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NGUYEN HUU SON_XAY DUNG VA PHAT TRIEN.pdf NGUYEN HUU SON_XAY DUNG VA PHAT TRIEN.pdf Document Transcript

  • INTERNATIONAL EXECUTIVE MBA PROGRAM (leMBA) Chirang trinh cao hoc Quan trj kinh doanh Quoc teLUAN VAN TOT NGHIEP XAY DlTNG VA PHAT TRIEN THl/ONG HIEU TAI CONG TY TNHH NHA NlTOfC MOT THANH VIEN THONG NHAT NGUYEN HlTU SON IEMBA#3 THANG 05, 2007
  • INTERNATIONAL EXCUTIVE MBA PROGRAM (leMBA) Chirong trinh cao hoc Quan trj kinh doanh Quoc te BAN LUAN VAN NAY Dl/OC N Q P C H O TRlTdNG DAI HOC IRVINE (MY) VA KHOA QUAN TRI KINH DOANH (TRU"6NG DAI HOC QUOC GIA HA N O OBAN LUAN VAN LA M O T P H A N BAT BUQC TRONG CHUONG TRINH DAO TAO THAC SY Q U A N TRI KINH DOANH QUOC IE THANG 05- 2007
  • Phe duyet cua Chirong trinh Cao hoc quan trj kinh doanh quoc te Chu nhiem chuang trinhToi xac nhan rang ban khoa luan nay da dap ung duoc cac yeu cau mot khoa luan totnghiep thuoc chuang trinh dao tao Thac sy Quan tri kinh doanh. Chii tich Hoi dong PGS.TS. Vu Cong TyChung toi, ky ten duoi day xac nhan rang chung toi da doc toan bo khoa luan nay va congnhan ban khoa luan hoan toan dap ung cac tieu chuan cua mot khoa luan Thac sy quan trikinh doanh. Giaovj^iHTimng dan TS. Nguyen Viet AnhCac thanh vien Hoi dongNCS. HA NGUYENTS. VU XUAN QUANGTS. NGUYEN VIET ANHTS. CHU THANH
  • CAM KET Toi xin cam ket rang noi dung cua ban luan van nay chua dugc nop cho bat ky motchuang trinh cap bang cao hoc nao cung nhu bat ky mot chuang trinh dao tao cap bang naokhac. Toi cung xin cam ket them rang ban luan van nay la no luc ca nhan cua toi. Cac ketqua, phan tich, ket luan trong luan van nay (ngoai cac phan dugc trich dan) deu la ket qualam viec ciia ca nhan toi. Hoc vien Nguyen Hitu San
  • LCn CAM ON Truac tien toi mudn gui lai cam an tai Khoa Quan trj Kinh doanh Quoc te HSB - Daihoc Qu6c Gia Ha Noi, truang Dai hoc IRVINE (Hoa Ky) va cac giang vien da giup dachung toi trong qua trinh hoc tap, giup chung toi tap hop cac kien thuc c6 san thanh he thongd6 nang cao, cap nhat kien thuc mai, trang bj cho chung toi kien thuc day du de c6 the hoanthanh tot han cong viec cua minh. Toi xin chan thanh cam an giang vien TS. Nguyen Viet Anh, nguai da true tiep giuptoi trong viec tim de tai, tim kiem tai lieu tham khao ciing nhu giup toi sap xep, bo cue laicac nghien cuu, phan tich de ban khoa luan hoan chinh dugc nhu hien nay. Viec hoan thanh de tai nay nha vao tai lieu cua nhieu nha nghien cuu khoa hoc trongva ngoai nuac ve xay dung va phat trien thuang hieu. Toi xin gitri lai cam an tai cac tac giaPhilip Kotler, AlRies & Laura Ries, Richard Moore, Nguyen Canh Ch4t, Ly Quy Chung vamot so tac gia khac. Toi cung xin cam an cac ban hoc va cac cong su da giup do toi trong qua trinh khaosat, thu thap tai lieu va dong gop mot so y kien trong qua trinh nghien cuu, phan tich cua toi. Xin cam an Hoi dong bao ve Khoa luan da c6 nhung y kien quy bau d^ toi tiep tuchoan thien Khoa luan nay. Tran trong cam an! Hoc vien
  • MUC LUC • •PHANMODAU / Sycan thiet cua nghien ciru de tai 1 Muc dich nghien ciru de tai 2 Muc tieu nghien ciru 2 PhuCng phap nghien cvtu 3 Ket cau noi dung 3CHlfONGI CHirONG 1. CO S d LY LUAN VE THlTONG HIEU 5 1.1 Tong quan ve thycng hieu 5 1.1.1 Khdi niem ve thuang hieu 1.1.2 Cac yeu to cau thanh cua thuang hieu 7 1.1.3 Nguyen tac ca ban khi xdy dung thuang hieu 1.2 Cac chirc nang cua thuang hieu ^ 1.2.1 Phan dogn thi truang ^ 7.2.2 Phan biet vai cdc sdnphdm cung logi khdc 9 1.2.3 Dua sdnphdm khdc sdu vdo tarn trikhdch hang 1.2.4 Tgo nen dinh huang va y nghia cho sdn pham 1.2.5 La mot cam kit giita nha sdn xudt vai khdch hang 1.3 Cac heat dong c6 anh hyang quyet dinh den thuang hieu 1.3.1 Chia tdch, sap nhgp va mua ban thuang hieu ^^ 1.3.2 Nhugng quyen thuang hieu (Franchise) ^^ 1.3.2.1 Franchise la gi? ^^
  • 1.3.2.2 Tai sao nen ban franchise? ,- 1. 3.2.3 Tai sao nen mua franchise ,o 1.4 Nhirng bien phap thuang dugc su* dung nham xay dung va phat trien thuang hieu 1.4.1 Qudng cdo ^^ 1.4.1.1 Sa luac ve quang cao ^0 1.4.1.2 Xay dung chuang trinh quang cao 21 1.4.2 Quan he cong chung 28 1.4.2.1 Khainiem 28 1.4.2.2 Dae diem cua PR 29 1.4.2.3 Hoat dong PR ciang c6 nhijng han che nhat djnh 30 1.4.2.4 Chien luac quan he cong chung 30 1.4.2.5 Noi dung caban cua hoat dong PR 31 1.4.3 Xu huang sir dung qudng cdo vd quan he cong chung lam phuang tien de phdt trien thuang hieu 34 1.5 Gia tri thuang hieu, su can thiet phai xay dung va phat trien thuang hieu 36 1.6 Quy trinh xay dung va phat trien thuang hieu 37CHlfONGII THlfC TRANG XAYDUNG VA PHAT TRIEN THl/ONG HIEU TAI CONG TY TNHH NHA NlfOC MOT THANH VIEN THONG NHAT... 44 2.1 Doi net ve Cong ty TNHH Nha nuac mot thanh vien Thong Nhat 44 2.2 Dieu kien kinh te, chinh tri, xa hoi Viet Nam 4S 2.3 Tong quan ve thj truang xe dap toan cau 30 2.3.1 Thi truang xe dgp the gim SQ
  • 2.3.2 Thi truang xe dgp Viet Nam 57 2.4 Dae diem va mo hinh to chuc Cong ty Thong Nhat 51 2.5 LTnh vuc kinh doanh 54 2.6 Thj phan 55 2.7 Mang luai phan phoi va dich vu hau mai ^o 2.7.7 Triet ly kinh doanh vd van hod doanh nghiep ^Q 2.7.2 Net van hod dgc trung 57 2.8 Tinh hinh thuc hien xay dung va phat trien thuang hieu tai Cong ty TNHH Nha nuac mot thanh vien Thong Nhat 62 2.8.1 Nhirng ket qua da dgt dugc 62 2.8.2 Nhirng mat chua dugc 70CHlfONGIH KE HOACH VA GIAI PHAP THlTC HIEN THANH CONG CHIEN Ll/OC XAY DUTVG VA PHAT TRIEN THlTONG HIEU TAI CONG TY TNHH NHA NlTO^C MOT THANH VIEN THONG NHAT 71 3.1 Ke hoach Marketing 73 3.2 Cahoi va thach thuc. Lai the va han che ton tai 77 3.2.1 Ca hoi 77 3.2.2 Thdch thirc vd kho khan 78 3.2.3 Lai the, diem mgnh -o 3.2.4 Han che, ton tai 79 3.3 Muc tieu chien luac ve xay dung va phat trien thuang hieu cua Cong ty Thong Nhat giaidoan 2 0 0 7 - 2 0 1 0
  • 3.3.1 Tdm nhin 803.3.2 Muc tieu 803.3.3 Chien luge xdy dung vd phdt trien thuang hieu 2007-2010 813.3.4 Doi tugng khdch hang muc tieu tiem nang 823.4 Cac giai phap thuc hien thanh cong muc tieu chien luac xay dung va phat trien thuang hieu tai Cong ty TNHH Nha nude mot thanh vien Thong Nhat 2007-2010 843.4.1 Xdc dinh ro dgc diem tdm ly khdch hang vd khdch hang muc tieu 843.4 2 Xdc dinh vd nam vimgdgc diem, tinh hinh doi thu cgnh tranh 863.4.3 Xdc dinh ro vd dinh huang dung muc tieu chien luge 873.4.4 Nang cao chat lugng dich vu vd phuc vu khdch hang 883.4.5 Xdy dung vd qudng bd sdu rong hinh dnh Cong ty on3.4.6 Thuang xuyen cung cap sdn pham ddm bao chdt lugng chuan g^3.4.7 Thuang xuyen kiem tra, gidm sat qua trinh thuc hien muc tieu vd ke hogch xdydung vd phdt trien thuang hieu 923.4.8 Ap dung triet de quy trinh xdy dung vd phdt trien thuang hieu3.5 Ke hoach hanh dong 933.6 Han che cua khoa luan ^^3.7 KIEN NGHI VA KET L U A N ^, 94PHULUC 97
  • PHAN MO DAUTen de tai XAY DlTNG VA PHAT TRIEN THl/ONG HIEU TAI CONG TY TNHH NHA NlTdC MOT THANH VIEN THONG NHATSu can thiet cua nghien cuu de taiChua bao gia thuang hieu lai tra thanh mot chu de thai sir dugc cac doanh nghiep, cac caquan quan ly Nha nuac, cac hiep hoi quan tam mot each dac biet nhu hien nay. Da la doanhnghiep thi khong c6 mot doanh nghiep nao khong bo cong sue va tien cua de xay dung, duytri va phat trien thuang hieu.Cac doanh nghiep tren the giai tu lau da nhan biet sau sac rang thuang hieu la phuang tienghi nhan va the hien thanh qua cua doanh nghiep, no nang cao Igi the canh tranh va dem laisu phat trien ben vung cho doanh nghiep, khong nhirng the thuang hieu la mot tai san hetsue to Ian. Vi du: thuang hieu Coca-Cola dugc dinh gia 67ty USD, Microsoft - 56,9 ty USD,IBM 56 ty USD... a Viet Nam, mot so thuang hieu cung da dugc djnh gia va chuyennhugng, chang han kern danh rang Da Lan dugc hang Colgate cua My mua lai vai gia xap xi3 trieu USD.Mac du vay, vai nhieu doanh nghiep trong nuac, viec tao dung va quan trj thuang hieu vancon la mot van de xa la va mai me. Khong it doanh nghiep chi cham chut san xuat ra sanpham ma chua khai thac, tham chi de lang phi, mat mat tai san khdng 16 von c6 do khonghoac chua xay dung dugc thuang hieu. Mot so doanh nghiep khac quan niem dan gian, taodung thuang hieu chi thuan tuy la dat cho san pham mot cai ten, khong nhan thuc dky dudugc rang de c6 mot thuang hieu c6 gia tri thi do la ca mot qua trinh bhn bi, vai nhirng nolire lien tuc va can dugc trg giup bai cac phuang phap va ky nang chuyen biet.
  • Qua thuc tien ciia nhieu doanh nghiep cho thay va c6 the noi xay dung thuang hieu tot thikinh doanh tot. Rot cue, neu chung ta khong c6 thuang hieu tot, thi se khong c6 danh tiengva Igi nhuan, khong the canh tranh va tham chi khong the ton tai...Xay dung thuang hieu vua c6 y nghla khoa hoc vira c6 y nghTa thuc tien rat cao cho doanhnghiep noi chung va cong ty TNHH Nha nuac mot thanh vien Thong Nhat noi rieng. Xuatphat tu thuc te noi tren, toi lua chgn de tai: "Xay dung va phat trien thuang hieu tai Cong tyTNHH Nha nuac mot thanh vien Thong Nhat" lam khoa luan tot nghiep chuang trinh Caohoc Quan tn kinh doanh quoc te cua minh. Vai mong muon dugc ap dung nhung kien thucda ti8p thu dugc qua khoa hoc, cung vai nhung kien thuc thu dugc qua thuc te de phan tichva danh gia de xuat cac giai phap trong viec xay dung thuang hieu ciia Cong ty TNHH Nhanuac mot thanh vien Thong Nhat trong thai gian tai giup Cong ty nang cao kha nang canhtranh trong moi truang kinh te hoi nhap.Muc dich nghien cuu de taiCung c6 va nang cao nhan thuc ve ly luan thuang hieu noi chung, dac biet la van de xaydung, duy tri va phat trien thuang hieu.Van dung c6 hieu qua ly luan vao thuc tien, dac biet la ung dung hieu qua vao qua trinh xaydung, duy tri va phat trien thuang hieu cho Cong ty TNHH Nha nuac mot thanh vien ThongNhit.Muc tieu de taiNghien cuu lam ro ca sa ly luan ve thuang hieu, noi dung xay dung, duy tri va phat trienthuang hieu.Nghien cuu lam ro thuc trang xay dung thuang hieu cua Cong ty TNHH Nha nuac motthanh vien Thong Nhat. Cac giai phap nham nang cao hieu qua xay dung, duy tri va phat
  • trien thuang hieu tai Cong ty TNHH Nha nuac mot thanh vien Thong Nhat noi rieng cungnhu cac doanh nghiep Viet Nam noi chung.Phuong phap nghien cuu * Phuang phap chuyen gia, tu vanDe khoa luan dat chat lugng mong muon, khoa luan su dung phuang phap chuyen gia tu vankk hop vai khao sat, thu nhap, phan tich thong tin sa cap va thu c4p.* Phuang phap nghien cuu, thu thap du lieu qua cac tai lieuTai lieu nghien cuu la nguon thong tin v6 cung quan trong, giup cho ban than c6 tong hgpkien thuc da chieu ve ly luan tren ca sa so sanh va rut ra cac van de trong tam cho noi dungkhoa luan.Ket cau noi dungChuang 1. Ca sa ly luan ve thuang hieu1.1 Tong quan ve thuang hieu1.2 Cac chuc nang cua thuang hieu1.3 Cac hoat dong c6 anh huang quyet djnh den thuang hieu1.4 Nhung bien phap thuang dugc sir dung nham xay dung va phat trien thuang hieu.1.5 Gia tn thuang hieu, sir can thiet phai xay dung va phat trien thuang hieu1.6 Cac buac xay dung va phat trien thuang hieu.Chuang 2:Thuc trang xay dung va phat trien thuang hieu tai Cong ty TNHH nha nuacmot thanh vien Thong Nhat2.1 Doi net ve Cong ty TNHH Nha nuac mot thanh vien Thong Nhat2.2 Dieu kien kinh te, chinh tn, xa hoi Viet Nam2.3 Tong quan ve thi truang xe dap toan cau
  • 2.3.1 Thj truang xe dap the giai 2.3.2 Thj truang xe dap Viet Nam2.4 Dac diem va mo hinh to chuc Cong ty2.5 LTnh vuc kinh doanh2.6 Thj phan cua Cong ty2.7 Mang luai phan phoi va dich vu hau mai 2.7.1 Triet ly kinh doanh va van hoa doanh nghiep 2.7.2 Net van hoa dac trung cua Cong ty TNHH Nha nuac mot thanh vien Thong Nhat2.8 Tinh hinh thuc hien xay dung va phat trien thuang hieu tai Cong ty TNHHNha nuac mot thanh vien Thong Nhat 2.8.1 NhUng ket qua da dat dugc 2.8.2 Nhung mat chua dugcChuang 3. Ke hoach va giai phap thuc hien thanh cong chien luge xay dung va phat trienthuang hieu tai Cong ty TNHH Nha nuac mot thanh vien Thong Nhat3.1 Ke hoach Marketing3.2 Co hoi va thach thuc. Lgi the va han che ton tai3.3 Muc tieu chien luge ve xay dung va phat trien thuang hieu cua Cong ty Thong Nhat giaidoan 2007-20103.4 Giai phap thuc hien thanh cong muc tieu chien luge xay dung va phat trien thuang hieutai Cong ty TNHH Nha nuac mot thanh vien Thdng Nhat 2007-20103.5 Ke hoach hanh dong3.6 Han che cua khoa luan3.7 Kien nghi va ket luan
  • CHirONG 1. CO Sd LY LUAN VE THl/ONG HIEU1.1 Tong quan ve thuang hieu1.1.1 Khai niem ve thuang hieuThuang hieu da xuat hien each day hang the ky vai y nghTa de phan biet hang hoa cua cacnha san xuAt khac nhau. Chung ta c6 the de dang tim kiem cac djnh nghTa khac nhau vethuang hieu tren cac phuang tien thong tin dai chung va cac tai lieu tham khao.Theo Hiep hoi Marketing Hoa Ky: Thuang hieu la "mot cai ten, tu ngu, ky hieu, bieutugng, hinh ve thiet ke... hoac tap hgp cac yeu to tren nham xac djnh va phan biet hanghoa, dich vu cua mot ngucvi hoac mot nhom ngucri ban hang hoa va djch vu cua doi thucanh tranh".Theo chu giai thuat ngu thuang hieu cua Richard Moore: "Thuang hieu la tong hgp tat cacac yeu to vat chat, tham my, ly le va cam xiic cua mot san pham hoac mot dong sanpham, bao gom ban than san pham, ten goi, logo, hinh anh va moi su the hien hinhanh, dan qua thai gian tao dung ro rang trong tam tri khach hang nham thiet lap motcho dung tai do".Rieng toi rat an tugng vai khai niem: "Thuang hieu chinh la uy tin cua san pham, djchvu do doanh nghiep cung cap den nguai tieu diing va hinh anh ve san pham, djch vuhoac doanh nghiep dugc luu lai trong tam tri nguai tieu dung thong qua nhan hieuhang hoa, kieu dang cong nghiep, ten thuang mai, chi dan dja ly, ten goi xuat xu hoaccac yeu to khac nhu doan nhac, cau khan hieu..."
  • Xet ve ban chat thi thuang hieu dugc xay dung chu yeu nham giup khach hang de dang nhanbiet dugc san pham, qua do giup cho doanh nghiep nhan lai dugc gia trj cong sue cua minhnha no lire dap ung tot nhat nhu cau khach hang.1.1.2 Cac yeu to cau thanh cua thuang hieu:Cac yeu to thuang hieu cua mot san pham dugc phap luat bao ho dual dang la cac doi tugngsa huu tri tue nhu: nhan hieu hang hoa, ten thuang mai, ten goi xuat xu hang hoa, chi dandja ly, kieu dang cong nghiep va ban quyen. Nhu vay nhin chung thuang hieu bao g6m cacyeu to:-Ten thuang hieu- Bieu tugng- Kieu dang bao bi nhan mac- Cac khau hieu triet ly kinh doanh- Mot so yeu to khacTen thuang hieu:Ten goi san pham/ djch vu cua cac ca nhan va to chuc dung trong hoat dong kinh doanh, baogom mot tap hgp cac chu cai, cac chij* s6, c6 the phat am dugc va c6 kha nang phan biet sanpham cua chu the kinh doanh nay vai chu the kinh doanh khac. Dong thai ten thuang hieucung la mot sir djnh danh san phim, hang hoa cua cong ty th^ hien tren bao bi, bieu hieuquang cao va truyen thong trong moi quan he giao djch thuang mai. Trong mot s6 truanghgp ten cong ty dugc dung cho ten toan bg san pham (Vi du: Cong ty Xich lip Dong Anh,Olimpic Pro...); Truang hgp khac, cac nha san xuat dat ten thuang hieu cho cac san ph4mmai ma khong lien quan tai ten cong ty nhu Xe dap Sport, xe dap BMX muourtain.
  • - Bi^u tugng: Bao gom cac dau hieu, hinh ve cung cac to hgp mau sac, khong phat am nhungC kha nang phan biet, tugng trung cho hinh anh san pham/ djch vu cua cong ty. O- Ki6u dang bao bi, nhan mac: Khong chi giup khach hang phan biet va nhan dien san phamma con giup th€ hien ca tinh san pham. Han the niia, no con giup truyen dat nhirng yeu tokhong nhin thay hoac kho nhin thay cua san pham.- Khau hieu kinh doanh: Bao gom mot tap hgp tu hoac mot doan van sue tich chua dung vatruyen tai nhung thong tin mang tinh mo ta va thuyet phuc ve thuang hieu. Cau khau hieuthuang dugc su dung kem ten thuang hieu va bieu tugng quang cao.Xay dung dugc mot khau hieu tot c6 the gia tang sue thuyet phuc doi vai khach hang va velau dai c6 the giup khach hang djnh vj triet ly kinh doanh cua cong ty.- Cac y§u t6 khac nhu logo, nhac dieu... ciang gop phan cau thanh nen mot thuang hieu.1.1.3 Nguyen tic ca ban khi xay dung thuang hieuTuy thuoc vao thj truang muc tieu, chien luge cua doanh nghiep, vi the canh tranh va cacy6u t6 moi truang tiep thj, doanh nghiep c6 the xay dung thuang hieu cho he san pham cuaminh. Tuy nhien, ve mat ky thuat can phai can nhac ky truac khi ra quyet dinh cuoi cung.Thuang hieu phai ngan gon, sue tich, de nhaDay la dieu kien het sue can thiet de tao nhan thuc cua thuang hieu doi vai nguai tieu dung.Tu ten goi, bieu tugng, kieu chir... phai dam bao hai yeu to ca ban: de chap nhan va de gginha (vi du nhu: xe dap VIHA, xe dap ASAMA). Do vay trong qua trinh thiet ke thuang hieucan tien hanh nghien cuu thu nghiem hai yeu to tren dua vao nhom khach hang muc tieu duki^n.
