Xay dung Cong trinh giao thong 8, Bg GTVT. Chi trong mot thai gian ngin tu nam 1991 gia tri san lugng dat 4,018 ty ding, den nam 1996 gia tri san lugng dat 25,784 ty ding. Miic tang truong binh quan hang nam 100 % - 102 %, nam 1996 tang 27 lan so voi nam 1991, nam 1997 dat 28,247 ty ding, nam 1998 dat 39,709 38
  • 54. ty ding, nam 1999 dat 50,537 ty ding, nam 2000 dat 47,945 ty ding. Nam 2000 va 2001 la nhiing nam Cong ty gap nhilu kho khan ve cong viec lam, nam 2001 chi dat 41,930 ty dong. Din culi nam 2001, tai san cl dinh ciia Cong ty 6 trong tinh trang thieu va gia coi. - Giai doan 2002- nay : Cong ty da dugc dau tu them hon 22 ty dong thiet bi thi cong, cac co hoi cong viec lam ngay cang dugc mo rgng. Cong ty da doi moi toan dien, voi khong khi phin khoi, phat huy truyin thing 30 nam, nang san lugng nam 2002 dat 70,6 ty dong, nam 2003 dat 85,320 ty ding, nam 2004 dat 119,049 ty ding, nam 2005 dat 105,634 ty ding, kl hoach nam 2006 la 110,000 ty ding. Trai qua gkn 35 nam xay dung va truong thanh, Cong ty Xay dung cong trinh giao thong 872 da dugc hai nha nuoc Viet Nam va Lao tang nhung phan thuong cao quy. Nha nuoc Viet Nam tang thuong: Huan chuong lao dong hang Ba - nam 1977, Huan chuong lao dong hang Nhi - nam 1996, Huan chuong lao dong hang Nhat - nam 1985 va nam 1986, Huan chuang chien cong hang Nhi - nam 1986, Anh hung lao dong - nam 1985. Nha nuoc Lao tang thuong : Huan chuong Huu nghi, Huan chuong It XaLa hang Nhat, Huan chuang chien cong hang Nhi. Mo hinh ctf cau quan ly, dieu hanh Cong ty hien nay : Ve C cau to chiic Cong ty 872 da chuyen doi sang cong ty co phan. Co cau to chiic Cong ty O 872 dugc mo ta qua hinh 3-6 : So do to chiic bg may Cong ty 872, trang 58b. Co quan cao nhat ciia Cong ty la Dai hoi dong co dong. Hoi dong quan tri ( HDQT ) la co quan thay mat Dai hoi dong co dong quan ly Cong ty, thuc hien nghi quyet ciia Dai hoi. Giam doc dieu hanh true tiep dieu hanh Cong ty, bg may quan ly Cong ty. Ban Kiem soat thay mat Dai hoi dong cl dong kilm soat boat dong ciia HDQT, ciia Giam die va boat dong SXKD ciia C5ng ty. 39
  • 55. Bg may quan ly Cong ty theo quan he dgc : HDQT, Giam doc, cac phong ban, cac dgi san xuat; xi nghiep; chi nhanh. He thong Dang sinh boat theo Tong Cong ty Xay dung cong trinh giao thong 8- Thanh uy Ha Ngi. Cong doan hien dang sinh hoat theo - nganh GTVT. Quyen va Nhiem vu cua cac bo phan, to chuc trong Cong ty ( xem phan phu luc tu trangl 12 den trang 125 ). 3.2. Ap dung tong hop cac mo hinh PEST, Five force va Industry's success factors de phan tich moi truong kinh doanh nganh XD-GTVT 3.2.1. Moi trucmg ben ngoai a) Mdi tru&ng chinh tri vd phap luat cda DN - The che kinh ti : + Nha nuoc ta thuc hien quan ly kinh te thi truong voi cac quan diem nhu sau : . Co net rieng : Ve chinh tri, Dang lanh dao Nha nuoc, Nha nuoc eiia dan, do dan, vi dan. Ve kinh te, thi truong co nhieu thanh phan, trong do kinh te Nha nuoc giu vai tro chu dao, cung kinh te hgp tac phat trien dan nen tang kinh te quoc dan. . Nhiing net giong cae nuoc khac : Thua nhan tinh dgc lap ciia chii the thi truong la cac ca nhan va DN. Hg tu chii ra cac quyet djnh kinh te, tu minh chiu trach nhiem; xay dung he thong thi truong co tinh canh tranh, gia ca do thi truong quyet dinh; xay dung co che dieu tiet kinh te vi mo co hieu qua, thuc hien su huong dan, giam sat va khong-che doi vai thi trucmg; hoan chinh he thong phap luat, phap luat kinh te, bao dam hanh lang phap ly cho cac boat dong kinh tl. + Quan he giira DN voi nganh : Thong qua viec thuc hien XD-GTVT, he thong Cong doan nganh de nam viing the che, chii truong chinh sach eiia nganh, ciia Nha nuoc. - Chinh tri: The hien su on dinh chinh tri va moi truong SXKD; 40
  • 56. - Mdi truong phap lugt : He thong luat phap dugc quan tam siia doi, ngay cang hoan thien tao dieu kien cho moi truong SXKD ngay cang thuan lgi; - Tuy nhien rieng doi voi nganh XD - GTVT ciing gap kho khan do mot si thi chi chinh sach chua cu the, bat cap (trach nhiem thuc sir ciia chii dau tu; su cong bang giiia nha thAu va chu dau tu; co che gia...). b) Mdi tru&ng kinh ti cda DN - Co cdu kinh te xd hoi : Ty trgng dau tu cho nganh cong nghiep va xay dung nam 2005 chiem 41%, rieng dau tu co so ha tang nhieu nam qua chiem khoang 10% GDP hang nam. Ke hoach den nam 2010 co cau dau tu cho nganh cong nghiep va xay dung la 43 -^ 44%; - Trinh do phat trien kinh ti : + GDP 2001 - - 2005 binh quan trong 5 nam dat 7,51%/ nam, rieng 2005 dat 8,4% tuong = duong 838.000 ty dong. Trong do khu vuc kinh te Nha nuoc chiem 38,4% GDP, khoi kinh te dan doanh chiem 45,7% GDP, kinh te co von dau tu nuoc ngoai chiem 15,9%; Ke hoach phat trien kinh te giai doan nam 2006 -^2010: GDP nam 2010 tang 2,1 lan so voi nam 2000. GDP dat 7,5 ~ 8%/ nam, phkn dku tang hon 8%/ nam, din nam 2010 GDP dat 1.690 -^ 1.760 ngan ty (tuong duong 94 -I- 98 ty USD ), ting dku tu xa hoi khoang 40%. GDP theo dku nguoi nam 2005 dat 640 USD (1990: 200 USD; cac nuoc phat triin 2004: 825 USD). Kl hoach nam 2010 dat 1050 -f 1100 USD ( theo WB cac nuoc dang phat triin du tinh dat 950 USD); -— Sir tang truong GDP qua cac nam qua va Ke hoach phat trien kinh te giai doan nam 2006 ^ 2010 da cho ta thay tong von dau tu vao nen kinh te, su tang truong kinh te Viet Nam tao co hoi cho cac nha san xuat va dau tu cong nghiep va xay dung, cho phat trien nganh xay dung ha tang trong do co XD - GTVT. 41
  • 57. + Thu nhap dau nguoi mac du chua cao, nhung cac nam dIu tang : Nam 1996 la 226.700 d/ngu6i/thang, nam 2002 la 356.100 d/ngu6i/thang, nam 2004 la 484.400 d/nguoi/thang. Rieng nam 2004 thu nhap binh quan nong thon 378.400 d/nguoi/thang, thanh thi 815.400 d/ngu6i/thang. Ty le ngheo 2005 con 22%) (chuin moi), du tinh din 2010 giam ty le ngheo con 10 -^ 11 %. Ty le nay cho thay siic mua va sir phat trien kinh tl se tang, thuan lgi cho viec tang SXKD. Tuy nhien cung cho thay rang nen tan dung den miic cao nhat lao dong thoi vu; lao dong o cac khu vuc nong thon nham ha gia thanh; + Ty le lai suattu 2005 va 2006 tang cao: 0,9 ^ 1,2%/thang, trong tinh trang sii dung von vay cao, cong tac nghiem thu thanh toan cham, ng ton dgng se gay kho khan lan va se la tro lire cho thuc thi chien luge phat trien SXKD; + Ty gia hoi doai voi dong USD tuong doi on dinh trong vai nam qua (toe do tang gia nam 2003 la 2,2%, nam 2004 la 0,4%, nam 2005 la 0,9%; din ngay 29/5/2006 gia giao djch binh quan khoang 15.930 d/USD ) tao dieu kien cho viec thanh toan quoc te, dau tu dai ban mua thiet bi. Song sir kim giii gia voi mot thai gian dai, co the xuat hien su gia tang toe do tang gia trong nhiing nam toi. Can nghien cuu, can trgng; + Chi so gia tieu diing nhieu nam tang cao ( nam 2003 la 103,2; nam 2004 la 107,7 va nam 2005 la 8,4% ). Nam thang dau nam 2006 ty so tieu diing tang 3,6%. Tinh trang nay gay kho khan cho viec giai quylt thu nhap, doi sing ciia nguoi lao dgng, tang chi phi nhan cong; - Chinh sach vi kinh ti co lien quan din nganh trong nhirng nam toi: + Dang va Nha nuac ta da dk ra phuong huong, khang dinh 5 nam 2006-2010 c6 y nghia quylt dinh dii vai viec hoan thanh thing lgi Chien luge phat trien kinh te xa hoi 10 nam ( 2001-2010). " D^y manh cong nghiep hoa, hien dai hoa va phat trien kinh te tri thiic, tao nen tang dl dua nuoc ta co ban tro thanh nuoc cong nghiep theo huong hien dai vao nam 2020. 42
  • 58. Giu' viing on dinh chinh tri va trat tu an toan xa hoi ...Nang cao vi thi ciia Viet Nam trong khu vuc va tren truong quie tl" (Nghi Quylt Dai hoi X- Dang Cong san Viet Nam ). Chu truong phat trien nhanh ban cong nghiep va xay dung theo huong nang cao ch4t lugng, siic canh tranh va hien dai boa; thuc hien nhk quan cae chinh sach tao moi truong thuan lgi cho hoat dgng dau tu, kinh doanh va phat triin manh me cac loai hinh DN; thu hiit manh nguon luc dau tu nuac ngoai; trong 5 nam toi on dinh gia tri ding tiln, kilm soat lam phat; phat trien manh va nang cao hieu qua hoat dgng khoa hgc cong nghe. + Chien luge phat trien nganh GTVT : " GTVT Viet Nam phai phat triin ding bg ca vl kit cau ha tang, dich vu van tai va cong nghiep GTVT theo huong cong nghiep hoa-hien dai boa ...Phat trien ket cau ha ting giao thong giai doan den nam 2010 tap trung dua vao cip ky thuat va nang cap cac cong trinh hien co, ket hgp xay dung moi mot so cong trinh phuc vu dac lrc cho phat trien kinh te xa hoi ciia trung uong va dia phuong. Giai doan 2010-2020 hoan chinh, hien dai hoa va tiep tuc phat trien ket cau ha tang giao thong dam bao van tai toi uu tren toan mang luoi". Chien luge de cap den muc tieu, chien luge phat trien ket cau ha tang giao thong chii trgng den: He thong giao thong doi ngoai; cac true duong dgc Bac-Nam; khu vuc phia Bac, Trung, Nam; ve giao thong do thi " Phat trien giao thong do thi a cac thanh pho Ion ciia Viet Nam la mot trgng tam trong dinh huong thoi gian toi"; ve giao thong nong thon " Xay dung mang duong giao thong nong thon (duong bg) den tat ca ca trung tam xa trong ca nuoc, x6a cau khi o vung dong bang song Ciiu Long" ( Chien luge phat trien nganh GTVT Viet Nam den nam 2020 - nguon Bg GTVT ). c) Mdi tru&ng KHKT cda DN Hien nay, theo danh gia ciia Dang, Nha nuac, KH & CN chua dap ung yeu cau phat trien kinh te - xa hoi. Trinh dg cong nghe trong nhieu nganh con lac hau; viec chuyen giao cong nghe con rat cham. 43
  • 59. Dang, Nha nuoc ta chu truong : Phat triin manh va nang cao hieu qua boat dgng KH & CN. Diy manh nghien cuu va ung dung thanh tuu KH & CN, tao buoc dot pha vl nang suit, chit lugng va hieu qua trong tung nganh, tung ITnh vuc ciia nIn kinh tl. Tang nhanh nang lire KH & CN ngi sinh di doi voi tang cuong tilp thu thanh tuu KH & CN thi gioi. Diy manh xa hoi hoa boat dgng KH & CN dong thoi Nha nuoc tap trung diu tu vao cac chuong trinh nghien cuu QuIe gia, phan diu dat trinh do khu vuc va Thi giai; xay dung tilm lire KH & CN cho mot so ITnh vuc trgng diem, cong nghe cao. Chii trgng cong tac dao tao, bl sung co chi, chinh sach su dung, dai ngg can bg khoa hgc. Co chinh sach khuyen khich va ho trg cac DN doi mdi va chuyin giao cong nghe, nghien cuu va ling dung thanh tuu KH & CN vao san xuat va doi song. Phat triin quan he lien kit, dat hang giua cac don vi san xuat kinh doanh, cac to chiic va ca nhan c6 nhu cau voi cac co so nghien cuu KH & CN. Khuyen khich va ho trg cac doanh nghiep, truoc bet la cac ting cong ty lan, trien khai cac boat dgng nghien cuu KH & CN. Khuyen khich phat trien cac doanh nghiep khoa hgc va cong nghe thugc mgi thanh phan kinh te. Thuc hien chinh sach trgng dung nhan tai, cac nha khoa hgc dau nganh, tong cong trinh ky su, ky su truong, ky thuat vien lanh nghe va cong nhan ky thuat co tay nghe cao. Day manh hgp tac quoc te, chuyen giao cong nghe, khuyen khich to chiic, ca nhan nuoc ngoai dau tu ve KH & CN. Trinh do KHKT va cong nghe trong nganh GTVT: Da day manhcong tac nghien cuu, ap dung, chuyen giao cong nghe thi cong cau duong. Hien Viet Nam da dat cac thanh tuu sau: - Toi nay 90% cong viec a cac cong ty tu van thiet ke hang dau ciia nganh da sii dung cong nghe thong tin va ky thuat so; - Cac cong trinh duong bg : Da ap dung cac cong nghe moi AASHTO, mong da dam cap phoi thi cong bang may rai, lu rung; mat duong be tong nhua nong, be tong xi mang; xii ly 44
  • 60. nen dit yeu bang vai dia, bic tham, cgc cat, san giam tai; cong nghe sii ly sut trugt nhu neo trong dat, rg da Terramesh va Maccaferri, co Vetiver v.v... - Cac cong trinh ciu, ap dung cac cong nghe moi nhu : Be tong du ung luc diic tung nhip tai cho, diic tai xuong, diic hang, diic can bang, diic diy; sir dung cac loai phu gia dac biet; kit ciu mong cgc khoan nhoi, gieng chim, thung chim hien dai; mong sau din 100m; ciu day vang toi nhip 135m ( ciu Cin Tho 550m, ciu Bai Chay 435m) v.v... - Cong nghe thi cong da phin ap dung theo quy trinh AASHTO, tieu chuin chit lugng ASTM ( Hoa Ky) co dieu chinh phu hgp theo dieu kien Viet Nam; - Cac DN da ap dung cong nghe thong tin, cac phan mem thiet ke, quan ly, du toan. Quan ly cac du an da theo xu huong hien dai, theo thong le quoc te; - Luc lugng KHKT cua nganh : Co Vien khoa hgc ky thuat cau duong, Vien nghien ciiu chien luge GTVT, co cac tong Cong ty, cong ty tu vin thiet ke hien dang dam duong dugc yeu cau chung ciia nganh. - Su phat trien cong nghe thong tin; xu huong nhat the hoa kinh te; nen kinh te tri thiic; phong trao sat nhap, lien hgp tri thiic boa, mang hoa. Dieu do se thay doi moi truong KHKT ciia cac DN, day manh viec doi moi KHKT ciia xa hoi, thiic day viec chuyen giao cong nghe va thay doi co cau nganh nghe hien nay. Yeu cau ve cong nghe moi neu tren lam ro lgi the canh tranh ciia cac DN chuyen nganh, nam lay cac co hoi ma sir thay doi do mang lai, thuc hien tien bg ky thuat va nang cap ky thuat o DN minh.Va la rao can khong nho cho cac doi thii tiem nang; d) Mdi tru&ng van hoa xd hoi cua DN Moi truung xa hoi cua DN : - Xa hoi, dan so va lao dgng : 45
  • 61. -f Co ciu: lao dgng 2005: 12% cong chiic; 12 - 15% lao dgng trong DNNN; con lai chii ylu la cac doanh nghiep dia phuong va nong dan; + Viet Nam nam 2005 voi dan si 83,8 trieu nguoi. Du tinh din 2010 co khoang 88,4 trieu nguoi, toe do tang dan so 1,14%. Dan so gia tang cao, mot mat lam han chi quy dau tu, mat khac yeu cau ngay cang cao ve xay dimg ha tang, trong do co GTVT; + Giai quyet viec lam, tu nam 2001 ^ 2005 giai quylt 7,5 trieu viec lam. K I hoach tu 2006 - 2010 giai quyet viec lam 1,6 trieu nguai/nam, co 50% la lao dgng nii; dien tich nha a binh quan dat 14 ^ 15m^ san/nguoi. - Chat lugng dan so: Phat trien van hoa la nen tang xa hoi. Nam 2005 co 85% hgc sinh Trung hgc C so hgc trong do tuoi; nam 2010 ke hoach 100% so tinh thanh pho cap giao due Trung O hgc C so (2003: co 19 tinh, thanh pho); dat 200 sinh vien dai hgc va cao dang tren 10.000 O dan. Tu 2005-2010 day nghi cho 7,5 trieu lao dgng trong do dai ban la 25 - 30%; - Kinh nghiem, ky nang cua lao dgng ngay cang cao, ty le lao dgng qua dao tao nam 2005 la 25%. Kl hoach din nam 2010 la 40%; Moi truong Van hoa : - Xa hoi ngay cang phat trien van minh hien dai, hoi nhap quoc te. Nhung dich chuyen ve gia tri xa hoi theo huong con nguoi quan tam nhieu den cham soc siic khoe, dam bao he thong cham soc siic khoe; giai quylt Bao hiem y te; an toan va moi truong san xuat, lam viec va sinh boat...; - Trinh do dan tri ngay cang cao, van minh, cong bing, cong khai-4an chii; - Xu huong tilt kiem, chi tieu va tieu dung hgp ly; Xu huong "lli sing phuong Tay", miic do su dung ket cau ha tang ngay cang cao. - Cac DN da quan tam cac ylu t l trilt hgc, ton giao, ngon ngii, van hgc, nghe thuat. Voi su anh huong gian tilp ciia cac yeu to nay doi voi kinh doanh ciia DN. 46
  • 62. Nhung yeu to ve moi truong dan si va lao dgng tao eo hoi, dilu kien ngay cang Ion vl xay dung ha tang, trong do co GTVT; sir phan bl lao dgng trong cac khu vuc cho thiy cin tan dung lao dgng dia phuong; e) Mdi tru&ng quoc te - Quan he kinh tl quic tl ngay cang gia tang. Xu thi nhit thi hoa nIn kinh tl thi gioi voi sir phat trien ciia cac cong ty xuyen quIc gia (trong thap ky 60 ciia thi ky 20, toan thi gioi chi C 7276 cong ty xuyen quIc gia va 27.300 cong ty con. Din diu thap ky 90 da c6 37.000 O cong ty xuyen quIc gia va 170.000 cong ty con - si lieu cua Vien nghien ciiu dao tao vl quan ly. 2005 ) la dieu ma cac DN can quan tam. - Co tac dgng den cac chinh sach kinh tl, KHKT. Hoat dgng ciia Viet Nam trong cac to chiic ASEAN, AFTA, chuan bi gia nhap WTO; xu huong toan cau boa, hoi nhap quIc tl, khu vuc tao thuan lgi cho viec ggi von dau tu dau tu, ma rgng lien ket hgp tac quoc te cho SXKD; - Song cac yeu to tren cung la ap lire doi voi cac DN trong viec xay dung chien luge phat trien, tang nang luc ciia chinh minh va can thay dugc yeu cau quan ly DN trong dieu kien quoc te hien nay : Coi trgng muc tieu tong the ciia xa hoi; chii y khich le tinh than; coi trgng nhan tai; xay dung van hoa DN; doi moi phuong thuc lanh dao. 3,2,2, Moi tru&ng nganh a) Moi truong nganh nghe — - Dia vi kinh tl xa hoi ciia nganh : Nganh GTVT noi chung va ITnh vuc XD-GTVT dang la moi quan tam, dugc uu tien dau tu va phat trien, voi ty trgng dau tu cho xay dung va cong nghiep tai hon 40%. Trong chu ky phat trien, nganh XD-GTVT dang o giai doan truong thanh. 47
  • 63. - Dac tinh ciia nganh: Co tinh chuyen nganh, san phim chinh la co so ha ting xa hoi, co tinh dac thu trong san xuat va su dung khai thac. Bg GTVT quan ly Nha nuoc vl nganh; co su phoi hgp giiia quan ly nganh va lanh tho; su phat trien nganh ( chuyen nganh ) va su phat triin chung cua ca xa hoi ( rgng rai); c6 cac DNNN thugc Bg voi chiic nang, nhiem vu XD- GTVT, tu vin thilt kl... - Ve C cau to chiic, so lugng DN trong mot nganh: O + Bg GTVT hien co 04 Tong cong ty 91, 12 Tong cong ty 90 va 90 doanh nghiep thugc Bg. Tong so cac DN true thugc Bg, cac cue va cac Tong cong ty tinh den 2005 la 535 DN, voi so lao dgng hon 210.000 nguoi, thu nhap binh quan den 1.700.000 d/nguoi, thang; ty le thieu viec lam nam 2000 con 5%, den nam 2005 giam con 0,8%; + Rieng ITnh vuc XDCB, nganh GTVT co yeu to tap trung, chi phoi boi cac Tong cong ty Ion. Tinh din nam 2006, co 6 Ting cong ty Ion XD-GTVT + 1 Hang Hai + 2 Duong Song voi khoang 141 Cong ty XD- GTVT + 44 Cong ty sua chira duong bg. Trong 141 cong ty do Nha nuoc ndm giii 100% von, hoac nam miic von chi phoi, hoac nam giii 50% von chiem khoang 30 ^ 50%, Cong ty 872 nam trong so nay; + Cac So GTVT cGng dugc giao dai dien chii diu tu thugc nganh.Vai 64 So co co 64 Cong ty XD-GTVT tuong duong cac DN (co cong ty) thugc Bg; + Cac dia phuong: Ciing manh miin voi cac Cong ty Trach nhiem hiru ban; tu nhan. Hg thuong lam cong trinh nho. Voi 64 tinh co khoang 200 DN XD-GTVT; Cac DN trong nganh van tien phong lgi thi ve cong nghe; tai san co gia tri, co tinh dac chiing, chiln luge; co uy tin thi truong. Dii voi cac DN dia phuong khi yeu cau ve chat lugng, ky thuat cao hg se kho khan va can lien danh voi cac don vi trong nganh; kha nang, C hoi trong nganh ciia Cong ty van dugc duy tri; O 48
  • 64. D6 thi 3-1 : Gia tang v6n dSu tu cho XDCB - GTVT 500000-1^ 450000 400000 350000 300000 250000 200000 150000 100000 50000 0 2000 2005 KH2020 Ngudn Bo GTVT D6 thi 3-2 : K6 hoach v6'n dSu tu giao th6ng ducmg b6 2005-2010 41.539 ty dong 34% 81.087 tydOng 66% D V6n TPCP E Goi v6n nx6c ngoM Ngudn Bo GTVT 49