  • Thuang hieu phai c6 y nghTa va ggi camDe C thi gay 4n tugng va tac dong vao tam tri cua khach hang, thuang hieu cung phai Ochuyen cha mot y nghTa xac dinh. Muon vay thuang hieu phai dong thai c6 yeu to mo ta (thidu ggi cho nguai dgc nghT tai mot dac tinh noi bat nao do cua san pham, tinh thuyet phuc),nhan manh lgi ich san pham mang lai, vi!ra phai c6 nhung net vui ve, thu vi (y nghTa cauchu...) vua C tinh hinh tugng cao, gay cam xuc tham my. Vi du nhu Xe dap GIANT - nghTa Ola "nguai khong 15".Thuang hieu c6 tinh de bao hoNguyen tic nay dugc thS hien a hai khia canh: Phap luat va canh tranh. Muon vay can phai:(1) Chon cac y6u t6 thuang hieu de bao ho, ve mat phap luat tren ca sa quoc te; (2) Dang kychinh thuc thuang hieu vai ca quan phap luat; (3) Bao ve manh me thuang hieu chong sirxam hai ban quy^n va (4) Sir dung bi quyet rieng trong thiet ke de tranh sir bat chuac cua doithu. Vi du nhu SHIMANO hay PEUGEOT.Thuang hieu phai c6 tinh de thich ungDo kha nang thay doi cua thj hieu khach hang hoac su chuyen huang thj truang muc tieu,doanh nghiep phai sin sang cho nhijng su dieu chinh can thiet, vi vay tinh linh hoat va de caitien, de cap nhat cua thuang hieu la mot yeu to khong the bo qua. Thi du bieu tugng (logo)hoac cac dac tinh ciia thuang hieu cung phai de thay doi de tao hinh thuc bat mat hem, hiendai han (Xe dap MATIN).Thuang hieu phai co tinh de trien khai, khuyech truangMa rong thj truang ra nhiing phan khuc mai hoac nhirng khu vuc van hoa, dja ly khac nhau,ke ca thj truang quoc te la xu huang cua hau het doanh nghiep trong tuang lai. Do do khongthe xem nhe kha nang su dung thuang hieu tren nhung thj truang do. Muon vay khi thiet ke 8
  • thuang hieu, cin luu y viec phat am ten goi c6 the qu6c te hoa dugc khong, cac dac tinh hinhanh C phu hgp vai cac vung van hoa khac nhau khong... Nhu the, mot cai ten l<ii6ng c6 dau Otieng Viet c6 th6 thich hgp han va mot logo dan gian c6 the se de phat trien han (xe dapSIMANO, xe dap MATIN, xe JEP hay xe NEVADA).1.2 Cae chuc nang cua thuang hieu1.2.1 Phan doan thj truangThuang hieu c6 vai tro tich cue trong chien luge phan doan thj truang. Cac cong ty dua ramot t6 hgp cac thuoc tinh ly tuang ve cac the manh, lgi ich va dac trung cua san pham hoacdich vu sao cho chung phu hgp vai nhu cau tung nhom khach hang cu the. Do do, cong ty sephai tao ra nhijng diu hieu va su khac biet nhat dinh tren san pham cua minh de thu hutkhach hang tiem nang. Muon dat dugc yeu cau do thuang hieu phai tra lai cac cau hoi sau:- San pham hoac djch vu c6 nhijng thuoc tinh gi?- San pham hoac djch vu c6 nhung the manh gi?- San pham hoac dich vu dem lai nhij-ng lgi ich gi?- San pham hoac djch vu tugng trung cho cai gi?1.2.2 Phan biet vcri cac san pham cung loai khacMot so nguai cho rang cac san pham cung mot loai la giong nhau, chung chi khac nhau vethuang hieu ma thoi. Thuang hieu khong the chi dan thuan nhu mot ten goi hay mot bieutugng, hinh anh minh hoa tren san pham ma con bieu hien cho sir nang dong, sang tao,khong ngimg doi mai. Hom nay la san pham A, mai la san pham B, ngay kia la san pham C,cu the lien tuc doi mai, cong hien cho nguai tieu dung. Vi vay, tao dung mot thuang hieu
  • doi hoi phai c6 thai gian va mot su khac biet. San pham c6 the ton tai hay mat di nhungthuang hieu van con song mai.1.2.3 Dua san pham khac sau vao tam tri khach hangThuang hieu chi c6 the cam nhan dugc qua phan hon cua san pham va cac chuang trinhquang cao ve no. Noi dung cua san pham se dugc khach hang biet va cam nhan thong quacac hoat dong nay vai dieu kien no phai dugc truyen tai mot each nhat quan cung vai thongdiep.Cam nhan dugc ve mot san pham trong sir hinh thanh nhan thuc ve mot thuang hieu va nogiai thich tai sao hinh anh ve mot thuang hieu c6 the ton tai tu the he nay sang the he khac.Do do, viec nhan biet mot thuang hieu ngay hom nay se van tiep tuc anh huang tai nhanthuc cua chung ta ve san pham tuang lai. Vi du nhu nhiing nguai tung su dung loai xe dapPEUGEOT noi tieng cua Phap tir 30 den 40 nam truac roi den xe may PEUJOT va otoPEUJOT bay gia.1.2.4 Tao nen dinh huong va y nghla cho san phamThuang hieu phai chua dung trong no nhung thong tin ve san pham. Mot thuang hieu lanngoai viec thiet lap mot thong diep cua san pham tai khach hang phai con c6 kha nang thichung vai thai dai va thay doi linh hoat theo thj hieu khach hang cung nhu tien bo cong nghe.Thuang hieu nay c6 the quan tam tai viec nang cao do ben cua san pham trong khi thuanghieu khac lai muon phat huy tinh huu dung hay cai tien mau ma san pham.VI du: trong ITnh vuc xe dap, thuang hieu SHIMANO noi tieng cua Nhat c6 y nghTa la bin,dep va dang tin cay, gan lien vai hinh anh nguai Nhat can cu, sang tao lien tuc d6i mai duacong nghe phuc vu con nguai. 10
  • 1.2.5 La mot cam ket giua nha san xuat vdi khach hangCung vai thai gian va nhiing no lire khong ngirng, thuang hieu ngay cang tra nen c6 uy tintren thi truang. Nhung chuang trinh quang ba thuang hieu thuc su dugc xem nhu mot camket truac khach hang. Neu cong ty thuc hien dung nhung gi cam ket vai khach hang va demden cho khach hang su thoa man khi tieu dung san pham thi chac chan thucmg hieu se nhandugc nhirng cam nhan tot dep va sir trung thanh tu phia khach hang.Cam ket ma mot thuang hieu dua ra mang tinh djnh tinh, no thoa man nhiing uac muon vaky vong cua khach hang va chi c6 khach hang la nguai cam nhan va danh gia. Xe dapGIANT, xe dap Phugng Hoang cua Trung Quoc, xe dap MIFA cua Due, Nhat Ban, xe dapFAVOURIT cua Cong hoa Sec...Tuy nhien nhung cam ket nay lai khong mang tinh rang bupc truac cong chung ve mat phaply. Do do, chung ta can phan biet giua thuang hieu va cac dau hieu khac ve quan ly chatlugng nhu nhan hang hoa (label) hay tem bao dam hoac dau hieu chung nhan chat lugng.Nhan hang hoa hoac dau chung nhan chat lugng la mot cong cu cong bo va cam ket chinhthuc rang san pham thoa man tat ca cac thanh phan, tinh chat... ma cac ca quan quan ly Nhanuac hoac nha san xuat dat ra theo mot bang chi tieu chat lugng san pham.1.3 Cac hoat dong co anh huang quyet djnh den thuang hieu.1.3.1 Chia tach, sap nhap va mua ban thuang hieuTren thuc te, nhieu doanh nghiep dugc mua lai hoac bj chia tach hoac ban di mot s6 thuanghieu san pham cua no cho cac doi tac khac hoac nhugng quyen sir dung kieu dang congnghiep, phat minh sang che, giai phap hiju ich... vi the dan den viec nha quan tn thuang hieuphai tinh toan dugc gia tri thuang hieu trong qua trinh chuyen doi nay va thuc hien cac chiln 11
  • luge hgp ly trong giai doan co bien dong vi chua tach hay sat nhap. De lam dugc dieu naycan C su danh gia khach quan tu ben ngoai ve gia tri thuang hieu ma cong ty dang sa huu Odk tai san thuang hieu dugc chia tach minh bach.Doi vai cac thuang hieu dugc mua lai, nguai ta khong muon hinh anh thuang hieu bj kiemsoat bai nguai khac, vi the thuang la mua dut hoac co mot qua trinh chuyen giao de ben doitac C the thich ung. Trong truang hgp tiep can mot thj truang mai a nuac ngoai thi lira Ochon mua lai mot thuang hieu san pham cung loai thong thuang dugc ua chuong vi no chophep tiet kiem thai gian va cong sue de xay dung hinh anh va he thong kenh phan phoi mai.Sau khi tiep quan la viec chuan hi cho mot chien luge doi mai thuang hieu tir thuang hieucu. Do la truang hgp budc dau tham nhap vao thj truang tieu dung Viet Nam, Elida da quyetdjnh mua lai P/S vai gia 5 trieu USD de co dugc toan bo he thong kenh phan phoi thay vixay dung lai tir dau. Sau nay Cong ty TNHH Elida P/S lai dugc giai the va sat nhap cung vaiCong ty Unilever Bestfoods de thanh lap doanh nghiep 100% von nuac ngoai vai tong sovon dang ky la 54,6 trieu USD va ten la Cong ty TNHH Bestfoods va Elida P/S.Cac cong ty toan cau dang dja phuang hoa hinh anh cua ho thong qua cac vu mua lai va doikhi viec nhung hinh anh qua thanh cong a vung dat nay khong phai la thich hgp tren motvung dat mai. Van de dat ra a day la da so cac cong ty Viet Nam co thuang hieu vai pham vianh huang kha nho va dia phuang nen viec xac dinh gia trj toan cau la rat th^p. Tren thjtruang co phieu, co phan cua mot so thuang hieu dugc mua di ban lai thuang xuyen nhungluon xay ra hien tugng thj truang thong tin khong can xung do co thj truang c6 philu nhungchua C thj truang thong tin, vi the viec xac djnh gia tn mot tai san thuang hieu tai Viet Nam Ola mot quyet djnh khong dan gian do thieu thong tin can thiet. Truang hgp doanh nghiepmuon ban thucmg hieu thi ho can phai can nhac that ky cang vi gia trj hien tai cua thuang 12
  • hieu rdt kho xac dinh, no dang nSm trong nhan thuc bien doi cua khach hang muc tieu. Chonen khi ban hay mua mot thuang hieu nguai ta deu phai tien hanh danh gia lai long trungthanh cua khach hang, sue manh thuang hieu va dong luc dang sau hanh dong mua lai do.1.3.2 Nhugng quyen thuang hieu (Franchise)1.3.2.1 Franchise la gi?Tu Franchise co nguon goc tu" tieng Phap la "Franc" co nghTa la "free" (tu do). Franchise lamot phuang thuc nhan rong thuang hieu, nhan rong mo hinh kinh doanh co xuat xu tu ChauAu each day ca tram nam nhung lai phat trien manh nhat tai My. Theo dinh nghTa tu tu dienAnh - Viet cua Vien ngon ngil hoc thi fran - chise co nghTa la nhugng quyen kinh doanh haycho phep sai do chinh thuc dugc ban hang hoa djch vu cua mot cong ty a mot khu vuc cu thenao do. Con theo djnh nghTa cua tu dien Webster thi Fanchise la mot dac quyen hay ban sanpham cua chu thuang hieu. Noi khac han thi Franchise la mot phuang thuc tiep thj va phanphoi mot san pham hay djch vu dua tren moi quan he giija hai doi tac; mot ben goi lafranchior (ben nhugng quyen hay chu thuang hieu) va mot ben goi la Franchisee (ben dugcnhugng hay mua Franchise). Hai ben doi tac nay se ky mot hgp dong, goi la hgp dongfranchise.Do do Cling C djnh nghTa cho rang franchise la mot loai hgp dong, thoa thuan giira hai ben, OC the bang van viet hay noi. Vi du: Hoi dong Thuang mai Lien bang Hoa Ky (Federal Trad OCommission) djnh nghTa franchise nhu sau: "Franchise la mot hgp dong hay mot thoa thuangiira it nhat hai nguai, trong do: Nguai mua franchise dugc cap quyen ban hay mot thoathuan giua it nhat hai nguai, trong do: Nguai mua franchise dugc cap quyen ban hay phanphoi san pham, djch vu theo cung mot ke hoach hay he thong tiep thj cua nguai chu thuanghieu. Hoat dong kinh doanh cua nguai mua Franchise phai triet de tuan theo ke hoach hay he 13
  • thong tiep thi nay gan lien vai nhan hieu, thuang hieu, bieu tugng, khau hieu, tieu chi, quangcao va nhirng bieu tugng thuang mai khac cua chu thuang hieu. Nguai mua Franchise phaitra mot khoan phi, true tiep hay gian tiep, goi la phi Franchise".Dii C kha nhieu djnh nghTa khac nhau ve thuat ngu Franchise nhung noi chung hinh thuc Okinh doanh Franchise van thuang nam trong hai lai dien hinh sau day: Nhugng quyen phanph6i san pham (product distribution franchise) hoac nhugng quyen sir dung cong thuc dieukien (business format franchise).Doi vai hinh thuc nhugng quyen phan phoi san pham, ben mua franchise thuang khong nhandugc su ho trg dang ke nao tu phia chu thuang hieu ngoai trir dugc phep sir dung ten nhanhieu (trade mark), thuang hieu (trade name), bieu tugng (logo) va phan phoi san pham haydich vu cua ben chu thuang hieu trong mot pham vi khu vuc va thai gian nhat djnh. Dieunay co nghTa la ben mua se quan ly dieu hanh cua hang nhugng quyen cua minh kha doc lap,it bj rang buoc nhieu bai nhung quy djnh tu phia chu thuang hieu. Ben mua franchise trongtruang hgp nay tham chi co the che bien cung each phuc vu va kinh doanh theo y minh.Hinh thuc nhugng quyen nay tuang tu vai kinh doanh cap phep (licensing) ma trong do chuthuang hieu quan tam nhieu den viec phan phoi san pham cua minh va khong quan tamnhieu den hoat dong hang ngay hay tieu chuan hinh thuc cua cua hang nhugng quyen. Do domoi quan he giixa chu thuang hieu va nguai mua franchise la mdi quan he nha cung c4p vanha phan phoi va pho bien nhat tai phuang Tay la cac tram xang dau, cac dai ly ban oto vacac cong ty san xuat nuac giai khat Coca - Cola hay Pepsi.Thuang hieu ca phe Gloria Jeans cua My di vao thj truang Uc bang con duang nhugngquyen nhu the nay. Doanh nhan Peter Irvine sau khi mua nhugng quyen su dung thuanghieu doc quyen vao nam 1996 da quyet dinh cai tien va bo sung mo hinh kinh doanh nguyen 14
  • thuy cua Gloria Jeans la thay vi chi ban thuan tuy ca phe bgt dugc cung cap bai chii thuanghieu Gloria Jeans tai uc lai chu trong phuc vu khach uong ca phe tai cho. Mo hinh nay saudo da dugc ti6p tuc nhan rong khap nuac Uc thong qua hinh thuc ban franchise va thanhcong den noi cac cua hieu Gloria Jeans tai My cung da chuyen doi mo hinh goc cua minhtheo phien ban tai Uc.Ddi vai hinh thuc nhugng quyen su dung cong thuc kinh doanh ma co the tom tat la nhugngquyen kinh doanh thi hgp dong nhugng quyen bao gom them viec chuyen giao ky thuat kinhdoanh va cong thuc dieu hanh quan ly. Cac chuan muc cua mo hinh kinh doanh phai tuyetdoi dugc giij" dung. Moi lien he va hgp tac giiia ben ban va ben mua franchise phai rat chatche va lien tuc, day ciang la hinh thuc nhugng quyen pho bien va hieu qua nhat hien nay.Ben mua franchise co the la khoan phi tron goi mot lan, cung co the la khoan phi hang thangdua tren doanh so va cung co the la tong hgp luon hai khoan phi ke tren. Tat ca tuy vao uytin thuang hieu, su thuang lugng va chu truang cua chu thuang hieu. Vi du: neu dugcnhugng quyen kinh doanh mot cua hang thuc an nhanh Me Donalds noi tieng the giai cuaMy vao thai diem nam 2005, ben mua franchise phai tra mot khoan phi nhugng quyen bandau la 45.000USD va phi franchise hang thang la 1,9% tren doanh so.1.3.2.2 Tai sao nen ban franchise?Nhan rong mo hinh kinh doanhCo le hau het doanh nghiep nao cung muon nhan rong mo hinh kinh doanh cua minh mot khida dugc chung minh la thanh cong. Kho khan lan nhat thuang lien quan den ngan sach haykha nang tai chinh, vi doanh nghiep nao du thanh cong den dau cung co mot giai han, dacbiet la khi doanh nghiep muon dua thuang hieu minh vuan ra khoi ranh giai mot thanh phohay quoc gia. Ngoai van de ngan sach, cac yeu to khac nhu yeu to dja ly, con nguai, ki§n 15
  • thuc va van hoa dja phuang... cung la nhung tra ngai khong nho. Phuang thuc nhugng quyen kinh doanh se giup doanh nghiep chu thuang hieu chia se nhung kho khan neu tren cho ben mua franchise, ben se chju toan bo phan dau tu cua cai vat chat va tu quan tri lay tai san cua minh. Va mot khi mo hinh kinh doanh cua doanh nghiep dugc nhan rong nhanh chong thi gia tn cua cong ty hay thuang hieu cung Ian manh theo. Doi vai cac doanh nghiep Viet Nam dang co tham vgng dua thuang hieu minh ra th^ giai nhung chua du lire dk dau tutrue tiep thi mo hinh nhugng quyen thuang hieu co le la phu hgp nhat la do khong phai bovon va lai bao ho va quang ba thuang hieu cua minh.Tang doanh thuChu thuang hieu hoan toan co the cai thien doanh so cua minh bing viec nhugng quy^n sudung thuang hieu va cong thuc kinh doanh ma ngay nay da dugc xem nhu la mot thu tai sanquy gia nhk cua doanh nghiep. Thong qua hinh thuc nhugng quyen kinh doanh, chu thuanghieu C the nhan cac khoan tien sau day tu viec ban franchise: O- Phi nhugng quyen ban dau (initial fee): Phi nay chi dugc tinh mot lan nhu d6i vai truanghgp Mc Donalds la 45.000USD khi dugc nhugng quyen kinh doanh trong nuac My. Day lakhoan phi hanh chinh, dao tao, chuyen giao cong thuc kinh doanh cho ben mua franchise.- Phi hang thang (monthy fee): phi nay la phi ma ben mua franchise phai tra cho viec duy trisu dung nhan hieu, thuang hieu cua ben ban franchise va nhijng djch vu ho trg mang tinhchat tiep dien lien tuc nhu dao tao huan luyen vien, tiep thj, quang ba, nghien cuu, phat triensan pham mai... Phi nay co the la mot khoan co djnh theo thoa thuan cua hai ben hoac tinhtheo phan tram tren doanh so cua ben mua franchise va thuang dao dong trung binh tu 3 -6% tuy loai san pham, mo hinh va ITnh vuc kinh doanh. Tai My, chi co khoang 8% cac cuahang nhugng quyen la khong phai tra phi hang thang nay (royalty fee). Ngoai phi hang thang 16
  • ra, nhi6u chu thuang hieu con co the tinh them khoan phi quang cao (advertising fee) tuangduang 1-3% doanh s6.- Ban cac nguyen lieu dac thu: Nhieu chu thuang hieu yeu cau cac doi tac mua franchise cuaminh mua mot so nguyen lieu dac thu do minh cung cap, vua de dam bao tinh dong bo cuasan pham hay mo hinh kinh doanh, vua mang lai nguon lgi nhuan phat trien song song vaitinh hinh kinh doanh cua ben mua franchise. Vi du nhu Mc Donalds cung cap va ban chocac cua hang nhugng quyen cua minh mot so nguyen lieu quan trong nhu khoai tay chien,pho mat, banh tao.Tiet giam chi phi.Cac doanh nghiep co ap dung hinh thuc nhuoTig quyen deu c6 uu the mua hang gia re han domua vai so lugng lan han (de phan phoi cho cac cua hang nhugng quyen trong mot sotruang hgp). Ngoai ra cac chi phi ve tiep thj, quang cao cung dugc tiet giam nha uu the cothe chia nho ra cho nhieu dan vj cung mang ten mot nhan hieu chia se vai nhau thong quanghTa vu hang thang cua ben mua franchise.Uy tin thuang hieu cua doanh nghiep thuang Ian manh song song vai so lugng cua hang maima ra, cho du la thuoc sa huu 100% cua cong ty me hay cua doi tac mua franchise. Su lanmanh ve thuang hieu nay dac biet la gay su chu y va quan tam cua cac nha dau tu va nganhang - la nhung nguai ma chu thuang hieu sam muon gi cung can dugc cong tac va ho trg.Day cung la lgi the cua viec ban franchise. 17
  • 1.3.2.3 Tai sao nen mua franchiseDau tu* an toan la khon ngoanTheo con so thong ke tai My thi trung binh chi co 23% doanh nghiep nho kinh doanh dgc lapC the tdn tai sau 5 nam kinh doanh, trong khi do con so nay doi vai cac doanh nghiep mua Ofranchise la 97%. Noi khac di, xac suat thanh cong cua doanh nghiep mua franchise cao hanrat nhieu so vai cac doanh nghiep bat dau thu nghiem mo hinh kinh doanh lan dau va nhanhieu chua ai biet den. That vay, thuang hieu hay uy tin cua nhan hieu dong vai tro v6 cungquan trong doi vai khach hang khi ho quyet djnh chon mua san pham nao.Nhieu cuoc thu nghiem da chimg minh rang nguai tieu dung bj anh huang qua nhieu baithuang hieu, tham chi han ca chat lugng thuc su cua san pham. Nhu cuoc thu nghiem mu(san pham dugc cho vao bao bi khong co nhan) cua hai san pham giai khat noi tieng Coca -Cola va Pepsi. Ket qua cho thay da so nhij*ng nguai tham gia cuoc thu nghiem khang djnhrang ho dugc uong Coca trong khi tren thuc te la Pepsi hoac ngugc lai.Tuang tu doi vai cuoc thu nghiem ve vj tri cua san pham ba lac co vj ngon - dat tien va loaiC vi da - re tien. Nguai ta bi mat bo ba lac co vj da - re tien vao hu vai thuang hieu n6i Otieng, va ba lac co vi ngon - dat tien vao hu vai thuang hieu v6 danh. Tat ca dugc yeu cauchi ra san pham ba lac nao la ngon nhat. Ket qua cho thay da so nhij-ng nguai tham gia deucho rang loai ba lac - re tien nhung dung trong hu co thuang hieu noi tieng la ngon han.Dieu nay chung minh sue manh cua thuang hieu quyet dinh cua khach hang hay noi eachkhac, khi mua franchise cua mot san pham da co thuang hieu thi kha an tam do se co lugngkhach hang toi thieu tu ban dau.Theo mot cuoc dieu tra so bg cua truang Dai hoc Kinh te TP. Ho Chi Minh thi trong sonhijng nguai tieu dung tai Tp. Ho Chi Minh dugc phong van co den 89% cho rang thuang 18
  • hieu la y^u t6 quy^t djnh khi ho lira chon mua san pham han. Ly do chu yeu la ho thay antam ve nguon gdc va chat lugng cua san pham han. Ket qua nay cang ciing co them tinh xacthuc cua cac cuoc thu nghiem cua Coke va Pepsi va san pham ba lac ke tren. Ngoai ra, ketqua nay cho thay ngay nay nguai tieu dung khong nhung a nuac ngoai ma ngay tai VietNam ciing c6 nhan thuc rat cao ve thuang hieu.De vay tien ngan hang hanDo xac suat thanh cong cao hon nen cac ngan hang thuang tin tuang va cho cac doanhnghiep mua franchise vay tien. Noi dung ra hau nhu tat ca cac doanh nghiep kinh doanhnhugng quyen Ion tren the giai deu chu dong dam phan, thuyet phuc ngan hang ung ho cacdoi tac mua franchise tiem nang cua minh bang each cho vay vai lai suat thap. Noi khac di,chu thuang hieu thuang dong vai tro cau noi giup nguai mua franchise mugn tien ngan hanghoac chinh minh dung ra cho vay, nham phat trien va nhan rong mo hinh kinh doanh nhanhhem. Dieu nay chua xay ra tai Viet Nam do hinh thuc kinh doanh nhugng quyen chua phobien va chu truong cho vay doi vai doanh nghiep nho cua he thong ngan hang ta con giaihan. Nhung sam mugn gi thi Viet Nam cung di theo xu huang the giai nhat la khi da gianhap WTO.Du-gc chu thirtfng hieu giup do"Nguai mua franchise luc nao cung nhan dugc sir giup do, ho trg tu phia chu thuang hieutruac va sau khi cua hang nhugng quyen khai truang. Day la mot lgi the lan, dac biet doi vainguoi tu kinh doanh Ian dau. Trong thai gian truac khai truang, doi tac mua franchisethuang dugc ho trg ve dao tao, thiet ke, chgn dja diem cua hang, nguon hang, tiep thj, quangcao... Sau khai truang, ho tiep tuc dugc ho trg nhieu mat, trong do noi bat nhat la khau tiepthj, quang cao va tai dao tao. Tai Hoa Ky, Hoi dong thuang mai lien bang (Federal Trade 19
  • Commission - FTC) co ban hanh mot bg dihu le v8 franchise dk quan y cac franchisor vafranchisee. FTC ciing co mot so tai lieu huang dan dau tu mot franchise, vi du trang webhttp://www.franchise.org. 1.4 Nhirng bien phap thtfcrng dirge su* dung nham xay dyng va phat trien thuang hieu 1.4.1 Quang cao 1.4.1.1 S& lu-gc ve quang caoQuang cao la mot trong nam cong cu chu yeu ma cac cong ty sir dung de huang thong tinthuyet phuc vao nguai mua va cong chung muc tieu. Ta dinh nghTa quang cao la mgi hinhthuc trinh bay gian tiep va khuyech truang y tuang, hang hoa hay djch vu dugc nguai baotrg nhat djnh nhij-ng nguai hanh nghe chuyen nghiep va cac to chuc xa hoi quang cao sirnghiep cua minh cho cong chung muc tieu khac nhau. Quang cao dugc su dung a tat ca cacnuac tren the giai, ke ca cac nuac xa hoi chu nghTa. Quang cao la mot each phan phat thongdiep C hieu qua ve chi phi du cho no nham tao dung sir ua thich nhan hieu cho Coca-Cola Ohay nham khuyen khich nguai tieu dung trong nuac uong sija hay han che sinh de.Cac to chuc tien hanh quang cao theo nhiJng each khac nhau. a nhixng cong ty nho quangcao dugc giao cho mot nguai a phong kinh doanh hay marketing, nguai nay lien ket vaicong ty quang cao. Cong ty lan thi thanh lap bg phan quang cao cho rieng minh, nguai quanly bg phan nay true thuoc quyen pho chu tjch phu trach marketing. Nhiem vu cua bg phanquang cao va cac chien dugc do cong ty quang cao de xuat va dam nhiem quang cao bangthu true tuyen, trung bay hang 6 cac dja ly va cac hinh thuc quang cao ma cong ty quang caothuang khong lam. Hau het cac cong ty deu sir dung cong ty quang cao ben ngoai de giup hgtrien khai cac chien luge quang cao va lira chon, mua phuang tien truyen thong. 20
  • 1.4.1.2 Xay dirng chuang trinh quang caoTrong nhijng nghien cuu cua minh, Armand Dayan va Philip Kotler da dua ra mo hinh cacbuac tien hanh quang cao de tra lai cho nhung cau hoi can ban cua mot chuang trinh quangcao: Muc tieu cua chuang trinh ngan sach danh cho chuang trinh, thong diep can truyenthong, su dung phuang tien quang cao nao vai tan suat ra sao va cuoi cung la danh gia ketqua chuang trinh.Muc tieu ciia quang cao thong tinQuang cao mang lai hieu qua to Idn cho thuang hieu, nham dua thuang hieu den dugc vaicong chung va de cong chung cam nhan ve thuang hieu va gia trj cua thuang hieu trong tieudung san pham. Khi tien hanh quang cao, can dat dugc cac muc tieu sau day:Tgo ra nhan thirc ve thucmg hieu: Mot thong tin mai tham nhap thj truang rat can co nhijngchuang trinh quang cao de nguai tieu dung nhan biet ve sir ton tai cua thuang hieu. Truachet, nham tang cuang nhan thuc cua khach hang muc tieu hien tai, tao ra nhan thuc ve su tontai cua thuang hieu cho cac khach hang mai hoac tai thj truang mai, cuoi cung la nang caonhan thuc ve thuang hieu mai trong mot thi truang ngach chua tung dugc tiep can.Tgo ra su hieu biet ve thuang hieu: Chuang trinh quang cao dugc hieu la chuang trinh duakien thuc den khach hang muc tieu, lam thay doi cac an tugng cua khach hang, cung co niemtin ve thuang hieu hoac thu nhan nhilng thong tin xx ich cho quyet djnh mua.Thuyet phuc nguai dinh mua: Khach hang chi mua san pham khi co niem tin ve thuang hieu,niem tin nay dugc tao dung mot phan thong qua cac chuang trinh quang cao nham kich thichcac cam xuc hien thai cua nguai tieu dung ve mot thuang hieu. Tren ca sa niem tin vaothong tin khach hang se dua ra quyet dinh mua hgp ly. 21
  • Muc tieu hdnh dong de duy tri long trung thanh: Day la mot loai muc tieu hanh dong, gianti§p tac dong den quyet djnh mua vai cac chuang trinh quang cao dugc thiet ke khong tacdong den doanh so ban tuc thai ma no huang dan khach hang tham gia vao chuang trinh tudo C kinh nghiem ve thong tin va nang cao nhan thuc ve thuang hieu. OQuyet dinh ngan sach va muc tieu quang caoQ day ta se trinh bay nhijng yeu to cu the can xem xet khi xac djnh ngan sach quang cao.- Giai doan trong chu ky song cua san pham: Nhijng san pham mai thuang nhan dugc ngansach quang cao lan de tao ra sir biet den va kich thich nguai tieu dung dung thu. Nhijng nhanhieu da dung chan thuang chi dugc ho trg bang nhung ngan sach nho han theo ty le vaidoanh so ban.+ Thj phan va ca sa tieu dung: Nhijng nhan hieu lan thuang doi hoi chi phi quang cao it hontheo ty le phan tram doanh so ban de duy tri thj phan cua minh. De tao ra thj phan bang eachtang quy mo thj truang doi hoi chi phi quang cao Ian han. Ngoai ra, neu tinh chi phi tren antugng thi viec tiep can nhung nguai tieu dung mot nhan hieu dugc su dung rong rai it tonkem han la tiep can nhirng nguai tieu dung nhieu nhan hieu su dung it.+ Canh tranh va quan tu: Tren thj truang co dong doi thu canh tranh va chi phi quang caonhieu, mot nhan hieu phai dugc quang cao manh me han de vugt len tren nhieu cua thjtruang. Ngay ca tinh trang huyen nao do quang cao khong true tiep canh tranh vai nhan hieudo gay ra ciing doi hoi phai quang cao manh hem.+ Tan so quang cao: So lan lap lai can thiet de dua thong diep cua nhan hieu den dugc nguaitieu dung cung gop phan quyet djnh ngan sach quang cao.+ Kha nang thay the cua san pham: Nhung nhan hieu thuoc loai thong thuang (Vi du thuocla, bia, nuac nggt) doi hoi quang cao manh de tao nen mot hinh anh khac biet. quang cao 22
  • cung rdt quan trgng khi nhan hieu co the cung ung nhung lgi ich vat chat hay tinh nang dgciio.Dac trung ciia phaang tien quang caoQuang cao true tiep thong qua kenh ban hang true tiep ca nhan, nghTa la su dung luc lugngban hang - chao hang co ky nang tot, tinh chuyen nghiep cao, nam vung tam ly va hieu rosan ph^m de tiep xuc true tiep giai thieu va thuyet phuc khach hang. Tap trung vao tungnguai mua cua tiang thj truang muc tieu, no nuoi duang hinh anh thuang hieu va khuyenkhich hanh dong su dung thuang hieu trong tuang lai. Nguai ban hang cho khach hang muctieu ve hang hoa, diem manh cua hang hoa, dich vu sau ban, ve gia ca va phuang thuc thanhtoan, su than thien, hip dan loi cuon cua thuang hieu... Hinh anh cua doanh nghiep vathuang hieu phu thuoc rat nhieu vao doi ngu nhan vien ban hang true tiep do. Do vay, muonsu dung doi ngu nay hieu qua, truac moi chien djch can co chuang trinh dao tao nhan vien,ve ky nang ban hang, hieu biet ve khach hang, hieu biet ve cong ty, triet ly thuang hieu, kienthuc ban hang va dac biet la phat trien pham chat ca nhan cua nhan vien ban hang thong quaviec biet lang nghe va thong cam, the hien cai toi cua ca tinh dep vai cac toi cua thuanghieu.Quang cao tren cac phuang tien truyen thong (media advertising): Truyen hinh, radio, bao,tap chi... uu the cua cac phuang tien nay la tac dong manh, pham vi anh huang rong vaphong phu, tuy nhien, doi hoi chi phi cao va tan suat lan. Moi phuang tien truyen thong conhijng dac trung rieng biet, co nhung diem manh nhung cung co nhijng diem yeu. Viec lirachgn phuang tien nao la hoan toan phu thuoc vao muc dich va kha nang cua doanh nghiep.Vai truyen hinh, quang cao co the mo ta dugc hinh anh, am thanh, su chuyen dong va mausac, tat ca tao nen net rieng biet cho mot thuang hieu va co su cam nhan ro rang cua khach 23
  • hang tu thj giac den thinh giac. Tuy nhien, chi phi cho quang cao truyen hinh la rat cao vathuang xuyen tang, thai gian phat hanh quang cao bj han che tuy thuoc vao dac diem riengcua moi khu vuc, moi dia phuang. Ben canh truyen hinh, radio cung la phuang tien quangcao ph6 bi8n vai kha nang thong tin nhanh va lan rong, nhung no lai hoan toan phu thuocvao am thanh va ngon ngij bieu dat nen bj han che doi vai nhijng thong tin can sir mo tabang hinh anh hay mau sac. Thong thuang, quang cao qua bao van chiem mot ty le cao vi nodam bao dugc thong tin tren cac thj truang dugc lua chgn. Bao thuang mang tinh chat diaphuang hay ITnh vuc rieng nen giup doanh nghiep de dang trong djnh vi nhom khach hangde quang cao. Tuy nhien, thai gian song cua bao lai ngan, lai mang tinh dia phuang va chatlugng hinh anh quang cao khong cao va thong diep chi truyen tai thong qua quang cao. Dekhac phuc yeu diem nay, nhieu doanh nghiep lua chgn phuang thuc quang cao qua tap chi vithai gian song cua tap chi dai nen noi dung quang cao xem dugc nhieu lan, tinh lua chgn dgcgia cao, chat lugng hinh anh dep. Mac du vay, quang cao tren tap chi thuang tap trung aphan dau, giiJa va cuoi nen tinh canh tranh cao; chi phi quang cao dat han bao, thoi gianduyet ban thao lau han.Quang cao true tuyen (Direct response advertising): Dung thu tin, dien thoai, email, ta rai,internet, gui cataloge, hang hoa qua, buna dien. Hinh thuc nay dac biet hieu qua ve khia canhkinh te, thong tin dugc truyen tai true tiep den khach hang muc tieu. Tuy nhien, ngay nay doC qua nhieu cong ty su dung phuang thuc nay, nen nguai tieu dung khong muon nhan "thu Orac" va kha nang chap nhan cua doi tugng muc tieu thap.Quang cao phan phoi (place advertising): Bang ron, pano, ap phich, phuang tien giao thong(xe buyt, xe lam...) bang dien tu... cac phuang tien nay cho phep khai thac toi da cac loaikich ca, hinh dang khac nhau danh cho quang cao. Viec sir dung mau sac va hinh ve do vay 24
  • cung dan gian hon, nhung sue thu hut nguai nhan tin kem. Tuy vay, neu su dung cac vatdung nhu du, 6, ban ghe, gat tan thuoc la... de quang cao nhu mot loai qua tang thi nguai tieudung se luu trij thong tin lau tren phuang tien quang cao.Quang cao tai diem ban (Point of pruchase advertising): Dung nguai giao hang tai cac khuvuc thuang mai, tan dung loi di, quay ke, bo tri am thanh, tivi, video, hoac phuang tientruyen thong ngay tai cua hang de tac dong true tiep doi vai nguai mua. Cac diem ban ledugc cac cong ty phan phoi tan dung do dugc huang chiet khau tir doanh thu.Quang cao dien tu (E-Advertising): Truac het la xay dung trang Web va he thong thu dientu cua doanh nghiep. Trang Web phai co giao dien dong gop mot yeu to thong nhat vao viectruyen tai hinh anh thuang hieu trong he thong nhan dien thuang hieu. No dong nhat vakhong khac biet so vai cac yeu to thuang hieu khac dugc truyen tai. Thong thuang ngoaiviec giai thieu ve doanh nghiep va thuang hieu, cac trang Web phai ho trg cac tien ich chokhach hang nhu cac djch vu tu van, huang dan tieu dung, huang dan chgn san pham, thuanghieu, tra cuu, thong tin, djch vu bao hanh, tien tai xay dung trang Web thanh cong giao dichtrue tuyen cua doanh nghiep. Ben canh do co the sir dung e-banner tren cac trang web khac.Mot each thuc khac la cac cong ty lap ra cac mailing list de trao doi vai cac khach hangtrung thanh, su dung cac ban tin dien tu (e-newletters) lap ra cac dien dan (forum) de khachhang C khong gian ao trao doi cac dac tinh san pham va thuang hieu cua cong ty. Day la Onguon thong tin phan hoi tot. Mot so cong ty khac mua danh sach cac dja chi thu dien tu cuakhach hang va gui thong diep quang cao den danh sach thu dien tu nay. So lugng cac congty quoc te tien hanh su dung phuang phap nay qua nhieu, den noi cac hom thu ca nhan ngaynay deu dat che do "spam email" hay khoa cac dja chi gui den cho than chu khach hang coi 25
  • nhijng buc thu nay nhu nhirng thu rac vi nguai ta khong thu nhan dugc lgi ich tu viec duy trinhan thu tu dong cua cong ty.Thong diep va thir nghiem quang caoThong diep cua mot chuang trinh quang cao phai mang day du y nghTa thong diep muontruyen dat. Thong diep thuang hieu trong thong tin quang cao phai the hien dugc day du cac lien kit nhSm kit n6i bg nha cua khach hang vai thuang hieu. De trinh bay mot thong diep,nha thiet ke phai dam bao dugc cac yeu to ve mat thong tin, hgp ly le, each thuc loi cuon doitugng quang cao, dong thai xem xet den kha nang dua ra cac diem nhan, lap lai, menh lenhtrong thong diep hoac xay dung hinh anh bieu tugng de lien tucmg tu thong diep den thongtin trong tam tri khach hang. Dieu nay tuy don gian nhung thuc su kho khan vai cong ty, neumuon dua ra thong diep quang cao thich hgp. De thoa man cac yeu to tren, nha thiet kequang cao can no lire dau tu rat lan. Vi vay, nguai ta thuang chi lira chgn thong qua vai netdac trung noi bat cho thong diep va dua vao thu nghiem. Cach tot nhat van la tien hanh cacnghien cuu va phan tich sau sac truac khi dua ra mot thong diep. Vidu menh lenh maDecolgen dua ra la "Ngay khi c6 dau hieu cam cum hay dung Decolgen". Thong diep doi khidugc lap di lap lai nhu "Da tot nay con tot han" la each thuc ma mot so cong ty dang c6gang the hien.Khi da lira chgn dugc thong diep, neu cong ty khong tien hanh giai doan "cau noi" - thunghiem ma da lap tuc quang cao dai tra thi co the co nhung that bai do tinh chat khong thichung cua doi tugng thu nhan quang cao vai thong diep quang cao. Co hai phuang phap la thirnghiem tren moi truang thuc te va thu nghiem tren moi truang mo phong. Mot so thunghiem chi co the do luang thong so qua phong thi nghiem vai thiet bj chuyen diing. Dongthai nguai ta co the dua ra nhieu bien so cua su thay doi moi truang chinh tri, canh tranh. 26
  • luu lugng truyen thong ma tren thir nghiem thuc te phai mit thai gian dai mai co dugc ketqua. Han nija, thu nghiem mo phong tiet kiem hon thu nghiem thuc te. Dan gian la trongmoi truang thuc tl, nha quang cao phai thue cac thiet bj, khong gian va phuang tien truyenthong thuc su va dieu nay tieu ton kha nhieu ngan sach. V4n de la cong ty dinh chia baonhieu cho hai loai ngan sach nay. Mot dieu nija phai nhac den la mot so nha thu nghiemquang cao mo phong da di qua xa trong viec dua ra nhieu thu nghiem khac xa moi truangthuc tien. Trong nghien cuu mo phong, nguai ta phai dua tren cac yeu to gia dinh roi kiemtra tung yeu to tac dong, nghien cuu cac mat tac dong rieng biet, trong khi tai moi truangthuc te, con nguai chju tac dong tong hoa cua nhieu yeu to cung mot luc. Nhung chac chanphai C giai doan thu nghiem de nhan biet thai do cua doi tugng quang cao vai thong diep Oquang cao.Thuc hien va danh gia chirang trinh quang caoKhi da ke hoach hoa chuang trinh quang cao vai cac buac chuan bj chi tiet, cong ty tienhanh thuc hien chuang trinh. Trong qua trinh thuc hien, can tao ra ca che phai hoi hiju hieude nam bat thuang xuyen tac dong cua chuang trinh. Thong thuang cac cong ty lap ra cacdanh muc can kiem tra trong qua trinh thuc hien roi sir dung cac cong cu kiem tra d6 danhgia kha nang tac dong va thu nhan cac phan hoi tu nguai nhan thong diep quang cao.Co the nhanh chong danh gia tac dong cua mot chuang trinh quang cao tai doanh thu banhang trong ngan han, nhung viec mot thuang hieu dugc quang cao truac day nhieu nam vanC nhieu anh huang cho cac the he sau do hinh anh thuang hieu da nam sau trong nhan thuc Onguai tieu dung. Coca-Cola la mot vi du, cac quang cao truac co nhieu anh huang ve matnhan thuc den ngay nay. Do vay, danh gia quang cao la danh gia thai do nhan thirc cua nguaitieu dung doi vai thuang hieu thong qua thong diep quang cao trong cac giai doan ngan va 27