  • 65. D6 thi 3-3 : T^c d6 luan chuyin h^nh kh^ch vk h&ng ho^ th6ng qua van tai dirdng b6 Viet Nam % ^H^nh khdch • H^ng hod Nam 2001 2002 2003 2005 Ngudn Tong cue Thong ke - Co cau thi truong trong nganh: Thi truong trong nganh bien nay chu yeu la ciia Nha nuoc dau tu von, ggi von; mot so nguon von tu cac nha dau tu khac cung cap cho ha tang tai cac khu che xuat, khu do thi. Ve dau tu cho XD-GTVT tang cao, co co hoi ( xem Do thi 3-1 : So Heu gia tang von dau tu cho XD-GTVT, trang 49; Do thi 3-2 : Ke hoach von dau tu cho giao thong duong bg nam 2005-2010, trang 49 va Do thi 3-3 : Toe do luan chuyen hang hoa, hanh khach qua mang duong bg Viet Nam, trang 50 ). - Su chuyen doi nganh: Hang rao loi ra cao do dac diem thiet bi, nha xuong, lao dgng chuyen nganh; trong tinh trang von vay cao, ng dgng cham dugc giai quyet; chi phi roi bo nganh cao ( dao tao, thi truong moi, sa thai); ton tai quan he lien doanh, lien ket; truyen thong, lich sii nganh, tinh cam, phu thugc kinh te nganh. Yeu to nay tang kho khan cho SXKD trong nganh va tang canh tranh ciia cac don vi trong nganh; 50
  • 66. - Trong qua trinh phat triin ciia nganh GTVT khi thilt kl quy hoach, thilt kl, thi cong ckn quan tam vl moi trucmg, c^n giai quylt v4n dl 6 nhiem khong khi, nuoc, bao ve rung, mat dat. Dac biet thi cong trong thanh pho, khu dan cu. b) C(r cau canh tranh nganh Siic ep canh tranh ve 5 mat. Do la, siic ep canh tranh ciia DN moi, siic ep canh tranh giiia cac DN Cling nganh, siie ep canh tranh cua san pham thay the hoac dich vu thay the, nang lire mac ca ciia nha cung cap, siic ep tu khach hang. Site ep cua doanh nghi$p mdi tham gia thi tru&ng : - Qui dinh ciia Chinh phii: Luat DN, chinh sach nhieu thanh phan kinh te, dau thau rgng rai, dau tu nuoc ngoai.. .tao co hoi cho cac DN mod "cat rao" de vao nganh, tang yeu to canh tranh; - Do tinh chat dac thii XD-GTVT, tinh chuyen nganh cao nen rao can ra nhap cao. Tuy nhien co nhiing doan thi truong ma cong trinh nho, gan voi dia phuong ( khu che xuat, chii yeu cac cong trinh Giao thong nong thon ) co khu vuc canh tranh cao, doi dau; co sir giam gia Ion, bat lgi cho ca hai phia; - Mot si DN 6 nganh khac ( Bg Xay dung, Bg Nong nghiep va phat trien nong thon ) co nang lire xay dung GTVT ciing da tham gia XD-GTVT, tao sir canh tranh; - Viec ggi vIn d^u tu nuoc ngoai se xuat hien lire lugng nha thau nuac ngoai vao Viet Nam ( xem dl thi 3-4, trang 53: Ty trgng dku tu vIn nuoc ngoai cho XD-GTVT ). Nha thau nuoc ngoai C lgi thi nang luc tham gia th^u nhung do chLphi cao nen chii yeu lien danh vai cac O don vi trong nganh. - DN nganh co uu thi vl chi phi, kinh nghiem, chuyen nganh, cong nghe, nang lire ( lao dgng, thilt bj, tiln vIn); lgi the qui mo, san lugng cao hon, nang xuat cao, giam chi phi; ve kenh phan phii, co lgi thi tieu chi dau th^u chgn Xhku; co lgi the ve khac biet hoa san pham, cong nghe mai, chuyen giao cong nghe kip thai; lgi the hinh anh uy tin DN nganh. 51
  • 67. - Voi cac du an Ion dau thau quoc te, DN nganh hien van co uu thi vugt trgi, dang nii len vl kha nang dam nhan cong vi?c. DN nganh can tu tang nang lire canh tranh; tao rao can ra nhap nganh thong qua viec lien danh, lien ket; giai quylt chinh sach can bg, lao dgng han chi ^' chky mau chat xam"; chuan bi can bg lam thau quoc te; Sue ep cda san pham thay the Ve van tai, hang hoa va hanh khach co the thong qua bang nhieu con duong. Theo si lieu Ting cue Thong ke, cho thdy, trong khoang tu nam 2001-2005 : - Toe do gia tang khoi lugng luan chuyen hang hod trung binh hang nam : 1 Toanbg Duong bg Duong sat Hang khong Duong bien 9,8 % 6,98 % 8,80 % 13,20% 8,88% TIC do gia tang khoi lugng luan chuyen hanh khach trung binh hang nam : Toan bg Duong bg Duong sat Hang khong Duong song 10,6% 5,48 % 8,12% 19,7% 4,5% GTVT Viet Nam diu dang tang cuong cho cac ngach van tai duong bien, duong sat, duong song, hang khong. Va ro rang trong tuong lai eo sir canh tranh giua cac ngach tren. Anh huong den su phan bo dau tu cho tung ngach. - Ban than trong ngach giao thong duong bg, xu huong tai cac thanh pho, khu dong dan cu viec xay dung niit giao khac miic, cku vugt se thay the cho mot phan xay dung mat ducmg bg ( xem D I thi 3-5 : Co cku von dku tu cho GTVT din nam 2020, trang 53 ). Miic do canh tranh san ph4m thay thi neu tren ciing dat ra cho DN khi xay dung chien luge ckn quan tam din viec duy tri, phat huy, mo rgng san pham - cac cong trinh cau vugt, niit giao thong, duong s^t, nha ga, san bay, cang song, cang bien. 52
  • 68. Viec tang dau tu mo rgng cho ngach giao thong duong bg la rk ckn thiet; ciing voi viec xay dung mang duong cao tic, mang duong Xuyen A voi cac du an co quy mo Ian .. .van se dat nganh xay dung giao thong duong bg truoc nhilu co hoi, tilm tang. Bieu do 3 - 4 : Ty trong dau tu von nuuc ngoai cho XD - GTVT Ty 2000 2005 KH 2020 BI Vtfn trong nude • Vtfn nirdc n g o i i Ngudn Bd GTVT D6 thi 3-5 : Ca c^u v6n d^u Ux cho GTVT d^fn 2020 86.500 ty d6ng 15%, giaothdng n6ng th6n 189.000 tyd6ng 33%-Duangb6. 109.000 tyddng D Ducmg b6 19%, giaothdng • Giao th6ng khac 196.100 tyd6ng dd thi. 33% DGiaothdngdd thi DGiao thCng n6ng thdn 53
  • 69. Site ep tit khach hang Khach hang chu yeu ciia nganh XD-GTVT hien nay la Nha nuoc, Nha nuoc giao viec quan ly vIn, thuc hien dku tu xay dung du an cho cae bg nganh, uy ban nhan dan cac tinh - cac chu dku Xu ciia Nha nuoc. Ngoai ra cung co cac chu dku Xu la tu nhan; nuoc ngoai nhung hien chiem thi phan khong Ion; - Kha nang chi phoi ciia chu dau tu ( Nha nuoc ) trong co chi hien nay la rk cao: Vl kl hoach, tieu chi chgn nha thau va loai bo - theo phuong dien phat triin nganh co thuan lgi vl viec lam cho cac don vi trong nganh; ap dat vl gia (tieu chi dku Xhku "gia trAn''; dilu chinh gia; khoi lugng bo sung, phat sinh ...). The che, co phan ciing nhic; ap dat thanh toan ( thanh toan cham, ng dgng keo dai ), eo tinh trang khep kin thieu khach quan. Trach nhiem ciia chu dau tu khong dugc quy dinh ro rang, trong thue te phan lgi the luon nghieng ve phia chii dau tu, gay thiet hai, thiet thoi cho nha thau. - Viec gia tang cac du an BOT, BT trong dau tu GTVT xuat hien cac nha dau tu moi, xu huong la ggi von dau tu nuoc ngoai trong dieu kien von trong nuoc con han hep. Canh tranh giira cac doanh nghiep ciing nganh XD-GTVT Thi hien qua co cau quy mo DN trong nganh. Trong nganh hien ton tai ba dang quy mo, Di ig thic nhdt la cac DN Ion la cac Ting cong ty, moi Tong cong ty co khoang tu 15-20 cong ty ( DN ) true thugc, chi phoi. Tao ra nhom chien luge cao trong nganh - tao the lire; su phu thugc, phan phii cong viec. Cac Ting cong ty chii yeu tham gia cac goi thau Ion tinh hinh canh tranh tam chua gay gat. Dgng thu hai la cac DN co cong ty trong nganh, noi chung thuong co co cau, tam co tuong duong va dac thii ciia nganh GTVT nhilu DN co theo duoi nhirng chien luge giong nhau, tuong tu nhau; ciing mot chiln luge co ban lam cho tinh hinh canh tranh tro nen gay gat. 54
  • 70. Dac diem thi truong XD-GTVT rgng, cac DN trong nganh co khac nhau ve phin thi truong, dia ban, phan doan thi truong; Dgng thu ba la cac DN nho, chii ylu 6 dia phuong, moi ra nhap nganh. Canh tranh chii ylu tai thi truong xay dung giao thong nong thon, cong trinh nho le cua dai phuong. Tuong lai nhu cau cao vl XD-GTVT: Kl hoach 2006 - 2010 dku Xu XD-GTVT khoang 455.000 ty trong do xay dung duong bg 189.000 ty, giao thong nong thon - GTNT 86.500 ty, giao thong do thi 109.000 ty, Tao co hoi, giam sir canh tranh ( xem dl thi 3-5: Co cku vIn dku tu cho GTVT din nam 2020, trang 53 ). Sue ep cua nha cung cdp ' Cac nha cung ckp nguyen vat lieu dku vao, thilt bi thi cong : Dac dilm nganh XD-GTVT voi vat tu vat lieu chii yeu nhu : Thep, xi mang, xang d4u, vat tu chuyen dung cho cong trinh cau, thiet bi chuyen dung. DN thuong xuyen su dung voi khoi lugng Ion, dam bao kha nang cung cap ciia cac nha cung ling. + San pham ciia nha cung cap la quan trgng doi voi vat tu ky thuat dac biet ( nhu thep, thilt bi cho cong trinh cau, phu gia be tong...), can nhap khau; vat tu vat lieu, van tai dia phuong nam "dgc quyen". Can thiet lap quan he lau dai, hiju bao voi cac nha cung cap dam bao on dinh khoi lugng, chat lugng, gia ca, ho trg von; lien doanh, tu san xuat vat lieu dia phuong; + Cac nha cung ling cung canh tranh voi nhau, co su uu tien ciia nha cung ling voi DN mua; + Cac nha cung ung eo chien luge lien ket-dgc ( nhua duong, vat lieu dia phuong ) tao hk lgi cho DN mua; Cac nha cung ung ciing kho khan be luy do ng dgng trong XDCB, hgp dong cung cap thuong kem theo dieu khoan thanh toan truoc; thanh toan ngay gay kho khan Ion ve von cho DN mua; hien nay kho co nha cung ung san von cho tra cham. Cac DN can phai C chien luge "Ban hang". O - Cac nha cung cap lao dgng : Lao dgng trong XD-GTVT dugc cung cap tu hai nguon chinh. 55
  • 71. + NguIn tu cac truong dao tao cua Nha nuoc, cac Ting cong ty ciia nganh; + Nguon lao dgng tuyen dung tu cac dia phuong, chii ylu do can bg cong nhan vien trong Cong ty giai thieu. Lao dgng nay Cong ty tu huan luyen, bli duong tao nghi, nang cao tay nghi. - Ngan hang cung ckp von luu dgng, vIn dai ban dl ddu tu thilt bi ngay cang "silt chat" ban miic, yeu cku thi chap tai san dk vay, giam tin chip. Xu huong do yeu cku DN cin tang vIn dieu le Cong ty, can co chinh sach, chiln luge giai quylt. Cac yeu to tren yeu cau DN c6 bien phap chii dgng voi cac nha cung ckp, duy tri quan he "hai ben cung c6 lgi, ho trg lln nhau". Giai quylt kip thoi, hgp ly tiln do cung ling, du tru, ton kho; c6 chien luge tang von dieu le va huy dgng von dau tu dai han va von luu dgng; co phuong an lien ket, lien doanh ( gop von, mua co phan ...) voi cac nha cung cap chu yeu. Viec phan tich hien trang, xu the, cuong do tong hgp cua 5 siic ep tren, quyet dinh miic do gay gat ciia canh tranh va kha nang gianh thang lgi ciia DN. 3.2.3. Mo hinh Industry's success factors - Cac yeu to thanh cong trong nganh Cac ylu t l thanh cong trong nganh XD-GTVT , co the de cap den cac yeu to, xep theo thii tu sau: a) Quan he v&i Chd dau tu, dai dien cac chit dau tu; Quan h^ v&i cac doi tac lien doanh • Dii voi cac DN XD-GTVT , khach hang la cac Chii dau tu-ngudi dua ra cae don hang, thong qua tieu chi dku Xhku va chgn thau di lira chgn nha thau xay dung, nha thau xay lap. Viec C dugc mli quan he vai hg, giii dugc cac moi quan he do la mot yeu to quan trgng de O DN dku Xhku thanh cong, chilm dugc du an, cong trinh. Cac DN dan dku, hg ckn bilt truoc dugc cac thong tin vl du an, ngay tu cae buoc quy hoach, lap luan chiing...nham co the nghien ciiu chiln luge tham gia du an ( chuan bi nang lire nhan sir, can doi bo tri thilt bi, tiln von, gia ca v.v...) 56
  • 72. - Cung xuat phat tii yeu c^u vl nang lire, hoac sir hon h4n trong quan he voi Chii dku Xu cua dii tac. DN e4n lien danh lien kit voi dii tac dl manh hon trong quan he va dat dugc yeu cku nang lire ciia du an, hgp lire ciing tham gia thAu voi co hoi thanh cong cao ban. b) Nang luc nha thau Trong XD-GTVT, DN-nha thiu dugc giao du an mot khi hg phai co va dat dugc nhung tieu chi nhat dinh ve nang lire. Nhiing tieu chi do do cae Chii dku Xu dua. ra voi muc dich ma hg cho rang chi co nhu vay thi nha thau moi co kha nang hoan thanh don dat hang cua minh; hoac dua ra mot so tieu chi do c6 tinh chat nhu rao can xam nhap nganh, nham phat trien nganh, theo chu truong cua Chu dau tu ( Bg, nganh ). Cac tieu chi do la : - Yeu cau ve kha nang san co, da kinh qua : Ket qua SXKD 3-5 nam phai co lai; doanh thu trung binh 3-5 nam cao hon gia tri du an du kien (thucmg quy dinh tir 1,5-2,5 lan ). Co dgi ngii can bg quan ly, can bg du an, lao dgng ky thuat nhieu ve so lugng, co kinh nghiem; co cac thilt bi thi cong nhieu ve so lugng, co chat lugng. Da thuc hien thanh cong mot so san phim, hgp ding tuong tu vl gia tri, tinh chat ky thuat cong nghe; - Yeu cku vl kha nang, nang luc sin sang huy dgng dap ling cho du an, neu dugc giao du an: Dam bao huy dgng miic v6n luu dgng cho du an. Can bg du an chu chot : Giam doc dieu hanh, d6c cong, ky su giam sat chit lugng...( co tren 5- 15 nam kinh nghiem ); lao dgng dii cho du an va c6 cap bac tay nghi cao. Thilt bi dii so lugng, chung loai, chat lugng, do huy dgng nhanh nhat den du an. c) Tieu chi vi Ky thuat, cong ngh^ san xudt Nha thau phai co cac can bg co trinh do, kinh nghiem dl khao sat, nghien ciiu du an. Triin khai thilt kl t l chuc thi cong cho du an. Lam sao dl ky thuat san xuat, cong nghe thi cong cong trinh, san xuit san phim dua ra dap ling theo yeu cau ciia don dat hang va to ra eo tinh vuot troi ban cac dii thii khac, tiln do nhanh hon. 57
  • 73. Tai mot du an cu thi, cac kha nang tren ciia nha thiu se dugc danh gia tinh dilm va phai dap ling tli thieu ( co tu 70 dilm tro len ). Doi voi nha thiu trong lien danh, nang lire cung dugc danh gia rieng, theo ty le tham gia trong lien danh. Nhu vay cac DN-nha thau phai co chien luge phat trien nham dam bao dugc yeu cau ciia khach hang ve nang lire, ky thuat cong nghe - dieu kien can cho su thanh cong. d) Gia Tieu chi ve Gia Khi mot top nha thau tuong duong ve nang lire, ky thuat, cong nghe- vugt qua dugc yeu cau vl nang lire, thi ai co gia thap nhat se thanh cong. Gia la mot trong nhiing yeu to quan trgng quylt dinh thanh cong. Su tinh toan, quyet dinh ve gia thuong phu thugc vao cac yeu to : Do hilu bilt ky ve du an; ban than DN co the to chiic quan ly du an chat che, san xuat thi cong voi cac giai phap hgp ly, nang suat, hieu qua; ho^c co chien luge giam gia de gianh du an. e) Kha nang cung cdp tin dung, von Nim trong chiln luge tang vIn tu co, vIn dieu le nham tham gia cac cong trinh theo phuong thiic BT, BOT ( phuong thiic thuc hien du an ma cac nuoc dang ap dung pho bien hien nay, Viet Nam cung dang keu ggi diu tu nhilu du an ). DN cin co dugc 30% von du an, dong thai giai quylt viec eo nha tai trg cung cap phan von yeu cau con lai cho du an. 3.3. Ap dung Value chain va Bechmarking de phan tich ngi bg Cong ty 872 3.3.L Value chain : Qua cac ngi dung da neu, xac lap chuoi gia tri doi voi Cong ty 872 - xem hinh 3-7, trang 60: - Cac hoat dgng ho trg a) Cff s& ha tang cda DN Vl C ciu tl chiic Cong ty 872 da chuyin dii sang cong ty cl phin. Co ciu tl chiic Cong ty O 872 dugc mo ta qua hinh 3-6 : So dl t l chiic bg may Cong ty 872, trang 58b. 58
  • 74. •o- So- -^ r r 1 -J X O Z <0 o c ^ = = Oi) ^ T H 'O H o —o o •u; o H H U H Q - O X a o = = ox U z: X > O a. H Q o^ .t •= •= 'W O S :2 '^ Z O 5 ^ ^ <0 W O O X Z u X o- CQ X ^. o8 f >^ Q ^ - - — ^< X U -C H •u •< >< or o X ^J c o- D;O. "W na O u -3 Q '« ^ u 5^ <o < o ns ^•p = > CQ o ^, u H ••tej -THI ONG o H STP o r- h- ffi ' < • Thi cong dan dung : 02 doi > l/c nang cap do t h j : 03 doi Thi cong duong : 08 doi 18 DOI SX THI CONG o Thi cong cAu : 03 doi 1 02 Tram Asphalt z Q; ';: H u z •T" "^ Cu - - - - - SsA
  • 75. o- CQ Z ^ •3| o * - "i S X a . c^ c/) ij o :^ z . Oz x-< ^> a o- M U 'P X u o H O Q O •• s
  • 76. hoat dong SXKD co phkn phu thuoc vao T6ng Cong ty Xay dimg cong trinh giao thong 8, c6 han ch6 nhit dinh. Hinh 3- 7 : Chuoi gia trj lien quan den hoat dong cua Cong ty 872 Ca sa ha ting HOAT Quan ly nguon lire ©ONG MUC HO Quan ly tai chinh TRO Nghien ciru phat trien, phat trien cong nghe TIEU / CHIEN Quan he Ban hang Hau ban HOAT Khach^ Nguyen (nghiem giao ©ONG hang; Doi vat lieu Xay lap thu thanh (Quyk / Lu'ac tac lien dau vao toan tung toan; Bao CHiNH danh dau phan, ban hanh) thau giao) b) Qudn ly nguon luc - Cong ty CO cac quy ch6 v^ quan ly lao dong, nhan luc, quy che khoan gon nham dam bao cho DN su dung hop ly lao dong, thuc hien hieu qua cac hoat dong tao ra gia tri; - Lao dong vdi t6ng s6 : 351 nguoi, Dai hpc va tren Dai hoc 23,36%, Cao ding va trung cip 18,51%, Cong nhan ky thuat: 23,07%; tho van hanh 32,19%, thg sua chua 2,87%; - Kinh nghiem t6t, du nganh nghi. Can bo quan ly c6 5 nam kinh nghiem 30,6%, 10 nam 26,5%, tren 10 nam 42,9%. Cong nhan ky thuat cip bac 3/7 co 27%; 4/7 co 27%; va tu 5/7 tro len co 46%. Hang nam binh quan thue them khoang 400-600 lao dong dia phuong; 60
  • 77. - Viec nghien curu, quy hoach tuykn dung, huan luyen, boi duong cac can bo co kinh nghiem da kinh qua cac du an, nham tang nang luc quan ly du an va san xuit, dap ung yeu ciu cua khach hang, tang nang xuit, tao ra gia tri; - Lao dong dugc bo tri dieu dong tren dien rong, cac vung mi^n, toan qu6c. c) Qudn ly tai chinh - Von la mot noi dung quan trong doi voi cac dan vi XD-GTVT hien nay. DN phai lam Xhk nao de giai quet va cung cap dugc du von cho san xuat- qua sir cung cip v6n ciia cac nha tin dung, ngan hang. Cong ty 872 hien co muc von dieu le gan 05 ty dong, co 5% so voi san lugng san lugng binh quan hon 100 ty/nam. Cong ty da dugc cung cap lugng von luu dong tu cac ngan hang binh quan 43 ty/ nam. Quan he t6t voi cac nha cung ung vat tu vat li^u ung mot phan von luu dong; giao bat mot so cong viec cho cac nha thiu phu giam tai v6n cua Cong ty. Cong ty da vay dugc v6n cho diu tu thiet bi thi cong, thai diem s6 du vay cao nhat la 25,316 ty/ 37,335 ty t6ng nguyen gia tai san co dinh. Viec dam bao chit lugng quan he tin dung vai cac ngan hang la mot noi dung quan trgng dugc dat ra trong cong tac quan ly tai chinh cua Cong ty. - Da tang nang lire v5n cho du an thong qua quan he thiu phu thi cong va lien ket vai cac nha cung ung mua tra cham vat tu vat lieu hojc cip mot ban mtrc quay vong. - Quan ly tai chinh cung dugc^Ong ty coi trong thong qua he th6ng quan ly gia thanh, kilm soat chi phi. d) Nghien cuu vd phat trien, phat trien cong nghe + Do nganh co tinh chit dac thu, nganh chu dong giai quylt viec phat triin cac san phim moi va ap dung cac cong nghe moi nhim ha thip chi phi cho dan dat hang ( gia trin ) cua chu dau tu; 61
  • 78. + D6i voi DN chu yeu nghien cuu va phat triin trong cac boat dong ky thuat thiet kl x6 chuc thi cong va marketing, ung dung vat lieu tai cho, nghien cuu va ap dung theo tung du an, cong trinh, dilu dgng, bo tri thi cong hgp ly dl tang hieu qua; + Viec nghien cuu chiln luge diu tu thilt bi thi cong, thilt bi thi nghiem; tuyin dung, huin luyen, bdi du5ng cac can bo co kinh nghiem da kinh qua du an theo quy trinh moi; ap dung cac phin mem thiet kl thiet ke, phin mem quan ly nhim tang nang lire san xuit, dap ung yeu cau cua khach hang, tang nang xuat, hieu qua - la nhung noi dung quan trong. + Cong tac chien luge : Dei thrc hien viec xay dung kl hoach ngin ban, trung ban va ggi ma chiln luge phat triin DN cho tuong lai. Nhin chung cac kl hoach ngin ban, trung han dat dugc yeu cau. Chua co bg phan thuc su chuyen nghien cuu vl chiln luge phat triin, Cin xem xet, d£Lt vi tri, vai tro cua cong tac nay 6 phuong dien khoa hoc quan ly, dilu hanh va thi truong. Cac boat d9ng chinh a) Quan h^ khach hang, quan h§ doi tac lien danh tham gia thau cong trinh Cong ty 872 da chii trgng trong viec giai quyet moi quan he voi khach hang chu yeu : + Ddi voi nganh do la Bo GTVT, cac cue chuyen nganh, cac dai dien Chii dau tu cua Bo nhu mpt s6 PMU, mgt s6 so GTVT; + D6i voi cac dia phuong do la mot s6 thanh ph6, tinh va cac ban quan ly XD-GTVT, do thi. + D6i voi cac chu diu tu tunhan, DN 100% v6n nuoc ngoai (ha tang cac khu do thi, che xuit...) Cong ty chua tin cong vao doan thi truong nay. (xem hinh 4-1 : Bang dia ban kinh doanh, trang 83; Bang 4-2 : Cac khach hang, trang 84). Moi quan he vai khach hang la mot noi dung quan trgng, mot ylu td chii ch6t nhim co thi nghien cuu chiln luge tham gia dr an, chuin bi nang lire nhan sir, can doi b6 tri thiet bj, tien v6n, gia ca v.v.. .trong dilu kifn thi truong cua Cong ty rgng, toan quoc. 62