  • dai han. Nhirng no luc xay dung hinh anh thuang hieu mot each tich cue va ben bi la dieu v6cung quan trgng. Rat kho de xac lap vi tri tot trong tam tri khach hang nhung rui ro luon xayra de khach hang "tay chay" thuang hieu. Can xay dung "niem tin" doi vai thong tin trongchuang trinh quang cao khi ma xu the hien nay, nguai tieu dung cang it tin vao quang cao.Gia trj cua niem tin se tao dung long trung thanh cua khach hang vai thuang hieu, tu do giatang uy tin cua thuang hieu va anh huang den quyet djnh mua tich cue.1.4.2 Quan he cong chung1.4.2.1 Khai niemQuan he cong chung (Tieng Anh la public relation) - PR dugc hieu la mot he thong nguyentac va cac hoat dong co lien quan mot each huu ca, nhat quan nham tao dung mot hinh anh,mot an tugng, mot quan niem, nhan dinh hoac mot su tin cay nao do.Q nuac ta, nhung nam gan day, da co mot so doanh nghiep su dung PR nhu la mot cong cuquan trgng trong tiep thj va phat trien thuang hieu. Vi du nhu chuang trinh: "Thap sang uocma" cua Nha may Xuat khau ViHa tang 500 xe dap cho hgc sinh ngheo vugt kho; Chuangtrinh "Hanh trinh xuyen Viet" tang xe dap the thao cho hgc sinh, sinh vien Truang Dai hgcBach khoa Ha Noi trong chuyen di xuyen Viet tu Ha Noi vao Thanh pho Ho Chi Minh vimoi truang.Ve ca ban, phat trien thuang hieu la hang loat cac tac nghiep, cac c5ng viec va cac bien phapma doanh nghiep can phai lam. Hoat dong PR chi la mot trong so cac tac nghiep do va lahoat dong mang tinh tong hgp cao, co quan he rat mat thiet vai cac hoat dong khac. De datdugc hieu qua cao trong phat trien thuang hieu va tiep thj, doanh nghiep can tien hanh PRmot each thuang xuyen, co ke hoach va gan hoat dong PR vai cac hoat dong khac. 28
  • 2 1.4.2.2 Dac diem cua PRPR la mot qua trinh thong tin hai chieuDoanh nghiep (chu the ciia hoat dong PR) dua ra cac thong tin ve hang hoa, djch vu, vedoanh nghiep va hoat dong cua doanh nghiep tai nhom doi tugng djnh truac ma con phailang nghe cac y kien phan hoi tu doi tugng dugc tuyen truyen.Doanh nghiep thong qua PR de biet va hi^u dugc tam ly, nhung mong mu6n va nhan djnhcua doi tugng ve hang hoa, djch vu de tu do co the dieu chinh dugc chiln luge sao cho phuhgp vai tung doi tugng hoan canh cu the. Day la co hoi de doanh nghiep ti§p xuc true ti8p valang nghe nhirng y kien tu nguai tieu dung ve san pham hoac djch vu cua minh.PR mang tinh khach quan caoPR thuang dung cac phuang tien trung gian (nhu cac bai viet tren bao chi, cac phong sirtruyen hinh, truyen thanh, cac chuang trinh tai trg, cac hoat dong tu thien...) cho nen mgithong diep den vai cac nhom doi tugng tieu dung dugc chap nhan han, it the hien tinhthuang mai han.Nguai tieu dung khi tiep nhan thong tin ve hang hoa, djch vu thuang cam th^y thoai mai vade tin hon, it bi cam giac "hoi chung quang cao", nhat la khi nhijng nguai viet bai, nhungnguai tham luan la nhQng nha khoa hgc, cac yeu nhan. Dieu nay se mang den nhijng ca hoirat tot de tao dung an tugng, mot su tin tuang cua nguai tieu dung vai hang hoa mangthuang hieu dugc tuyen truyen.Hoat dong PR chuyen tai mot lugng thong tin nhieu honNguai tieu dung co ca hoi nhan dugc lugng thong tin nhieu va ky hon ve hoat dong ciia banthan doanh nghiep cung nhu san pham ciia doanh nghiep. Hg co the hinh dung ve huang 29
  • phat tri^n ciang nhu quan dilm ciia doanh nghiep trong viec quan tam den quy§n lgi nguaitieu dung v6 nhijng uu the ciia san pham ma doanh nghiep cung cap.Hoat dong PR thuang mang den Igi ich cu the cho doi tugngCac doanh nghiep mang lai cho nguoi tieu dung nhung lgi ich dich thuc "nhu cac chuangtrinh bieu dien nghe thuat, cac khoan dong gop tu thien, qua do no rat gan bo vai nguai tieudung va tao cho nguai tieu dung su gan gui, than thien nhieu han doi vai doanh nghiep vasan pham cua doanh nghiep. Vi du nhu chuang trinh tang xe Ian tay cho nguai khuyet tatThanh pho Ha Noi ciia Nha may Xe may - xe dap Thong Nhat.PR thucrng co chi phi thapPR thuang co chi phi thap han so vai quang cao tren cac phuang tien truyen thong, trong khihieu qua lai khong thap han do tinh chat tap trung ciia doi tugng va nha tac dung rong raicua truyen mieng.1.4.2.3 Hoat dong PR cung co nhirng han che nhat dinh- Thong tin khong den dugc vai mot so lugng rat Ion cac doi tugng trong mot thai gian ngando hoat dong PR chi tap trung a mot nhom doi tugng trong khu vuc djnh truac.- Thong diep dua ra thuang khong gay "an tugng manh" va kho ghi nha han so vai quangcao.- Trong mot so truang hgp se kho kiem soat noi dung thong diep do phai truyen tai qua benthu ba (nha bao, chuyen gia, su kien...)1.4.2.4 Chien lugc quan he cong chungHoat dong PR luon gan lien vai mot nhom doi tugng cu the va gan lien vai hoat dong tuyentruyen, quang cao. Xuat phat tu do, doanh nghiep can xay dung chien luge PR cho hoat dongnay. Chien luge PR khong the tach rai khoi chien luge kinh doanh ciia doanh nghiep, no can 30
  • phai nham tai nhom doi tugng khach hang cu the va can tap trung vao mot chii the nhat djnh. Chii de dugc huang tai co the la mot san pham, mot thuang hieu hang hoa cu the (vi du nhu san pham xe dap dien ViHa, Grace...), mot quoc gia, thuang hieu quoc gia (Viet Nam - diem d6n ciia thien nien ky mai). Can luu y rang, tap khach hang ciia doanh nghiep khac vai tap khach hang ciia san pham; muc dich tuyen truyen cua doanh nghiep khac vai muc dich tuyentruyen cho hang hoa; sir quan tam ciia khach hang den doanh nghiep. Vi the chii de va noi dung tuyen truyen can gan vai tinh chat, dac diem ciia nhijng lgi the uu viet ciia san pham setuyen truyen; muc tieu hoat dong cua cong ty; doi tugng khach hang ciia doanh nghiep vacua san pham ma doanh nghiep kinh doanh; cac dac diem ve tam ly, van hoa, chinh tri, kinhte, phap luat cua nhom doi tugng trong mot dia ban nhat dinh, cac yeu to anh huang den ITnhvuc hoat dong va san pham cong ty.1.4.2.5 Noi dung co ban ciia hoat dong PRQuan he bao chi va cac phuang tien truyen thongDay la cac hoat dong nhay cam va rat quan trgng. Com cac cong viec la: To chuc hgp bao degioi thieu san pham mai va ITnh vuc hoat dong ciia doanh nghiep, soan thao cac thong caobao chi, to chuc cac buoi thong tin, chi dan mang tinh cap nhat cho cac nha bao ve hang hoava hoat dong ciia doanh nghiep, dac biet khi giai thieu nhirng thuang hieu mai ma doanhnghiep se kinh doanh, sap xep cac buoi phong van, phong sir dac biet ve doanh nghiep, ve tuvan tieu dung hang hoa... Tuy theo muc dich tuyen truyen va dieu kien cu the ma doanhnghiep co the tien hanh hoat dong giai thieu san pham mai nhu each ma nhieu cong ty trongITnh vuc dien tu thuang ap dung hoac giai thieu ve cac hoat dong xa hoi ma doanh nghiep dalam cung nhu chinh sach chat lugng ma doanh nghiep theo duoi... vi du nhu giai thieu sanpham xe dap gap, xe dap bieu dien, xe dap khong xich v.v... 31
  • Tuy nhien, de dat dugc hieu qua cao trong viec cung cap thong tin va kich thich su nhapcuoc ciia bao chi, co the sir dung chien thuat "ro ri" thong tin, chien thuat nay khong chi gaysir to mo cho bao chi ma con hap dan ca cac doi tugng khac nhu cac nha dau tu, doi tac,khach hang va ngay ca nhan vien doanh nghiep.To chirc cac sir kienTham gia va to chuc tot cac su kien co the nhu khai truang dong tho, khanh thanh, cac le kyniem, la nha tai trg chuang trinh cho sinh vien Truang Hgc vien Ky thuat Quan su thiROBOTCOM... Day se la dip tot de khach hang hieu biet nhieu han ve doanh nghiep, hanghoa va hoat dong ciia doanh nghiep. Ben canh do tao niem tin va long tu hao rieng cho doingu nhan vien trong doanh nghiep, gop phan ciing co quan he giira cac bg phan trong doanhnghiep. Tham gia cac sir kien, doanh nghiep can to chuc tot cac chuang trinh quang cao,tuyen truyen. Cung can luu y rang sir tham gia tran lan cac su kien thuang lam cho doanhnghiep phai chi qua nhieu, trong khi an tugng ve thuang hieu ciia doanh nghiep cung bi xemnhe. Nen chgn Igc cac su kien c6 lien quan va gan bo vai thuang hieu, can tuyen truyen vacan C su dau tu thich dang khi tham gia nham tao su chii y ciia cong chiing. ODoi pho vo"! riii ro va khac phuc cac su* coDoi pho vai cac su co, giai quyet tot cac khieu nai hoac sir co cua khach hang, tham chi cothe la nguy ca canh bao hang gia, boi thuang cho khach hang, ngoai ra Cong ty co chuangtrinh giai thieu hang that, hang gia, tem chong hang gia... Chinh dieu nay da tao dugc longtin ciia khach hang doi vai hoat dong va san pham cua doanh nghiep. Tuy nhien can het suetinh tao vai cac hoat dong nay vi rat co the thuang hieu ciia doanh nghiep se bj tay chay vadoanh nghiep se phai tra gia vi su de dai trong xu ly cac su c6. 32
  • Cac hoat dong tai trg cong dongCac hoat dong tai trg va tir thien can truac het xuat phat tu muc dich mang lai lgi ich chocong d6ng, ben canh do la quang ba thuang hieu. Cac chuong trinh cho hoat dong nay canthiet thuc, phu hgp vai hoan canh thuc te va khong qua lam dung quang cao vi rat co the setao ra tac dung ngugc, gay kho cho doi tugng dugc tuyen truyen. Hoat dong tai trg congdong va tu thien thuang dugc su dung trong qua trinh quang ba thuang hieu, doanh nghiep,bai trong truang hgp nay hinh anh ve mot doanh nghiep de dugc chap nhan hon la mot hinhanh ve mot hang hoa cu the. Viec quang ba thuang hieu trong hoat dong tu thien de lam doitugng dugc tai trg va tuyen truyen co each nhin sai lech ve y do cung nhu thien chi ciiadoanh nghiep.Cac hoat dong phi thirang mai true tiep vai khach hangDo la cac hoi nghj khach hang, chuang trinh huan luyen ve su dung va van hanh san pham,chuang trinh sir dung thu hang va lay y kien nguai tieu dung, to chuc cac trien lam,showroom... la cac nhom hoat dong c6 chi phi doi khi khong qua cao nhung hieu qua thuangrat Idn. Day la ca hoi tot nhat de nguai tieu diing tiep xiic true tiep vai hang hoa ciia doanhnghiep va dugc tu van day dii, chinh xac tu doanh nghiep. Lam tot cac hoat dong nay,thuang hieu ciia doanh nghiep se c6 nhieu ca hoi de in dam trong tam tri nguoi tieu dung.Tuy nhien, khi tien hanh cac hoat dong nay can xac djnh ro doi tugng khach hang can hudngtai. Djnh vj khong chinh xac doi tugng khach hang se mang den nguy ca that bai. 33
  • 1.4.3 Xu hudng sir dung quang cao va quan he cong chung lam phuang tien de phat trien thuang hieu 30 nam ve truac Al Ries la dong tac gia mot loat bai bao dang trong tap chi Advertisting Age duai nhan de: "Thai dai ciia dinh vj da den". Cac bai bao da an khach ngay tuc thi. Chang may choc thuat ngu dinh vi (positioning) bien thanh ngon ngiJ thai thugng trong gidi quang cao va tiep thj.Neu ngay nay chiing ta cung viet mot loat bai tuang tu nhu vay cho tap chi do, thi dau de cua no se phai doi thanh "Thai dai ciia quan he cong chiing da den". Nhin vao dau ta cung thay sir chuyen djch day kjch tinh tu tiep thi djnh hudng quang cao sang tiep thj dinh hudngquan he cong chiing.Ban khong the tung ra mot thuang hieu mdi bang quang cao bdi vi quang cao khong mangtrong no tinh chat dang tin cay. No chi la nhijng tieng noi tu reu rao ciia cong ty dang nonglong tim each de ban dugc hang ciia minh.Ban chi c6 the tung ra dugc nhijng thuang hieu mdi bang thong tin dai- chiing (publicity)hoac bang quan he cong chiing (public relation - PR). PR giiip ban noi ra cau chuyen ciiaminh mot each gian tiep thong qua ben thu ba, ma trudc het do la phuang tien thong tin daichiing.PR C dugc tinh chat dang tin cay. Quang cao thi khong, PR dem den nhiing nhan thuc tich Ocue ma mot chien djch quang cao, neu dugc to chuc tot, co the khai thac dieu do.Quang cao phai di theo sau PR ca ve phuang dien thai diem lan de tai. Quang cao la sir kltuc ciia PR bang phuang tien khac va chi nen dugc bat dau sau khi chuang trinh PR da hoanthanh muc tieu. Han thi nira, de tai ciia chuang trinh quang cao phai lap lai nhijng nhan thucda dugc hinh thanh trong dau khach hang tiem nang do chuang trinh PR tao ra. 34
  • Cung khong nen xem nhe giai doan quang cao ciia mot chuong trinh tiep thi. Chi nen tung rachuong trinh quang cao mot thuang hieu la noi tieng va bdi mot cong ty co kha nang dapung dugc nhu cau dai hon ma mot chien djch quang cao doi hoi.Nhijng ngudi lam quang cao doi khi ha thap chuc nang PR, coi do la thu yeu, chi co ich khixay ra khiing hoang hoac chi co tac dung de quang ba cho chien dich quang cao mdi nhat mathoi. Do la suy nghT sai lam.Doi vdi hau het cac cong ty ngay nay, PR co vai tro rat quan trgng, khong the coi la thu yeuso vdi quang cao dugc. Xet ve nhieu phuang dien thi vai tro cua chiing da dao ngugc. Baygid PR ngoi vao vi tri ciia ngudi cam lai va se dan dat, chi dudng cho cac chuang trinh tiepthj.Mot minh chiing cho dieu nay la cuoc dieu tra 1.800 can bg quan ly doanh nghiep gan daydo Lien doan quang cao My (American Advertising Federation - AAF) tien hanh cho thayquan he cong chiing dugc coi trgng hon quang cao. Khi dugc hoi bg phan nao ciia cong ty laquan trgng nhat giup cho su thanh cong ciia cong ty, thi ket qua tham do nhu sau:+ Phat trien san pham 29%+ Lap ke hoach chien luge 27%+ Quan he cong chiing 16%+ Nghien cuu va phat trien 14%+ Chien luge tai chinh 14%+ Quang cao 10%+ Phap ly 3% 35
  • Nhu vay, chi co bg phan phap ly la xep hang dudi bg phan quang cao trong cuoc dieu tra ciia AAF. Mac du quang cao chiem phan dang ke trong ca cau ngan sach ciia cong ty, nhung dudi con mat ciia nha quan ly thi cho dung ciia no da bj sdi moi nghiem trgng. Al Ries va Laura Ries da dung mot hinh anh rit hay cho sir thay doi nay do la: "Quang cao thoai vj va PR len ngoi". 1.5 Gia tri thirang hieu, sy can thiet phai xay dung va phat triln thuang hieu Thuang hieu cd mot gia tri ciia thuang mai va nhiJng lgi ich dem lai cho t^t ca cac ben tham gia trao doi, viec thiet ke thuang hieu khong phai dan gian chi de trang tri cho doanh nghiep ma C ban la de tao ra gia trj cho doanh nghiep va khach hang, chiing co the dugc coi la mot O bg phan cau thanh ben tai san cd ciia bang tong ket tai san ciia doanh nghiep. Nhung d8 danh gia mot each day dii ve gia trj nhan hieu lai khong phai viec lam dan gian, dl lam. Gia triciia thuang hieu dugc biet den qua nam hinh thuc:- Su nhan biet thuang hieu ciia khach hang- Su trung thanh ciia khach hang vdi cong ty.- Su cam nhan gia trj/chat lugng ciia san pham thong qua thuang hieu.- Su cong hudng uy tin trong tap hgp thuang hieu.- Cac gia tri gia tang khac nhau ciia thuang hieu.Tuy nhien ly do quan trgng nhat va ciing la ly do ma doanh nghiep quan tam nhat trong vaitro lanh dao la yeu to kinh te. No luc ma doanh nghiep dau tu de xay dung mot thuang hieutot se dugc den dap mot each xung dang bang gia trj cao hon cua san pham va dich vu vangay ca gia trj tai chinh ciia doanh nghiep. Noi mot each dan gian, xay dung thucmg hieu totthi kinh doanh tot. 36
  • Khi C dugc thuang hieu manh, nhung doanh nghiep khong biet hoac khong quan tam duy O tri phat tri6n no thi khong khac gi doanh nghiep da khong biet su dung va dao tao nhan tai ma doanh nghiep dang co. Vdi ly do tren, viec xay dung thuang hieu r4t can thiet cho doanh nghiep, song hoan toan khong phai la viec chi tao ra mot thuang hieu, tien hanh dang ky bao hg thuang hieu do va roi C the yen tam khai thac Igi ich ma chiing mang lai cho doanh nghiep. Mot thuang hieu O se khong phat trien, tham chi kho ton tai neu chii sd hiJu no khong co cac chien luge hgp ly de duy tri va phat trien no theo dinh hudng thj trudng va theo su phat trien chung ciia doanh nghiep. Qua trinh duy tri va phat trien thuang hieu co the bao gom nhieu hoat dong nhSmnuoi dudng va co dinh hinh anh thuang hieu trong tam tri khach hang, tao co hoi de ngaycang nhieu khach hang biet den, ghi nhd dugc no va co thai do tich cue (la mua hang) doivdi thuang hieu ciia doanh nghiep. Thuc te chi ra rang, qua trinh phat trien duy tri va lai phattrien thuang hieu la mot qua trinh ben bi va lien tuc doi hoi sir no luc khong ngung ciiadoanh nghiep. Thanh cong chi den vdi nhijng doanh nghiep biet tir khang djnh minh va tandung nhijng ca hoi thj trudng bang viec xay dung, duy tri va phat trien thuang hieu. ._1.6 Quy trinh xay dung va phat trien thuang hieuXay dung thuang hieu hay quan trj thuang hieu la viec quan ly mot each hieu qua nhan thucciia khach hang va nhijng ngudi cd lien quan nham toi da hoa gia trj hoat dong kinh doanhciia cong ty. Tren thuc te, de cho khach hang nhan biet dugc ve san pham, djch vu ma doanhnghiep cung cap va luu lai dugc hinh anh san pham, djch vu do trong hg khong phai lachuyen dan gian trong ngay mot ngay hai se co dugc, ma no doi hoi doanh nghiep phai lientuc phan dau, giij vung chat lugng, gia thanh hgp ly, to chuc dich vu hau mai that tot... Do 37
  • vay doanh nghiep phai cd chien luge va ke hoach xay dung va phat trien thuang hieu moteach khoa hgc. Ke hoach xay dung thuang hieu nen dua theo cac budc ca ban sau (Hinh 1.1-trang 39). 38
  • Hinh 1.1 Quy trinh xay dung va phat trien thuang hieu (1) Thanh lap y tirdng, xac djnh thi trudng va khach hang muc tieu (2) Tim ki^m thong tin, phan tich d6i thii, xac dinh minh la ai, muc tieu can di den dau , , (3) Thiet ke nhan hieu hang hoa va cac ddi tirgng sd huu cong nghiep khac (4) Xac lap quyen V (5) Xay dung chien luge chat lugng san pham (6) Xay dung chien luge ve gia (V) To chuc va nhan su (8) To chiic he thong dich vu (9) Theo doi su phat trien va bao ve 39 thuang hieu
  • Budc thir nhat: Thanh lap y tirdng, xac dinh thj trirdng va khach hang muc tieuThanh lap y tudng d day la viec xac dinh nhijng dac tinh rieng co ciia san pham, djch vu coth§ la dua den cho ngudi tieu dung san pham, djch vu chat lugng cao han hoac la su khacbiet, theo do dat cho san pham, djch vu mot cai ten, xac djnh kieu dang, mlu ma, nhan mac,hay mot dau hieu nao do that de nhd, de ggi nham thu hiit dugc ngudi tieu dung.Khi thiet lap y tudng cho thuang hieu, doanh nghiep can luu y den doi tugng khach hang ciiaminh la ai, phan khiic thj trudng nhu the nao va thong diep gi ciia doanh nghiep mong muondua den ngudi tieu diing... Vidu nhu san pham ma doi tugng tieu dung la tre em thi cannhijng cai ten con giong, ten ciia nhan vat hoat hinh ma tre em ua thich va kem theo do lanhijng hinh anh ngg nghlnh danh cho tre em... se mang lai ket qua tot.Budc thir hai: Tim kiem thong tin, phan tich doi thu, xac djnh vj tri va muc tieu ciiacongtyTren ca sd y tudng kinh doanh, doanh nghiep can tim kiem cac thong tin lien quan de xacdjnh cho y tudng cua minh. De dam bao thong tin co hieu qua cho viec xay dung phat trienthuang hieu, doanh nghiep ciin tap trung cac thong tin sau:- Thong tin doi vdi cac san pham cung loai da co tren thj trudng, trong do tap trung thong tinv6 gia, v6 thj phan, thong tin ve dan vj san xuat mat hang do nhu the nao?- Thong tin vl cac san pham co the thay the.- Thong tin v6 nhung thuang hieu ma d6i thii da dua ra thj trudng va each xay dung, quangba thuang hieu ciia hg.Sau khi co thong tin ckn ihik, neu cd nhung dau hieu nao triing hoac tuang tu vdi thong tinda C ciia doanh nghiep thi phai xem xet thay doi ngay. O 40
  • Budc thir ba: Thiet ke nhan hieu hang hoa va cac doi tugng SHCN khac Tren ca sd y tudng va cac thong tin da co, doanh nghiep se thilt ke nhan hieu cho san ph^m ciia minh. Khi thi6t kl, nen co nhi^u phuang an khac nhau da co thi lira chgn. Cac tieu chi de doanh nghiep co the dua ra thuang hieu tot: - De dgc, de phat am, de danh van - Dgc dao, an tugng, de nhd - Truyen tai dugc thong tin can thiet ve san pham hoac djch vu - Tao dung hinh anh thich hgp cho khach hang - De dugc phap luat bao hg Budc thir tu: Xac lap quyen Trong thuang hieu co rat nhieu yeu to khac nhau, c6 thd la nhan hieu hang hoa, co the la tenggi xuat xu, la ten thuang mai, kieu dang hay la nhijng yeu t6 thuoc ve quyen tac gia nhudoan nhac hay ten khau hieu... Viec xac djnh yeu to nao can dang ky va dang ky dugc lamot van de khong phai bat ky doanh nghiep nao cung lam dugc.Budc nay rat quan trgng va phai lam cang sdm cang tot bdi neu khong rat de xay ra nhiingrac roi nhu mat nhan hieu va trong trudng hgp nay la mat thuang hieu do lam hang gia, hangnhai hoac do bj ngudi khac dang ky trudc.Budc thir nam: Xay dung chien luge san phamDay la khau r^t quan trgng, xu the canh tranh gay gat nhu hien nay muon san pham/ djch vuciia minh dugc ngudi tieu dung chap nhan nhat thiet doanh nghiep can quan tam den chatlugng san ph§m, djch vu. Tuy theo tung loai san pham, djch vu ma doanh nghiep phai tuantheo tieu chuin ciia no. Chk lugng san pham dugc the hien qua cac tieu chi ca ban nhu:Cong nang, do b^n, tinh an toan va su dam bao ve sinh moi trudng ciia san pham, dich vu. 41
  • Budc thir sau: Xay dung chien luge ve gia Ngudi tieu dung khong chi doi hoi chdt lugng san pham phai tot ma gia ca phai phu hgp, do vay viec xay dung chien luge gia anh hudng manh d^n chien luge kinh doanh ciia doanh nghiep. Lam th6 nao d% gia phu hgp ma van bao dam Igi nhuan ciia doanh nghiep. Theo Philip Kotler cd mot so each xay dung gia: 1. Dat tien hon de cd chat lugng cao hon 2. Gia giiJ nguyen nhung chat lugng cao han 3. Giir nguyen chat lugng nhung gia re hon 4. Giam bdt tinh nang song gia lai re di nhieu 5. Chat lugng cao hon nhung gia thanh lai re han. Budc thir bay: To chirc nhan su Doanh nghiep can thanh lap bg phan, co the la mot phong dgc lap hoac g4n no vdi bg phanmarketing, nhan sir ciia no nhieu hay it tuy thuoc quy mo ciia doanh nghiep. Bg phan nayphai dugc gan ket vdi cac bg phan chuyen mon khac trong doanh nghiep de co the nSm bitthong tin va xu ly kip thdi cac tinh huong khi xuat hien co hoi hoac co su co.Budc thir tam: To chirc he thong djch vuBat cii* san pham, djch vu nao cung can cd he thong djch vu. He thong nay nho hay to, dongian hay quy mo phu thuoc vao quy mo cua doanh nghiep. He thong djch vu nay bao g6m:He thong ban le hay ban buon (dai ly), he thong cham soc khach hang, thai do djch vu vadjch vu hau mai. Trong do dich vu hau mai mang tinh quyet djnh, vi trong xu the hang hoada dang va nhieu nhu hien nay, chat lugng dich vu san pham tuong duang nhau, gia ca rdtcanh tranh thi doanh nghiep cd thai do phuc vu tot hon va djch vu hau mai chu dao thi doanhnghiep dd se thanh cong. 42
  • .X.Budc thir chin: Theo doi su phat trien va bao ve thuang hieuDay la budc dam bao cho thuang hieu ben viing. Viec theo doi nhim dieu chinh cho thuanghieu di diing hudng, chong lai cac hanh vi canh tranh khong lanh manh va hanh vi xampham phai dugc thuc hien hit sue nghiem ngat. Bg phan quan trj va phat trien thuong hieuphai xac dinh va xu ly cho dugc cac van de sau:- Xac djnh thi hieu va thoi quen ciia ngudi tieu dung doi vdi san pham, djch vu ciia minh vacua cac doi thii canh tranh.- Riit kinh nghiem ve each lam thuong hieu ciia doanh nghiep khac, dua ra phuang an ciiaminh va can nhac van de tai chinh.- Thdi diem can phai doi mdi san pham, doi mdi thuang hieu va thj trudng.- Xac djnh dja ban (khu vuc) nao la dia ban thudng bi lam hang gia hoac tieu thu hang gia.- Xac djnh dan vj nao la dan vi co kha nang canh tranh vdi mat hang cung loai ciia minh.- Xac djnh thdi diem xuat hien hang xam pham.- Cach thuc chong lai cac hanh vi canh tranh cua doi thii va each thiic chong lai cac hanh vixam pham quyen xay ra. 43
  • CHirONG 2 THirC TRANG XAY DlTNG VA PH AT TRIEN THl/ONG HIEU TAI CONG TY TNHH NHA NlTOfC MOT THANH VIEN THONG NHAT Mu6n xay dung va phat trien thuang hieu thanh cong d Cong ty TNHH Nha nude mot thanh vien Thong Nhat, ngudi xay dung phai phan tich, khai quat va co cai nhin tong quan tren tat ca cac yeu to moi trudng noi bg cung nhu xung quanh doanh nghiep, tu do dua ra nhijng nhan dinh, nhUng chien luge va cac giai phap huu hieu nhat cho Doanh nghiep.2.1 Doi net ve Cong ty TNHH Nha nude mot thanh vien Thong NhatCong ty TNHH Nha nude mot thanh vien Thong Nhat hien nay tien than la Xi nghiep xe dapTh6ng Nhat ra ddi ngay 30/6/1960 tai Ha Noi. Co the noi: trai qua gin 50 nam tu khi ra ddi,thuang hieu Thong Nhat da hinh thanh phat trien cung vdi nhiing dien bien thang tram ciiaLjch su Viet Nam.Nam 1954 hai mien Nam - Bac Viet Nam bi chia cat, mien Bac dugc giai phong qua do dilen Chii nghTa Xa hoi, mien Nam tiep tuc dau tranh chong de quoc My va tay sai, hai milnvdi hai nhiem vu khac nhau nhung co chung muc tieu: thong nhat dat nude. Trong bdi canhdo, nam 1957 Tap doan Sai Gon da che thu thanh cong chiec xe dap hoan chinh d^u tien,mang y nghTa chfnh trj sau sac, the hien y chi sat son va mong mudn Nam - Bic mot nha:THONG NHAT.Trai qua nhieu giai doan thu thach, khiing hoang, chia tach, sap nhap, nhat la trong thdi kychuyen doi ca che tu ca che bao cap sang ca ch§ thj trudng, rdi lai phuc hoi, phat trien saud6i mdi 1986, dac biet phat trien manh tu nhijng nam 2000, den thang 11 nam 2004 Uy ban 44
  • Nhan dan Thanh ph6 Ha Noi quy^t djnh sap nhap Cong ty Xe dap ViHa, Cong ty Xe dap -Xe may Dong Da vao Cong ty Xe dap - Xe may Thong Nhat; Viec sap nhap nay nang Congty len mot tam cao mdi, vdi nhirng thuan lgi va kho khan mdi nay sinh, song Cong ty khongchi tap trung thao gd kho khan ma khai thac toi da thuan lgi, thao go dan kho khan dua Congty vugt qua nhung thu thach gay go nhat. Co the noi, chua thdi ky nao xe dap Thong Nhatlai C sue hap dan nhu bay gid: kieu dang, mau ma hien dai, da dang, mau sac dep hai hoa, Oda cong dung, gia ca hgp ly, chat lugng cao...Cac loai xe Thong Nhat, ViHa, TVD Click, xedap 8X, 9X, xe Mountain, xe dap gap - Foldingbike, Xe dap dien, khung xe hgp kim nhom,hoac vat lieu dac biet... canh tranh vdi xe dap Trung Quoc, xe dap cac nude trong khu vuc,xuat khau sang Chau Au. Den thang 11 nam 2005, mot lan niJa Cong ty Xe may - Xe dapThong Nhat lai dugc UBND TP Ha Noi ra quyet dinh chuyen doi thanh Cong ty TNHH Nhanude mot thanh vien Thong Nhat, chuan bj duang dau vdi nhijng kho khan, thach thiic vathanh cong mdi khi Viet Nam gia nhap WTO.Trai qua ljch su truyen thong hang nua the ky, san pham ciia Cong ty TNHH Nha nude motthanh vien Thong Nhat da dat dugc nhijng thanh tiru dang kich le mang tinh dot pha, dugcghi dau bang hang loat giai thudng nhu: danh hieu Doanh nghiep xuat khau xuat sac, doanhnghiep xuat khau uy tin 03 nam lien (2004-2006); la mot trong so 115 doanh nghiep vathuang nhan dugc trao giai thudng "2006 Business Excellence Awards" do Uy ban Quoc giave Hgp tac kinh te quoc te phoi hgp vdi bao Thuang mai, thuang mai dien tu (E-Tradenews) cung vdi 53 ca quan thuang vu Viet Nam tai cac nude, vung lanh tho xet chgn va traotang; cac giai thudng khac nhu: Giai sao vang dat Viet; Clip vang ISO chia khoa hoi nhap;Danh hieu "Thuang hieu manh", dugc ngudi tieu dung binh chgn la "hang Viet Nam chit 45
  • lugng cao"; dugc tang thudng nhieu huy chuang vang trong cac ky hoi chg, trien lam trongnude va quoc te.Trong chi§n tranh, xe dap Thong Nhat la thuang hieu dgc ton van phat trien manh, xuat hienh§u nhu d mgi liic, mgi nai: tham gia chien djch, co mat tir cac cuoc dieu hanh trgng the nhatdin nhirng sinh hoat thudng nhat nhat ciia ngudi Viet, giiip con ngudi song va lam viec hieuqua hem, da vat va han... Chua cd loai xe dap nao nhu xe dap Thong Nhat nhijng nam dotham chi con dugc lam ho sa, cap bien kiem soat dang ky luu hanh giao thong nhu 6 to, xemay.Ngay nay, Cong ty TNHH Nha nude mot thanh vien Thong Nhat da trd thanh mot Cong tyIdn vdi ba nha may true thuoc: Nha may xe may - xe dap Thong Nhat; Nha May xuat kh4uViHa va Nha may phu tung Dong Da, moi nha may deu co nhijng ITnh vuc rieng, thanh congrieng, song deu cd nhijng dong gop Idn lao trong sir nghiep phat trien mai nha chung: Congty TNHH Nha nude mot thanh vien Thong Nhat.Bang nhijng no lire khong ngung ciia toan the doi ngu Can bg cong nhan vien va Ban lanhdao Cong ty, ba nha may dang ngay cang phat trien, hoan thien. Nha may xe may - xe dapThong Nhat dugc sap xep, to chuc thanh mot he thdng dong bg lien hoan theo kieu "daychuyen nude chay" tir khau che tao khung, phu tung linh kien, den lap rap xe dap hoan chinhthanh pham. Nha may xuat khau ViHa dugc to chuc sap xep thanh he thong day chuyendong bg, chuyen san xuk cac mat hang noi that va kim khi tieu dung xuat kh§u; Nha mayphu tung Dong Da cung dugc to chuc thanh he thong day chuyen dong bg chuyen chi taocac loai phu tung xe may, xe dap de vua cung cap cho noi bg Cong ty vua dap ung nhu c4uthj trudng trong nude va xuat khau. 46
  • Chi trong 02 nam gan day Cong ty da phat trien them han 60 mat hang mdi vdi chat lugngcao, kieu dang, mlu ma dep, rieng xe dap da co gan 100 loai, mau sic khac nhau phu hgpvdi tung thj trudng va thi hiiu ciia ngudi tieu dung; trong nhijng nam 2004 din 2006 Congty lien tuc dat miic tang trudng binh quan trin 22%/ nam, trong do rieng san pham xuat khaudat kim ngach tang hem 14 lan chiim gan 40% doanh thu ciia Cong ty nam 2006, Cong tydang ngay cang dugc phat trien ca ve san lugng, chat lugng va chiing loai san pham, thuanghieu Thong Nhat da trd thanh thuang hieu manh co mat tren nhieu thj trudng co sue canhtranh cao tren the gidi.Hoa trong xu hudng hoi nhap khu vuc va quoc te, dac biet khi Viet Nam da gia nhap WTO,cac doanh nghiep trong nude dang dung trudc nhung ca hoi va thach thuc mdi. DQ chuan bjsin sang cho tiin trinh phat trien tiep theo, Cong ty TNHH Nha nude mot thanh vien ThongNhat da co nhijng budc chuan bj dau tu ve chiiu sau mdi trin nhieu mat: khoa hgc, congnghe va thiet bi tien tien hien dai, ca viec dau tu md rong quy mo san xuat cung nhu mdrong ve to chuc, dac biet la dau tu vi ca sd ha tang: Cong ty dang khan truang trien khai (dukiin se hoan thanh vao thang 6 nam 2008) hai du an dau tu xay dung nha may md rong sanxuat tai Thanh Liet (Thanh Tri), trin dien tich 16.000m^ va Nha may d Cau Dien (Tu Liem)Ha Noi tren dien tich lO.OOOm^; ngoai ra Cong ty con liin doanh dau tu vdi Cong ty Thuangmai Hoa Binh hoat dong trong ITnh vuc thuang mai, kinh doanh bat dong san, van phonggiao djch cho thue, trung tam sieu thi se khai truang va di vao hoat dong vao quy I nam2008; Cong ty Lien doanh FER - Diic chuyin san xuat hang xuat khau (chii yeu la den xedap, xe may), xuat khau sang thj trudng Chau Au.Den nay, Thdng Nhat da trd thanh thuang hieu manh co uy tin, dugc ngudi tieu dung bietden khong chi qua Xe dap - Xe may ma con qua nhieu san pham da dang cd gia trj xu4t 47
  • khau cao. San pham mang thuang hieu dgc quyen Thong Nhat da co mat tai nhieu thj trudngthuoc cac nude Au - My va cac khu vuc khac, md ra nhieu trien vgng cho Cong ty phat trien ben vUng hem trong thdi gian tdi.2.2 Dieu kien kinh te, chinh tri, xa hoi Viet Nam - Moi trudng kinh doanhNam 1986, nude ta thuc hien chii truang cua Dang va Nha nude tiin hanh doi mdi dudng loikinh te tu ca chi quan liiu bao cap chuyen sang ca che thj trudng co su quan ly ciia Nhanude. Hon 20 nam nhin lai, bg mat nin kinh te Viet Nam da cd nhung budc chuyen bien to Idn, da dat dugc nhijng thanh tich dang khich le. Theo cong bo cua Tong cue Thong ke, tangtrudng san pham trong nude (GDP) ciia Viet Nam tang cao nhat la nam 2006 la 8,17%, GDPtang trung binh 7,5%/ nam (2000 - 2005); nganh cong nghiep lien tuc tang trudng trong 15nam qua tu 16 - 22%)/ nam, thu nhap binh quan/ ngudi tuy chua cao nhung van tang lien tucvdi binh quan 400-500 USD/ ngudi/ nam.Cung vdi sir phat trien va tang trudng nen kinh ti, nin chinh trj ciia Viet Nam luon dugc duytri, dugc danh gia la mot trong nhiang nude co nen chinh trj on djnh nhat khu vuc. Day cungla mot diem mau chot co sue loi cuon cac nha dau tu nude ngoai vao Viet Nam. Mat khac,van de dan so va trinh do dan tri ciia Viet Nam cung dang dugc Nha nude trii trgng; VietNam la nude cd nguon dan sd tre, tiep thu nhijng tiin bg ve cong nghe va khoa hgc ky thuattien tien (trong nude va thi gidi) hit sue nhanh nhay; vdi tren 80 trieu dan, Viet Nam con ladat nude co luc lugng lao dong doi dao cung nguon tieu thu san pham tiem nang.Viet Nam da ra nhap WTO vdi nhijng chinh sach thong thoang cho hoi nhap, phat triin; hethong phap luat ngay cang dugc hoan thien va khoa hgc han, tao thuan lgi tren nhiiu matdac biet tac dong manh me cho phat trien kinh ti xa hoi. 48
  • Trong xu the chuyen minh, nen kinh te Viet Nam dang cd tdc do tang trudng, phat triin manh me md ra nhijng thuan lgi mdi trong hoat dong san xuat kinh doanh cho nhiiu nganh, nhiiu ITnh vuc trin ca nude. Cong ty TNHH Nha nude mot thanh vien Thong Nhat vdi muctieu chien luge trong nganh san xuat Xe dap - Xe may hudng tdi thj trudng xuat khau cungdang dung trudc nhung ca hoi mdi, vdi nhung thach thuc mdi.- Dieu kien cong ngheChiing ta dang song trong thdi dai kinh te tri thuc, su phat trien cong nghiep ca kim khi cungdua tren tinh tri thuc ay, viec cap nhat cac cong nghe mdi va cong nghe thong tin da trdthanh khau tat yeu khong the thiiu doi vdi moi doanh nghiep, doi hoi Cong ty TNHH Nhanude mot thanh vien Thong Nhat phai xem xet nghiin cuu cac diiu kien cong nghe, thudngxuyen quan tam din sir thay doi va tiin bg cua nganh d trong nude cung nhu the gidi de xaydung chien luge cho Cong ty la v6 ciing quan trgng.Diiu kien cong nghe co anh hudng true tiep den chien luge kinh doanh ciia Cong ty, bdi sirphat trien ciia nin cong nghe hien dai se dem lai nhiiu ca hoi cho qua trinh dau tu, mang lailgi nhuan cao do dat din muc tieu vi nang suat, chat lugng; song nguy ca riii ro cao neuCong ty dau tu nhung diiu kien cong nghe tien tien hien dai ma lai khong tan dung dugc nohoac khong phat huy hit cong suat do gia tri dau tucao, gia thanh cao, chi phi Idn...Nhirng nam gan day, Cong ty TNHH Nha nude mot thanh vien Thong Nhat da dau tu han 2trieu USD mua sam bd sung them hang loat may moc, thiet bj, cong nghe tien tien, hien daiciia cac nude cd nen cong nghiep hang dau tren the gidi, cung cap cho cac day chuyin sanxuat trgng yeu co tac dung quyet djnh, nang cao chat lugng va san lugng hang hoa, dap ungnhu cau trong nude ngay cang cao va xuat khau. Trong sd dd, dang ke nhat la he thong cacmay ep nhira cao cap, day chuyen san xuat khung xe dap, day chuyen lap rap xe dap, day 49
  • chuyin son theo cong nghe Chau Au va hi thong xu ly nude thai dat tieu chuan Nha nudequy djnh di dam bao san xu4t, xuat khdu bin vijng va lau dai.Tij nhung kit qua dd Cong ty dugc Thanh pho danh gia la mot trong nhijng dan vj dau tuchiiu sau vi cong nghe, da dang hoa san pham manh me nhat trong cac doanh nghiep ca,kim khi trong ca nude. Cong tac doi mdi san pham va nghiin cuu khoa hgc, sang kien caitiin ky thuat luon dugc trii trgng. Nhieu de tai nghien cuu da phat huy hieu qua trong thuc te,dang chii y la cac de tai xe Ian chay dien, day chuyen lap rap xe dap, hoan thien cong nghehan tu dong trong moi trudng khi bao vi san pham khung xe dap, hoan thien cong nghe sanpham noi that.Cong ty con trii trgng dao tao, boi dudng kien thiic, tay nghi cho cong nhan vien giiip hgnhanh chong nam bat nhijng kiin thuc khoa hgc cong nghi hien dai mdi, dap ling muc tieu,ki hoach san xuk kinh doanh ciia Cong ty. Ngoai ra khi du an dau tu xay dung hai nha maymdi hoan thanh, Cong ty se trang bj dong bg cac loai may mdc, thiit bj cong nghi tien tiinnham chi tao ra cac loai san pham chat lugng cao theo tieu chuan quoc ti, dii sue canh tranhvdi thj trudng trong nude, quoc te va khu vuc.2.3 Tong quan ve thi trudng xe dap toan cau2.3,1 Thi trudng xe dap the gidi Hinh 2.1 Bang xep hang thi trudng xe dap thi gidi STT Xep hang Nirdc So lirgng ban ra (trieu cai) 01 1 My 21 02 2 Trung Quoc 18,6 03 3 EU 16,2 50