  • 79. cin giu moi quan he co tinh truyin thing, kl thua tren co so thuong hieu Cong ty- don vi chuyen nganh thugc B6 GTVT; quan he cong tac cua cac lanh dao Cong ty, cac giam die khu vuc, cac ban dilu hanh du an va mot s5 lanh dao phong ban voi cdc chu diu tu. + Cong ty da giai quylt viec lien danh, lien kit voi mot so d6i tac la cac DN trong nganh, hoac cac DN dia phuong dk cung tham gia thiu nhilu du an. Da chuin bi cho viec lien danh voi dii tac nuoc ngoai (Han Qu6c.,,). b) Qudn ly v^t tu + Chuyen nganh XD-GTVT, co d^c diem dac thu trong mua sim, giao nhan, trung chuyin, bao quan, quan ly vat tu, vat lieu diu vao. Trong san phim, lugng vat tu vat lieu chilm co tu 60-70%, Do vay viec quan ly cac vat tu chinh nhu : thep, xi mang, nhua duong, xang diu, da cac loai, cat cac loai...la mot noi dung quan trgng, thiet yeu lien quan den gia thanh, lgi nhuan; + Viec quan ly thi cong, san xuat dugc giao khoan cho timg du an, vat tu vat lieu cip thang din "chan cong trinh". Cong ty co ban hanh he thong dinh muc tieu hao, kiem soat chi phi hgply; + Trong XD-GTVT cac DN chuyen nganh deu ap each quan ly tuong tu. Sir khac biet khi giai quylt dugc ngi dung tren do la nang cao trach nhiem, pham chat can bg. c) Thuc hien qua trinh xay Idp Qua trinh xay lip trong XD-GTVT la mot ngi dung miu chit cua DN. Day la nhung boat dOng cu thi dk thuc hien theo h6 so diu thiu da dugc chip nhan. Thuc hien xay lip diing din se dam bao dugc gia tri da djt ra, tao gia tri moi thong qua viec quan ly, dilu hanh du an. Tai hien truong mot du an, c6 cac bg phan, g6m : + Don vi thi xay lip cua nha thiu : Ban dilu hanh du an, cac dgi thi cong. Ban dieu hanh, don vi thi cong thuc hien quan ly, dilu hanh du an tren co so Quy chi giao khoan cua Cong 63
  • 80. ty. Nhiem vu cua hg la dai dien true tilp cua nha thiu tai hien truong va phai phat huy dugc cac nguon lire huy dgng din cong truong, bo tri chat che, quan ly chat che va tilt kiem, thi cong dam bao tiln do, chit lugng, hieu qua, tao gia tri cao nhit cho hp va Cong ty. + Dai dien Chii diu tu : Giam d6c du an ciia Chu diu tu, tu vin giam sat va dai dien don vi tu vin thilt kl cua Chu diu tu thue. Nha thiu phai thuc hien nghiem ngat quy trinh xay lip dir<5i sr giam sat ciia hg. Nha thiu cin giai quylt tit mli quan he voi cac bo phan nay. d) Bdn hang Trong XD-GTVT, cong tac xay lip cong trinh co thoi gian dai. Cong tac "ban hang" da dugc thuc hien tung phin theo dinh ky tung thang; theo cac "dilm dimg ky thuat" trong qua trinh xay lip. Khi kit thiic xay lip, t§p hgp lai, quylt toan toan bg, nghiem thu ban giao cong trinh, du an. Do vay, ngay trong qua trinh xay lip tung phin da thuc hien theo "quy trinh thi cong va nghiem thu cong trinh". Vin dl quan trgng la: Don vi thi cong phai dam bao hoan thanh timg phan viec do diing yeu cau, dong thai cin tap hgp dii cac chung tu cin thilt ( vl chit lugng vat tu vat lieu, cac bien ban xac nhan chat lugng hien truong, xac nhan khii lugng, kem theo ban ve thi cong v.v...); giai quyet dugc moi quan he cong tac voi dai dien Chii diu tu, tu van giam sat, tu van thiet ke va sir phoi hgp cong tac giQa ho voi nhau va ho voi nha thiu. Cac yeu cau do dat ra vifc xay dung bo may quan ly dieu hanh timg du an, cac du an cua Cong ty la yeu to rit cin thilt va quan trgng. e) Hau bdn hang Trong XD-GTVT, sau khi thuc hifn xong cong tac xay lap se thuc hien viec "Ban giao cong trinh dua vao sir dung". Dan vi quan ly khai thac cong trinh nhan va quan ly cong trinh ( cue Duong bg Viet Nam va cac don vi khu vuc cua ho; hoac cac chu dau tu khac ). Tiep do nha 64
  • 81. thiu xay lip thuc hien bao hanh cong trinh ( 12 thang; 24 thang..,), kit thiic thoi ban bao hanh, thuc hien viec ban giao chinh thuc, nha thiu dugc xem nhu hoan thanh viec ban hang. Trong qua trinh bao hanh, nha thiu phai sua chua, khic phuc cac hu hong cua cong trinh, ma do la do loi thi cong ciia nha thiu, loai tru cac nguyen nhan khac do qua trinh khai thacsii dung gay ra ( vi du nhu xe van tai qua tai trong thilt kl, co hoa chit roi vai an mon mat duong, bao lii...). Xay lip xong, lire lugng da nit khoi cong trinh, thuong cong trinh 6 nhilu vung miln. Viec giu dugc mdi quan he voi don vi dang quan ly khai thac cong trinh trong qua trinh bao hanh, la mot viec can quan tam, Va con nhieu cong viec khac co lien quan din cong viec ban hang nhu : Su thanh tra, kilm tra, kilm toan ciia cac co quan quan ly Chii diu tu, bit kl cong trinh da hoan thanh viec "ban hang" ma nha thau phai quan tam, giai quylt. 3,3.2, Bechmarking Ap dung phuong phap liy chuin, xac dinh cac ylu tl thanh cong chu chit cua Cong ty 872 Bang 3-8 : Ket qua ve nhirng yeu to thanh cong chu chot cua Cong ty 872 Cac yeu to so sanh DN-872 Tong 8 Tongl TongTL Tong 6 £>|a phuong 1. - Quan he chii dau tu + C Trung uong ( Bg ) J 10 8 8 7 7 3 + d Dia phuong ( So) 8 6 7 6 8(PN) 8 - Quan he lien danb 9 9 8 7 8 6 2. N ^ g lire nha thau - Cong trinh duong 9 7 8 3 9 3 - Cau nho, cau trung (PN ) 8 3 3 5 8 6 - Cau Ion 3 7 9 9 9 2 - Xay dung dan dung (nho, vira) 9 2 2 2 2 7 3. Gia canh tranh 8 8 8 7 7 5 • 65
  • 82. Chii thich : + Dilm toi da su dung la 10; + PN : Khu vuc phia Nam Viet Nam; + T6ng 8, 1, Thang Long, 6 ; Cac DN thuoc cac T6ng Cong ty XD-GTVT, C san lugng xay dung tuong duong 70-100 ty/ nam - dii thii canh tranh; O + Dia phuong : cac DN o dai phuong co dy an- doi thii canh tranh. Nganh XD-GTVT co pham vi rit rong ve thi truong va dii thu canh tranh. C bilu tren moi J dl cap C tinh chit chung, ting hgp. Vi vay viec phan tich cin triin khai theo phan doan thj O trucmg - cu thi. - Cong ty 872, co nhilu dilm manh : Quan he Chu diu tu, nang lire vl thi cong duong, ciu nho ciu trung, xay dung dan dung, c6 kha nang lien danh voi cac dii tac. - Tuy nhien cac doi thii trong nganh diu manh " Quan he chii diu tu 6 Trung uong" : Canh tranh gay git; ciu cao thi giam bat canh tranh. Cin lien danh lien kit. - Cong ty 872 co uu thi " Quan he chii diu tu 6 Dia phuong", ITnh vuc thi cong ciu nho, vua 6 phia Nam - mot so dia phuong, nhung cac DN o Dia phuong do ciing co uu thi tuong duong. c i n phat huy yeu to manh khac; lien danh lien kit. - Can C chien luge tham gia thi cong ciu Ion, mo mang xay dung dan dung. O - Noi dung ve gia neu tren, danh gia co tinh tong hgp ve quan ly gia cua cac DN. Doi voi sir phan doan thi truong, tung du an DN cin co chien luge rieng trong tong the chiln luge gia cua minh. 3.4. Phan tich canh tranh, cac chien liro^c canh tranh va lira chon chien Ivgc phat trien cua DN - Cong ty872 Dac dilm canh tranh ciia Cong ty 872 dat boi canh trong trong nganh XD-GTVT hien nay, C nhung dac diem co ban sau : O 66
  • 83. - "Cau" thi cao, ke ca hi^n tai va yeu ciu trong nhung nam toi. Nhung phan bl khong diu theo ky, khiln DN kho In dinh san xuit, dien biln canh tranh kho xac dinh quy luat; - Cac DN dugc xem la doi thii canh tranh, "can tai can sue", khi "ciu" giam thi canh tranh tro nen khIc liet, chu ylu cac DN ap dung ''Chiin luac Ddn ddu vi chi phi"- dai giam gia, miin chi dk co cong viec 1 ^ - "khong lam cung chit, lam thi chit tu tu"; hoac xuit hien tieu cue trong dau thiu, chgn thiu; - Cac DN dia phuong c6 tinh trang "pha rao can co tinh quy luat" ra nhap nganh; nang lire yeu, thilu van " ra nhap" dugc vao nganh, gay kho khan cho cac DN chuyen nganh; - Co chi chinh sach cho nganh XD-GTVT con nhilu bit cap, quan ly ching cheo, chua ro rang, chua dugc thuc hien mot each minh b^ch. T^o nen sr nii ro cao trong canh tranh. Do vay, de ton tai, giu on dinh va phat triin dugc san xuit kinh doanh DN can phai co cac giai phap thich ung, bang cac CLKD cua minh. Tuy theo thi truong cu the, trong phan doan cua minh Cong ty van dung cac chien luge sau : a) Van dung Chien lu^c dan ddu vi chi phi, Trong truong hgp cac dii thii tuong duong nhau vl nang lire, ky thuat. Cong ty can van dung tit ca cac ylu to thanh cong cua DN nhu : Chuyen nghiep co nang suat cao ban; quan ly tit hon dk giam hao phi, giam chi phi; nang luc thilt bi sSn co, chuyen nganh, khiu hao giam; kinh nghiem thi cong, thilt kl t l chiic thi cong hgp ly nhim ha gia thanh, giam gia thiu so voi dii thiliil tning thiu. Ding thoi tang hi^u qua cua san xuit, thu lgi nhuan cao, tang nang lire tai chinh; b) Van dung Chiin lucre khac biet hoa sanphdm, Tai mot si thi trucmg, cin vugt truoc mgt si dii thu vl cac san phim nhu : Thi cong ciu nho, ciu trung - o phia Nam; dim du ung lrc; cgc cat; cgc khoan nhli; xay dung dan dung. 67
  • 84. nang cip do thi; tram trgn be tong nhua nong... nhim vao dugc thi truong, mo rong thi truong va giu: thi truong. - Phuong each thuc hien : Tu ban than DN phat huy nhiing thi manh cua minh; buoc diu phai qua lien doanh, lien kit dk chilm ITnh cong nghe, dl vao dugc mot s6 thi truong cu thi, hoac chuin bi don cac du an moi co yeu ciu tinh chuyen nganh cao (khac biet hoa) nhu He thing cau vugt niit giao, ciu can v.v... c) Van dung Chien lugtc tdp trung thi hien o hai phuong di^n chinh, Phan doan thi trucmg cu thi, t?ip trung vao mot s6 thi truong, khach hang chii ylu (lira chon theo dia phuong; ban quan ly ciia trung uong) ma C6ng ty co lgi thi khi van dung cac chiln luge giam chi phi va chien luge khac biet hoa san phim de tang sue canh tranh cua Cong ty, giam doi thu canh tranh; bojc tai thi truong do su canh tranh ylu, Cong ty co lgi thi chuyen nganh. Qua phan tich tren, Cong ty da va dang lira chgn chiln luge tap trung trong boat dgng cua minh. Trong thuc tl, trong nganh XD-GTVT hien nay canh tranh c6 tinh chit phuc tap, c6 khi do anh huong cua mgt bo phan; ca nhan; hoac do co che chua dong bg ...lam cho moi truong canh tranh tro nen thieu minh bach, roi ren, chua ton trgng theo quy luat khach quan. Do vay cung voi viec nghien cuu ap dung cac ly thuylt, nguoi lanh d£io DN cin thvrc tl hoa, quan ly theo doi sat c6jig_viec kinh doanh va moi truong kinh doanh, dieu chinh sir lua chon san phim, thi truong mgt each nhanh nhay dk dii pho kip thoi, phu hgp voi cac dieu kien nganh dang thay dii. 3.5. Phan tich nang lye canh tranh cot loi cua Cong ty 872 a) Cct s& ha tang Nhirng mat manh : 68
  • 85. Cong ty hien dang dat san lugng xay dung hon 100 ty/ nam, tinh theo 1 ding tai san cl dinh lam ra 3 ding san lugng, trong khi do ty le trong nganh binh quan la 1,5-2,0. Cac DN trong nhom diu nganh ty le do la 2,0-2,5. Dat dugc kha nang iy, truoc hit la do Cong ty co dugc C so ha tang manh. Do la: O - Quan ly cip cao : HDQT, Giam die, cac pho Giam die la nhiing nguoi da nhilu nam cong tac trong nganh, gin bo voi su nghifp cua Cong ty; c6 kinh nghiem t l chiic, quan ly va dilu hanh, biet khich le dgng vien va co trach nhiem. Co kha nang khai thac va duy tri mli quan he voi cac Chu dau tu va cac doi tac lien danh. Trong thuc tl, day la bo phan quan trong quylt djnh sir tin tai, phat triin cua Cong ty. YIU t l nay la thi manh cua Cong ty so voi DN khac, Cong ty nim trong top hang diu cua nganh. - He thong bo may quan ly cua DN da dugc hoan chinh ve co ciu, tl chuc va boat dong theo cac quy dinh, quy che do Cong ty ban hanh. Cac quy dinh, quy che dang quan tam la : Dilu le to chuc hoat dgng cua Cong ty 872 da sua dii theo Luat Doanh nghiep 2005, Quy chi giao khoan doi san xuat, Quy che giao khoan thiet bi thi cong, cac quy dinh ve thuc hien chi dp tien lucmg, bao hiem, lao dgng,,.Yeu to nay la the manh cua Cong ty so voi DN khac, Cong ty nam trong tip hang dau cua nganh, Dac biet Cong ty da thuc hien xong co phan hoa, C dieu kien tham gia cac cong trinh co nguIn vin nuoc ngoai ( ADB, WB...), trong O khi cac DN nganh con khoang 60-70% chua thuc hien dugc, hg con nhieu kho khan trong vai nam toi. ^ - Cong ty da c6 ban 30 nam boat dong trong nganh, co kinh nghiem trong quan ly dieu hanh (CO he thdng thong tin bao cao; kha hoan thien cac quy che, quy dinh quan ly; da ap dung, su dung cac phin mim quan ly, thilt k l ) ; co kinh nghiem kinh qua cac cong trinh, cac dia phuong, lam thiu quIc tl, da nhilu nam kinh qua thi cong theo quy trinh ciia nganh va quy trinh moi AASHTO, tieu chuin chit lugng ASTM ( Hoa Ky); la don vi dap ung dugc yeu 69
  • 86. cau chung cua nganh XD-GTVT vl cong nghe, nang lire kinh nghiem va nang lire xay dung cong trinh GTVT ( xem Bang 3-9 : Kinh nghiem thi cong cong trinh, trang 71 ). Vlu tl nay la the manh cua Cong ty so voi DN khac, Cong ty nim trong tip hang diu ciia nganh; - Co doi ngu can bg quan ly du an, dac biet la giam die, pho giam die cac Ban dilu hanh du an, cac doi tuong, die cong dugc quy hoach, huin luyen, bli duong, dao tao dii co si cho cac du dn hi?n tai va tuong lai. Cong tac nay doi hoi quy thoi gian, cung cae chinh sach khac ma cac DN khac cung cin hon nhilu nam cong phu mod co dugc. Nhan tl nay la thi manh cua Cong ty so voi DN khac, Cong ty nim trong tip hang diu cua nganh va nii troi ban. - Can bo cong nhan vien da tung trai, quen vugt kho, sin sang thuc hien thi c6ng 6 cac dia ban kho khan, xa nha. Co tinh thin doan kit, ding thuan. Nhirng n$i dung can quan tam : - Trach nhiem thuc su cua HDQT gan voi quyen lgi kinh te (ty 1^ co phan nam giti); con tan du each quan ly cu, con mgt so ton tai truoc co phan can phai tiep tuc giai quyet; - Cac thanh vien HDQT, Giam die, cac pho Giam doc co nang luc, trinh do chua deu. Dac biet kha nSng phat trien thi truong, san pham m6i ( Cong ty con co nhieu chuc nang kinh doanh chua phat huy, phat trien dugc). - Can bg cip du an, dgi, truong pho phong Cong ty co nhung vi tri con tre, chua timg trai can quan tam huin luy^n, boi duong, dao tao. Ding thai tang cuong cong tac huong din, chi dao, kiem tra,-giam sat. - Quan ly, dilu hanh cac dir an chuyen nganh, theo quy dinh can phai bl tri cac ky su co chuyen mon chuyen nganh ( xay dung, ciu duong ...). Dl phat triin Cong ty cin dac biet quan tam quy hoach, tuyIn dung doi ngu nay. 70
  • 87. Bang 3 - 9 : Kinh nghiem thi cong cong trinh TT TINH CHAT CONG VIEC S6 nSin Kinh nghif m 1 Thi cong nen, mong m§t duong dong bang va miln niii 35 nam 2 Thi cong mat duong nhua, be tong Asphalt, BTXM 35 nam 3 Xu ly nen dit ylu 14 nam 4 Thi cong cau thep, ciu be tong cot thep thong thuong 29 nam 5 Thi cong ciu theo quy trinh AASHTO 14 nam 6 Thi cong cang song, cang biln 19 nam 7 Thi cong san bay 21 nam 8 Thi cong cac cong trinh thuy lgi 21 nam 9 Dau tu xay dvmg cong trinh GTVT theo hinh thuc BT 08 nam 10 Thi cong cac cong trinh dan ding 21 nam 11 Tu van, khao sat, thiet ke cau duong, dan dung, thuy lgi 15 nam Nguon : Bao cda ho sa nang luc cua Cong ty 872 b) Nguon nhan luc Nhihig mat manh: - Cong ty da dat san lugng xay dung binh quan hon 100 ty/nam; san phim XD-GTVT da dat muc do tip cong ty diu nganh. D I d^t dugc nang lire nay, ylu t l quan trong la tu nguIn nhan luc'cua Cong ty. Voi ty I? 01 can bg quan ly, ky thuat/1,38 c6ng nhan trong danh sach (147 can bo quan ly ky thuat, 204 cong nhan ky thuat), day la mot ty le rit cao. Luc lugng can bg, cong nhan Cong ty-da thuc hien la vai tro cit can, "can bg khung" voi so lugng 400- 600 cong nhan ma Cong ty thue them tir cac dia phuong (xem Bang 3-12- Danh sach can bo chuyen mon ky thuat trang 7la; bang 3-13- Danh sach cong nhan ky thuat, trang 71 b ); 71
  • 88. 1 3 i i 1 1 1 i 11 ; I • ; ; i i 1 1 i 1 ; ! i ' [ i • ; 1 i ! i i ! i i 9,76 i m vCi 1 00 ! ^ i "^ i 1 1 - 00 I ! o oo' 1 o j <N 1 1 - h^J j ! S : rg' i o >50 |oo rg i ^ 1 j !^ i 1 : !^ ! - 00 X) rg ; - ! f^ r-i ; p - ! ! rg : rg c^ '^ j 1 ' i 1 i I • i loo" 14,3 70,8 42,9 21,5 28,6 42,9 34,7 28,6 S ^1 '^ 5 50 25 <50 bti 1 — - D$ tudi r- CQ rg m "" i 1 ^ n: 1 1 1 ! ! j ' 28,6 »n_ 100 o 100 s of! ? 5,9 O ! r4 O j oo j ^ 1 1 -^ , ,r. r* rj" r4 loT 1 ^ 7i I ! ! o W1 rg - m rg ^ - i 1 - 1 1^ : rg — I rg i 1 i 1 1 i 25,6 28,6 28,6 94,1 58,5 28,6 37,5 100 8,3 — r £> s? o 50 o CO r - ' 1 oo' i m ! rg T <30 1 bL 5o ?^ 1 — OS rg jr. Tf 1 rg 00 « - Cl 1 <N —' j r*^ i r g <o ^. j 1 i 28,6 20,8 71,4 100 100 _ 1 , „ : ON i sc 100 ^ rg o o Vi ?51*^ rg rj «n i r g j Q^ ; ; 5 . ^r : rj AI 1 ' ! i ^ r^ rr, rg rj - <^ / rg - -n :2 - r. ro|;Ji M ! i Theo nSm kinh nghiem 37,5 100 o s? 00 rg rg si rg 0I< 'p-n JUI O r-- j - ON <N - 00 r^ ; r g 1 i ^ irg j « H SACH CANB ONGTY CpXD i 1 i j i 1 21,5 33,3 57,1 30,5 00_ oo__ i o^^ 001 o O o ^ rg n-' rn ; r g ' rg I ^ : ;^i 1 1 ! i i j ! v"' ! — r^ ! o oo Tf - - "^ rj 1 - •^ i ^ j -- ! -- H ! ?i "*• 1 1 1 i i 1 14,3 14,3 88,2 30,6 37,5 14,3 46,2 18,3 o i O o ^ oo' rg O ! m" oo' ; r m rg i tn V j IT. ON r^J rg —i « »i-i -1 - r^ i r g i m - hiji i i i en i ! -V • r- 00 1 o r- S o — o ! 1 rg o o o o o r-- -1 rg o si- rj 00 r^ : -T en Chuc vu chuyen mon k ky Trung cip va tucmg ducmg khac i^ Trung cip dia chat, dja chinh Cao ding ke toan, ngan hang Ky su may xay dung, co khi Tong cong (1+11+111) Ky su va tucmg ducmg khac c Ky su xay dung, kien tnic thu^t theo nghe x: Cu nhan tai chinh ke toan Trung cip cau ducmg bo c c J* •b •^« Ky su cau ducmg bo Trung cip xay dung o Cao ding xay dung Cu nhan ngoai ngii Ky su mo dia chat Trung cap ke toan 1': OD Cao ding GTVT Q Ky su cau ham Cao ding khac S «-> U Cu nhan luat x: ,ec 1 c Thac sy u 'SA Bacsy b M o '5- u ! t <N ro • * in 00 avis ^ i z^ - m 1 so 1 r^ I oo . ON i w' i 1 i j i ! i ! i 7i
  • 89. '3 JS ! 1 1 i 1 w j 1 J3 j O i 1 i I ON n i 5? O rg ! ON o 1-' "1 i i •*> r- 1 1 f- 1 0 1 1 i oo^ C3 1 ON rg ^ -t V^' o' • ^ ' T rg' ON rg , 1 '^ - j ! rg" 0 o NO VI i " i ->* ^ Ao - T ON r^ <^ ON - fN r-4 00 1 s Q NO NO^ o 0 "^ ^ NO S? oo NO' oo' rg rg' rg rj 0 0 Vi ^1 Vi r^ • ^ -- r>i t 'a- • * vo rt •^ n NO s? ON OO^ rvT r-' o rj rg r~' fs' NO rT NO^ vo 00' 0 n o j m 1*1 NO in j r^ 7i 1 Ml 55 ^ r-1 r4 O O r) CJ i VC ^o ri ^ CM r^ "Tl 1 « rg s i c-l ON - ^ fO -- *n j rg - 00 - r^ r- ^ m <S b- i o f*-i - <N| <r NO o r- ro m 1 1« — CM Vi = Vi NO I-H - m r-i r4 m m r-- 00 rg V. V, o ON - - = rg g r- r- v> »n rg 1 DA c ^O g. oo NO m r- c r) vo o »ri r-i 0 0 rg i 1 Thg van hanh cac loai may khac > Thg lam cJlu duong, thg ne bl Thg be tong, thg sat, han c <§ "5, T6ngc6ng(l+lI+lII) B e S ! a o Lai xe tai cac loai + V an hanh may ^ JS 3 *- ex es JS t- o 13 o c . s i J:: J= « •3 X 'a o >^ •cu 3 B B e1 x: H o- to- U x: *« 1^5 1 H -J Z. J ! -^ i ; i i ~ ^^ - i i > H • ^ = = (N NO r- Jib