  • Nguon: Hiep hoi Oto Xe mdy - xe dgp Viet Nam2.3.2 Thj trudng xe dap Viet NamTheo Hiep hoi Oto xe may xe dap Viet Nam thi ca nude co 17-18 trieu chiec xe dap; Tiiuthu nam 2005: 680 nghin chiic. Trong do: * Ha Noi: + Cong ty Th6ng Nhat: 150.000 chiic + Cong ty TNHH LIXEHA : 10.000 chiec + Cong ty Xuan Hoa: 5.000 chiic* Thanh pho Ho Chi Minh: + Cong ty Maxtin: 45.000 chiic.* Cac ca sd tu lap rap d cac Tinh, Thanh pho: chiem 35 - 40%* Hang nhap lau chon thue: chiim 10 - 15%* Binh Duang: Khu Cong nghiep (ASAMA, OLIMPEC PRO...): 2 trieu xe xuat kh^u.2.4 Dac diem va mo hinh to chuc Cong ty Thong NhatCong ty TNHH Nha nude mot thanh viin Thdng Nhat la Doanh nghiep 100% von Nhanude, true thuoc UBND Thanh pho Ha Noi.Nam 2004, thuc hien quyit djnh cua UBND Thanh pho Ha Noi vi viec sat nhap 3 Cong tyla; Cong ty xe may xe dap Thdng Nhat, Cong ty xe dap Viha va Cong ty xe dap xe mayDong Da lay ten la Cong ty xe may - xe dap Thong Nhat.Nam 2005, thirc hien quyet djnh ciia UBND Thanh pho Ha Noi chuyen doi Cong ty xe may -xe dap Th6ng Nhdt thanh Cong ty TNHH Nha nude mot thanh viin Thong Nh§t hien nay.Tru sd chinh: I98B Tay San, Dong Da, Ha Noi. 51
  • Cong ty C 3 nha may san xuat chinh: O 1. Nha may xe may - xe dap Thong Nhat tai 198B Tay San, D6ng Da, Ha Noi. 2. Nha may xuat khiu ViHa tai 82 Nguyen Tuan, Thanh Xuan, Ha Noi. 3. Nha may phu tung Dong Da tai 181 Nguyen Luang BSng, Dong Da, Ha Noi.Ngoai ra cdn co hai lien doanh:- Liin doanh dau tu thuang mai Hoa Binh tai sd I Thai Ha, Ha Noi.- Liin doanh FER-DMC vdi Cong hoa Liin bang Due tai 181, Nguyin Luang Bang, DongDa, Ha Noi. + Von diiu le : 120 ty d6ng + So lugng can bg cong nhan vien : 750 ngudi + Xuat khau : 50 ty ddng + Doanh thu 2005 : 150 ty d6ng + Thj trudng xuat khau chinh : Chau Au, My.- To chuc bg may:Ban Giam doc (05 ngudi): + Chii tjch kiem T6ng Giam doc. + 04 Pho Tong Giam doc.Cung vdi ca sd ha tang nha van phong lam viec, nha xudng, cac loai may moc trang thiet bikhac. (Hinh 2.2- trang 53) 52
  • Hinh 2.2 To chuc bo may cua Cong ty TNHH nha nude mot thanh vien Thong Nhat CHU TICH KIEM TONG G I A M DOC Pho Pho Pho PhoTong Giam doc Tong Giam doc Tong Giam doc Tong Giam doc i iPhong To chuc Phong Tai chinh Phong Ke hoach Phong Ky thuat Nhan su Ke toan Dau tu Duan 1 1 1 Nha Nha Nha may Xe may may may - Xuat Phu Xe dap khau tung Thong ViHa Dong Liin doanh DT Lien doanh Nhat Da TM Hoa Binh FER - DueNguon: Phong Hdnh chinh - Nhdn su Cong ty TNHH Nhd nuac mot thanh vien Thong Nhat 53
  • 2.5 LTnh vuc kinh doanhSan pham kinh doanh, chat luang, gia ca * LTnh vuc boat dong chinh ciia Cong ty TNHH Nha nude mot thanh viin Thong Nhat baog6m:- San xuat, kinh doanh xuat nhap khau xe dap, xe dap dien, xe may va phu tung.- San xuat, kinh doanh xuat nhap khau trang thiit bj noi ngoai that.- Kinh doanh bat dong san, md van phong giao djch, van phong cho thue.- Lien doanh liin kit vdi cac to chuc trong va ngoai nude ve cac san pham, djch vu ca kimkhi. v.v... Hinh 2.3 Lmh vuc kinh doanh cua Cong ty Thong Nhat TT Loai hinh Ty trong (%) 01 Xe dap cac loai 35 02 Phu tung 20 03 Noi that 35 04 Khac 10 Nguon: Phong Ke todn - Cong ty TNHH Nhd nuac mot thanh vien Thong Nhat"Khong the chi san xuat, ban ra cai minh co ma phai san xuat, ban ra cai thj trudng cin". Didap ung yeu chu va thj hieu ngudi tiiu dung, rieng trong hai nam 2005-2006 Cong ty da phattrien thim ban 60 mat hang mdi, chat lugng cao, mau ma dep, mau son va nude ma s4c sao,hoa hoa, gia ban cd sue canh tranh cao, dap irng nhu cau trong nude va xuat khau. 54
  • Rieng xe dap, Cong ty co ghn 100 loai; ngoai mat hang xe dap truyin thdng da co danh tienglau nam trin thj trudng, nay duac cai tien nang cao vi chat lugng va my thuat. Cong ty daphat trien manh cac loai hinh xe dap the thao nhu: TVD CLICK@26 co gia khoang800.000d/cai; @ Spring khoang 900.000d/cai; Mountain Sport cd gia tu l.5-l.8trieud6ng/cai; xe dap gap: 20" FOLDING BIKE SUSPENSION tu 800-1.5trieu dong/ cai; xe dapdanh cho tre em: 9X Bike gia tu 4-500.000 d6ng/cai; cac loai xe dap thdi trang ciing vdinhieu chiing loai xe dap khac danh cho hgc sinh, sinh vien, ngudi thanh thj; xe dap khongxich, cac loai xe dap dien va xe dap chuyen dung cho ngudi nong thon, mien niii... Ngoai ra,Cong ty con thiet lap dugc he thong ban hang trin toan quoc vdi han 200 dai ly true tiepcung ung hang hoa rat tien lgi cho ngudi tiiu diing.Cong ty cung da nghiin cuu, san xuat hang loat cac loai xe lan tay, xe lan dien cho ngudikhuyit tat, dam bao an toan vdi gia ban re han hang ngoai nhap. Dac biet, Cong ty da nghiencuu thiet ki, che tao dugc hon 30 loai hang noi that, ggn nhe, ben dep, tinh te, phu hgp vdinhu cau ngudi tieu dung d nhieu thj trudng cao cap nhung co sue mua Idn nhu: Anh, My,Tay Ban Nha, Thuy Diin, Ha Lan, Canada, Singapore, Nam Phi va mot sd khu vuc khac.Cac san ph4m nay luon dugc cai tiin, hoan thien va phat trien mdi nh§m khong ngung thoaman nhu cku ngay cang cao cua khach hang, tranh nguy ca bao hoa thj trudng, dong thdinang cao kha nang canh tranh va lam chii thj trudng.2.6 Thj phanNganh lip rap va san xuat chi tiet phu tung xe dap d Viet Nam hinh thanh tir nhirng nam1940, trong giai doan dau chii yiu la lap rap va lam mot so cong doan ve khung. Sau ngaygiai phong Thii do (1954) nganh san xuat xe dap d miin Bac phat trien kha nhanh, dac biet 55
  • thdi ky nhiJng nam 60 - 70 vdi nha may xe dap Thdng Nhat la chii dao va mot so xi nghiepsan xu§t phu tung khac.Sau khi thong nhat toan quoc, nganh san xuat xe dap cang dugc day manh ban va trin thucti da hinh thanh 4 trung tam san xuat, lap rap xe Idn la Ha Noi, thanh pho Ho Chi Minh, HaiPhong va Da NEng. Vao nhiing nam dau ciia thap ky 80, udc tinh toan quoc san xuat dugc500.000 xe/nam, trong dd riing cac ca sd san xuat va lap rap thuoc Liin hiep Xi nghiep Xedap Ha Noi (LIXEHA) da cho ra ddi dugc 104.000 xe va 2.200 tan phu tiing. Tuy nhien, khibudc sang ca che thj trudng, vao thdi ky cuoi nhung nam 1980 dau nhijng nam 1990, nganhsan xuat xe dap trong nude gap nhiiu kho khan lam san lugng xe san xuat va ban ra giammanh dan dan den hau qua tat yeu, nhieu doanh nghiep phai chuyen hudng san xuat kinhdoanh de ton tai.Hien nay, ve phia doanh nghiep trong nude dung dau van la san pham xe dap cua Cong tyTNHH Nha nude mot thanh viin Thong Nhat va mot so ca sd tu nhan tai thanh pho Ho ChiMinh nhu doanh nghiep NiJ Hoang, doanh nghiep Martin. Ngoai ra, trin thi trudng con cocac loai xe dap nhap lau tu Trung Quoc, xe bai Nhat Ban va cac loai xe troi noi tren thjtrudng khong r5 nguon gdc xuat xu.- Doi thu canh tranhDoi thii canh tranh Idn nhdt ciia Cong ty la cac loai xe dap nhap khau, chii yeu la xe dapnhap lau chon thue tu Trung Quoc va cac san pham xe dap kem chat lugng (hang gia, hangnhai..) hien dang trdi noi tren thj trudng khong he co nguon goc. Uu diim ciia cac san phamnay la mau ma va kiiu dang rat da dang dap ling nhiiu thj hiiu tieu diing khac nhau. Ngoaira dong san pham nay cung cd gia ca rat thap (nhat la cac loai xe nhap lau) tu 300 - 56
  • 400.000d6ng/ 01 san pham den nhijng dong xe dap cao c4p co gia vai trieu; mat khac, so lugng Idn chinh la dieu ma cac nha san xuat trong nude khong theo kjp. Tuy nhiin, bat ky san pham nao ciing co nhugc diim. Nhugc diim Idn nhat ciia dong san pham nay la uy tin va djch vu hau mai. Khach hang g^n nhu khong co mot thong tin nao vi san pham, nha san xuat, thdng so ky thuat va nhdt la khong co sir bao hanh, bao dam nao khi mua hang. Do vay, do riii ro khi mua hang thudng la rat Idn. Ngoai ra, Cong ty ciing c6 gap su canh tranh tii cac nha san xuat trong nude, chii yiu tu cac doanh nghiep phia Nam nhung khong nhieu. Vi thi phkn hien nay ciia Cong ty chii yiu la d phia Bac nen cac doi thii nay se thuc sir gay kho khan cho Cong ty trong no luc md rong thj phan sau vao phia Nam. Vi ca ban cac doi thii nay co rat nhieu diim tuang dong vdi Congty-- Lgi the va han che ciia Cong tyTrong dieu kien canh tranh gay gat nhu hien nay, nhat la doi vdi thj trudng xe dap thi viecnghien cuu sir canh tranh dua tren ca sd tim hieu toan dien muc tieu chien luge hoat dongciia cac doi thii canh tranh, de tao ra mot lgi the canh tranh manh nhdt dang la mdi quan tamhang dau ciia cac Doanh nghiep.Mac du Cong ty da va dang cd nhirng thuan lgi rieng: thj trudng truyen thong, san phim daC danh tieng, dugc ngudi tiiu dung ua chuong lau ddi... song Cong ty cung dang diing Otrudc nhung kho khan, thach thuc do vua phai canh tranh vdi cac doi thu trong nude, ngoainude vua phai tiip tuc nhiem vu bao ve thuang hieu Doanh nghiep xuat khiu uy tin xu4t s4c,day manh san pham xuat khau. Viec trii trgng han nija den cac bien phap ha gia thanh sanpham, nang cao chat lugng, cai tien mau ma nham tang sue canh tranh, quang ba va phattrien thuang hieu dang la nhiem vu cap thiet cua Cong ty. 57
  • Phai noi rang kho khan Idn nhat ciia cua Cong ty hien nay dang la cac loai hang gia, hangnhai, hang kem chat lugng, cac loai xe dap nhap lau, chon thui... tran lan thj trudng hap danngudi tieu dung bang muc gia re mat.Von dau tu ciing la mot van d% Idn; Cong ty chua co dieu kiin thay doi hoan toan ve congnghe, mot so nguyen vat lieu chinh van phai nhap d nude ngoai do vay gia nhap cao, lamtang gia thanh san pham.Gia nhap WTO se la thuan lgi ciing la thach thuc Idn doi vdi Cong ty TNHH Nha nude motthanh vien Thong Nhat. Trong tien trinh hoi nhap viec md cua giao luu vdi ban hang quoc ticung dong nghTa vdi sir canh tranh quyit Hit vi chat lugng, gia ca, kieu dang giija cac chiingloai san pham...; di tao uu thi canh tranh cao nhat, Cong ty can nhanh chong tim ra nhunggiai phap toi uu nham nang cao chat lugng, ha gia thanh san pham, quang ba - xay dung vaphat trien thuang hieu, chuan bj san sang hoi nhap khu vuc va quoc te.2.7 Mang ludi phan phoi va djch vu hau maiCo thi phan doan thj trudng theo dac diem hoat dong cua khach hang vdi tung loai sau:1. Khach hang vira la nha san xuat vua la thuong mai.2. Khach hang la nha thuang mai.3. Khach hang la nha san xuat.4. Khach hang la ngudi tieu dung.- Khach hang vua la nha san xuat vua la thuang mai: day la doi tugng khach hang xemchat lugng san pham la quan trgng nhat, cung la nhijng ngudi rat nhay cam vi gia ca va djchvu, hg am hieu ve san pham va gia ca canh tranh, do vay ddi tugng khach hang nay rat kho 58
  • tinh: mac ca ky ludng, ddi hdi nhiiu dich vu di kem, cung san sang bd di khi nha cung ung khong dap ung yeu cau. - Khach hang la nha thuang mai: la nhijng doi tugng c6 sue mua Idn va thudng xuyin; san pham mua vi se dugc ban lai cho cac ddi tugng khach hang khac nhau. Day cung la nhijng khach hang rat am hieu vi cac loai hoang hoa va gia ca canh tranh, rat nhay cam ve chat lugng, dich vu va gia ca; hg san sang lira chgn muc gia thap nhat cho du co the phai bo ra mot loai dich vu ngugc nao do.- Khach hang la nha san xuat: nhom khach hang nay mua san pham vi de tiip tuc san xuatra cac loai san pham khac phuc vu nhu cau thj trudng nen hg coi trgng chat lugng san phamnhat, hg se bo di khi chat lugng san pham khong dat yiu cau; hg khong nhay cam ve gia cava dich vu nin hg rat can mot su dam bao bang uy tin, than can thi cang tot.- Khach hang la ngudi tieu dung: la ngudi mua cho minh, cho gia dinh hay cho doanhnghiep cua minh; khong phai mua di ban hay san xuat ma mua dQ sir dung, dau tu. Khachhang nay thanh toan day dii, khong nhat djnh doi hoi cac djch vu cao nhat di kem, chi canmua dugc san pham chat lugng cao, diing gia (gia phu hgp). Day la ddi tugng tin tudng vaongudi ban nhat.Vdi nhijng nhan djnh trong viec phan doan thj trudng (khach hang) nhu tren, Cong ty dathiet lap dugc mot hi thdng ban hang trin toan quoc vdi cac hinh thuc ban hang tap trungthong qua phdng kinh doanh, phong xuat nhap khau; to chuc dugc mang ludi vdi hon 200dai ly true tiep cung ling hang hoa nhanh chong, thuan Igi nhat cho ngudi tieu dung, daydugc coi la kinh phan phoi chinh cua Cong ty. Ngoai ra, djch vu hau mai va cham sdc khachhang dugc duy tri lien tuc va ap dung rong khap tdi cac dai ly ciia Cong ty. Diiu nay tao suyen tam cho khach hang va la dong lire quan trgng de hg chgn mua san pham ciia Cong ty. 59
  • Ngoai ra, khi ddi song vat chat va tinh than ngudi dan dugc nang cao thi nhu cau su dungcac djch vu hau mai trong mua hang ngay cang phat trien; thoi quen cung nhu yiu cau vequyin lgi ciia khach hang ngay cang gay ap lire cho nha cung ting nhu: yeu cau giao hangtan nai, yeu cm dhy dii cac chiing loai kich cd, nhu cau thanh toan cham... Dk dap ling yiucau do Cong ty Thdng Nhat da luon quan tam, dap ung ddy dii va kjp thdi nhdt cac djch vucho khach hang khi co nhu cau bang doi ngu can bg nhan vien co trinh do chuyin mon cao,C thi hoat dong dgc lap, chuyen nghiep vdi bg may diiu hanh hgp ly s5n sang dap ling yeu Oc^u cho khach hang bang mgi each.2.7.1 Triet ly kinh doanh va van hoa doanh nghiepCau khau hieu hay ciing la triet ly kinh doanh cua Cong ty la: "Cot loi cua niem tin". Thamnhuan tu tudng do, mgi can bg cong nhan vien cua Cong ty luon cd gang dua din cho khachhang nhung san pham, djch vu phuc vu tot nhat, uy tin nhat vdi do tin cay cao nhat.San pham ciia Cong ty hien nay rat da dang thuc hien san xuat trin day chuyin cong nghehien dai ciia Nhat Ban, Dai Loan, CHLB Due. Cong ty ap dung hi thong quan ly chat lugngtheo tieu chuan quoc te ISO 9001-2000; tieu chuan ve moi trudng ISO 14000; He thongQWAY, IWAY cua hang IKEA - Thuy Dien.Ve djch vu, Cong ty luon cd gang dua san pham din khach hang vdi thdi gian nhanh nhat vagia ca hgp ly nhat. Cong ty nghiem cam mgi hinh thuc ban pha gia, giao san pham kem chatlugng den khach hang d tat ca cac dai ly, cua hang, nhat la tai nhung ciia hang do Cong tyquan ly. Cac san pham ciia Cong ty nam trong thdi ban bao hanh deu dugc bao hanh mienphi (tuy tung loai san pham se tinh thdi han dai ngan khac nhau); niu da het ban bao hanh,khach hang van dugc tu van va sua chua vdi gia uu dai ban so vdi muc gia binh thudng. 60
  • Ngoai ra, Cong ty cdn ho trg khach hang trong viec van chuyin neu cd nhu cau. Tat canhung no luc tren nham dem lai su hai long cho khach hang va dam bao uy tin ciia Cong ty.Vdi nhijng no lire do, san pham ciia Cong ty liin tuc dugc ngudi tieu dung binh chgn la hangViet Nam chat lugng cao, dugc giai Thuang hieu manh do Thdi bao Kinh te Viet Nam binhchgn, dat giai Sao vang dat Viet... san pham ciia cong ty dugc tang thudng nhiiu huy chuongVang, Clip vang trong nude va quoc te.2.7.2 Net van hoa dac trung cua Cong ty TNHH nha nude mot thanh vien Thong NhatBin canh cac chi tieu kinh te dat cao, qua trinh xay dung van hoa doanh nghiep cung dugchinh thanh va ngay mot phat triin. Trong nhiiu nam qua Cong ty da rat tich cue trong viecbao ve va giiJ gin moi trudng xanh, sach, dep bang viec ap dung he thong quan ly quoc te vemoi trudng ISO 14000. Song song vdi viec quan tam din chat lugng san pham Cong ty conap dung thanh cong he thong quan ly chat lugng quoc te ISO 9001: 2000.He thong chung chi nay khong chi la mot bieu hien ciia ky thuat ma con la ciia van hoadoanh nghiep. Tinh van hoa trong chat lugng hang hoa va ca chat lugng xa hoi - van hoa ciiaqua trinh san xuat. Van hoa doanh nghiep, thi hien ngay tu viec ra cac san pham xe dap, xedap dien phu hgp lua lua tuoi tu ngudi tre den ngudi gia, cac san pham nhan dao nhu xe Iantay, xe lac tay cho ngudi tan tat... Cong ty Iu5n co su quan tam din ngudi lao dong, quantam den ddi song van hoa tinh than can bg cong nhan vien nhu to chiic cac buoi gap gd, lienhoan, ky niem cac ngay le Idn tao diiu kien cho hg tham gia van nghi, giao luu vdi cac donvj trong nganh, trong thanh pho, to chuc tham quan du ljch nghi mat hang nam... Cong tyluon tao dugc khi the lao dong hang say, nhiet tinh, trach nhiem va hieu qua trong can bgcong nhan vien. 61
  • Cong tac an ninh trat tu, an toan xa hdi trong doanh nghiep dugc giir viJng. Phong trao thidua cong tac, cong tac an toan lao dong, ve sinh cong nghiep; phong trao van hoa congnghiep dugc phat huy va trien khai thuc hien cd ne nip, ddi s6ng CBCNV dugc cai thien vangay cang nang cao. Cong ty cdn thuc hien tot cong tac din an dap nghTa, duy tri viec thamhoi, tang qua thuang binh binh, gia dinh Hit sT, tich cue hudng ung cac cuoc van dong linghg dong bao bj lu lut, thien tai, tre em ngheo vugt kho... Vi vay nhieu nam lien tuc to chuccong doan Cong ty dugc Tong Lien doan Lao dong, Liin doan Lao dong Thanh pho congnhan la Cong doan vijng manh xuat sac, Doan Thanh niin Cong ty dugc cong nhan don vjviJng manh.2.8 Tinh hinh thuc hien xay dung va phat trien thuang hieu tai Cong ty TNHHNha nude mot thanh vien Thong Nhat2.8.1 Nhung ket qua da dat duacTrai qua 50 nam qua trinh hinh thanh va phat trien vdi bao gian kho, Cong ty Thong Nhat datrd thanh thuang hieu manh vdi tdc do tang trudng cao; chi tinh nam 2004, Cong ty mdi datkim ngach xuat khku khoang 300.000 USD ma din man 2005 da tang len 3.000.000 USD,nam 2006 da vugt qua muc 4 trieu USD, ba nam liin dugc Bg Thuang mai khen thudng vixuat khau.Do lien tuc ddi mdi cong nghe, ling dung khoa hgc ky thuat tien tien hien dai bac nhat thigidi nh^m nang cao chat lugng mot each toan dien ca ve ky thuat va my thuat, thuong hieudgc quyen Th6ng Nhat da dugc tang nhieu giai thudng cao quy; trd thanh Doanh nghiepxu^t khau uy tin, xuat sac; Bk bao ve thuang hieu, Cong ty da dang ky ban quyen sd hiju 62 y
  • Logo, biiu tugng Cong ty. Thuang hieu Thdng Nhat da lun lai hinh anh trong trieu trieungudi, trong hang nghin ca quan, to chuc, doanh nghiep trong va ngoai nude.Co thi danh gia thuc trang viec xay dung va phat trien thuong hieu d Cong ty Thong Nhatvdi nhirng kit qua dat dugc va chua dugc qua ba khia canh:Mot la: Diing trin goc do la khach hang de lam can cu danh gia.Thu hai la: Dua vao cac dac tinh ciia thuang hieu.Thu ba la: Dua vao quy trinh hay cac budc thuc hien xay dung va phat triin thuanghieu.2.8.LI Xet d gdc do la khach hangNiu dat ban than vao goc do la mot khach hang, thuang hieu se dugc nhan biet qua hinh anhva cam nhan vi Cong ty hay san pham ciia Cong ty. Bang hinh anh va sir cam nhan, nhijnggi Cong ty Thong Nhat mang din cho khach hang tuy chua that noi bat song ciing co nhirngdiim khac biet rat Idn.Co the thay dieu do qua nhijng net dac tinh rieng ciia thuang hieu Thdng Nhat tu Ten thuonghieu (Thong Nhat la hien than cho mot dong san pham ciia Doanh nghiep nha nude, tuymang tinh truyin thdng nhung khong tri tri, khong bao thii, bao cap... ban the day la thuonghieu khong ngung hgc hoi, khong ngung cai tiin mau ma, ky thuat tren ca sd ki thua va phattriin truyen thdng co sin tao ra net mdi, net rieng ciia dong san pham duong dai).San pham mang thuong hieu Thdng Nhat nay dugc cai tiin mlu ma khdng nhijng dep macon bin, gia noi nhung ch4t lugng khdng thua kem hang ngoai, san phim mang tinh dgcquyen khiin ngudi ta cd the nhan ra d bk ky dau. 63
  • 2.8.1.2 Nhin d goc do dac tinh cua thuang hieuThuang hieu nhu mot san pham. NghTa la thuang hieu dugc gin liin vdi cac san phamnhat djnh cua Cong ty, san pham do lai dugc gan vdi chat lugng, gia trj va gia ca hay dia ly.d goc do nay, san pham ciia Cdng ty Thdng Nhat da dugc gan vdi thuang hieu la San phamxe dap - xe may va phu tung, nghTa la noi din Thong Nhat ngudi ta hiiu ngay la Cdng ty xedap - xe may (Thdng Nhat; Dong Da); con nhac den san pham xuit khiu ciia Cdng ty ThdngNhat ngudi ta hieu do la san pham trang tri ndi, ngoai thit ciia Nha may xuit khau ViHa -Nha may thuoc Cdng ty TNHH Nha nude mot thanh viin Thdng Nhat.Thuang hieu nhu mot to chuc. Vdi dac tinh nay co thi hiiu la thuang hieu gan vdi sir ddimdi, cu thi la nhijng tinh nang dan dau ve chat lugng hay tinh chuyen nghiep. Co the thaydieu do d Cdng ty Thdng Nhat qua hinh anh nhijng dai ly phan phoi, hi thdng kinh djch vunhanh chong, hieu qua trin quy md Idn, cdng vdi md hinh quan ly chuyin nghiep la nhijngan tugng thanh cdng nhat Cdng ty Thdng Nhat da ghi lai dugc trong tri nhd ciia khach hangdugc phuc vu.Thuang hieu nhu mot con ngudi. Day la hinh anh rat ggi tri tudng tugng, ciing gidng nhumoi ngudi deu cd ca tinh riing, thuang hieu cung dugc danh gia nhu vay. Mdi thuang hieucan phai xay dung cho minh mot ban sac rieng va khach hang cd the dua vao do nhan rathuong hiiu. Thuong hiiu Thdng Nhat da dugc khach hang cam nhan vdi ca tinh la sanpham truyen thdng nhung nhay ben va hien dai. Nhu vay Thdng Nhat gidng nhu mot ngudiludn theo kip va cd kha nang du bao thdi cuoc.Thuang hieu nhu la bieu tuang. Doanh nghiep dugc coi la thanh cdng khi xay dung dugcbiiu tugng dac trung cho minh vdi nhijng net dgc dao riing, dem lai hieu qua tuc thi: nhinthay bieu tugng la nhd din Cdng ty. Do do van de xay dung bieu tugng ludn dugc Cdng ty 64
  • TNHH Nha nude mot thanh vien Thdng Nhat rat coi trgng, dac biet la nhijng nam gan day...Khach hang von da quen thuoc vdi Logo Cdng ty Thdng Nhat vdi chii* "tn" (Thdng Nhat)ben trong qua dja cau vdi cac miii thdi gian tren nin mau xanh nude bien; Logo dd cung datdugc nhijng y nghTa nhat djnh va theo quan niem trudc kia thich cau ky thi dugc coi la depnhung d thdi diim nay da khdng cdn phii hgp bdi trong vao qua rac rdi, rudm ra khdngkhoang dat, khdng dam bao yeu cau "de nhd", chua thuc sir "de nhan biit" va cung chua datyiu cau "ggi cam" mot thuang hieu can co.Nhan ro tam quan trgng ciia viec xay dung biiu tugng Cdng ty dac biet la cho muc tieu xaydung va phat triin thuong hieu, Lanh dao Cdng ty da co y tudng tu thiit ki Logo mdi. Denthang 02/2007, Ban Giam ddc Cdng ty da phi duyet va chinh thuc dang ky vdi Cue Sd hijutri tue Viet Nam xac lap quyin sd huu Logo mdi:Ngudi ta se bat gap an tugng dau tien la mot hinh trdn mau dd bat dau va kit thiic bang motnet lien tao thanh hai chu" "tn" thdng sudt liin hoan tua nhu banh xe dap quay mai quay maikhdng ngung; dat can ddi d dudi hinh trdn dd la chu "ThongNhat" mau xanh Cuu Long vdichu "g" mau dd each dieu but pha khdi nhung khudn khd "truyen thdng" (chir "g" theo nghTaViet Nam d day la sir giau cd, phat dat, theo tieng Anh la "good" (nghTa la tot)); Mau ddtugng trung cho mau cd Td qudc, thi hien khat khao cdng hien ciia toan thi can bd cdngnhan vien Cdng ty Thong Nhat, cung la mau ggi sir kich thich, dam me ciia tuoi tre; cung vdimau dd, mau xanh Ciru Long tugng trung cho hoa binh the hien niem by vgng phat triin vamong mudn hgp tac vdi tit ca cac ban hang trong nude va quoc te; ten cdng ty "Thong Nhat"d day dugc viit tit la "tn". Chir "t" dugc thiet ke gin gidng vdi "so 1" the hien khat khaovuan len. Ngoai ra niu di y ta se thay logo dugc each dieu thanh mot hinh mat cudi, ggi sirthan thien. Ro rang day la mot logo mang nhiiu y nghTa, dan gian, de ggi su td mo, thich thii 65
  • va Cling rit de nhd. Logo nay se giiip cho thuong hiiu Thdng Nhit d% di vao tam tri khachhang han; Logo nay thay thi cho Logo cu se phu hgp han trong xu thi hoi nhap: THONGTHOANG & HIEN DAI (phu luc 01 - trang 97)2.8.1.3 Nhin d khia canh quy trinh cac budc xay dung va phat trien thuang hieuNhu da niu d chuang 2, thdng thudng qua trinh xay dung va phat triin thuang hieu gomchin budc, kiem chung qua trinh nay d Cdng ty TNHH Nha nude mot thanh vien ThdngNhat, tdi riit ra mot sd nhan djnh sau:Mot la: Thanh lap y tudng, xac djnh thi trudng, khach hang muc tieu.Y tudng ciia Cdng ty TNHH Nha nude mot thanh viin Thdng Nhat cho xay dung va phattriin thuang hieu la phai xay dung cho san pham ciia Cdng ty mot hinh anh that su khac bietvi nhom san pham, ve hinh thiic djch vu de mang din cho khach hang nhijng san pham mdivdi chat lugng cao hon, gia thanh hgp ly hon hoac it nhat la co sir khac biet tich cue hon vdiddi thii canh tranh. Mot dau hieu khac biet di nhan thay ciia Cdng ty Thdng Nhat d daychinh la biiu tugng; bieu tugng cd y nghTa chi Cdng ty, de nhan biet, rat de nhd va dat yeucau tham my.Mat khac, Cdng ty Thdng Nhat cung xac djnh thj trudng, khach hang muc tiiu trin pham virong. Bao gdm mgi ddi tugng khach hang tu dan le (thj trudng trong nude ciia san pham xedap - xe may la nhom hgc sinh, sinh vien, nhom ngudi lao dong d thj trudng dja phuang)den cac khach hang thuang mai, khach hang san xuat hay khach hang vua thuang mai vuasan xuat trong va ngoai nude... Cdng ty nhan djnh se phai phat trien, md rong thj trudng bannija, khdng loai tru ddi tugng la thj trudng dja phuang, khu vuc, trong nude hay qudc te...qua do, la nha cung ung Thdng Nhat da biet minh phai lira chgn nganh nghi hay san pham 66
  • nao, chat lugng cung nhu djch vu (hau mai) ra sao nham thoa man nhu cau ciia mgi dditugng khach hang mot each tdt nhat.Thu 2: Tim kiem thong tin, phan tich doi thii, xac dinh minh la ai, muc tieu can di dendau la budc nhan dinh quan trong.Bk dam bao cho Cdng ty cd dugc qua trinh hoat dong liin hoan, thdng sudt, liin kit ba nhamay vdi nhau, bd trg chat che cho nhau tao thanh mot the thdng nhat cung phat trien, Banlanh dao Cdng ty Thdng Nhat da quan tam chi dao, giam sat va thuc hien triet de thu thapthdng tin tren nhieu mat thj trudng nhat la cac san pham cung loai, cung nganh nghe, cungmat hoat dong san xuat kinh doanh vdi Cdng ty, trong do tap trung thdng tin vi kiiu dang,chiing loai, gia thanh, tim kiem cac san pham c6 the thay the...Dac biet, muc tieu ciia Thdng Nhat la trii trgng den da dang hoa tat ca cac loai san pham; tandung Igi the thuang hieu Thdng Nhat da kha uy tin di tang cudng cdng tac quang ba sanpham, xay dung va phat trien thuong hieu hon nija, bang each thudng xuyin thay ddi kieudang, mau ma, chat lugng cung nhu gia thanh san pham cho mat hang ndi, ngoai that xuatkhau, mat hang xe dap dien, xe dap cao cap... dap ung nhu cau canh tranh cao nhat vdi cacnude phat trien tren the gidi, bdi viec md rong thj trudng tieu thu san pham ciia Cdng tyThdng Nhat ndi riing, cua cac doanh nghiep san xuat ndi chung la vd cung quan trgng, capbach trong dieu kien thj trudng canh tranh khdc Hit vdi nhijng nen kinh te dang phat triin,thuang mai qudc te dang dugc toan cau hoa nhu hien nay.Thu 3: Thiet ke nhan hieu hang hoa va cac doi tuang sd hiru cong nghiep khac.Cdng ty Thdng Nhat da xay dung dugc biiu tugng, da dang ky bao hg dgc quyin bieu tugngdo, song nhan hiiu ndi tieng thi chua nhiiu nen van can tiip tuc thuc hien va phat trien y 67
  • tudng thiit ki nhan hieu riing cho mdi san phim ciia minh; cin coi moi nhan hieu cung la mot biiu tugng quang ba cho thuang hieu Cdng ty Idn manh hon. Thu 4: Xac lap quyen Viec xay dung va phat trien thucmg hiiu bao gdm rat nhieu yeu td khac nhau, cd thi la nhan hieu hang hoa, tin ggi xuat xu, ten thuang mai, kiiu dang...v.v. Ngay tu nhirng nam 1985 - 1986 khi tien than cdn la mot Xi nghiep xe dap Thdng Nhat nho be, viec dang ky nhan hieu hang hoa da dugc Ban lanh dao dang ky bao hg (Giay chiing nhan dang ky nhan hiiu hang hoa hdi d6 do Cue Sang chi cap, qua nhieu lan ddi tin cung cap di cap lai nhiiu lan). Den nay, Cdng ty TNHH Nha nude mot thanh viin Thdng Nhat van duy tri va da xac djnh dugc quyen sd huu cho minh bang viec dang ky nhan hieu - logo, dugc bao hg dgc quyin bdi Cue sd huu tri tue Viet Nam.Thu 5: Xay dung chien luac chat luang san phamCan cu theo dac diim tirng loai san pham, djch vu ciia nganh xe dap - xe may, nganh ndi thathien co tren thj trudng cung nhu ciia rieng minh, Cdng ty da xac djnh tiiu chi chat lugng chosan pham mang thuang hiiu Thdng Nhat. Cdng ty da xay dung chiin luge san pham vdimuc tieu: "Tu hao trin tung san pham, chat lugng trin tung chi tiit", nham cam ket mangden cho khach hang nhung san pham tdt nhat, chiing loai va mau sac da dang nhat.Thu 6: Xay dung chien luac ve giaDay la van de mau chdt quyet djnh khach hang se chgn san pham ciia minh hay chgn sanpham ciia ddi thii canh tranh.Khach hang khdng chi dua ra nhung yeu cau vi chat lugng san pham tdt, hg cung can motmuc gia phu hgp vdi minh, vdi san pham minh chgn so vdi mat bang chung tren thj trudng.Ban lanh dao Cdng ty Thdng Nhat rat hiiu tam ly nay nen viec xay dung chien luge ve gia la 68
  • van de ludn dugc quan tam; tir lau viec dam bao chit lugng chuin cho san phim vdi motmuc gia hgp ly nhat (so vdi chi phi de tao ra san phim va dac biet la khdng cao ban ddi thiicanh tranh) da trd thanh chien luge chua bao gid dugc coi nhe cua Cdng ty Thdng Nhat,thuang hieu Thdng Nhat di sau vao cuoc sdng ciia moi khach hang nua the ky nay cung bdivi vay.Thu 7: Ve to chuc nhan suHien nay, xay dung va phat trien thuang hiiu d Viet Nam ndi chung, d Cdng ty Thdng Nhatnoi rieng dang trd thanh van de cap thiit hon bao gid hit. Viec xay dung va phat triinthuong hieu sao cho hiiu qua la van de ddi hoi phai dugc thuc hien mot each bai ban, khoahgc khdng phai bat ky ai cung lam dugc, song Cdng ty Thdng Nhat van chua thuc su cddugc mot bd phan nhan su chuyin nghiep dam nhan nhiem vu nay, viec vach ra cac kehoach cho nhiem vu xay dung va phat triin thuang hieu Cdng ty van dang la ganh nang datlen vai Lanh dao ca quan, day la yiu td bat cap ddi hdi Ban lanh dao Cdng ty can nhanhchong khac phuc.Thu 8: Ve to chuc he thdng dich vuCdng ty Thong Nhit da xay dung va thuc hien nhiing ke hoach td chuc hi thdng dich vu moteach nghiem tiic nhu: Tang cudng phat triin ddi ngu nhan vien cham soc khach hang, thdngthoang hon trong cac djch vu khuyin mai, hau mai, ky gui, cac hinh thuc tra sau, thanh toancham hay dich vu dua hang tdi tan nai ngudi sir dung...Cdng ty cung coi trgng cdng tac nim bit thj trudng, xay dung chiin luge Marketing. Xaydung he thdng thdng tin thi trudng dam bao ludn nam bat dugc nhijng thdng tin mdi nhit veboat dong kinh te, ky thuat cd lien quan, di di xuit cac giai phap can thiit cho viec td chuche thdng djch vu nhim phat trien thuang hiiu doanh nghiep. 69
  • Cdng tac djch vu dugc thuc hien mot each nghiem tiic, hoan hao se thi hien trach nhiem ciiaCdng ty ddi vdi san pham ciia minh ciing la mot chiin luge giu khach, am hiiu nhu cau ciiakhach di cd bien phap thich hgp, cdng tac phuc vu khach hang ngay mot tdt hon.Budc 9: Theo doi su phat trien va bao ve thuang hieuAi cung biet, xay dung va phat triin thuong hieu da khd, bao ve dugc thuang hieu, dam baocho thuang hiiu dugc bin vung cang khd hon. Viec theo doi nay co tac dung nham diiuchinh su phat triin thuong hiiu diing hudng, chdng lai cac hanh vi canh tranh khdng lanhmanh. Day la nhiem vu ciia Bg phan Quan trj va phat triin thuang hieu trong Cdng ty.Nhu vay, van de xay dung va phat trien thuang hieu d Cdng ty TNHH Nha nude mot thanhvien Thdng Nhat tuy da cd nhQng kit qua budc dau song van cdn chua hoan thien, doi hdiBan lanh dao Cdng ty can quan tam ban nua nham quang ba va bao ve tdt han niJa thuanghiiu ciia minh ngay mot vung manh han.2.8.2 Nhirng mat chua duacCdng ty van chua co mot bg phan chuyen trach cho mang xay dung thuang hieu. Ngoai racac hoat dong hgc hoi nhim nang cao ky nang ciia nhan vien vi xay dung thuang hieu cdnit. Sir ho trg tu bin ngoai cung chua nhiiu.Do chua xay dung dugc bd phan giam sat boat dong xay dung va phat triin thuong hiiu nencac bao cao ndi bg lien quan den boat dong xay dung thuang hiiu ciia Cdng ty cdn it va sasai. 70
  • CHl/OfNG 3. KE HOACH VA GIAI PHAP THlTC HIEN THANH CONG CHIEN LlTQfC XAY DlJlVG VA PHAT TRIEN THlTONG HIEU TAI CONG TY TNHH NHA NlTOC MOT THANH VIEN THONG NHATCan cu thuc trang, nbijng kit qua da dat dugc va chua dugc ciia viec xay dung va phat triinthuong hieu nam 2007 va de tiip tuc xay dung, phat triin va bao vi thuang hieu trong giaidoan tiip theo 2007 - 2010, Cdng ty TNHH Nha nude mot thanh vien Thdng Nhat can cdnhijng ke hoach truyen thdng hoan hao nhat.Cdng ty se tiip tuc xay dung, hoan thien chuan ki hoach xay dung va phat trien thuang hieutheo chin ndi dung d% ra d chuong 1 (muc 1.6 - trang 38).Ludn chi cung cap cho khach hang cac san pham dat chat lugng tieu chuan cam kit; khdngngung cai tiin mau ma san pham, nang cao chat lugng djch vu; Xay dung ddi ngu Can bdcdng nhan vien chuyen nghiep cao tao ra hinh anh rieng biet cho Cdng ty.Thdng qua cac phuang tiin truyin thdng, khuyin mai nhu: quang cao san pham trin truyinhinh, trin dai, bao, tap chi... nham tao ra an tugng dac biet vdi khach hang; kich thich muahang bang cac hinh thuc khuyen mai, tang qua, cac chuong trinh bdc tham triing thudng;Dac biet coi trgng vin de quan hi cdng chiing: lam tu thien, tai trg cho cac giai thi dau Idn,cac chuong trinh sang che khoa hgc hay td chuc su kiin, md rong quan hi cdng ddng...nhim quang ba thuang hieu true tiip din tung ddi tugng khach hang.Ke hoach xay dung va phat trien thuang hiiu can cd ngudi co quyen han dung ra chiu trachnhiem td chuc thuc hien va phai dugc giao cho luc lugng chuyen gia giau kinh nghiem damnhan; phai dugc xay dung mot each bai ban, cd su liin kit chat che giija cac phuang tiintruyin thdng va cac chien djch tiiu thu san phim ciia Cdng ty. 71
  • Ke hoach nay cung vach r5 vai trd ciia viec xay dung va phat triin thuang hiiu Thong Nhitcho tit ca cac don vj thanh viin (Thdng Nhit, ViHa, Ddng Da; Cdng ty Liin doanh Thuongmai Hda Binh, Lien doanh FER - Due); se phan tich ro rang ndi dung thdng diep bing Idi(cau Slogan), bang hinh anh (biiu tugng - Logo) cin gui den khach hang.Cdng ty Thdng Nhat cung vach ra ki hoach xay dung va phat trien thuang hiiu trong dd cdsir phdi hgp chat che giua ba dan vj true thuoc dc vua md rong tdi da dia ban quang cao, vuathi hien sir gan kit bd trg lan nhau tao da cung phat triin, dac biet sir phoi hgp nay se la bienphap tdt nhat de phat huy tdi da hieu qua tu ngan sach tung dan vj trong qua trinh xay dungva phat triin thuong hieu, md rong thj trudng muc tiiu.Su phdi hgp nay khdng chi nhat quan trong ndi dung ma phai chii y din dac thu chiing loaisan pham riing ciia tung don vj de cd phuang phap thich hgp va dem lai hieu qua cao nhat,tranh nhiing dap khudn cung nhac, cd the phu hgp vdi mat boat ddng nay nhung lai phan tacdung vdi mat boat ddng khac ciia don vj khac (dac biet chii y din chiin luge xay dung vaphat trien thuong hiiu d khdi san pham xuat khau bdi day la thj trudng tiim nang nhung suecanh tranh cao).Cdng ty TNHH Nha nude mot thanh vien Thdng Nhat la Cdng ty cd cac don vj true thuocvdi nhom san phim khac nhau, chuc nang nhiem vu khac nhau, trinh do phat trien cung khacnhau, do vay san phim cd nhiiu phan doan thj trudng khac nhau, cd khach hang muc tieukhac nhau, vi vay bin canh viec len ki hoach xay dung va phat triin thuang hiiu chung vancin cd chien luge truyin thdng rieng cho cac san pham ciia Cdng ty minh nam trong tdng thithuang hieu Thdng Nhat. 72