  • 90. . Luc luong can bo quan ly, ky thuat c6 kinh nghiem, co ciu wk s6 nam kinh nghiem co tinh npi sinh, ke thua; - Luc luong cong nhan ky thuat, thg van hanh may co bac cao Xii bac 5/7 tro len chi^m 46%. Co du thg van hanh nhung thia bi yeu c^u k tay ngh§ cao nhu : May san, may rai, lu mat duong be tong nhua nong, tram trgn be tong nhua nong- phai la nhung cong ty chuyen nganh, nhieu nam moi co dugc; - Luc lugng c6ng nhan ky thuat, thg van hanh, mot bg phan can b6 quan ly ky thuat da dap ling dugc kho khan dac thu cua nganh GTVT v^ sir luu dgng, cong tac xa nha, thi cong 6 vung sau, vung xa... voi truyen th6ng vugt qua kho khan hoan thanh nhiem vu; - Cong ty da quan tam din cong tac b5i duong, huin luyen, dao tao, giai quylt chi do chinh sach doi voi lire lugng lao dgng cua minh; - Voi luc lugng lao dgng tren, Cong ty la mgt trong nhung DN n6i trgi trong nganh; dap ijrng nhu cku hien tai va tuong lai g§n; Nhihig npi dung chn quan tam : - Co ciu nganh nghe cua can bg ky thuat, quan ly : Ky su ciu, ky su xay dung dan dung, ky su may thi cong con thieu. Bg phan lam cong tac khao sat phyc vu cho cong tac thilt kl ban ve thi cong, thiet ke thi cong, thi nghiem chua manh, chua dugc tang cuong b6i duong, dao t£io them ve chuyen mon; - Co cau nganh nghe cua cong nhan ky thuat, thg van hanh may : Con thieu cong nhan sdt han bac cao, thg kinh keo, thg sua chua bac cao, thg lai cau. Cong nhan ky thuat cau duong cua Cong ty phan nhieu dugc huan luyen, dao tao qua thuc te, so it dugc dao tao co ban qua trucmg lop chinh quy; 72
  • 91. - Thu nhap cua lao dgng tuong ddi cao so voi cac DN trong nganh, nhung vin la thip trong dieu kien luu dgng, cong tac va lam viec xa nha; noi 6 tai cac cong trucmg con mang nang tinh "tam bg", luu dgng. c) Tai san, nang lire thiet bi Nhihig mat manh : - Co ciu thilt bi cua Cong ty chu ylu cho XD- GTVT, co tinh chu lire nhu : Lu rung, may san, may rai, tram trgn be tong nhua nong. Dam bao nang luc, cong nghe thi cong hien tai. Dat vi tri nhung DN manh trong nganh, co lgi thi. Khi c6 nhu c4u thilt bi khac da thue them, giam dau tu; - Tinh din nam 2005: Nguyen gia tai san c6 dinh, chu ylu la thilt bi thi cong la 36,978 ty, da khIu hao khoang 4 nam dugc 19,736 ty, con lai 17,602 ty se khiu hao co ban vao nam 2009. Khi khau hao het, gia tri cua thilt bi con lai cao, thilt bi van phu hgp cho thi cong, giu dugc chit lugng con t6t thi day la mgt lgi thi noi trgi. Trong khi do, hien cac DN XD-GTVT vay dau tu thiet bi bang nguon von dai han rat kho khan. Bang 3-10: Bang ke Tai san co djnh hihi hinh, tai san co dinh vo hinh nam 2001-2006 Don vi tinh; Trieu dong 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 KH2006 I. T^i san cd djnh hxiu hinh 6.425 18.966 25.316 21.302 17.602 14.062 - —Nguyen gid 13.956 28.676 37.335 36.688 36.978 36.978 - GiS trj hao m6n luy ke 7.531 9.710 12.019 15.836 19.376 22.916 2. Tai san c6 djnh vo hinh 224 222 565 541 516 516 - Nguyfin gid 235 235 712 712 712 491 - Gi^ trj hao m6n luy k6 11 13 147 171 196 221 Nguon : Bao cao kit qua kinh doanh cua Cong ty 872 73
  • 92. Nhirng n9i dung can quan tam : - Co cau thilt bi cua Cong ty : Thilu thilt bj thi cong ciu nhu bua dong cgc, bua dong cgc cat, khoan nhdi, xe cin ciu; trang thilt bi cho bg phan khao sat thilt kl ban ve thi cong; - Ty trgng gia tri diu tu cao dii voi cac loai thilt bi nhu : Oto, may ui, dac biet la tram trgn be tong nhua nong. Cac cum thilt bi n^y nlu khong phat huy dugc (thilu viec lam ) se anh hirong rit Ion din kit qua SXKD chung cua Cong ty ( xem Bang 3-11: So lugng thilt bi thi cong va phan theo gia tri, trang 74). - Cac cong truong cua Cong ty tren dien rgng, thilt bi dugc giao cho cac don vi thi cong quan ly, su dung. He thong kilm tra, kilm soat cong tac bao tri, sua chira thuong xuyen, sua chua lom la mgt viec quan trgng, song con. Bang 3-11 : So iu'o'ng thiet bi thi cong va phan theo gia trj Gidtrj Gia tri S6 Nguyen Ty s6 Nguyen Ty Ten thiet bi Ten thiet bi • gii trpng • lugng gii trong lugmg (Ty dong) % (Ty d6ng) % 1. Tram trgn BT nhra 2 7,409 20,04 7. Lu rung 25 tdn 7 3,259 8,82 2. Miy rai ni6ng, mat 3 2,800 7,58 8.LutTnhth6p 16 1,681 4,54 3.0 td cic loai 19 8,561 23,16 9. Mdy xuc d^o 6 3,321 8,98 4. Xuc lat 2 0.571 1,54 10. M^ySan 4 1,863 5,05 ""5:Xetir(5finhira 2 0,461 1,24 ll.M^yUi 5 3,949 10,68 6. Luldp 3 0,847 2,29 12. Maykh^c 2,256 6,10 " Nguon: Bao cao ket qua kinh doanh cua Cong ty 872 d) Quan he nha cung cdp tin dung, cung img Nhung m^t manh; 74
  • 93. - Cong ty chi co 4,8-6,0 % von so voi san lugng ma san lugng binh quan hon 100 ty/nam, manh vl hai phuong dien: + Da dugc cung cip lugng von luu dgng tu cac ngan hang binh quan 43 ty/ nam; + Quan he tit voi cac nha cung ung vat tu vat lieu ung mgt phin vdn luu dgng; giao bot mgt s6 cong viec cho cac nha thiu phu gidm tai v6n cua Cong ty. - Do dac dilm chuyen ddi sang Cong ty c6 phin tu doanh nghiep Nha nuoc, v6n dilu le thip. Cong ty da vay dugc v6n cho diu tu thilt bi thi cong, thoi dilm s6 du vay cao nhit la 25,316 ty/ ting nguyen gia tai san c6 dinh la 37,335 ty. Nhung UQI dung can quan tam : - Hoat dgng chu yeu su dung von vay luu dgng, dai han se co kho khan, thilu chu dgng, tang chi phi do lai vay (tinh trang chung cua nganh xay dung GTVT). - Tinh trang ng dgng, cham thanh toan trong XD-GTVT dang la van de noi cgm, cong them ap lire thilu von cho SXKD. Co che ve trach nhiem chu dau tu chua cong bang, rui ro cao ve phia nha thau; - Chinh sach, quy dinh cua cac to chuc tin dung thay doi Ion, giam tin chap, can phai c6 mgt lugng tai san nhit dinh dl thi chip vay v6n tin dung, thilu 16 trinh cho cac nha thiu kip dap ung. c i n quan tam den 16 trinh do dl c6 chiln luge kip dap ung, duy tri SXKD binh thuong va phat trien. 3.6.Ap dung mo hinh SWOT de d^nh gia tong hop vi the cua Cong ty 872 Tren co so cac phan tich tren, danh gia ting hgp vi thi Cong ty 872 theo m6 hinh SWOT nhu sau: 75
  • 94. Opportunities - Ctf hoi Threats - Thach thirc, nguy cff - Nhu c4u vd XD-GTVT tSng cao vcd nguon vdn - Bo tri ki hoach v6n hang nam kh6ng ddu, 06 th6i trong nganh GTVT v^ ngo^i ng^nh; didm canh tranh roi ren,kh6c li|t; - Nhu cku san phim: Nang cap do thi, ciu giao thong - G6i thiu Idm, yeu ciu da dang vd k5^ thuat cong n6ng thon phia Nam; nut giao ciu vugt do thj; he ngh?; ydu ciu v6n luu dpng cao. Can c6 chinh sAch thdng du6fng cao tic gpi v6n BT, BOT; lidn danh, Hdn kdt; Thiet bj va lao dong thidu vide, chd vi^c; - Cai thien t^i chfnh, tin ding; ndng cao nSng lire cho - D6i thu ap dyng chinh sach tuong tu; C6ng ty tru6c co hpi gi^nh dugc vifc lam; - BO m4y Chfnh phu sg cSi c^ch co ch6 trong xay - NQT dgng trong XD-GTVT, co chd vd trach nhiem dvng ca ban v^ nganh XD-GTVT; thAo g& kh6 khan. chu dau tu chua cdng bang, nii ro cao vd phia nha cai thi?n moi truing SXKD, tao dilu ki?n cho c^c nhA thiu; chinh sdch cua cAc t6 chuc tin dung thay d6i (m. thiu xay dmg. thidu Ip trmh cho cac nha thiu kjp dap img. - Huy dOng v6n qua thi t n i ^ g chumg kho^n. - Lanh m^h tai chinh, bdo cao kdt qua SXKD theo ky. Strengths- Thi m^nh Weaknesses- Diem yeu - Lai the cua DN k Co sd ha tang tot, lUnh dao manh; - Trach nhiem thrc su ciia HDQT gin v6i quydn lgi dan vj thi cong, quan ly du An chuyen nginh; d o ^ kit kinh te ( ty if co phan nim giiJ ); cdn tan du each truyen thing; quan ly cG, c6n m^t so ton tai trudc c6 phin; • Cong vide DN l^m tit nhit k xay dimg duimg giao - Thi c6ng ciu 16n, xSy dung dan dung, khao sit thidt thdng; kd thi cong, thi nghif m chua manh; - Ngudn luc ciia DN 1^ lao dpng va thiet bi c6 khA - Thidu mgt s6 ngach thg; thidu thidt bi thi cong ciu; nang dip umg thi cong dir6mg, ciu nho, ciu trung; vin didu 1? thip, kh6 khSn huy dgng v6n; - l/u thd m4 ngudi khdc thiy dugc a DN 1^ : + Quan h? v6i chu diu tu; - Nhidu DN ciing nganh tuong ducmg, canh tranh cao; + Nang Ivc quin ly, di6u h^nh ciia bp miy; - Luu dgng xa nha, thu nhSp chua cao; + DOi ngu quan ly, thuc hif n du An; - Can bg tre, thidu can b6 tham nidn kinh nghidm; + Da chuydn dii DN c6 phin h6a. C6 tuc 14%/ nam. - Con mOt s6 t6n t^i trudc co phin. Thj tnrcmg chung khoan. 76
  • 95. 1^ cHiraNG4 KET LUAN VA KIEN NGHI
  • 96. f CHirONG 4 KET LUAN VA KIEN NGHI • Chuong 4, Phdn 1 neu torn k chiln luac phat triin cua Cong ty 872 vai cac noi dung vl t k i nhin, su mang, chiln luge canh tranh cua Cong ty 872, nang luc canh tranh c6t loi cua Cong ty 872, cac muc tieu chiln luac din 2010 va 2015. Trong noi dung kl hoach triin khai, neu mot s6 chiln luge chuc nang cua Cdng ty : Chiln luge thi truong; chiln luge cung c6, xay dung, phat trien hgp ly ca ciu tl chuc quan ly dilu hanh va ngu6n nhan lire cua Cong ty; chien luge phat triin cong nghe; chiln luge huy dong v6n. Phdn 2 neu mot s6 han chi va cac kien nghi nhim giai quylt nhimg vin dl con tdn tai. 4.1. Tom tat chien lu-o-c phat trien cua Cong ty Cp XDCT GT 872 4.1.1. Tam nhin ) Tra thanh don vi trong t6p dung diu nganh GTVT Viet Nam vl XD-GTVT (cku duong, bin cang, dan dung ) co uy tin trong va ngoai nuoc. 4.1.2. Sumang Phat huy truyen thong, kinh nghiem, nang lire can bo cong nhan vien Cong ty 872 quylt tam doi mod phat trien Cong ty ngay cang Ion manh gop phan vao su nghiep Cong nghiep hoa - hien dai hoa di nuac. Voi tinh thin quyet tam phin dau vi sir nghiep chung cua Cong ty, f theo huong nang cao nang lire SXKD, nang cao uy tin, sue canh tranh trong nganh nham SXKD ngay cang dat hieu qua, nang cao doi song can bg cong nhan vien, dam bao co tuc cua c5 dong, thuc hien day du nghia vu voi Nha nuoc, tang tich liiy cho DN. 4.1.3. Cac muc tieu chien Itftfc den 2010 va 2015 Chien luge chung: 77
  • 97. - 2006 - 2010: Dong long, vupt qua kho khan, on djnh san xuit, phat trien bin vung, den culi nam 2010 san lugng xay dung dat tren 200 ty. Ty trong san phim vl xay lip cong trinh duong 60-70%, tang xay lip cong trinh cau nho ciu trung 10-15%, xay dung dan dung 5- 10%, xay lip nang cip do thj 5-20%. - 2011 -^ 2015: Tang nang luc xay lip, phat triin diu tu du an, theo huong tham gia thi cong cac du an lan, ciu ion, cong trinh BOT, diu tu ha ting. Huong tai 2015 rieng san lugng xay dung dat tren 500 ty. La don vj manh, co uy tin trong nganh GTVT 4.1.4. Nang lire canh tranh cot loi cua Cong ty Cp XDCT GT 872 Dac diem ca ban cua thj truo'ng xay dirng GTVT : - Cac chii dau tu thuc hien dau thau rong rai (theo Luat Xay dung, Luat Dau thau ); dau thau Quoc te; dau thau danh sach ngan; chi djnh thau. Cac du an voi nhieu nguon von : Von trong nuac, von nuac ngoai. Cac chii dau tu ciing da dang : Chu dau tu Nha nuoc-nguon von ngan sach trung uong, dja phuong; cac nha diu tu tu nhan, nuoc ngoai... - Phan chia quy mo du an, goi thau : Theo muc v6n ( duoi 10 ty, 10-15 ty, vai tram ty...); theo dac dilm cua cong trinh ve kit ciu, cong nghe ( be tong nhua mat duong, duong + cau, xu ly nIn dit ylu...); theo danh muc san phim ( duong bo; ciu; nha...). Cac nhom nha thau C nang luc phu hgp, hoac thong qua lien danh nhim dat dugc tieu chi tham gia thiu. O - Kha nang chi phoi cua chu diu tu (Nha nuac ) trong co chi hien nay : + Dua ra tieu chi chim diem, lua chon nha thiu : Nang luc kinh nghiem, tai chinh, thilt bi, lao dong; + Ap dat tieu chi gia "Gia trin", chua nghien cuu co che "Gia san" dl tranh giam gia khong hgp ly; cac co chi quy djnh vl tinh toan gia, co ciu gia; "Hgp d6ng co dilu chinh gia", ap dung sau thang thu 12; "Hgp d6ng tron goi", "Hgp ding chia khoa trao tay". - Dac dilm canh tranh cua Cong ty 872 dat bli canh trong trong nganh XD-GTVT hien nay: 78
  • 98. + Cuong dp canh tranh, doi thu canh tranh true tiep, ddi diu tren tung thi truong, tung khu vuc chu yeu la cac DN trong nganh tao ra; + Cac DN dugc xem la dii thu canh tranh, "can tai can sue", khi "ciu" giam thi canh tranh tro nen khdc Het, nhieu DN ap dung "dai giam gia", mien chi dk co cong viec lam, hoac xuit hien tieu cue trong dau thiu, chon thiu; + Cac DN dia phuong co tinh trang pha rao can ra nhap nganh khong theo quy luat, nang luc ylu, thilu vin " ra nhap" dugc vao nganh, gay kho khan cho cac DN chuyen nganh; + "Cau" thi cao, ke ca hien tai va yeu ciu trong nhung nam tai. Nhung thi hien khong diu, khiln DN kho on djnh san xuit, dien biln canh tranh kho xac dinh quy luat; - Viec gia tang cac du an BOT, BT trong diu tu GTVT voi quy dinh nha thiu phai co ifnhit 30% von la van de kho khan; - Co che chinh sach cho nganh XD-GTVT con nhieu bat cap, chong cheo, chua ro rang, chua dugc thuc hien mot each minh bach. Tao nen su rui ro cao trong canh tranh. Do vay, de ton tai, giii' on djnh va phat trien SXKD, DN can phai co cac giai phap thich ung, bing cac CLKD cua minh. d phin tren ( muc 3.5, chuang 3, trang 68 ) da trinh bay, phan tich vl nang luc c6t loi cua Cong ty 872, gIm : Co sa ha ting; nguon nhan luc; tai san, thiet bi chuyen nganh; quan he voi cac nha cung cip tin dung va cac nha cung ung. Nhiing nang luc cot loi do da dugc xay dung, vun dip cung voi qua trinh Ijch su phat triin cua Cong ty va nganh ma cac DN khac, cac doi thu canh tranh co muln, tao dung dugc that khong de dang, phai co thoi gian. Song, trong dac dilm ciia thi truong XD-GTVT hien nay, thuc tl co nhilu dilu "bit ngo". Co nhung DN xam nhap thj truong bing ylu to "c6t loi"- mli quan he vai chii diu tu; qua su lien kit lien danh, co du an : Mot du an, rli hai... ho dau tu dugc thilt bj, lao dong va tro thanh ddi thii cung dugc tinh dim tren thi truong XD-GTVT. 79
  • 99. Nang luc cot loi ciia Cong ty 872 da dugc neu tren la dilu kien cin, phai dugc duy tri va phat huy nhim co uu thi tren thi truong. Song, cin phai tim ra dugc cac ylu to vl " Nang luc canh tranh cot loi" - xem nhu la dilu kien dii dl gianh thing lgi, co du an, cong viec lam. Nang luc canh tranh cot 161 cua Cong ty Cp XDCT GT 872, theo toi la: - Quan he chat che voi khach hang - cac chii diu tu trong nganh va cac dia ban truyin thing; - Quan he doi tac lien doanh nham tham gia XD-GTVT trong va ngoai nuac; - Cling CO, xay dung nen tai chinh Cong ty co nang luc hung manh. Viec phat huy, phat trien nang luc canh tranh cot loi ciia Cong ty la rit cin thilt trong giai doan hien nay. Tuy nhien, viec do can thuc hien dong thoi, khong the xem nhe su phat huy, phat trien cac nang luc cot loi khac ciia Cong ty 872 da neu 6 phan tren. Mot s6 noi dung nhim phat huy, phat trien nang lire canh tranh cot loi ciia Cong ty se dugc dl cap trong mot so chien luge chuc nang se neu a phan sau. 4.1.5. Cac chien luac chuc nang Dk duy tri, In djnh SXKD, phat triin Cong ty trong dilu kien hien nay va truoc xu thi tuong lai. Nhilu ITnh vuc cin kien toan, he thing hoa bing nhung chiln luge cu thi ma tu do triin khai, theo doi hoan chinh cho phu hgp. Co thi neu mot s6 chiln luge can quan tam nhu: Chien luge thj truong; chiln luge huy dong von; chiln luge xay dung hoan chinh Co so ha ting va nguIn nhan luc; chiln luge San xuit va tac nghiep; chiln luge tap trung; chiln luge phat trien cong nghe v.v...cac chiln luge do c6 quan he mat thilt, bl sung ho trg va trong mot pham vi nao do la he qua cua nhau. Do dilu kien thoi lugng cua khoa luan nay, toi lua chon va de cap din bon bo phan quan trong ciia cac chiln luge tren, do la : - Mot s5 vin dk ve "Chiln luge thj truang cua Cong ty 872". 80
  • 100. - Mot so van de ve "Chien luge cung co, xay dung, phat triin hgp ly co ciu tl chuc quan ly dilu hanh va nguIn nhan luc ciia Cong ty 872". - Mot s6 noi dung vl "Chiln luge phat triin Cong nghe ciia Cong ty 872" - "Chiln luge huy dong vin cho SXKD ciia Cong ty 872". Sau day la nhung de xuat ve cac chiln luge do : a) Chien Iwcrc thi tru&ng cua Cong ty 872 Lya chon phuong hudng va pham vi Tren ca so phan tich moi truang khach quan va dilu kien chii quan ciia DN. Cong ty 872 se tiep tuc SXKD san pham chuyen nganh XD-GTVT, tang them san pham xay dung cong trinh cau, xay dung dan dung, dau tu ha tang, cong trinh BOT. Chuan bj ca kha nang vuon ra dja ban quoc te (truoc mat la Lao, Campuchia). Tu tuang chien luge, nguyen tac chi dao Giu- dugc thj truang truyin thing, nuoi duong quan he, dong thai ma thi truang mai; da dang du an theo nguIn vin. Tang cuang lien danh lien ket nham mo rong thi truong vai cac don vj trong va ngoai nganh va cac doi tac nuoc ngoai ( nhu Han Quoc, Nhat Ban...). Tao da, sin sang tham gia dam duong cac du an, goi thau Idn. Xac lap muc tieu chien luge thi truang cua Cong ty 1. Theo dja ban kinh doanh : - Phan theo dja danh : + GiiJ va tang cuong vao cac dja ban truyin thong : Dien Bien, Long An, Son La, TP.Ho Chi Minh, Bic Giang, Ha Giang, Thanh Hoa. + Vao dja ban mai : Lai Chau ( vao culi nam 2006 ), cac tinh dong bing Song Cuu Long ( ciu giao thong nong thon-vao nam 2008) 81
  • 101. - Phan theo chu diu tu : Giu dugc quan he, dau thiu cac cong trinh do cac ban quan ly du an ciia Bo GTVT lam dai dien Chii diu tu : PMUl, PMU My Thuan, PMU duong H6 Chi Minh, PMU 9. Va mot si Ban quan ly du an cip so thuoc tinh, thanh phi. Khach hang chii yeu la cac chii diu tu thuoc Nha nuoc. 2. Theo san pham kinh doanh-san phim thi cong xay dung: - Din 2010 : Ty trong san phim vl xay lip cong trinh duang 60-70%, tang xay lip cong trinh ciu nho ciu trung 10-15%), xay dung dan dung 5-10%, xay lip nang cip do thj 5-20%. - 2011-2015 : Theo huong tham gia thi cong cac du an Ion, ciu Ion, cong trinh BOT, diu tu ha tang. 3. Theo nguon von dau tu xay dung cong trinh: Lua chon theo huong ca cau du an cua Cong ty xuat phat Xx nhieu nguon von : Trai phieu Chinh phii, ngan sach dja phuong, ADB, WB, tai trg cong trinh BOT tu cac ngan hang... Chii trong nguon von trai phieu Chinh phii, ADB, WB. Thiet kl va lua chon CLKD theo huang, - Quan tam den viec xay dung ciing co Cong ty, giu* dugc cac moi quan he nham giij gin dja ban truyin thong, nuoi duong quan he tao dung dia ban moi; lien ket hgp tac giam doi thii, chia viec; canh tranh tung san phim cac cong trinh ap dung cong nghe mai; nghien cuu tung buac tang diu tu trang thilt bi dk dap ling. - v l nganh nghi : Chii trong xay lip GTVT, tang them : Cong tac Thi nghiem, Cong tac khao sat thilt kl va hoat dong tu vin giam sat, dau tu ha ting giao thong. Nghien cuu mo mang mgt so djch vu nhim giai quylt vin dk lao dong; Cac khu vuc - SBU chiln luge chi tilt, theo huong co ban sau : 1. Theo dia ban; Chu diu tu cip sa, dja phuong 82
  • 102. - TP.HCM va mot so thanh phi Ion : Chiln luge da dang hoa san phim, diu thiu cac cong trinh nang cap do thj ( duong + dien + cip thoat nuoc ).Tang cuong can bo hilu bilt vl hang muc cong trinh dien chilu sang, cip nuoc...thuc hien lien kit thiu phu thi cong mot si hang muc cong trinh chuyen nganh. - Long An va mot so tinh D6ng bing Song Ciiu Long : Chiln luge khac biet hoa san phim, tang san pham cong trinh Ciu nho, cau trung trong khi cac don vi dia phuong ylu vl phuong dien nay, canh tranh thip. Giai quylt khau lao dong : Tang Ky su xay dung ciu, thg kich keo, sat han; thiet bi thi cong cau-bua dong coc. may tron be tong xi mang; - Dien Bien, Lai Chau, Son La : Chiln luge bao ve thj truong- lien kit, lien danh giQ- thi truang; giam gia de canh tranh; - Ha Giang : Chien luge co lai, rut lui, cho co hoi. 2. Theo Chii dau tu trung uong : Thuc hien va hoan thanh tot cac cong trinh da dugc giao thiu, the hien nang luc thi cong, uy tin nham giu* dugc quan he, thang dau thau cac cong trinh do cac ban quan ly du an cua Bo GTVT lam dai dien Chii diu tu : PMUl, PMU My Thuan, PMU duong H6 Chi Minh, PMU 9. 3. Nghien cuu, chuin bi cae phuong an lien danh lien ket, goi von XD-GTVT nham huong toi viec tham gia cac du an Ion, hieu qua, canh tranh thap. Sach luge cua cac bo phan chuc nang - Phan giao trong lanh dao Cong ty phu trach tirng khu vuc, thj truong, cong trinh dk thuc hien viec giu thj truong truyin thing va ma thi truong mai; - Tang cuong nhiem vu ciia cac chi nhanh, cac ban dilu hanh du an vl viec giu" va ma mang thj truang khu vuc; - Hoan thien mo hinh quan ly, dilu hanh tu Cong ty din cac du an, khu vuc theo huong phan cip manh cho cip duoi dk co dilu kien phat trien Cong ty. Xay dung, quy hoach doi ngu can 83
  • 103. bo du an, lam thiu quIc tl dac biet la chuc danh Giam die dilu hanh du an, sin sang dam nhan cac du an moi; - Giu- quan he voi ban hang, dii tac. Chii trong cong tac lien danh. Hen kit dk giam dii thii canh tranh, tranh dii diu; co dilu kien tham gia cac du an quy mo Ion hon. Bang 4 - 1 : Dia ban kinh doanh cua Cong ty 872 DIA BAN KINH DOANH CUA CONG TY 872 ( PHAN THEO DIA DANH ) Phia Nam : l.TpH6ChiMinh 2. Long An 3.TayNinh 4.Tiln Giang - PMU Sa GTVT: 2003 - PMU S a X D : 2 0 0 4 ^ nay -^ nay - PMU 9 B6 GTVT : - PMU I Bo GTVT : - PMU Sa GTVT : 2000 ^ - P M U - M y Thuan. Bo 2002 4- nay 2004 ^ nay nay GTVT : 2003 ^ nay Phia Bac : 1. Dian Bien 2. Scm La 2. Thanh Hoa 4, Lai Chau - S a G T V T : 2004 - PMU HCM Bo - S o NNPTNT: 1998 GTVT: 2002 -^ nay - PMU Sa GTVT: 1 9 9 1 ^ - Thuy dien : 2006 -^ nay - Sa GTNT : 2006 nay -Cac huyen 1990-^ - PMU I B6 GTVT: nay 2004 ^ nay 5. Ha Tfty 6, H^ Tinh 7. Bic Giang 8. Ha Giang - So GTVT : 2003 ^ - UBND huyen Thudng Tin, - PMU 85 Bo GTVT : -So GTNT: 1999-^ nay Phu Xuyen :Tif 1998-^ nay 2003 - nay nay -PMU18,B6 GTVT : 2003 -r nay 9. Ha Nam 10. H a N 6 i U . Nghe An - Bo NNPTNT (thuy loi) - BQL 85 Bo GTVT : - S a GTVT: Rut tir 1999 : Rut tut 1998 Tunam 1 9 8 9 - n a y Nguon : Bao cda kit qua kinh doanh cua Cong ty 872 84
  • 104. Bang 4 2: CAC KHACH HANG - CONG TY 872 ( Phan theo Ban quan ly ) A. Cac BQL cua nganh - Bo GTVT B. Cac BQL dia phircng : 1. PMU Duong HCM-Bo GTVT 2002--nay 1. BQL nang cip do thi Tp. HCM : 2004 - nay 2. PMU 85 - Bp GTVT 1989 - nay 2. Khu QL GTDT 1 Tp. HCM : 2000 - nay 3. PMU I - Bp GTVT 2004 -nay 3. BQL GTNN- Sa GTVT Long An : 2004 - nay 4. PMU 9 - Bp GTVT 2002 -nay 4. BQL 1 - Thuy dien Son La : 2006 - nay 5. PMU My Thuan-Bp GTVT 2003-^ nay 5. UBND cac huyen - Thanh Hoa : 1990 - nay 6. PMU 18-Bp GTVT 2003 - nay 6. UBND H.Thuong Tin, Phu Xuyen : 1998 - nay 7. So GTVT Dien Bien 1991 - nay 7. Mot s6 BQL cua Bp NNPTNT : Roi bo tu 2000 8. So GTVT Son La 1994- 2000 C. Qu6c t^: 9. So GTVT Lai Chau 2006--nay Da thi cong cong trinh cua Bp Giao thong cong 10. So GTVT B4C Giang 1999-- nay chinh Lao tu 1972 - 1991 ( Sim Nua, Xieng 11. So GTVT Ha Giang 2003 •^ nay Khoang, Kham Muon, Phong Xa Ly ). 12. So GTVT Long An 2005 - nay Nguon : Cong ty 872 Bang4-3: SAN LlTONG CONG TY 872 PHAN THEO SAN PHAM Don vj tinh : ^ dong 'y TEN SAN PHAM Nam 2003 Nam 2004 Nam 2005 KH.Nam 2006 SL % SL % SL % SL % Tong so : 85,320 119,049 105,634 90,000 1. Cong trinh Duong 73,069 0.856 96,979 0.815 82,186 0.778 56,000 0.622 2. Cong trinh Cau 4,000 0.047 3,000 0.025 2,807 0.027 21,000 0.233 3. XD dan dung 8,251 0.097 9,070 0.076 6,641 0.063 6,000 0.067 4. Nang cip do thi 0 10,000 0.084 14,000 0.133 7,000 0.078 - Trong do rieng mat duong Be tong nhua 17,300 0.203 11,400 0.096 5,700 0.054 500 0.006 Nguon : Bao cao ket qua kinh doanh cm Cong ty 872 Thirc hien CLKD, danh gia va hoan thien chiln luac 85
  • 105. Viec giai quylt dupe chi§n luge thi truong hien nay-c6 cong viec de duy tri SXKD binh thuong, 6n dinh da la kho khan. D6ng thai voi yeu cau phat tridn Cong ty, dat ra cho lanh dao Cong ty nhiem vu rat nang ne, phai vugt qua dugc kho khan hien nay, huong vk tuong lai. Bk thuc hien dugc chien luge thj truong, doi hoi xay dung va thuc hien ddng bp vai sir phoi hgp chat che vol mot s6 chien luge khac. Can theo doi dien biln tung thi truang, d6ng thoi voi hoat dong cua cac don vj cua Cong ty hien tren dia ban, khu vuc. T6 chuc thue chien luge, kjp thoi dieu chinh hgp ly. Qua cac so lieu, phan tich a tren va qua kiem nghiem thuc te, trong nganh XD-GTVT hien nay canh tranh c6 tinh chat phuc tap, c6 khi do anh huong cua mot bp phan; ca nhan; hoac do C chi chua dong bp ...lam cho moi truong canh tranh tro nen thieu minh bach, roi ren, O chua ton trpng theo quy luat khach quan. Do vay viec ap dung cac nghien cuu, ly thuylt ckn theo sat thuc tl, quan ly theo doi sat cong viec kinh doanh va moi truang kinh doanh, dieu chinh su lua chgn san ph4m, thi truang mot each nhanh nhay dl doi pho kjp thoi, phu hgp voi cac dilu kien thay ddi cua nganh va moi truang. b) Chiin luoc cung co, xay dung, phat triin hctp ly cff cdu tS chirc qudn ly dieu hanh vd nguon nhan luc cua Cong ty 872 - Phan tich Bo may t6 chirc quan ly va dieu hanh Voi ty le 01 can bp quan ly, ky thuat/ 1,38 cong nhan trong danh sach. Luc lugng can bp quan ly, ky thuat da thuc hien la vai tro c6t can, "can bp khung" vai so lugng 400-600 cong nhan ma Cong ty thue them tu cac dja phuong ( xem Bang 3-10: Danh sach can bp chuyen mon ky thuat Cong ty 872, trang 71a); Can bp quan ly, ky thuat g6m 147 nguai, Dai hgc va tren Dai hpe 55,78 %, Cao ding va trung cip 44,22 %. Nganh chuyen mon ky thuat xay dung 55,10 %, nganh kinh tl 16,32 %, 86
  • 106. nganh kl toan 12,92 %. Can bp quan ly co 5 nam kinh nghiem 30,6%, 10 nam 26,5%, tren 10 nam 42,9%. Ban giam doc Cong ty 04 nguoi, 02 nguoi co chuyen mon ky su chu duong va quan ly, 01 nguoi la cu nhan kinh te, 01 ph6 giam doc chua c6 bing dai hoc. 70% da co kinh nghiem tren 15 nam, 25 % co kinh nghiem tren 5 nam. Luc lugng can bg quan ly, ky thuat co kinh nghiem, co cau du nganh nghe. Co cau ve so nam kinh nghiem co tinh ngi sinh, ke thua. Can bp co ban co nang luc hoc tap, nhan thuc, dugc dao tao chinh quy. Cac chinh sach, che dp tiln luong, bao hiem xa hoi dugc thuc hien tot. Thu nhap cua can bp tuong ddi cao so voi cac DN trong nganh. - Phan tich ve lao dong : T5ng s6 cong nhan lao dgng cua Cong ty la 204 nguoi, trong do cong nhan ky thuat xay dung 39,70% ( trong do thg sit han 16 %, thg kich keo 8,6% ), thg van hanh 55,39%, thg sua chua 4,92%. Do tu6i duoi 35 tuoi- 54,9%, tu 35-50 tu6i - 40,3%, tren 50 tu6i la 4,9%. Cong nhan ky thuat cip bac 3/7 c6 27%>; 4/7 co 27%; va tu 5/7 trd len co 46% ( xem Bang 3- 11: Danh sach cong nhan ky thuat Cong ty 872, trang 71b ). Dpi ngu cong nhan Cong ty tre khoe, co trinh dp cip bac, co tinh noi sinh. Hang nam binh quan thue them khoang 400-600 lao dong dja phuong; Dac dilm Cong nhan ky thuat ciu duong cua Cong ty phin nhilu dugc huin luyen, dao tao qua thuc tl, chu ylu do tu dao tao, s6 it dugc dao tao ca ban qua truong lap chinh quy. Rieng thg van hanh may diu qua truang dao tao nghe; Chi dp tiln luong cua cong ty dugc thuc hien theo quy chi. Tuy nhien c6 giai doan con Cham tra luong do thu h6i vdn cham; viec tinh toan tra luong lao dong cua cac don vi san xuit nhilu nam tro lai day chii ylu ap dung theo cong thoi gian, thilu tinh dinh muc. 87
  • 107. - Phan tich danh gia ve hieu qua sir dung bo may : Bp may quan ly dilu hanh Cong ty, don vi san xuit nhin chung da dugc su dung, b6 tri hgp ly, hoat dgng tren co so phan giao chuc nang, nhiem vu, quyin han cu thi, ro rang phat huy hieu qua. HDQT, Giam doc voi chuc nang, nhiem vu va quyen han da dugc quy djnh trong Dilu le Cong ty. Cong ty da ban hanh quy che phoi hgp hoat dong giua HDQT, Giam d6c vai t5 chuc Dang va Cong doan, tang cuong su doan ket phoi hgp trong hoat dgng quan ly dieu hanh SXKD. Ban kiem soat da thuc hien chuc nang nhiem vu cua minh theo Dieu le. Giam doc da phan giao nhiem vu, uy quyen cong viec cu the cho cac pho Giam doc. Thuc hien viec kiem tra, kiem soat va dieu chinh cho phu hgp; Cong ty da ban hanh quy djnh chuc nang, nhiem vu, quyIn han cho tiing phong ban tham muu, nghiep vu, bg phan giup viec; Cac chi nhanh, dan vi san xuat cung da hoat dong theo quy che chuc nang, nhiem vu, quyen han do HDQT ban hanh. Giai quylt tot m6i quan he giua cac bp phan trong bp may, dac biet trong dilu kien bo tri SXKD tren dien rong, phan tan, xa ting hanh dinh Cong ty. - Danh gia viec quan ly va sir dung lao dong : Dac thu nganh XD-GTVT su luu dong cao, dilu dong lao dong thay doi theo du an,vung miln, bo tri dilu dong tren dien rong, toan quoc. Cong tac tuyen dung, boi duong, huan luyen, dao tao tay nghi cin dugc quan tam thuong xuyen. Da xay dung bg tai lieu bai giang huin luyen cong nhan ky thuat chuyen nganh cua Cong ty. Co ciu nganh nghi cua cong nhan ky thuat, thg van hanh may: Con thilu cong nhan sit han bac cao, thg kinh keo, thg sua chua bac cao, thg lai ciu; 88
  • 108. Luc lugng cong nhan ky thuat, thg van hanh va mot bp phan can bp quan ly ky thuat da dap ung dugc kho khan dac thu cua nganh GTVT vl su luu dong, cong tac xa nha, thi cong d vung sau, vung xa...gin vdi truyin thong vugt qua kho khan hoan thanh nhiem vu; Tu cac ngi dung da phan tich, dat ra Muc tieu chien luw : Huan luyen, bdi duong dpi ngu lao dgng san cd. Chuyin dan co ciu lao dgng theo hudng chuyen nghiep, dap ung cho hoat ddng SXKD cua Cdng ty. Muc tieu cu thi dugc neu d bang 4-4 : Co ciu cdng nhan ky thuat din 2010 va 2015, trang 88; bang 4-5 : Co ciu can bg chuyen mdn ky thuat din 2010 va 2015, trang 89). Bang 4-4 : Co cau cong nhan ky thuat den 2010 va 2015 CONG TY Cp XDCT GIAO THONG 872 Don vi tinh : Ngudi TT Ky thuat theo nghe 2006 DEN 2010 DEN 2015 Gia tang Tong so Gia tang Tong so I CNKT duong -i- cau cdng 81 40 121 66 187 1 Thg cau duong, thg ne 61 15 76 36 112 4 Thg be tong, thg sat, han 13 15 28 10 38 5 Thg kich keo 7 10 17 20 37 II Thg sua chua 10 10 6 16 III V an hanh may 113 3 116 38 154 1 Lai may ui 16 -4 12 - 12 2 Lai may xuc 19 - 19 12 31 3 Lai may lu 31 - 31 8 39 4 Lai may san 7 - 7 4 11 Lai ciu, bic thim, khoan 5 6 4 10 5 1 nhdi 6 Lai xe tai cac loai 35 - 35 6 41 Thg van hanh loai may khac 04 2 6 4 10 7 IV T6ngcong(RH+in) J 204 43 247 110 357 89
  • 109. Bang 4-5 : Co cau can bo chuyen mdn ky thuat din 2010 va 2015 CONG TY Cp XDCT GIAO THONG 872 Don vi tinh : Ngudi Trinh do chuyen mdn So lu*o*ng DEN 2010 DEN 2015 TT va ky thuat 2006 Gia tang Tong so Gia tang Tong so I Dai hoc va tren Dai hoc 82 17 99 26 125 1 Thac sy 2 1 3 2 5 2 Ky su cau duong bp 25 3 28 10 38 3 Ky su cau ham 7 5 12 5 17 4 Ky su may xay dung, co khi 2 1 3 2 5 5 Ky su md dja chat, vat lieu 1 2 3 2 5 6 Ky su xay dung, kien true 1 3 4 2 6 Ky su kinh te XD, cu' nhan - 24 - 24 7 24 KT 8 Cu" nhan tai chinh ke toan 10 2 12 2 14 9 Cu nhan luat 1 - 1 - 1 10 Cu nhan ngoai ngu" 1 - 1 1 2 12 Ky su va tuong duong khac 8 - 8 - 8 11 Cao dang, trung cap 65 -7 58 20 78 1 Cao ding GTVT 17 5 22 10 32 2 Cao ding kl toan, ngan hang 1 2 3 2 5 5 Trung cip cau dudng bp 21 -5 16 5 22 6 Trung cap xay dung 7 - 7 3 10 7 Trung cip dia chit, dia chinh 2 -2 0 - 0 8 Trung cap ke toan 8 -2 6 - 6 9 Tuong duong khac 9 -5 2 - 2 V T6ng cdng (I+Il+III) 147 10 157 46 203 Mot so bien phap cai tien viec bo tri sir dung can bd nhan vien va ca che quan ly: - Tang cuong trach nhiem thuc su cua HDQT gin vai quyen lgi kinh tl, huong nang cao ty le cd phin nim giU cua cac thanh vien HDQT; 90
  • 110. - Cac thanh vien HDQT, Ban Giam doc cd nang luc, kinh nghiem chuyen mdn chua diu. Dac biet kha nang phat trien thj truong, san phim mdi ( Cdng ty cdn cd nhieu chuc nang kinh doanh chua phat huy, phat triin dugc ). Cin cd chuang trinh boi duong, nang cao; - Bg may gian tiep van phdng Cdng ty hien bo tri hai nhilu, can bd tre chilm ty le cao, chua tinh. Can bd cap du an, dpi, truong pho phdng Cdng ty cd nhung vj tri con tre, chua tung trai. Day la mot noi dung rit quan trpng cin giai quylt trong quy hoach, kl hoach bdi dudng, huan luyen, dao tao-nhim tinh gian bien chi, dinh vien hgp ly. Ddng thoi tang cudng cdng tac hudng dan, chi dao, kilm tra, giam sat; - Co cau nganh nghe cua can bd ky thuat, quan ly : Ky su ciu, ky su xay dung dan dung, ky su may thi cdng con thieu; su dap ung cho thi cdng cau Idn, xay dung dan dung chua manh; theo yeu cau quan ly, dieu hanh cac du an chuyen nganh, cdn thieu cac ky su cd chuyen mdn chuyen nganh ( xay dung, cau dudng ...). Can cd ke hoach, quan tam quy hoach, tuyen dung, thdng qua lien ket vdi mot so trudng dai hpc, lua chon nhan tai; - Tang cudng bdi dudng, dao tao them ve chuyen mdn ddi vdi bd phan lam cdng tac khao sat phuc vu cho cdng tac thilt kl ban ve thi cdng, thilt kl thi cdng, thi nghiem. Cin dau tu, nang cao hoat ddng cua bd phan nay; - Tang cudng xay dung dpi ngu lam du an, dac biet giam ddc cac ban dieu hanh; ky su thanh toan khdi lugng; can bd chuyen ve hgp ddng kinh te; - Coi trgng nhan tai; quy hoach, tuyen dung can bd theo vung de giam khd khan xa nha. Bo tri hgp ly, cd chinh sach luan chuyin, bdi dudng, huin luyen, dao tao, phat hien va quy hoach bdi duong nhan tai, phuc vu lau dai vi su nghiep Cdng ty; - cin ra soat lai quy djnh vl thanh toan, tra luong- xem xet lai cac he sd trach nhiem, dp phuc tap cdng viec dugc giao, muc do hoan thanh nhiem vu cho hgp ly. Coi trgng giai quylt quy chi khen thudng vat chat; 91
  • 111. - Cung cd va hoan thien he thdng quy che, quy dinh ve cdng tac td chuc-can bd-lao ddng; giao khoan don vj san xuat; td chuc, nhiem vu quyIn han hoat ddng chi nhanh, don vj san xuit; ndi qui lam viec ciia co quan; quy chi tai chinh tai vu, tai chinh kl toan, kilm toan, giao khoan quan ly su dung thilt bj, chinh sach tiln luong; - Thuc hien phuong cham dao tao, bdi dudng can bd : Dao tao lai qua trudng lap; hoan thien tai lieu bdi duong nghiep vu, chuyen mdn cho can bd quan ly; thuc hien chinh sach hpc lan nhau, hpc gan ket ky vdi thuc te hien trudng, qua thuc tl cdng tac. Bien phap cung co duy tri va phat trien lao dong Cdng ty - Coi trpng thg bac cao; - Quy hoach tuyen dung, bdi dudng huan luyen dao tao tay nghi. Ngudn cua cac trudng dao tao cua nganh, cd the dat trudc chi tieu; - Hoan thien che dp, chinh sach tra luong thudng trong cdng ty tren co sd viec hoan thien giao khoan san pham lao ddng; - Giai quylt tdt chi dp chinh sach, Bao hiem xa hdi, Bao hiem y te cho lao ddng, dac biet trong dilu kien xa tdng hanh dinh va luu ddng vung mien; - Tang cudng cip td san xuit : Nhan viec, giao viec cho cdng nhan, ddc viec. Tang cudng luc lugng to trudng td san xuat. - San xuit, thi cdng dam bao vl ky thuat, nang suit, chit lugng, an toan lao ddng. Cac ndi dung yeu ciu tren cin dugc lap kl hoach cu the, trien khai den tung bd phan lien quan. Theo doi, tdng kit thuang xuyen, dieu chinh cho phii hgp. 92
  • 112. c) Chien iuffc phat triin cong nghe Pham vi : De phat triin cdng nghe thi cdng cua Cdng ty, nhim phuc vu muc tieu chiln lu oc phat triin Cdng ty, can dat ra nhilu khau ( lao ddng, thilt bj, tiln vdn ). Trong pham vi nay, de cap den chien luge diu tu thilt bi. Tu- tu-d-ng chi dao : Phat huy va nang cao cac cdng nghe ma Cdng ty da dat dugc trong thi cdng cac cdng trinh dudng bd ( da ap dung cac cdng nghe mdi AASHTO, mong da dam cip phdi thi cdng bing may rai, lu rung; mat dudng be tdng nhua nong, be tdng xi mang; xu ly nen dit ylu bing vai dja, bic thim, cpc cat, san giam tai...). Hudng toi diu tu thilt bj cho cdng nghe thi cdng cac cdng trinh cau, dan dung, xu ly nIn dit ylu ( ap dung cac cdng nghe mdi nhu : Be tdng du ung luc due tung nhjp tai cho, due tai xudng, due hang, due can bing, due day; ket cau mong cpc khoan nhdi, bic thim, cpc cat v.v...). Xac lap muc tieu : Ke hoach dau tu den nam 2010 va 2015 nhu sau, Bang 4-6 : Muc tieu d4u tu- thiet bi din 2010 va 2015 Don vj tinh : Ty dong Ten thiet bj Gia Din nam 2010 Din nam 2015 don vj Sd lugng Kinh phi Sd lugng Kinh phi 1. Bua ddng cpc, cpc cat 1,0 2 2,0 4 4,0 2. Bua cpc khoan nhdi 5,0 1 5,0 2 10,0 3. Tram trgn be tdng xi mang 1,0 1 1,0 2 2,0 4. May rai 2,0 2 4,0 2 4,0 5. May san, xuc dao, lu rung 0,7 6 4,2 8 5,6 6. Cac thilt bi khac - 2,0 15,0 Tong dau tu* mo'i 18,2 40,6 Thiet bi da co 36,9 55,7 long gia tri thiet bi sau dau tu* 55,1 95,7 93
  • 113. Thurc hien chien lu'ac : + Kl hoach diu tu phai gan vdi chiln luge thj trudng, cdng viec dl phat huy hieu qua; + Cdng tac nhan su, lao ddng cin chuin bj trudc, kip thoi viec diu tu thilt bj, cdng nghe; + Huy ddng vdn cho dau tu : Ngudn vay dai han ngan hang; phat hanh cd phin, trai philu Congty; lien danh lien kit. d) Chien luffc huy dong von cho SXKD cda Cong ty 872 Viec giai quylt nhu ciu vl vdn cua cac DN XD-GTVT, dap ung du, kip thdi cho SXKD trong dilu kien hien nay la mot ndi dung rit quan trpng. DN cin quan tam them mot sd ylu td sau : - Trong XD-GTVT ty trpng vdn cua cac DN chi vao khoang 5-8 % so vdi doanh thu hoac san luong. Ty le nay vdi Cdng ty 872 la 4,8-6,0 % . Nam 2005, Cdng ty 872 vay vdn luu ddng cua ngan hang dugc 38,71 % so vdi san lugng thuc hien, binh quan trong nganh chi sd nay khoang 30-40%. Thuc te Cdng ty 872 thieu vdn luu ddng cho san suat. - Trong XD-GTVT, khoan tien tam ung xay lap la 20% gia trj hop ddng-ddi vdi ngudn vdn trai philu Chfnh phu. Cac ngudn vdn khac khoan nay tu 10-20 % (ty le nghjch vdi gia trj hgp ddng ). Vdn tam ung la mgt nguon rat quan trpng de DN ddi phd vdi tinh hinh thilu vdn luu ddng, tam hoan tra vdn vay dai han. - Nam 2005 Cdng ty 872 cd so lieu San phim dd dang chua dugc nghiem thu thanh toan ( tdn kho) la 29,93 % so vdi san lugng xay dung ( chua tinh cdng trinh BT Kenh Te tai TP.Ho Chi Minh, chua nghiem thu thanh toan 64 ty ), mot sd DN khac ty le nay la 45 % . Xet ty sd quay vdng tai san phai thu binh quan ba nam gin day cua Cdng ty 872, sd ngay quay vong la 131 ngay. Vdi ty so quay vdng hang tdn kho la 103 ngay. Nhung xem xet chi tilt thi khoi lugng trong "Bilu khdi lugng Hd so thiu" thanh toan nhanh - quay vdng nhanh, trung binh 94
  • 114. 35-50 ngay. Binh quan ca nam sd ngay quay vdng cao la do tinh hinh ng dong, cham nghiem thu thanh toan khoan khdi lugng phat sinh, dieu chinh gia. - v l vdn dai han dau tu cho thilt bj thi cdng, tinh din nam 2005 Cdng ty 872 cd gia tri thilt bi thi cdng cdn lai theo sd sach la 17,602 ty / 36,978 ty nguyen gia. Sd ng ngan hang cho dau tu dai han cdn 16 ty. Gia tri khiu hao cdn lai la 47,60 %, thilt bj chii ylu dugc dau tu vao giija nam 2002, so vdi mot tdp DN khac ty le nay trung binh la 34,12 % , hp se cd lgi thi khi > khau hao thiet bj ket thuc sdm hon. - Tinh hinh huy ddng vdn ciia cac DN XD-GTVT cd khd khan, cac ngan hang bit diu silt chat han muc vay, yeu cau cao ve chat lugng tin dung. Ty le lai suit tu 2005 va 2006 tang cao: 0,9 ^ I,2%>/thang. Chi phi lai vay lam tang chi phi, gia thanh. - Cac DN XD-GTVT phai thuc hien bao lanh dau thau ( muc co 1-3 % gia tri gdi thau ), bao lanh thuc hien hgp ddng ( miic 3%; 10-15 % gia trj hgp ddng ), bao lanh tien tam ung ( muc 0%; theo sd tiln dugc tam ung tu 10-20% gia trj hgp ddng ). Vdi cd DN nhu Cdng ty 872, vdi san lugng trung binh hang nam la 100 ty, can han miic cho cac bao lanh tren la tu 25-35 ty. Hien ngan hang yeu ciu ky quy 7% gia tri bao lanh, sap toi yeu cau gia tang tai san the chip, din thay thi cho viec thi chip bing chinh hgp ddng xay lip nhu hien nay. Day la mot ap luc rit Idn, yeu ciu rit cao doi vdi cac DN XD-GTVT trong dd cd Cdng ty 872. De DN cd thi giii dugc dn djnh SXKD, tdn tai va phat triin, DN cin cd chiln luge huy ddng vdn cho SXKD, cd sach luge hgp ly la mot yeu ciu cip thilt. Sau day se trinh biy mot sd ndi dung ciia chien luge nay. Lya chon phnang hu'dng, pham vi; Nguon von chinh cho SXKD trong nhung nam tdi day van la tu cac nha dang cung cip tin dung, ngan hang. Huy ddng phat hanh them cd phan, cd philu Cdng ty tang vdn dilu le, tung buoc dap ling yeu ciu vl thi chip tai san, giai quyet co ban dii von luu ddng dk duy tri, dn djnh SXKD. Lien ket, lien danh ( ke ca vdi ddi tac nude 95
  • 115. ngoai ) dk thuc hien cac cdng trinh BT, BOT ; vuon ra dia ban qudc tl Lao; Campuchia. Tang hieu qua SXKD, lanh manh tai chfnh va tang ngudn vdn tu cd ciia Cdng ty. Tu- tuang chien lu-gc, nguyen tSc chi dao : Giu dupe va tang cudng moi quan he truyen thdng vdi cac ngan hang dang cung cip tin dung. Vupt qua khd khan trudc mit, tung budc dn dinh nguon von cho SXKD. Diy nhanh cdng tac nghiem thu thanh toan, giai quylt ng tdn dpng. Tung budc tang vdn dilu le Cdng ty thdng qua phat hanh cd phin, din nam 2011 phat hanh cd philu ra thi trudng chiing khoan. Thue mugn quyIn su dung tai san ca nhan dl cd ngudn thi chip tai san vay tin dung. Tang cudng quan ly, dilu hanh SXKD dk tang hieu qua, lgi nhuan nham lanh manh tai chinh, tang ngudn vdn tu cd eiia Cdng ty. Xac lap muc tieu chien luoc huy dong von cho SXKD cua Cong ty 872 : Bang 4-7 : Ke hoach huy dong von cho SXKD ciia Cdng ty 872 Chi tieu Don Nam Nam Nam Nam Nam Din vi 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2015 tinh 1. Quay vdng tai san phai thu Ngay 120 102 81 70 65 60 2. Quay vdng hang tdn kho Ngay 83 73 65 60 55 50 3. Vdn chii Tyd 5,50 5,50 5,90 6,90 8,10 29,50 - Phat hanh cd phan ,, - - 0,40 1,00 1,00 5,00 - Tang vdn tu cd ,, - - - - 0,30 9,370 4. Tang tai san the chap ,) 3,00 1,00 3,00 3,00 4,00 6,00 5. Tdng tai san )5 224,50 172,10 213,30 288,10 359,20 655,50 6. Tan san luu ddng *, 213,30 165,50 202,70 273,80 341,30 622,99 7. Tdng ng ngan han », 160,40 122,90 152,40 205,90 256,70 468,50 8. Doanh thu ), 120,00 92,00 114,00 154,00 192,00 350,00 96
  • 116. Thiet ke va lua chon CLKD : Mgt sd chien luge, bien phap huy ddng vdn : 1. Ngudn vdn chinh vin la cac nha dang cung cip tin dung - ngan hang. 2. Thuc hien muc tieu giam sd ngay trong vdng quay tai san phai thu va hang tdn kho, phai diy nhanh tdc dp nghiem thu thanh toan-ban hang, thu hoi vdn nhanh, cac ndi dung quan tam giai quyet la : - Giai quyet diing, dii, kip thdi thii tuc cac tai lieu, chung tir nghiem thu thanh toan; dk xuit giai quyet cac khdi lugng bd sung, phat sinh, dieu chinh gia; - Lua chgn du an tinh dem den kha nang quan ly, dieu hanh du an ciia tung Chii diu tu, Dai dien chii dau tu; - De xuat hoan thien quy che quan ly du an XD-GTVT vdi Chii dau tu. 3. Thuc hien muc tieu tang vdn dieu le : Phat hanh them cd phan Cdng ty, tang muc cd phan ciia cac thanh vien HDQT va cac can bd chii chot. Giam miic ty le giiJ vdn Nha nude tai Cdng ty : Din 2010 van la 50%, din 2015 la 30% ; 4. Thuc hien muc tieu tang hieu qua SXKD tao von tu cd : - Tang cudng cac mat quan ly, thuc hien tdt chi dp giao khoan. Giam chi phi quan ly, tang lgi nhuan; - Dam bao gia tri cdn lai thuc te ciia thilt bj xem day la nguon bd sung quan trpng cho von tu cd trong nhixng nam tuong lai ciia Cdng ty; - Lua chgn du an tinh din kha nang hieu qua ciia tung du an; - cin dk nghi quy djnh ro trach nhiem, kilm trach nhiem, co chi xu ly trach nhiem trong du an ddi vdi Chii dau tu. 5. Huy ddng vdn thiu phu, cac nha cung cap : 97
  • 117. - Lira chpn cac nha thau phu thi cdng nhim gia tang ngudn von luu ddng cho du an tu ngudn vdn cua thau phu; - Lua chpn cac nha cung cap cd sue manh vl vdn, hp cd kha nang thuc hien ung vdn cung ung hang trudc. 6. Tang gia tri thi chap tai san : Tu ngudn can bd chii chdt, cac dpi trudng; ngudn ben ngoai. Sach luge cua cac bo phan chuc nang : Tren co sd cac ndi dung phuong an ciia "Chiln luge huy ddng von cho SXKD ciia Cdng ty 872" cac bd phan chiic nang cin quan tam din mot so ndi dung sau: I. Giu dupe mdi quan he truyin thdng sin cd vdi cac nha dang cung cip tin dung - ngan hang ma trong nhung nam tdi Cdng ty van dupe thua hudng su uu dai ciia co chi cu, ciia doanh nghiep Nha nude trudc khi cd phan hda. Cac chuyen gia tai chinh cho rang, nguyen tie chung ma cae chii ng thudng dua vao dd dl di den quyet dinh cho vay vdn thudng tap trung vao 5 nguyen tic ( 5C- Pham Hoang Minh.2006. " Kinh nghiem vang va chien luge kinh doanh trong cude sdng hien dai". NXB Ha Ndi) ma Cdng ty can tung budc nang cao kha nang dap ung ciia minh theo yeu ciu ciia cac td chuc tin dung, dac biet hp dang nhanh chong chuyen ddi co che la : - Character - Ca tinh: Cac td chiic tai chinh quyet djnh cho vay vdn dua vao dp tin cay va ca tinh ciia lanh dao DN. Chinh vi vay, don thu de nghj cua DN can dugc trinh bay mot each trung thuc va ro rang. Co quan tai chinh tien hanh xac minh, neu phat hien cd chi tiet thieu trung thuc thi hg se dat vin de dp tin cay ddi vdi DN. - Capacity - Nang luc: Ngudi cho vay ludn muon bilt vl ky nang quan ly, su nhay ben trong kinh doanh va vj thi ciia ngudi xin vay vdn trong dja hat kinh doanh. Nhung tai nang, ky nang, kiln thiic, kinh nghiem, tham vong, ddng luc, nghj luc cam kit nao DN muon dem lai 98
  • 118. cho hoat ddng kinh doanh ciia minh nhim tru vung va phat triin trong khi nhilu doanh nhan khac thit bai. - Conditions - Dilu kien: Ngudi cho vay ludn than trpng, bao thii va ludn tfnh din tinh hudng xiu nhit cd thi xay ra. Hay xac djnh va giai thich rd nhung dilu kien kinh tk, tinh hinh nganh va kha nang canh tranh du kiln se cd tac ddng (ca tich cue lin tieu cue) din hoat ddng ciia DN. - Collateral - Vat dam bao: Ngudi cho vay thudng nhin trudc hit vao nhiing ngudn lgi nhuan kinh doanh cd thi cd ciia DN. Bao cao tai chfnh cua DN can bao ham tit ca cac khoan phai tra, ca thuc te lan dot xuit. Ddng thdi, khoan tiln cho vay cin dugc dam bao bdi gia tri tai san ciia DN va hoat ddng kinh doanh cd triin vpng. - Capital - Vdn: Diu tu von cd phin hay vdn vay them thi hien cam kit tai chinh cua DN ddi vdi hoat ddng kinh doanh cu thi. Ngudi cho vay von nhin vao gia trj rdng ciia DN va cac he sd chuan muc ve tai chinh. 2. Ddi vdi muc tieu giam sd ngay trong vdng quay tai san phai thu va hang tdn kho : - Hoan thien quy dinh, hudng dan chung ve quy trinh nghiem thu thanh toan khoi lugng da hoan thanh eiia cdng trinh, hang muc cdng trinh, cd dilu chinh cho phii hgp ddi vdi tung du an; cac bd phan nghiep vu ciia Cdng ty, cac ban dilu hanh du an, cac don vi true tilp thi cdng theo phan cap phai thudng xuyen ddn doc, kiem tra, kilm soat, tap hgp chung tii, tai lieu dii, diing quy dinh va kip thdi; quan tam giai quyet tdt mdi quan he cdng tac vdi tu vin giam, tu van thiet ke va dai dien eiia chii dau tu tai hien trudng; phan anh kip thdi nhung vudng mac de lanh dao Cdng ty cd y kien giai quyet; - Viec giai quyet cac thii tuc xay dung co ban ddi vdi cac khdi lugng bd sung, phat sinh, dilu chinh gia, hien nay, cdn nhieu bat cap ve eo che trong XD-GTVT. Tuy nhien ddi vdi nha thau can tien lugng, du bao dugc cac sd lieu nay va sdm cd y kien de xuat vdi cac co quan 99
  • 119. lien quan. Vdi sach luge la phai yeu ciu cac co quan lien quan hudng din su* giai quylt kip thdi cho thi cdng cdng trinh, tranh thiet hai cho nha thiu. Vl nhiem vu cua cac bd phan lien quan ciia Cdng ty cin giai quylt kip thdi viec thik kl ban ve thi cdng bo sung, lap va trinh duyet cac du toan lien quan; - Qua qua trinh thuc hien du an, theo dinh ky, hoac dot suit phan anh, de xuit, kiln nghi vdi Chii diu tu, Dai dien chu diu tu, tu vin giam sat, tu vin thilt kl giai quylt cu thi, kip thdi cac van de, tung viec cdn tdn tai hoac can phai giai quylt- thdng qua cac cude hop tai hien trudng hoac bang cdng van de nghi. 3. Thuc hien muc tieu tang vdn dieu le : - Thuc hien sach luge dgng vien, neu cao trach nhiem ciia cac cd ddng va can bd cdng nhan vien trong Cdng ty trudc nhu can can phat hanh them cd phan Cdng ty de duy tri va phat triin SXKD. Thuylt phuc dugc co quan dugc giao quan ly vdn Nha nude tai Cdng ty hoac hp xuit von mua them cd phin Cdng ty, hoac hp chip thuan giam miic ty le giu" vdn Nha nude tai Cdng ty dk Cdng ty cd kha nang tang vdn dieu le; quang ba ke hoach, ket qua SXKD ciia Cdng ty gpi vdn ciia cac ban hang truyen thdng mua cd phan Cdng ty; - c i n xay dung rieng chiln luge nhim thuc hien viec niem yet cd philu Cdng ty tren thi trudng chiing khoan. 4. Thuc hien muc tieu tang hieu qua SXKD tao vdn tu cd : - Hoan thien cac quy chi, chi tai quan ly SXKD ndi chung va chi dp giao khoan san xuit, giao khoan quan thilt bj. Phan giao cdng viec phu hgp giua cac bd phan chiic nang, bd phan true tilp san xuit. Thuc hien van hanh tdt co chi ddn doe, kilm tra, kilm soat SXKD, giam chi phi quan ly, tang igi nhuan. - Tang cudng quan ly tai san, thilt bi. Phat huy hieu qua, nang luc cua thilt bj thi cdng. Giu" gin, bao tri tdt thilt bi nhim dam bao gia trj cdn lai thue tl cao. Khi thilt bj hit khiu hao se 100
  • 120. la ngudn thu kha Idn ciia Cdng ty. Cin giai quylt viec thuc hien tdt quy chi quan ly, giao khoan thiet bi thi cdng ciia Cdng ty; tang cudng he thdng quan ly, kilm tra cdng tac bao tri, sii- dung thilt bj tu Cdng ty xuong cac don vi thi cdng; thuc hien nghiem ngat cdng tac bao tri, sii'a chua thilt bj, dac biet la sua chiia Idn; - Nghien cuu lua chgn du an ludn tinh toan din kha nang va tinh hieu qua ciia tung du an : Lien quan den viec lua chpn Chii diu tu, nguon von ciia cac bd nganh; cac ban quan ly; diu thiu trong nude hoac diu thiu qudc tl ngudn von ADB, WB...Hoac dac dilm du an d khu vuc mien niii; trung du; ddng bang; dd thj ( su san cd ciia ngudn vat tu vat lieu, kha nang tan dung vat lieu tai chd, kha nang sii- dung thiet bj, lao ddng dja phuong...) - Lien quan den Chien luge thj trudng ciia Cdng ty 872. - Ddi vdi Chii dau tu : De xuat de hoan thien hgp ddng kinh te A-B, dam bao su rd rang, cdng bing, sdng phing (trach nhiem giai quylt vdn, giai phdng mat bang, giai quylt cac thii tuc xay dung co ban cd lien quan din du an, co chi din bu thiet hai khi ben A vi pham hgp ddng ...). Tranh thiet hai, riii ro nghieng ve phia nha thau. 5. Huy ddng von thiu phu, cac nha cung cap : - Day la mot ndi dung quan trpng trong dieu kien hien nay va ke ca nhung nam tdi. Lua chpn cac nha thiu phu thi cdng nhim tang nang luc hoan thanh du an ddng thdi huy ddng dugc them ngudn vdn luu ddng tu thiu phu, phat huy nang luc, hieu qua ciia bd may quan ly du an, tilt kiem chi phi quan ly du an, ha gia thanh. Viec lua chpn cac nha thau phu dugc nghien ciiu thuc hien ddi vdi tung du an, khu vuc cu thi; - cin duy tri va phat huy uy tin, truyin thdng quan he vdi cac nha cung cap, tang cudng lien danh lien kit, tao su hd trg tren co sd dam bao nguyen tic " chat lugng, uy tin, hgp tac hai ben cung cd lgi ". 6. Tang gia trj thi chip tai san 101
  • 121. - Thuc hien sach luge ddng vien, neu cao trach nhiem ciia can bd chii chot, cac dpi trudng trong viec huy ddng cho Cdng ty mugn quyIn su dung tai san dl thi chap. Nghien ciiu chinh sach, tung budc thuc hien viec cac thanh vien HDQT, cac can bd chii chot Cdng ty cd miic ddng gdp tai san the chip cho Cdng ty theo cip bac trach nhiem; - Ddi vdi viec huy ddng ngudn ben ngoai, cin lua chpn ndi dung thi chip tren co sd dam bao, an toan va giai quyet lgi ich phu hgp. Thyc hien CLKD : Tung ndi dung tren ciia chien luge can dugc lap kl hoach cu thi chi tilt, ap dung cac bien phap trien khai, phan cdng phan nhiem cu thi. Ddng vien, to chiic, khich le, kiem tra de CLKD dugc quan triet den tirng bd phan ciia Cdng ty. Danh gia va hoan thien chien lu"gc : Trong qua trinh thuc hien can kiem tra, danh gia ket qua, hieu qua cu the ciia tung giai phap, chien luge, phat hien su bat hgp ly, tim ra nguyen nhan dk dilu chinh, hoan thien chien luge nham thuc hien muc tieu da dat ra nham huy ddng vdn dii, kip thdi cho ke hoach SXKD . Qua nghien ciiu vl khoa hpc xay dung chiln luge phat trien Cdng ty, nhieu ndi dung cin dugc khao sat, nghien ciiu them dl hoach dinh cac chien luge can thiet, duy tri, ciing cd, phat triin Cdng ty ngay cang Idn manh. 4.2. Mot so han chi va cac kiln nghj nhim giai quylt nhirng van de ton tai 4.2.1. Mot sd han che vd cac kien nghi nham gidi quyet nhirng vdn di tdn tai Thdng qua co sd ly luan trong xay dung CLKD, cac phan tren da nghien ciiu phan tich thuc trang Cdng ty Cp Xay dung cdng trinh giao thdng 872, kiln nghi chiln luge canh tranh ciia Cdng ty, xac djnh cac muc tieu chiln luge din nam 2010 va 2015, dl xuit mot so chiln luge cin quan tam dl thirc hien dupe muc tieu, trong do tap trung phan tich xay dung mot sd ndi dung ciia bdn chiln luge chinh do la : Chiln luge thj trudng ; Chiln luge ciing cd, xay dung. 102
  • 122. phat trien hgp ly co cau td chuc quan ly dieu hanh va ngudn nhan luc; Chiln luge phat triin cdng nghe; Chiln luge huy ddng vdn cho SXKD, - ciia Cdng ty 872. Trudc dieu kien hoan canh ciia nganh XD-GTVT hien nay, co hdi cd nhilu, song khd khan thu thach va trd luc cung khdng nhd va cd phin phuc tap. Tdi dl xuit mot so kiln nghj nhim giai quyet nhung van de tdn tai, cac de xuat dd la : a) Doi v&i pham vi Cong ty - Ve tu tudng, can phai ddi mdi tu duy, neu cao tam quan trpng cua cdng tac nghien cuu, xay dung CLKD. Doi mdi theo quan diem thi trudng, loai bd tu tudng y lai "bao cap", khep kin trong nganh; nang cao trach nhiem cac nhan phu trach, gan trach nhiem vdi quyen Igi, dac biet quan tam din lgi ich kinh tl, tranh chii nghTa binh quan. Cdng viec lam, phai gan vdi su canh tranh thj trudng, hoan thien chinh minh. Chpn lua cdng viec, trudc khi quyet djnh cin dugc nghien ciiu thiu dao, mgt each khoa hpc tren co sd phai dat dugc hieu qua. - Cac van de cu the : + cin phai manh dan giai quylt, xu ly cac tdn tai, tdn dpng trudc cd phan hoa. Dac biet la van dk nhan su, bd may cong kinh, chi phi cao, hieu qua thap; mot so ndi dung vl tai chinh phai dugc giai quylt - theo phuong cham phat triin SXKD, hieu qua ngay cang cao nham "lanh manh hda tai chinh" Cdng ty; + Mot sd cdng trinh cham nghiem thu thanh toan, cdn ton dpng nhu: Qudc Id 34 Cao Bing; Cdng trinh BT xay dung ciu Kenh Te va dudng ndi din dudng Binh Thuan TP.HCM; Dudng ciia 6 Tay Hai Duong TP.Hai Duong v.v...nlu khdng dugc giai quylt sdm se anh hudng Idn din can can tai chinh ciia Cdng ty; + Cac thilt bi ciia Cdng ty da diu tu theo hudng chuyen nganh, chu lire. Tuy nhien, thuc te CO mdt sd thilt bj hieu qua su dung chua cao nhu May lii (ty trpng 10,68 % ), Otd (ty trpng 103
  • 123. 23,16 % ), dac biet la Tram tron be tdng nhua (ty trpng 20,04 % ), cin phai quan tam tim va bd tri cdng viec cho sd thilt bj nay; + Tinh trang mot sd ky su tre mdi ra trudng cdng tac, xem don vi thi cdng chi la "chd dung tam thdi" khi hpc dugc mdt it kinh nghiem thuc tl, thudng xin chuyin cdng tac din chd cd dilu kien hon ( lam viec dn djnh, co hdi thang tiln, thu nhap, hpc tap... ). Day la nhung vin de Cdng ty phai quan tam trong cdng tac quy hoach, giai quylt chinh sach can bd dl cd dugc can bd gidi, gan bd vdi su nghiep Cdng ty; + Cdng tac thi nghiem, khao sat thilt kl thi cdng chua dugc diu tu va quan tam thich dang ve ca thiet bi, cdng nghe va con ngudi. Day la cdng viec cd hieu qua, cin cd chiln luge, kl hoach tang cudng, nang cao va phat triin. + Tang cudng bdi dudng dao tao can bd lanh dao, can bd chuyen mdn, gidi ngoai ngu chuin bj cho cac du an qudc tl, thj trudng nude ngoai, hdi nhap. + cin cd Id trinh dua Cdng ty tham gia thi trudng chiing khoan, "len san" nhim cd kenh huy ddng vdn cho SXKD va phat trien. b) Ddi v&i nganh XD-GTVT vd Nhd nu&c : - Ve cac C che phan cap cho Chu dau tu* cdn nhieu bat cap, cd su chong cheo, y lai lam O cho cac C quan lien quan den quan ly du an thieu chii ddng, tdn phi nhieu thdi gian chd dpi O cac cap "cho chii truong", hudng dan de giai quyet cdng viec; - Ngi dung quan trgng can dugc nghien cuu dd la lam minh bach, rd rang dugc trach nhiem cua Chii diu tu* trong quan he hgp dong kinh te XD-GTVT ( cham giai phdng mat bing, giai quylt dii ngudn vdn du an, phan cap phe duyet bd sung, phat sinh, dieu chinh du an; xay dung va hoan chinh md hinh, co che quan ly du an ciia Chii dau tu; Cd thi neu mdt sd tdn tai va dk xuit mdt sd giai phap nhu sau, Chu ddu tu cham nghiem thu thanh toan khoi lucmg : 04
  • 124. Tinh trang ; Khdi lugng thi cdng xong cham ( din vai ba nam ) dugc nhiem thu thanh toan : Do cd phat sinh, thay ddi bo sung thilt kl tang khdi lugng. Nhung co chi giai quylt thu tuc lap duyet thilt kl, du toan; bd sung nguon vdn thanh toan rit cham; moi du an chia ra nhilu hgp ddng xay lip ( nhieu nha thiu tham gia ), tinh ddc lap cua tung hgp dong chua ro, cac hgp dong diu phai chd cho viec duyet dilu chinh chung ciia ca du an. De xuit : Cac dai dien chii diu tu-cac ban QLDA, sd GTVT cin bao cao ton tai tren, phan loai tung viec, su tdn tai; phan rd trach nhiem ciia tung bd phan lien quan, kl hoach giai quylt; cac kien nghi de giai quylt. Vl lau dai, cin cd co chi kilm tra kilm soat rit cu thi tu" khau thilt ke, tham djnh sat vdi quy hoach, sat vdi hien trudng. Giam thilu su bd sung, thay ddi thiet ke, tang khdi lugng trong giai doan thi cdng; can nghien ciiu ban hanh co chi rieng cho nganh XD- GTVT, viec tang giam khdi lugng so vdi thiet ke ky thuat ban dau ( hd so dau thau ) la thuc te, khd tranh khdi ( mac du da cd cac bien phap giam thieu ). Trong mot pham vi nao dd, viec dau thau, ve ban chat la dau thau don gia, cho nen khi cd khoan muc khdi lugng nao tang, dugc chip thuan ( Chii dau tu can phan cap viec duyet chap thuan ) thi cho nghiem thu thanh toan kjp thdi. Chu ddu tu cham diiu chinh gia, ca chi diiu chinh gia cdn nhieu khe, chua khoa hoc : Tinh trang : Hgp dong cd dilu chinh gia nhung viec dilu chinh gia khdng kip thdi, hoac cdng trinh da thi cdng xong cham ( din vai ba nam ) van chua dugc duyet du toan va thanh- toan khoan bu gia. Trong khi do miic do biln ddng gia ciia cac vat tu vat lieu chinh, nhan cdng cd thi dao ddng tu 5-10-20 % gia du toan ban diu. Viec khdng giai quylt kjp thdi khiln nha thiu thilu vdn, phat sinh lai vay anh tiln dp thi cdng cdng trinh, anh hudng gia thanh ciia nha thau. Dl xuit : c i n ap dung cdng thuc bu gia nhu da ap dung ddi vdi cac du an ngan hang Chau A-ADB va ngan hang Thi gidi- WB tai trg qua diu thiu Qudc tl. Cin nhanh chong thay ddi 05
  • 125. tu duy, quan diem ve viec nay- miu chdt la, chiing ta ( kl ca nha thiu va Nha nude ) nen chap nhan tinh tuong ddi khi ap dung each tinh nay; bing su nghien ciiu phan cip cu thi, tao ra dugc eo chi thanh toan bu gia hang thang, hang qui. Chu ddu tu chua sdng phdng khi cham nghiem thu thanh toan : Tinh trang : Khoan lai vay chilm ty trpng dang kl trong gia thanh cua nha thiu. Trong khi do, gia dau thau ( gia tran ) khdng cd khoan tinh chi chi phf lai vay huy ddng vdn luu ddng cho cac nha thiu; viec nghiem thu thanh toan hoan vdn trong XD-GTVT hien nay rit cham se phat sinh them khoan lai vay huy dpng vdn cho thi cdng, dpi gia thanh; phat sinh lo. De xuat : Can cd quy dinh chu trinh thdi gian cho mdt ky nghiem thu thanh toan. Neu cham thanh toan, can tra lai do thanh toan cham; can cd co che thanh toan khoan lai vay cho khdi lugng nha thau da thi cdng nhung cham dugc thanh toan vi nguyen nhan phai chd giai quyet thii tuc khac tu phia chii dau tu; - Ca chi tai chinh tin dung .• Cac DN nganh XD-GTVT tdn tai, phat trien trong qua trinh Ijch su dit nude, da ddng gdp dang ke vao su nghiep xay dung cua nude nha. Hien la mdt luc lugng cin phai quan tam, ho trg dk duy tri, phat triin. Tuy nhien do cac chinh sach, co chi trudc day, hien nay ty trpng von cua cac DN XD-GTVT chi cd khoang 5 - 8% vdn so vdi doanh thu hoac san lugng. Hp "sdng" - SXKD chii ylu bing vdn vay ngan hang, viec thay doi, ap dung cac co chi, chinh sach vay von mdi cin nghien ciiu dua ra nhung 'Md trinh" hgp ly. - Chinh phii da cd chu truang diy nhanh tiln trinh cd phan hda, giam ty le nam giir von tai mot so DN khdng trpng ylu trong nIn kinh tl. Song cip dai dien quan ly von Nha nude ( cdn thdi quen quyIn luc, quyIn lgi...) cin dugc thdng vl tu tudng va ddi mdi each nghi, doi mdi tu duy nhim tao dilu kien cho DN cd phin tang vdn, phu hgp vdi kinh tl thj trudng. 4.2.2. Han che ciia khoa luan 106
  • 126. Do han chi vl thdi gian, thdi lugng ciia Khoa luan, Khoa luan nay chua nghien cuu dugc toan dien nhQ-ng co sd ly luan va thuc tl mdi trudng nhim phuc vu cho cdng tac nghien cuu xay dung chiln luge tdng thi phat triin va CLKD ciia Cdng ty 872. Cdn nhilu vin dl, ngi dung can dugc de cap, nghien cuu them dk xay dung chiln luge phat triin, CLKD ciia cac DN trong nganh XD-GTVT ndi chung va Cdng ty 872 ndi rieng. Mac du ngudi viet cd thuan lgi la dang cdng tac d Cdng ty 872 va trong nganh XD-GTVT nhilu nam, cd dilu kien khao sat, dilu tra, thu thap sd lieu cho viec nghien ciiu thue trang ciia Cdng ty 872 va dk xuit mdt so ndi dung trong viec xay dung CLKD ciia Cdng ty 872, Song nhung phan tich, de xuat dd la y kiln chii quan cua ngudi nghien ciiu va vilt khda luan. Mong rang khi ap dung vao thuc tl, se dugc HDQT, cac can bd Cdng ty872 bd khuylt them va theo doi trien khai thuc te, dieu chinh cho phu hgp. 4.2.3, Hu&ng nghien cuu trong tuffng lai Can khao sat, phan tich cu the them ve thuc trang ciia nganh XD-GTVT va Cdng ty 872. Nghien ciiu, lua chgn, de xuat mdt sd ke hoach, chien luge chi tiet ( vi nhu : Chien luge thi trudng chi tilt cho tung dja ban, khu vuc - SBU; chi tiet tung phuong dien trong kl hoach chiln luge, kl hoach huy ddng von; hoan chinh chien luge phat trien cdng nghe; chi tilt vl quy hoach dao tao can bd, lao ddng trong Cdng ty; chinh sach luong thudng...) theo hudng phan chia nhd theo tung ndi dung, giai doan nham phu hgp vdi thuc tl thay ddi ciia-mdi trudng. cin kit luan dugc vdi thuc trang Cdng ty 872 hien nay, ke hoach, chiln luge nao cin uu tien va cd vai trd trpng ylu, hudng dao trong tdng thi cac chiln luge khac. 4.2.4. Ket luan: Dl tai khda luan tdt nghiep : "Xay dung chiln luge phat triin kinh doanh cua Cdng ty Cp Xay dung cdng trinh giao thdng 872 trong giai doan 2006-1015" da dugc ngudi vilt ggi md, hinh thanh tu khi hgc, nghien cuu tai Idp MBA- HSB. Tren co sd cac tai lieu, kiln thiic dugc 107
  • 127. tiep thu tai khda hgc, cung sy trao ddi thuc tien giiia cac dong nghiep, dac biet dugc sir hudng dan, giang day nhiet tinh cua cac giang vien, ciia HSB. Cd su hudng din tan tinh cua giang vien hudng din dl tai Khda luan, giiip tdi hoan thanh Khda luan. Hien d Cdng ty 872, mdi thuc hien viec xay dung va triin khai kl hoach kinh doanh hang nam, viec lap ke hoach trung, dai han cdn nang vl cam tinh theo " phuong hudng chi dao". Ddi vdi CLKD ciia DN chua dugc nghien ciiu xay dung theo nhij-ng ca sd ly luan va khoa hpc ciia mdn Quan tri kinh doanh, xay dung va triin khai CLKD. Cac can bd cd lien quan hoach djnh chiln luge Cdng ty thudng giai quylt d pham vi cac ndi dung vl "chii truong", "dudng Idi"; trong "suy tu", "sang kiln" ciia cac lanh dao cip tren, cip DN- cac kl hoach "trung han", "dai han" thudng so sai, thieu tinh khoa hpc, ddi khi td ra tuy tien, mang tinh duy y chi, khd dap ung trudc yeu cau ciia thj trudng. Tdi hy vpng rang, tai lieu Khda luan nay, trong dilu kien cdn cd han che nhung cung cd the cung cap mdt phan, tao dieu kien de Cdng ty 872 va nhii'ng ai quan tam trong cdng tac nghien ciiu, xay dung CLKD ciia cac cdng ty nganh XD-GTVT ndi chung va cu thi la Cdng ty 872. Tdi mong mudn se tilp tuc hgp tac vdi Cdng ty 872 trong qua trinh phat triin trong tuong lai, nhim kilm nghiem thuc tl CLKD nay va tilp tuc phat trien, hoan thien CLKD ciia Cdng ty 872. Tdi xin bay td Idng cam on chan thanh nhit din cac can bd, giang vien, dong nghiep vi HSB da tao dilu kien, ho trg tdi hoan thanh ban Khda luan tdt nghiep nay. Xin tran trgng cam on ./. 108
  • 128. TAI LIEU THAM KHAO GS.TS. Bui Danh Luu. 2005. " Tinh hinh hdi nhap vl khoa hpc cdng nghe va quan ly ket cau ha ting giao thdng Viet Nam". Hdi thao quoc tl xay dung giao thdng Viet Nam hdi nhap qudc tl, ngay 29-30/9/2005 tai Ha Long. NXB GTVT. Cac tai lieu giang day, nghien ciiu do HSB cung cip. TS.Dao Dinh Binh. 2005. " Djnh hudng phat triin co sd ha ting GTVT ciia Viet Nam trong thdi gian tdi va van dl hdi nhap". Hdi thao qudc tl xay dung giao thdng Viet Nam hdi nhap quoc tl, ngay 29-30/9/2005 tai Ha Long. NXB GTVT. JohnD.Daniest, LeeH.Radebauhg (2005). " Kinh doanh qudc te" - International Bisiness, ngudi djch : Truang Cdng Minh, Tran Tuan Thac, Tran Thj Tudng Nhu. NXB Thong ke. Le Thdng (chii bien). 2005. " Dja ly cac tinh va thanh pho Viet Nam". NXB Giao due. Nghi quylt so 56/2006/QHl 1 ciia Qudc Hoi ve kl hoach phat trien kinh te -xa hdi 5 nam 2006-2010 TS. Nguyen Duy Bau. 2005. " Phat triin he thdng GTVT ddi ngoai ciia nude Cdng hda Xa hdi chu nghTa Viet Nam. Hdi thao quoc tl xay dung giao thdng Viet Nam hdi nhap quoc tl, ngay 29-30/9/2005 tai Ha Long. NXB GTVT. Nguyen Ngpc Ddng. 2005. " Djnh hudng phat triin mang dudng dtd cao toe Viet Nam". Hdi thao quoc tl xay dung giao thdng Viet Nam hdi nhap qudc tl, ngay 29-3 0/9/2005 tai Ha Long. NXB GTVT. Nguyin Danh Hai, vu KHDT Bp GTVT(2005). " Danh gia diu tu co sd ha ting trong ITnh vuc GTVT", tham luan tai hdi thao VN-Nhan Ban lan 2 vl tai chinh du an quan ly ha ting giao thdng. 109
  • 129. PGS.TS Nguyin Nang Phuc. 2004. " Phan tich tinh hinh tai chinh trong cac cdng ty C phin d Viet Nam". NXB Tai chinh. O GS.TS Nguyin Van Thudng (chii bien). 2005. " Tang trudng kinh tl Viet Nam nhung rao can cin phai vugt qua". NXB Ly luan chinh trj. Philip Kotler ( 2003). " Quan tri Marketinh", ngudi dich: TS Vu Trpng Hung. NXB Thdng ke. Pham Hoang Minh.2006. " Kinh nghiem vang va chiln luge kinh doanh trong cude song hien dai". NXB Ha Ndi. Tong cue Thong ke. 2006. " Viet Nam 20 nam ddi mdi va phat triin 1986-2005". Thdi bao Kinh tl Viet Nam. 2006. " Kinh tl 2005-2006 Viet Nam va Thi gidi". NXB Thong ke. Vien nghien cuu dao tao ve quan ly ( 2005). " Xay dung va trien khai chien luge kinh doanh con dudng di den thanh cdng". NXB Lao ddng va Xa hdi. 110
  • 130. PHAN PHU LUC
  • 131. Bang 4-8 : Phan tich tai chinh DN Cdng ty 872 nam 2001 - 2005 Nam Nam Nam Nam Nam Ghi Tieu chi 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 chii a) Kha nang sinh Idi: 1. Thu hoi vdn chu - ROE (3/2) 0.051 0.126 0.043 0.310 0.174 2. Thu hoi vdn tren TS-ROA (3/4) 0.002 0.003 0.001 0.009 0.005 3. Lgi nhuan tren mdi cd phieu - EPS (3/6) 0.034 0.020 4. Gia tren thu nhap co phieu - PE (16/(3/6] 3.223 5.750 b) Kha nang thanh toan: 1. K/n thanh toan hien tai (7/8) 0.985 1.031 1.329 1.477 1.363 2. K/n thanh toan nhanh (7-12)/8 0.805 0.697 0.904 0.888 0.760 c) Kha nang khai thac tai san : 1. Ty sd quay vdng TK phai thu (9/10) 0.872 1.254 1.227 1.309 1.020 2. Ty sd quay vdng hang tdn kho (11/12) 2.708 2.068 1.550 1.251 0.934 3. Ty sd quay vdng tai san (13/4) 0.486 0.743 0.534 0.543 0.445 d) Ty sd ddn bay: 1. Ng tren vdn chii (14/2) 30.557 44.518 35.450 36.865 39.738 2. Bao chung lai (15/1) 1.404 2.629 1.903 1.908 1.848 SO LIEU : 1. Lai vay 2.009 4.063 5.708 6.349 6.462 2. Vdn chii 1.952 2.216 3.982 4.806 4.991 3. Lgi nhuan ddng sau thue 100 279 172 1.491 868 4. Tdng TS binh c|uan 61.599 81.234 121.015 159.168 187.752 5. Tdng sd co phieu dang luu hanh 0 0 0 43.400 43.000 6. Von cd phieu thudng 0 0 0 4.340 4.340 7. Tdng tai san luu dpng 54.949 81.611 115.063 154.607 179.753 8. Tdng so no ngan han 55.794 79.189 86.550 104.688 131.889 9. Doanh thu 29.951 60.380 64.662 86.359 83.518 10. Phai thu binh quan 34.351 48.148 52.704 65.968 81.919 11. Gia vdn hang ban 27.211 54.553 57.083 77.188 74.294 12. Tdn kho binh quan 10.048 26.384 36.833 61.695 79.521 13. Tdng doanh thu 29.951 60.380 64.662 86.359 83.518 14. Tdng no 59.647 98.651 141.163 177.174 198.331 15. Loi nhuan hoat dpng chua tru lai 2.740 5.826 7.578 9.171 9.224 16. Gia cd phieu (2/6) 0 0 0 ' 111 116 ( S6 lieu tren co cong trinh BT Kenh te, san lugng cac nam la: San lirpng BT - Kenh Te: 350 10.362 21.160 32.128 64.000 Danh gia tieu chi kha nang khai thac tai san dn loai trir su anh huong do cong them s6 lieu cong trinh BT a bang sau ). Ill
  • 132. Bang 4-9 : Phan tich tai chinh DN Cdng ty 872 nam 2001 - 2005 Tieu chi Nam Nam Nam Nam Nam Ghi 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 chu a) Kha nang sinh Idi: 1. Thu hdi vdn chii - ROE (3/2) 0.051 0.126 0.043 0.310 0.174 2. Thu hdi vdn tren TS-ROA (3/4) 0.002 0.003 0.001 0.009 0.005 3. Lgi nhuan tren mdi cd phi§u - EPS (3/61 0.034 0.020 4. Gia tren thu nhap cd phiSu - PE (16/(3/6) 3.223 5.750 b) Kha nang thanh toan: 1. K/n thanh toan hien tai (7/8) 0.985 1.031 1.329 1.477 1.363 2. K/n thanh toan nhanh (7-12)/8 0.805 0.697 0.904 0.888 0.760 c) Kha nang khai thac tai san : 1. Ty sd quay vdng TK phai thu (9/10) 0.881 1.234 2.050 2.522 4.661 2. Ty sd quay vdng hang tdn kho (11/12) 2.806 3.405 3.642 2.611 4.787 3. Ty sd quay vdng tai san (13/4) 0.486 0.743 0.534 0.543 0.445 d) Ty sd ddn bay: 1. Ngtren vdn chii (14/2) 30.557 44.518 35.450 36.865 39.738 2. Bao chii-ng lai (15/1) 1.404 2.629 1.903 1.908 1.848 SO LIEU : 1. Lai vay 2.009 4.063 5.708 6.349 6.462 2. Vdn chii 1.952 2.216 3.982 4.806 4.991 3. Lgi nhuan ddng sau thue 100 279 172 1.491 868 4. Tdng TS binh quan 61.599J 81.234 121.015 159.168 187.752 5. Tdng sd cd phieu dang luu hanh 0 0 0 43.400 43.000 6. Vdn cd phieu thudng 0 0 0 4.340 4.340 7. Tdng tai san luu ddng 54.949 81.611 115.063 154.607 179.753 8. Tdng sd no ng^n han 55.794 79.189 86.550 104.688 131.889 9. Doanh thu 29.951 50.018 64.662 86.359 83.518 10. Phai thu binh quan 34.351 48.148 52.704 65.968 81.919 11. Gia vdn hang ban 27.211 54.553 57.083 77.188 74.294 12. Tdn kho binh quan 10.048 26.384 36.833 61.695 79.521 13. Tdng doanh thu 29.951 60.380 64.662 86.359 83.518 14. Tdng no 59.647 98.651 141.163 177.174 198.331 15. Loi nhuan hoat ddng chua trij lai 2.740 5.826 7.578 9.171 9.224 16. Gia cd phieu (2/6) 0 0 0 111 116 Bilu nay loai tru cdng trinh BT Kenh Te : Doanh thu 2002 : 10,362 ty; phai thu binh quan, tdn kho binh quan tung nam nhu sau : San lugng BT - Kenh Te: 350 10.362 21.160 32.128 64.000 112
  • 133. Quy§n va nhiem vu cua cac bo phan, t6 chiic trong Cong ty Quyen vd Nhiem vu cua Dgi hdi dong co ddng a) Thdng qua djnh hudng phat trien cua Cdng ty; b) Quy8t djnh loai cd phkn va tdng sd cd ph§n ciia tung loai dugc quy8n chao ban; quylt djnh muc cd tiic hang nam ciia tung loai co phan; c) Bau, mien nhiem, bai nhiem thanh vien HDQT, thanh vien Ban kilm soat; d) Quyet dinh dau tu hoac ban sd tai san cd gia tri bing hoac Idn hn 50% tong gia tri tai san dugc ghi trong bao cao tai chinh gkn nhk ciia Cdng ty; d) Quyet dinh sua ddi, bo sung Dilu le Cdng ty; e) Thdng qua bao cao tai chinh hang nam; g) Quyet djnh mua lai tren 10% tdng sd cd phdn da ban ciia moi loai; h) Xem xet va xu ly cac vi pham cua HDQT, Ban kilm soat gay thiet hai cho Cdng ty va cd ddng Cdng ty; i) Quyet djnh td chiic lai, giai the Cdng ty; k) Cac quyen va nhiem vu khac theo quy djnh ciia Luat Doanh nghiep. 2. Dai hdi ddng cd ddng thudng nien thao luan va thdng qua cac van de sau day: a) Bao cao tai chinh hang nam; b) Bao cao ciia HDQT danh gia thuc trang cdng tac quan ly kinh doanh d Cdng ty; thdng qua bao cao ciia HDQT va ciia Ban kiem soat ve tinh hinh hoat ddng va ket qua kinh doanh hang nam ciia Cdng ty; quylt djnh phung hudng, nhiem vu phat triin Cdng ty va kl hoach san xudt kinh doanh hang nam, dai han ciia Cdng ty; quyet djnh giai phap phat triin thi trudng, tiep thj va cdng nghe; c) Bao cao cua Ban kilm soat vl quan ly Cdng ty ciia HDQT, Giam doc; 13
  • 134. d) Quyet djnh sd lgi nhuan trich lap cac quy, bd sung vdn, muc cd tiic ddi vdi mdi cd phdn cua tung loai. Xac djnh va quy trach nhiem vl cac thiet hai xy ra vdi Cdng ty trong hoat ddng san xuat kinh doanh; quyet djnh loai cd phdn va tong so co phdn dugc quyIn chao ban cua tirng loai; quyet dinh tang hoac giam Vdn dilu le, tru trudng hgp dilu chinh Vdn dilu le do ban them cd phdn mdi trong pham vi sd lugng co phan dugc quyIn chao ban quy dinh tai Dilu le Cdng ty, tdng gia trj trai phieu cdn huy ddng trong nam; d) Cac van de khac thugc tham quyln. Quyen vd nhiem vu cua HDQT 1. HDQT la C quan quan ly Cdng ty, cd toan quyln nhdn danh Cdng ty dl quylt dinh, thuc O hien cac quyen va nghTa vu ciia Cdng ty khdng thugc thdm quyln ciia Dai hdi dong cd ddng. 2. Hdi ddng quan tri cd cac quyen va nhiem vu sau day: a) Quyet djnh chien luge, ke hoach phat trien trung han va ke hoach kinh doanh hang nam ciia Cdng ty tren c sd cac muc dich, chien luge do Dai hdi ddng cd ddng da thdng qua; b) Kiln nghj loai cd phdn va tdng sd cd phan dugc quyen chao ban ciia tung loai; c) Quylt djnh chao ban cd phdn mdi trong pham vi so cd phan dugc quyen chao ban ciia tirng loai; quylt djnh huy ddng them vdn theo hinh thuc khac; d) Quyet dinh gia chao ban cd phan va trai phieu ciia Cdng ty; d) Quyet djnh mua lai cd phdn theo quy djnh cua Dilu le Cdng ty; e) Quyet djnh phuang an ddu tu va du an ddu tu trong thdm quyln va gidi han theo quy djnh ciia Luat Doanh nghiep hoac Dilu le Cdng ty; g) Quylt djnh giai phap phat triin thi trudng, tilp thi va cdng nghe; thdng qua hgp ddng mua, ban, vay, cho vay va hgp dong khac cd gia trj nhd han 50% tdng sd gia trj tai san dugc ghi trong bao cao tai chinh gan nhdt cua Cdng ty, tru hgp ddng va giao djch quy djnh thuoc quyln ciia HDQT va Dai hdi ddng cd ddng; 114
  • 135. Phe chudn viec vay ng va viec thuc hien moi khoan thi chdp, bao dam, bao lanh va bdi thudng cua Cdng ty; rieng viec bao dam, thi chdp, bao lanh ddu thdu xdy Idp theo nganh nghi ciia Cdng ty giao Giam doc phe chuan; h) Bd nhiem, miln nhiem, each chuc, ky hgp ddng, chdm diit hgp ddng ddi vdi Giam ddc va bd nhiem va bai nhiem cac can bo quan ly ciia Cdng ty theo dl nghj ciia Giam ddc va kl ca trudng hgp HDQT tu quylt djnh nlu cho rdng dd la vi igi ich tdi cao ciia Cdng ty. Tuy nhien, viec bai nhiem dd khdng dugc trai vdi cac quy djnh ciia Luat lao ddng. Viec bd nhiem va bai nhiem neu tren dugc phdn cdp nhu sau : - HDQT bd nhiem hoac thue va bai nhiem Giam ddc Cdng ty, Kl toan trudng, phd Giam doc va bd nhiem cac chiic danh ddi trudng, trudng phdng trd len va cac chuc danh tuong duong khac. Quyet djnh muc luong va lgi ich khac ciia nhirng ngudi quan ly dd; cu ngudi dai dien theo uy quyen thuc hien quyen sd huu cd phan hoac phdn vdn gdp d Cdng ty khac, quylt djnh muc thu lao va lgi ich khac ciia nhiing ngudi dd. - Giam ddc bd nhiem va bai nhiem tu ddi phd, chii nhiem cdng trinh, phd trudng phdng va cac chiic danh tung duong trd xudng; i) Giam sat, chi dao Giam doc va ngudi quan ly khac trong dieu hanh cdng viec kinh doanh hang ngay ciia Cdng ty; .— k) Quylt djnh ca cau to chuc, quy chi quan ly ndi bd Cdng ty, ban hanh va giam sat viec thuc hien cac djnh miic, tieu chuan kinh tl - ky thuat ap dung trong Cdng ty. Quylt djnh thanh lap Cdng ty con, lap chi nhanh, van phdng dai dien va viec gdp von, mua cd phdn ciia doanh nghiep khac; 115
  • 136. Phe chudn cac khoan ddu tu khdng ndm trong kl hoach kinh doanh va ngan sach vuot qua 10% kl hoach hoac cac khon ddu tu vugt qualO% gia trj kl hoach va ngdn sach kinh doanh hang nam ciia Cdng ty; 1) Duyet chuang trinh, ndi dung tai lieu phuc vu hop Dai hoi ddng cd ddng, trieu tap hop Dai hdi ddng cd ddng hoac Idy y kiln dk Dai hoi dong cd ddng thdng qua quylt dinh; m) Trinh bao cao quyet toan tai chinh hang nam len Dai hdi dong cd ddng; n) De xudt phuang an su dung lgi nhuan ciia Cdng ty va dl xuat muc cd tiic hang nam va xac dinh miic cd tiic tam thdi; quyet djnh thdi han va thii tuc tra cd tuc hoac xu ly lo phat sinh trong qua trinh kinh doanh; o) Kien nghi viec td chiic lai, giai the hoac yeu cdu pha san Cdng ty; p) Cac quyen va nhiem vu khac theo quy dinh ciia Luat Doanh nghiep. Quyen vd nhiem vu ciia Giam doc 1. Quylt dinh cac van dl lien quan den cdng viec kinh doanh hang ngay ciia Cdng ty ma khdng cdn phai cd quylt djnh ciia HDQT; ky cac bao cao, cac chiing tu ciia Cdng ty. Ky cac hgp ddng kinh te phuc vu cho hoat ddng kinh doanh ciia Cdng ty; 2. Td chiic thuc hien cac quyet dinh ciia HDQT; 3. To chiic thuc hien kl hoach kinh doanh va phung an ddu tu cua Cdng ty; 4. Kiln nghi phuang an ca cdu td chuc, quy chi quan ly ndi bd Cdng ty; 5. Lua chpn va dl nghj HDQT bd nhiem va bai mien phd Giam ddc hoac Kl toan trudng. Bd nhiem, mien nhiem cac chiic danh khac theo phan cdp. Ky luat, cho thdi viec va ndng bac luang cho cac nhdn vien dudi quyen theo su phdn cdp cua HDQT va theo phap luat Nha nude hien hanh. 6. Quylt dinh lucng va phu cap (neu cd) ddi vdi ngudi lao ddng trong Cdng ty kl ca ngudi quan ly thuoc thdm quyln bo nhiem cua Giam ddc; 116
  • 137. 7. Tuyen dung lao ddng; 8. Kien nghj phuang an tra cd tiic hoac xu ly lo trong kinh doanh; 9. Trinh HDQT cac bao cao vl tinh hinh hoat ddng tai chinh, kit qua SXKD va chiu trach nhiem ve toan bd hoat ddng san xudt kinh doanh ciia Cdng ty trudc HDQT va cac cd ddng; 10. Giam ddc chju trach nhiem trudc HDQT va Dai hdi ddng cd ddng ve viec thuc hien nhiem vu va quyln han dugc giao va phia bao cao cho nhung ca quan nay khi dugc yeu cau. 11. Dai dien Cdng ty trong viec khdi kien cac vu an c6 lien quan din quyln lgi ciia Cdng ty theo uy quyln ciia Chii tjch HDQT; 12. Cac quyln va nhiem vu khac theo quy djnh ciia phap luat, Dilu le Cdng ty va quylt djnh cua Hdi ddng quan trj. 1.3. Giam ddc phai dieu hanh cdng viec kinh doanh hang ngay ciia Cdng ty theo diing quy dinh ciia phap luat, Dieu le Cdng ty, hgp ddng lao dgng ky vdi Cdng ty va quylt dinh ciia HDQT. Neu dieu hanh trai vdi quy dinh nay ma gdy thiet hai cho Cdng ty thi Giam doc phai chiu trach nhiem trudc phap luat va phi bdi thudng thiet hai cho Cdng ty. Quyen vd nhiem vu cua Ban kiim soat 1. Ban kilm soat thuc hien giam sat HDQT, Giam ddc trong viec quan ly va dieu hanh Cdng ty; chiu trach nhiem trudc Dai hdi ddng co ddng trong thuc hien cac nhiem vu dugc giao. 2. Kilm tra tinh hgp ly, hgp phap, tinh trung thuc va muc do can trong trong quan ly, dieu hanh hoat ddng kinh doanh, trong td chuc cdng tac kl toan, thong ke va lap bao cao tai chinh. 3. Thdm djnh bao cao tinh hinh kinh doanh, bao cao tai chinh hang nam va 06 ( sau ) thang ciia Cdng ty, bao cao danh gia cdng tac quan ly ciia HDQT. 117
  • 138. Trinh bao cao thim dinh bao cao tai chfnh, bao cao tinh hinh i<inh doanh hang nam cua Cong ty va bao cao danh gia cong tac quan ly cua HDQT len Dai hoi d6ng c6 dong tai cuoc hop thudng nien. 4. Xem xet sd kl toan, cac tai lieu khac, cac cdng viec quan ly, dilu hanh hoat ddng cua Cdng ty bdt cii- khi nao nlu xet thdy cdn thilt hoac theo quylt djnh ciia Dai hdi ddng cd ddng hoac theo yeu cdu cd ddng hoac nhdm cd ddng quy dinh tai Dilu le Cdng ty. 5. Khi cd yeu cau cua cd ddng hoac nhdm cd ddng ( quy dinh tai Dilu le ), Ban kilm soat thuc hien kilm tra trong thdi han 07 ( bay ) ngay lam viec, kl tu ngay nhan dugc yeu cdu. Trong thdi han 15 ( mudi lam ) ngay, kl tu ngay kit thiic kilm tra, Ban kilm soat phai bao cao giai trinh vl nhung vdn de dugc yeu cdu kilm tra den HDQT va cd ddng hoac nhdm cd ddng cd yeu cdu. Viec kilm tra ciia Ban kilm soat quy djnh tai khoan nay khdng dugc can trd hoat ddng binh thudng cua HDQT, khdng gay gian doan dilu hanh hoat ddng kinh doanh cua Cdng ty. 6. Kien nghj HDQT hoac Dai hdi ddng cd ddng cac bien phap sua ddi, bd sung, cai tiln ca cdu td chuc quan iy, dieu hanh hoat dpng kinh doanh ciia Cdng ty. 7. Khi phat hien cd thanh vien HDQT, Giam ddc vi pham nghia vu ciia ngudi quan ly cdng ty thi phai thdng bao ngay bang van ban vdi HDQT, yeu cau ngudi cd hanh vi vi pham cham dut hanh vi vi pham va cd giai phap khac phuc hau qua. _ 8. Thuc hien cac quyen va nhiem vu khac theo quy dinh ciia Luat Doanh nghiep, Dilu le cdng ty va quyet djnh ciia Dai hoi ddng cd ddng. 9. Ban kilm soat cd quyln su dung tu van doc lap de thuc hien cac nhiem vu dugc giao. Ban kilm soat cd thi tham khao y kien ciia HDQT trudc khi trinh bao cao, kit luan va kiln nghj len Dai hdi ddng cd ddng. Cac phdng tham mu-u, nghiep vu trong Cdng ty du-gc phan giao nhiem vu nhu-sau : 118
  • 139. - Nhiem vu Cdng tdc hanh chinh vdn phong, qudn tri 1. Cdng tac van thu, danh may, luu tru : Tiep nhdn, gao nhdn cdng van; bao mat tai lieu; an toan tai lieu; nhap du' lieu luu trij; tu bd phuc chi tai lieu; hudng dan su dung tai lieu; bao quan tai lieu; Bao quan su dung con dau diing quy dinh. Tham muu xdy dung quy djnh ve cdng tac van thu, quy trinh ludn chuyen van ban, danh muc hd sa, luu Xvu hd sa trong dan vi; 2. Cdng tac hanh chinh van phdng : Cdng tac hanh chinh, dam bao duy tri hoat ddng thudng xuyen he thdng thdng tin lien lac. Thudng true ra vao ca quan, ddn va hudng ddn khach den lam viec. Bo tri phdng lam viec; cac trang thilt bi cho cac cuoc hop; cdng tac bao ve, an toan cho van phdng ca quan. Cdng tac quan tri van phdng, mua sam, cdp phat van phdng pham, bao tri cho van phdng ca quan; Duy tri, bao dudng, sua chiia, kilm ke cac trang thiet bj lam viec. Dam bao dien; nude; ve sinh nai lam viec cho van phdng ca quan. Di lai cdng tac, du toan chi phi cdng tac; dinh miic xe con, dien thoai; theo ddi nghi chi do; Quan ly nha d, bip an tap thi, cang tin ( nlu cd); Thudng true quan he dja phuang, bao ve an ninh trat tu, hg khdu. Lap kl hoach du toan, thanh quylt toan chi phi van phdng co quan (thang, quy, nam ). - Nhiem vu Cdng tdc to chuc cdn bd 1. Tham gia xdy dung, lap kl hoach san xuat cua Cdng ty. True tilp tham muu xay dung ke hoach vl dinh bien, tiln luang, tiln thudng, tuyIn dung, bdi dudng ndng cao tay nghi, ndng bac, an toan bao ho lao ddng, BHXH, BHYT, thdi viec^sdp xip bd tri lao ddng, quy hoach dao tao; 2. Tham gia cdng tac giao khoan ndi bd Cdng ty. Thudng true ban xdy dung va hoan thien djnh miic lao ddng ndi bd Cdng ty; 3. Cdng tac bao cao thdng ke vl TCCB-LD. Lap cac Bao cao thdng ke theo quy dinh. Tham gia theo doi, kilm tra ddn ddc tinh hinh SXKD cua cac dan vj; 119
  • 140. 4. Thuc hien cdng tac tham muu, nghiep vu vl quan ly, kilm tra giam sat : Thanh toan tra luang va cac che do chinh sach ddi vdi ngudi lao ddng; an toan, bao ho lao ddng, duy tri he thdng an toan vien; cdng tac tuyIn dung, hgp dong, boi dudng, hudn luyen, dao tao lao ddng, ndng bac nang luang, thuyen chuyin, thdi viec, huu tri, dm dau, thai san, nghi phep nam, dl bat, mien nhiem, ky luat, tai nan va mot so cdng tac nghiep vu khac cd lien quan din cdng tac td chiic, can bd, lao ddng. Thudng true Ban tilp ddn, tham muu giai quylt cac vdn de ve viec thuc hien che do chinh sach vdi ngudi lao dong, cd ddng Cdng ty; 5. Thudng true cdng tac xdy dung va hoan thien Dieu le, quy che Cdng ty cd lien quan den cdng tac td chuc, can bd, lao ddng; cdng tac theo ddi, hieu tdm tu, nguyen vgng ciia lao ddng, tang cudng chdp hanh che do, ky luat; bien soan tai lieu bdi dudng, huan luyen ndng cao tay nghi cho cdng nhdn, can bd. Thudng true Hdi ddng tien luong, Hdi ddng Khen thudng thi dua va ky luat ciia Cdng ty; 6. Tham gia Hdi dong NTTT ciia Cdng ty vdi cac dn vi san xudt; xem xet quylt toan ddi; quylt toan cdng trinh; 7. Tham gia nghien ciiu cai tiln md hinh san xudt, SXKD, nghien ciiu ap dung sang kiln cai tiln KHKT va cdng nghe. Tham gia Hdi ddng ap dung sang kiln cai tien ky thuat, khoa hoc Cdng ty. Chii tri nghien ciiu, hudng ddn cdng tac TCCB-LD, ky thuat an toan san xudt ddi vdi viec bd tri, su dung lao ddng, cdng viec ddc hai, xay dung lao ddng dien hinh; 8. Quan ly danh sach cd ddng, hd sa chuyin nhugng cd phdn, cd philu; Bao quan, luu tru hd sa CBCNV, djnh ky bd sung hd sa ly lich; cac van ban khac cua Cdng ty theo quy dinh. - Nhiem vu Cdng tdc ky thuat, KCS - chat luffng san pham 1. Tham gia xdy dung, lap kl hoach san xudt ciia Cdng ty. Lap thilt kl td chuc san xudt, thi cdng ddi vdi tung hang muc san phdm; hang muc cdng trinh; cdng trinh; du an va toan bd hoat dgng san xudt ciia Cdng ty; 120
  • 141. 2. Tham gia cdng tac giao khoan ndi bd Cdng ty, giao khoan cdng viec; 3. Theo ddi cdng tac bao cao thdng ke vl ky thuat thi cdng, chat lugng. Lap cac Bao cao thdng ke theo quy dinh; 4. Tham gia cdng tac tilp thi, tim viec. Lap hd sa thau; chon thdu cdng trinh, du an, theo sir chi djnh ciia Giam ddc Cdng ty; 5. Thuc hien cac cdng tac nghiep vu chuyen mdn: Lap; thdm tra cac thilt ke ky thuat, thiet ke ban ve thi cdng (neu cd) va cdng nghe thi cdng de tham muu lanh dao chdp thuan; Quan ly, theo ddi, kiem tra ky thuat san xudt, thi cdng tai hien trudng theo phan cdp ciia Cdng ty doi vdi tiing du an, cdng trinh. Thuc hien cdng tac quan ly chdt lugng - KCS , tham muu xay dung va duy tri he thong giam sat chdt lugng - KCS ciia Cdng ty, tung du an, ddi san xuat; Dk xudt xu ly khi cd vi pham chat lugng. Hudng ddn, bdi dudng va duy tri he thdng ky thuat vien tx Cdng ty din cac ddi san xudt nhdm duy tri cdng tac nghiep vu vl quan ly ky thuat san xuat, thi cdng, chdt lugng va mot sd cdng tac nghiep vu khac cd lien quan; 6. Tham gia theo ddi, kilm tra ddn doc tinh hinh SXKD ciia cac dan vi. 7. Tham gia Hoi ddng NTTT ciia Cdng ty vdi cac don vj san xudt; xem xet quylt toan ddi; quylt toan cdng trinh ; xdy dung va hoan thien Dilu le, quy chi cd lien quan din cdng tac ky thuat, chat lugng, du an; bien soan tai lieu boi dudng, huan luyen ndng cao tay nghe cho cdng nhdn, can bd- trong tdm la cdng tac ky thuat thtcdng va chdt lugng; 8. Phdi hgp vdi cac phdng xdy dung kl hoach, quy hoach bdi dudng, dao tao, ndng cao tay nghi cho lao ddng trong Cdng ty. 9. Tham gia nghien cuu cai tiln md hinh san xudt, SXKD, nghien cuu dp dung sang kiln cai tiln KHKT va cdng nghe. Tham gia Hdi ddng tiln luang, Hdi ddng Thi dua khen thudng va ky luat ciia Cdng ty. Thudng true Hdi ddng ap dung sang kiln cai tiln ky thuat, khoa hoc. 121
  • 142. 10. Phdi hgp vdi phdng Kl hoach-Kinh doanh thuc hien viec bao qudn, luu tru hd so cdng trinh, du an va cac van ban khac ciia Cdng ty theo quy djnh; . Nhiem vu Cdng tdc kinh te, ki hoach - kinh doanh 1. Thudng true trong viec xdy dung, lap kl hoach san xudt, kl hoach nam, trung han, dai han cua Cdng ty. True tilp tham muu xdy dung kl hoach gia thanh, phan tich hieu qua kinh tl; 2. Thudng true cdng tac giao khoan ndi bd Cdng ty, giao khoan cdng viec, xdy dung va hoan thien djnh muc Kinh tl-Ky thuat ndi bd, djnh muc lao ddng va chi phi tiln luang, cac ndi dung ve giao khoan va quan ly khoan, kilm tra viec thuc hien va hoan thien cac quy chi, quy djnh ve giao nhdn khoan; 3. Thudng true cdng tac bao cao thong ke, theo ddi, thu thap sd lieu, ddn doc cac dan vj thuc hien nghiem chinh cdng tac bao cao thong ke; td chiic kiem tra cac bao cao thong ke ciia cac dan vj cdp dudi gui len; lap va gui day dii diing han cac bao cao thong ke cua Cdng ty theo quy djnh; 4. Tham muu trudng trong cdng tac kinh doanh, tilp thi, md rong thi trudng. Lap hd su ddu thdu, chgn thdu. Thudng true soan thao HDKT; viec chuyin nhugng cd phan, co philu, thj trudng chiing khoan; quan ly viec thuc hien hgp ddng kinh tl; 5. Tham muu va thuc hien cdng tac chuyen mdn nghiep vu: Lap, thdm tra cac ludn chiing ddu tu SXKD, du an (rieng dau tu thilt bj thi cdng giao cho phdng VT-TB). Cung cap cac sd lieu, tai lieu phuc vu viec dilu hanh SXKD, kiem tra va phdn tich hoat ddng kinh tl, phuc vu viec lap ke hoach, theo ddi thuc hien ke hoach. Tham gia tinh gia thanh san phdm, cdng viec, djch vu, luu thdng va cdn ddi Id lai ciia ky SXKD, cdng trinh, hang muc cdng trinh; hach toan kinh tl tung cdng trinh va hoat ddng SXKD toan Cdng ty. Hudng ddn, boi dudng va duy tri he thong thong ke tu Cdng ty din cac ddi 6. Tham gia theo ddi, kilm tra ddn ddc tinh hinh SXKD ciia cac don vj. 122
  • 143. 7. Thudng true Hdi ddng NTTT ciia Cdng ty vdi cac don vi san xudt. Tham gia Hdi ddng tien luang, Hdi ddng khen thudng thi dua va ky luat ciia Cdng ty. Tham gia kilm tra xem xet quylt toan ddi; quylt toan cdng trinh, kilm toan ddi. Tham gia xdy dung va hoan thien Dilu le, quy chi cd lien quan din cdng tac kinh tl, kl hoach, kinh doanh; 8. Tham gia nghien ciiu cai tiln md hinh san xuat, SXKD, nghien ciiu ap dung sang kiln cai tien KHKT va cdng nghe. Tham gia Hdi ddng dp dung sang kiln cai tiln ky thuat, khoa hgc; bien soan tai lieu bdi dudng, huan luyen ndng cao tay nghe cho cdng nhan, can bg - trong tdm la cdng tac thdng ke ke hoach, gia thanh, kiem toan dinh miic chi phi, ddu thau, tiep thi; 9. Phdi hgp vdi cac phdng xdy dung ke hoach, quy hoach boi dudng, dao tao, ndng cao tay nghe cho lao ddng trong Cdng ty. Phdi hgp theo ddi kiem tra thuc hien ke hoach dd; 10. Chiu trach nhiem chinh ve cdng tac bao quan, luu tru hd so cdng trinh; du an, cac tai lieu ve HDKT, cac van ban khac cd lien quan den cdng tac kinh te, ke hoach theo quy dinh; - Nhiem vu Cdng tdc Vat tu - Thiet bi 1. Tham gia xdy dung, lap kl hoach san xudt ciia Cdng ty, true tiep tham muu xdy dung KH : Ddu tu thilt bj; cung cap, su dung vat tu vat lieu; sua chija thiet bj, cai tien thilt bi; khdu hao, hoan vdn; 2. Theo ddi, kilm tra, thu thap so lieu, ddn ddc cac don vi thuc hien nghiem chinh cdng tac bao cao thdng ke vl vat tu thiet bj; — 3. Thuc hien nghiep vu theo ddi, nghien ciiu thj trudng, gia ca, duy tri cac ddi tac tin cay vl ITnh vuc vat tu vat lieu, thilt bj. Cdn ddi ke hoach nhu cdu su dung thiet bj trong ndi bd; tham gia soan thao, theo ddi viec thuc hien cac hgp dong kinh tl, giao khoan, giao viec vl ITnh vuc vat tu, thilt bj. 4. Tham muu, thuc hien cdng tac nghiep vu vl quan ly, kilm tra giam sat : Xac djnh va phan anh chinh xac, kjp thdi, diing chi dp, kit qua kilm ke thilt bj thi cdng, vat tu vdt lieu hang 123
  • 144. ky; chudn bi ddy du va kip thdi cac thu tuc va tai lieu cdn thilt cho viec xu ly cac khoan mdt mat, hao hut, hu hdng va cac trudng hgp xdm pham tai san, ddng thdi dk xudt cac bien phap giai quylt, xu ly. Kilm tra, kilm soat viec chdp hanh cac chi dp su dung, bao quan vat tu, thilt bi thi cdng ciia cac dan vj san xudt. Hudng ddn, bdi dudng va duy tri he thdng ky thuat vien sua chQ-a theo ddi vl thilt bi cung nhu cac nhdn vien thdng ke thilt bj, vat tu vat lieu tu Cdng ty din cac dpi san xudt. Phdi hgp vdi phdng TCCB-LD theo doi, quan ly dpi ngu thg van hanh, sua chira thilt bj thi cdng. Lap ,thdm duyet cac thilt kl, cdng nghe cho viec cai tien thiet bi, ap dung sang kiln cai tiln ky thuat- khoa hpc cdng nghe vl ITnh vuc sii* dung vat tu thiet bi. 5. Tham gia theo doi, kilm tra ddn doc tinh hinh SXKD ciia cac dan vi. 6. Tham gia cdng tac giao khoan ndi bd Cdng ty. Tham gia Hdi ddng NTTT ciia Cdng ty vdi cac dan vj san xudt. Tham gia xem xet quylt toan dpi, quylt toan cdng trinh; 7. Thudng true Hdi ddng nghiem thu hang muc siia chua Idn, cai tiln thilt bj. Thudng true Hdi ddng thanh ly tai san Cdng ty; 8. Tham gia xay dung va hoan thien Dieu le, quy chi cd lien quan din cdng tac quan ly vat tu vat lieu va thiet bj; tham gia Hdi ddng tien luang, Hdi ddng Khen thudng thi dua va ky luat ciia Cdng ty; 9. Tham gia nghien ciiu cai tiln md hinh san xudt, nghien ciiu dp dung sang kiln cai tiln KHKT va cdng nghe. Tham gia Hdi ddng dp dung sang kiln cai tien ky thuat, khoa hpc Cdng ty. Chii tri nghien cuu, hudng ddn cdng tac ky thuat an toan san xudt ddi vdi viec bo tri, sii- dung, van hanh thilt bj thi cdng; bien soan tai lieu bdi dudng, hudn luyen ndng cao tay nghi cho cdng nhdn, can bd-trpng tam la cdng tac van hanh, bao quan, djnh miic su dung thilt bj thi cdng, cdng tac vat tu vat lieu; 124
  • 145. 10. Phdi hgp vdi cac phdng xay dung ke hoach, quy hoach bdi dudng, dao tao, ndng cao tay nghe cho lao dgng trong Cdng ty. 11. Bao quan, luu tru hd sa, ly Ijch tung xe may thilt bj, djnh ky bd sung ho so ly lich; cac van ban khac ciia Cdng ty theo quy dinh; - Cdng tdc Ke toan Tdi chinh 1. Tham gia xdy dung, lap kl hoach san xudt ciia Cdng ty, true tilp tham muu xdy dung ke hoach gia thanh, vdn, kit qua SXKD, cd tuc, trich lap va su dung cac quy ; 2. Tham gia cdng tac giao khoan ndi bd Cdng ty; kilm tra viec thuc hien va hoan thien cac quy chi, quy dinh ve giao nhan khoan; kiem tra, kilm soat viec chdp hanh cac chinh sach kinh te, tai chinh, cac che dp tieu chuan, djnh muc chi tieu va ky luat tai chinh, viec thuc hien che dp thanh toan, tien mat ddi vdi cac dan vi ndi bd. Tham gia theo ddi, kiem tra ddn ddc tinh hinh SXKD ciia cac dan vj. 3.Theo ddi, kilm tra, thu thap sd lieu, ddn ddc cac don vj thuc hien cdng tac bao cao thdng ke vl KI toan tai chinh. Lap day dii va gui diing han cac bao cao kl toan, thdng ke va quyet toan ciia Cdng ty theo che dp quy djnh; 4. Nghien ciiu, theo doi thi trudng vdn, tham muu viec gpi va huy ddng von cho SXKD va ddu tu, cdn doi vdn, giai quylt cung cdp vdn cho SXKD; 5. Tham muu va thuc hien cdng tac nghiep vu, quan ly, kiem tra giam sat : Tham muu td chii-c cdng tac kl toan, thdng ke va bd may kl toan, thong ke; ghi chep, tinh toan, phan anh va kilm tra kilm soat tinh hinh luan chuyin va sir dung tai san, vat tu tien von, chi phi quan ly doanh nghiep, qua trinh hoat ddng SXKD, tinh gia thanh san pham, gia vdn hang hoa va cdn ddi lo lai ciia ky SXKD, phdn tich kit qua hoat ddng SXKD cua Cdng ty; cung cap cac sd lieu, tai lieu phuc vu viec dilu hanh SXKD; Phat hien va ngan chan kip thdi vi pham chinh sach, che dp, ky luat kinh tl, tai chinh ciia Nha nude. Td chuc kilm tra cac bao cao kl 125
  • 146. toan, thdng ke, quyet toan ciia cac don vi. Lap va gui ddy dii diing han cac bao cao kl toan thdng ke, bao cao quyet toan tong hgp ciia cac dan vi thuoc pham vi quan Iy. Td chuc kilm tra ke toan trudng trong ndi bd Cdng ty va cac dan vj true thuoc. Tinh toan va trich nop diing, dii kip thdi cac khoan nop ngan sach, cac khoan nop cdp tren, cac quy va thanh toan diing han cac khoan cdng ng. Kilm tra, kilm soat viec chdp hanh cac cude kilm ke tai san va danh gia lai tai san. Kiem tra, kiem soat viec chdp hanh cac chi dp bao ve tai san, vat tu, tiln von, che dp quan ly va ky luat lao ddng, cac djnh muc lao ddng, tiln luong, tien thudng, cac khoan phu cdp va cac chinh sach, che dp ddi vdi ngudi lao ddng. To chuc pho biln va hudng dan thi hanh kjp thdi cac che dp, the le tai chinh, kl toan Nha nude; 6. Tham gia Hdi ddng NTTT ciia Cdng ty vdi cac don vi san xudt. Kiem tra, kiem soat viec giai quylt va xu ly cac khoan thieu hut, mat mat, hu hdng va cac khoan thiet hai khac. Tham gia xem xet quyet toan dpi; quyet toan cdng trinh; 7. Tham gia xdy dung va hoan thien Dieu le, quy che; ciing cd va hoan thien che dp hach toan kinh tl cdng ty va cac dan vj cap dudi theo yeu cdu ddi mdi co chi quan ly; 8. Tham gia nghien ciiu cai tiln md hinh san xudt, SXKD, nghien cuu dp dung sang kiln cai tiln KHKT va cdng nghe; tham gia nghien cuu cai tiln td chiic san xudt, xdy dung phuong an san pham, cai tiln quan ly kinh doanh, tilt kiem va ndng cao khdng ngung hieu qua cua ddng vdn. Bao dam va phat huy chi dp tu chii tai chinh. Tham gia Hdi dong tien luang, Hdi ddng Khen thudng thi dua va ky luat cua Cdng ty; 9. Phdi hgp vdi bg phdn TCCB-LD qudn ly danh sach co ddng, hd so chuyin nhugng cd phan, cd phieu; 126
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