  • 3.1 Ke hoach MarketingDung dau trong nhijng van dQ quan tam ciia doanh nghiep hien nay la vin de xay dung vaphat trien thuang hieu, day manh tieu thu san pham. Hiu het cac doanh nghiep d Viet Namlua chgn phuang an tu xay dung thuang hiiu cho minh. De cd thi tiin hanh xay durngthuang hiiu theo phuang thuc nay Cdng ty phai cd dugc lgi thi canh tranh vi san pham. Sanpham ciia cdng ty phai cd chat lugng tdt, gia thanh hgp ly, ban the cin phai quang ba thuanghiiu mot each rong rai... ma mot trong nhijng phuang phap quang ba thuong hieu hieu quanhat trong so dd chinh la MARKETING.Mac du Cdng ty TNHH Nha nude mot thanh viin Thdng Nhat cd thi da lira chgn dugc nhiing yiutd thuang hieu thich hgp va tao nin mot dac tinh ndi trdi, khac biet, ddng gop hieu qua cho viec taodung gia trj thuang hieu. Tuy nhiin, viec xay dung va phat trien thuong hieu ciia Cdng ty phaidugc dat trong mot chiin luge va chuang trinh marketing tdt nhat, hiiu qua nhat. Cac thanh phinciia mot chiin luge Makerting tdng hgp bao gdm:Xay dung va phat trien thuang hieu thong qua cac phuang tien giao tiep Marketing- Quang caoNhan thuc dugc tam quan trgng ciia quang cao, Cdng ty da va dang xay dung mot chiin lugequang cao cho rieng minh. Hoat ddng quang cao chii yiu ma Cdng ty lira chgn la: quang caotrin bao chi, phat thanh truyin binh, tren mang, trin niin giam dien thoai...; qua cac phuangtiin nhu: Catalogue, pand biin hieu va cac tai san ciia Cdng ty nhu xe tai chd hang...kichthich mua hang bing qua tang, mlu chao hang, giam gia chiet khiu, giao luu khach hang...vdi nhung hoat ddng nay Cdng ty cd thi chii ddng hon trong pham vi mudn quang ba.- Quan he cong chung: Nhijng hoat ddng dugc cdng ty uu tiin la:Truyen thong 73
  • Hgp bao: day la boat ddng tdn nhieu thdi gian va cdng sue nen chi dugc tiin hanh khi c6thdng tin quan trgng can cdng bd.Ra cac thdng cao bao chi: Day la mot boat dgng duoc uu tien cao vi giiip doanh nghieptruyin dat thdng tin chinh xac din gidi bao chi va tranh cac hiiu lim dang tiec. Hoat ddngnay thudng dugc td chuc kem khi cdng ty td chiic cac sir kiin nhu hgp bao, gui tai lieu...Viet bai dang tren cac tap chi, cac bao: hoat ddng nay dem lai nhiiu lgi ich nhu chi phi thapva cdng ty cd thi chu ddng trong viec truyin tai ndi dung da dang han va cd tinh chgn Igccao hon, qua do ciing thiit lap duac mdi quan he tdt vdi gidi bao chi.Ban tin doanh nghiep: Cdng ty phan dau cho ra cac ban tin doanh nghiep nhiiu han nhamtruyin tai thdng tin giua cac bd phan trong cdng ty va cdng ty tdi khach hang, cac dai ly...tao ra mot kinh thdng tin hieu qua.Brochure, td rai, catalogue: day deu la nhiing tai lieu ho trg viec gidi thieu va quang badoanh nghiep. Brochure hoac td rai cd thi dugc gui kem vdi thdng cao bao chi hoac phattrong cac budi hgp bao. Catalogue cd thi dugc gui din cac ddi tac, khach hang tiem nanghay phan phat trong hdi nghj khach hang. Cac ap phich c6 the dugc dan, trung bay d nhijngtoa nha trung tam tao sir chii y ciia cdng chiing, hieu qua la khach hang se cd an tugng vabiit din, lam quen vdi hinh anh cdng ty nhanh chdng, di dang han.Tai trg: cac boat ddng tai trg dugc hudng tdi la cac giai thi dau thi thao, cac chuang trinhsang che khoa hgc; tai trg cho cac quy nhan dao ciia thanh pho va trung uong, cac dgt thientai, bao lu ...Td chuc cac hdi thao va hdi nghj khac hang: Day la boat ddng thudng niin ciia Cdng ty vala mot trong nhijng boat ddng danh dugc nhiiu uu tien nhat. Day cung la mot trong nhung 74
  • C hdi dk cdng ty tranh thii cam tinh ciia khac hang, giai dap mgi thic mic, thu thap y kien Ova cung cap thdng tin ve doanh nghiep.Cac hoat dong xuc tien ban hangHoat dgng xiic tiin dugc uu tien hien nay ciia Cdng ty la thdng qua cac td chuc, co quan Nhanude nhu Phdng thuang mai va cdng nghiep Viet Nam (VCCI), cac lanh sir quan va thamtan thuang mai Viet Nam tai cac nude...Vdi khach hang, xiic tiin liin quan den xay dung quyin trong kinh doanh nhu cai thien mauma, gian trung bay... va xiic tiin khdng lien quan den xay dung quyin cho ngudi tiiu diingnhu khuyin mai, tang thudng... van dugc duy tri diu dan.Hien nay phan Idn cac boat ddng xiic tiin thuang mai ciia Cdng ty dugc tiin hanh thdng quacac hdi nghj, trien lam. Do vay ddi hdi can cd sir chuan bj ky cang ban nija trong viec chuanbj thdng tin tdi khach hang va ddi tugng khach hang tiem nang nham gay an tugng chokhach hang ngay tai gian hang trung bay.- Ke hoach xay dung nguon nhan lucTuyen mdi va bdi dudng ddi ngu can bg nhan viin cd chuyen mon cao phuc vu cho boatdgng marketing va cu the la cho boat ddng xay dung va phat trien thuong hiiu. Nhirng yeuto dugc Cdng ty quan tam la: dao tao, dau tu cdng nghi, tao ddng luc, trao quyin va tangthudng ddi vdi nhan vien.Thdng qua dao tao tit ca nhan viin dugc dao tao theo hudng liin tuc toan dien; Cdng ty sedat muc tieu trd thanh mot "to chiic ludn hgc hdi". Ndi dung dao tao va hgc tap phai ludngin kien vdi tim nhin, nhiem vu, chien luge, ki hoach hanh ddng, chi tieu kit qua, yeu caucdng viec ciia mdi ca nhan, hudng den Igi ich chung toan cdng ty. 75
  • Ve ddng ca lam viec: Tren thuc te cd rit nhiiu ly do khac nhau, su mong dgi khac nhau, vicac khia canh khac nhau cua cdng viec va vi che do luang thudng. Doanh nghiep cin nambit dugc nhu ciu ciia hg di ling hg, tao diiu kien va cai thien diiu kien lam viec nhim thuhiit nhan tai cdng hien cho Cdng ty.Diu tu cdng nghi, trang thiit bj may mdc hien dai tao ra san phim cd ham lugng chit xamcao cho cac san phim xe dap thi thao, xe leo niii, xe dap gip vdi kieu khung bing sgiamiang, vat lieu nhe, ben v.v.. phu hgp vdi mgi lua tuoi, dja hinh phuc vu nhu cau di lai, vuichoi giai tri, luyen tap ciia nhan dan nhu hien nay cac nude phat triin trin thi gidi dang sudung.Trao quyin dugc xem nhu la cdng cu tdi uu; bdi trao quyen cd tac dung khuyin khich caokhiin cho ngudi nhan quyen thay dugc trach nhiem cung nhu tam quan trgng ciia van di,thiic day tdi da nhiet buyit, su cd gang nd luc cdng hien ciia ngudi lao ddng cho Cdng ty.Mac du vay, trao quyin phai gan liin vdi su kiim soat.Tang thudng la hoat dgng khdng thi thiiu nhung phai can nhac sao cho dat hiiu qua tdi da.Phoi ket hgp vdi cac ca quan va td chuc bin ngoai nhu cac Cdng ty quang cao, cdng ty tuvin thuang hiiu nham nang cao hiiu qua boat ddng marketing va xay dung thuang hiiu.Day cd thi xem nhu la mot hoat ddng "Outsourcing" (sir ddng y nhan linh kiin, phu tiing domot nha cung cip khac hoac mot nha san xuat khac cung ung va nhu vay dd tdn kem hon laminh tu lam liy) danh cho ngudn nhan lire. Vi nd vua giiip nhan vien cdng ty hgc hdi kinhnghiem lai dd di phin nao chi phi de tuyin dung, dao tao nhan luc chat lugng cao. Tuy nhienkhdng nin lam dung loai hinh nay chi phi cao va tinh bao mat cung nhu tu chii ciia Cdng tyyeu. 76
  • 3.2 Ca hoi va thach thuc. Lai the va han che ton tai3.2.1 CahoiNin kinh ti Viet Nam dang tang trudng cao, dan sd ddng cdng vdi viec Viet Nam trd thanhthanh viin thu 150 ciia WTO da md ra nhirng ca hdi mdi cho Cdng ty: thj trudng rong Idnban, da dang han va cd muc tiiu thu cao hon. Ngoai ra, nhiing rao can phap ly cung da giambdt, tao diiu kiin cho san pham ciia Cdng ty de dang gia nhap thj trudng hon. Thim nija,hien nay Nha nude ta van danh nhirng ho trg cho doanh nghiep kinh doanh xe dap nen Cdngty cd thuan lgi ban trong nbii-ng nam dau hau WTO. Va dac biet la cac van di vi tai nan giaothdng cung nhu khi thai mdi trudng dang tao ra nhijng co hdi kinh doanh rat Idn cho nhijngdoanh nghiep kinh doanh xe dap biet tan dung va cd tam nhin sau.Hi thdng chinh trj va phap luat Viet Nam dn djnh, qua trinh hdi nhap kinh te the gidi da taodiiu kiin cho Cdng ty cd kha nang tiip thu trinh do khoa hgc cdng nghe tien tien.Ddi sdng ciia ngudi dan ngay dugc nang cao, do do nhu cau tiiu dung cac san pham ndichung va mat hang trang thiet bj ndi that ndi riing se tang len tao dieu kiin de Cdng ty mdrong thj trudng qudc ti.Ca sd ha ting phat triin, mang ludi giao thdng van tai rong khap tao diiu kiin thuan lgi deCdng ty gidi thieu san pham ciia minh tdi cac vung ndng thdn, mien niii xa xdi. Day la thjtrudng rong Idn, diy tiim nang va phu hgp vdi ddng san phim "binh dan".Toan ciu boa va hdi nhap kinh ti dang trd thanh mot xu thi tit yiu, Viet Nam da gia nhapWTO. Trong qua trinh dd, Viet Nam dang tung budc cat giam thui quan, gia nguyin lieunhap khiu se giam do thui suit thue nhap khiu giam, tao diiu kiin de Cdng ty ha gia thanhsan phim, giam gia ban, tang kha nang canh tranh trong nude, md ra ca hdi xuit khau san 77
  • pham sang cac thj trudng the gidi do dugc hudng thue suat nhap khiu uu dai hoac dugcmiin thui nhap khau hoan toan tai cac thj trudng nay.Nam 2008, Cdng ty TNHH Nha nude mot thanh vien Thong Nhit se chuyen ddi thanh Cdngty Cd phan; day la diiu kiin tdt de Cdng ty nang cao siic canh tranh, tang ca hdi phat triin.3.2.2 Thach thuc va khd khan- Nhu cau su dung Xe may va O td tang xu hudng su dung xe dap giam, pham vi sir dung xedap bj thu hep chii yeu d pham vi xe dap thi thao, giai tri va bd phan hgc sinh; hang gia,hang nhai nhiiu, hang kem chat lugng nhiiu.- Sue ep quyin nang ciia ngudi mua ngay cang Idn, su ra ddi ciia nhieu ddi thii canh tranh setao nguy ca ty suat lgi nhuan giam; ddng thdi chi phi cho cac djch vu cham sdc khach hanggianh uu thi canh tranh phai nhiiu lin, yiu cau ciia khach hang ngay cang cao ddi hdi nhacung ung phai nhay ben trong viec dap ung nhu cau vi san pham, vi djch vu.- Lam phat tang nhanh, lai vay ngan hang cung tang cao gay anh hudng din tam ly cho nhadiu tu, din din sue tieu thu giam, tdn kho cao, lai xuat vay ngan hang Idn... nguy ca kinhdoanh thua Id cao.3.2.3 Lai the, diem manhVdi be day gin 50 nam hoat ddng, thuong bieu Thdng Nhit va nhit la xe dap Thdng Nhat datao cho minh mot cho dung virng chac trong long ngudi tiiu dung. Thuong hiiu xe dapThdng Nhit ludn dugc khach hang biit tdi nhu mot san phim mang lai sir yin tam ve chitlugng va hai long khi su dung dich vu. Ngoai ra, thuong hiiu xe dap Thdng Nhit se cang trdnen cd gia trj hon vdi nhung ai yeu Ha Ndi va mong mudn sir dung mot san pham cua Viet 78 y
  • Nam. Day chinh la mot uu thi de cho cac san phim khac ciia Cdng ty de dang tim dugc chodiing trin thj trudng hon.San phim ciia Cdng ty ludn dn djnh vi chit lugng, cac djch vu cung cip vdn, van chuyen,thanh toan ludn dap ung nhu cau mong mudn ciia khach hang.Cdng ty cd bi day phat trien lau ddi nen ban than da cd kinh nghiem trong san xuit kinhdoanh; cd thj trudng truyin thdng va su uu ai ciia khach hang, day la tiin dk quan trgng chosu ke thua va phat huy lgi the sin cd,Cdng ty cd ddi ngii lao ddng vdi trinh do chuyen mon, tay nghe cao. Ddi ngu Can bd nhanviin da dugc tuyin chgn va dao tao bai ban, chuyin nghiep cd kha nang dap ung va thoaman mgi nhu cau khach hang.Cdng nghe san xuat da dugc hien dai boa, dau tu mua sam bd sung them hang loat may mdc,thiit bj, cdng nghi tiin tiin, hien dai ciia cac nude cd nin cdng nghiep hang dau thi gidi.Cdng ty nam d vi tri thuan lgi (ndi thanh Ha Ndi) la thi trudng tdt di phat triin mang ludidjch vu, md rong thj trudng trong nude, nhat la cho san pham xe dap - xe may va phu tiing.Cdng ty da triin khai va ap dung thanh cdng hi thdng quan ly chat lugng qudc ti ISO -9001: 2000, va hi thdng quan ly ISO 14000 vi mdi trudng. Day la ca sd quan trgng dQ Cdngty tham gia vao qua trinh hdi nhap kinh ti khu vuc va thi gidi.3.2.4 Han che, ton taiCdng ty chua cd bd phan chuyin mdn vi thuang hieu; viec diiu tra nhu ciu thi trudng, phattriin san phim mdi, quang ba thuong hiiu cdn chua thuc su phat huy hit tiim luc.Cdng ty chua thuc su phat huy dugc the manh cho nhijng san pham cao cip trin thj trudng;chua da dang hda dugc san phim xuit khiu dang gidi ban d mot sd mat hang. 79
  • Ngay cang nhiiu doanh nghiep dua ra nhirng khoan chi phi khdng Id cho quang cao va hg da cd dugc nbiJng hieu qua khdng thi phii nhan, song Cdng ty cdn chua danh mot khoan chi phi hgp ly cho quang cao. 3.3 Muc tieu chien luac ve xay dung va phat triin thuang hieu ciia Cong ty Thong Nhat giai doan 2007 - 2010 3.3.1 Tam nhin Khai thac tiim nang ciia dgi ngii can bd cdng nhan viin, van dung thdi ca dQ dau tu cdng nghi, thiit bj mdi, xay dung mot hi thdng ngudi lao ddng mdi cd tri thuc cd trinh do tay nghi cao di Cdng ty Thdng Nhat dat tdi nhiing muc tiiu xa ban, nhijng thanh tuu Idn hon, xay dung mot thuong hiiu manh cho cdng nghiep Thu dd va cho ca nude, sanh vai ciing cacnude trong khu vuc va san sang hdi nhap kinh te qudc ti.3.3.2 Muc tieu- Muc tieu trung va dai ban ciia Cdng ty Thdng Nhat la trd thanh nha san xuat xe dap hangdau ciia Viet Nam.- Muc tang trudng muc tiiu cua Cdng ty tu 20% trd len; chiim 20% thi phin trong trongnganh xe dap ca nude (giai doan 2007 - 2010).- Thuc hien hoan chinh ndi dung 09 budc xay dung thuang hieu; Cd hiu hit cac ddi tactrong va ngoai nude nhan biit ro dac trung vi Cdng ty Thdng Nhat vdi ITnh vuc hoat ddngchinh la san xuit kinh doanh xe dap, phu tung xe dap - xe may va trang thiet bj ndi, ngoaithit... 80
  • 3.3.3 Chien luac xay dung va phat trien thuang hieu 2007 - 2010:Chiin luge Cdng ty hudng tdi dd la: Tang trudng nhanh, lien tuc cai tien cong nghe; phattriin thi trudng cu, khai thac, md rong thj trudng mdi; cung cap san pham co chatluang chuan nhat vdi gia ca hap ly, djch vu hoan hao nhat.- Chiin luge "Tang trudng nhanh, lien tuc cai tiin cdng nghi" nghla la Cdng ty hudng tdimd rong thj trudng mot each nhanh chdng va tang nhanh doanh thu, vdi muc tiiu la gia tanggia tri cua mdi ddng tiin kiim dugc han la chi gia tang vi sd lugng; Cai tien liin tuc baogdm viec liin tuc dat ra nhung muc tiiu cao trong viec cai tiin cdng nghi nham tao ra nhungsan pham cd chat lugng tdt nhat va tao ra uu thi canh tranh vugt trdi so vdi cac san phamciing loai. Viec khdng ngiing cai tiin cdng nghi ddng nghTa vdi viec dat Igi nhuan cao ban,tang doanh thu, tang thj phan va gia trj Cdng ty nhanh hon ddi thii.- Chien luge "phat triin thi trudng cu" la tang sd lugng Idn vao thj trudng hien cd dQ tangdoanh thu, doanh sd ban hang... bang each: phat trien thim khach hang; Thu hiit khach hangciia ddi thii vi minh.- Chiin luge "khai thac thj trudng mdi" la chii trgng khai thac, md rong nhijng thj trudngchua vuan tdi hay chua cung cip san pham vao dd... bang each tim din ddi tugng khachhang tiem nang; Xay dung thim kinh ban hang mdi.- Chiin luge "Cung cip san phim cd chat lugng chuin nhit" la ludn dat muc tiiu chi cungcap cho khach hang nhijng san phim dat chit lugng, diing tieu chuan quy djnh, diing phimcap va diing quy each.- Chien luge "Gia ca hgp ly" la duy tri muc gia ban hai thip ban so vdi cac ddi thii Idnnhung phu hop vdi mong muon ciia khach hang va phu hgp vdi tiem lire cua Cdng ty. 81
  • - Chien luge "Djch vu hoan hao nhat" la cung cip diy dii hoac cao ban cac djch vu ma khach hang mong mudn... Cdng ty ludn cd ging dua din khach hang nhijng san phim tot nhat vdi mot phong each phuc vu hoan hao nhat. Giai phap di thuc hien cd biiu qua chiin luge canh tranh nay la kit hgp hai hda cac chiin luge vdi nhau khi triin khai ban hang; cd ke hoach xay dung cac chuang trinh (chien luge) Maketing va thuc hien tdt chiin luge xay dung thuang hieu. Diu tu tai chinh va ngudn nhan lire di triin khai chien luge Marketing tao dung gia trj thuang hiiu mot each biiu qua. Tang cudng nhan thuc ve thuang hieu ciia cdng ty cho khach hang va ban than Can bd cdng nhan viin ciia Cdng ty. Tu do khdng ngung nang cao hinh anh, uy tin ciia Cdng ty trong tamtri khach hang va vj thi canh tranh ciia cdng ty tren thi trudng.3.3.4 Doi tuang khach hang muc tieu tiem nangVdi tat ca cac doanh nghiep, viec dan dau vi thj phan la udc vgng va la muc tiiu chien luge,bdi dan dau ve thj phan ddng nghTa vdi Igi nhuan dai han tdi da. Bin canh dd, vin de hoanthien cdng tac nghiin cuu thj trudng va xac djnh thj trudng muc tiiu cung la mot khau thiityeu.Mgi doanh nghiep deu nhan thuc dugc rang hang boa ciia minh khdng thi lam cho tit cakhach hang ua thich ngay dugc, bdi mdi ngudi cd mot ca tinh, sd thich va thdi quen khacnhau. Nghiin cuu thj trudng cung vay, Cdng ty cd thi thdng qua viec nghiin cuu thj trudngden viec xac djnh thj trudng trgng diem dk quyit djnh su tang giam gia cdng d thj trudng.De thuc hien tdt muc tiiu de ra (muc 3.3.2 - trang 80) ddng thdi lira chgn diing khach hangmuc tiiu, Cdng ty Thong Nhit phai cd cai nhin tdng quat trin cac can cu (*) nhu: 82 /
  • - Quy md va muc tang trudng ciia khach hang - Muc do hap dan cua khach hang - Tinh phu hgp ciia khach hang muc tieu vdi nguon lire ciia Cdng ty. Nhu da niu d tren (muc 2.7 - trang 58) thi Cdng ty Thong Nhit cd 4 loai khach hang la: Khdch hang vita la thirang mgi vita la nhd sdn xuat; khdch hang la nhd thitang mgi; khdch hang la nhd sdn xudt; khdch hang la ngit&i tieu ditng. Tuy nhiin khach hang muc tieu, tiim nang ciia Cdng ty Thdng Nhat khdng phai la tit ca trong sd dd. Vdi cac can cu (*) trin de lira chgn khach hang muc tieu, Cdng ty Thong Nhit chgn ba loai khach hang dau tiin: Khdch hang vita la thirang mgi vita la nhd sdn xuat (1); Khdch hangId nhd thuang mgi (2); Khdch hang la nhd sdn xudt (3).Chgn ba loai khach hang nay ddng nghTa vdi viec chap nhan mgi yiu cau khat khe nhit tuphia khach hang song day la ba ddi tugng khach hang cd quy md Idn, sue tang trudng cao,khdi lugng tiiu thu nhiiu do ddi tugng cd sd lugng doanh nghiep nhiiu, pham vi rong... cdthe ndi day la nhijng khach hang cd sue hap dan nhat phu hgp vdi tiem luc va djnh hudngphat triin ciia Cdng ty. Ngoai ra, khach hang la ngudi tiiu dung cung mang din cho Cdng tynhung Igi nhuan tdt, do dd Cdng ty khdng lang quin ma van quan tam cham sdc thj trudngnay; tuy nhiin khdng xac djnh la khach hang muc tieu, tiim nang vi sd lugng khach hang it,tin suit khdng cao, sd lugng mua khdng Idn...Cu thi ban: thj trudng muc tieu ciia Cdng ty la thj trudng trong nude, trudc mat vin danh uutien cho thj trudng phia Bic, cac tinh phia Nam va thj trudng Au My.Viec nghien cuu, phan doan va xac dinh thj trudng muc tiiu la nhung hoat ddng quan trgng,tao tiin de cho ca qua trinh xam nhap thj trudng tu trudc khi san pham ra ddi, sau dd la phanphdi san phim tdi tay ngudi tieu diing sao cho cd hiiu qua nhat. 83
  • Do dd, di thuc hien muc tiiu chiin luge vi xay dung va phat triin thuang hieu thi ngoai viecmd rong thj trudng trong nude Cdng ty can cd phuang an toi uu cho viec xam nhap thjtrudng khu vuc va qudc ti. Day la nhiem vu vd ciing quan trgng, cip bach, cung la thachthuc trong dieu kiin thi trudng day canh tranh, thuang mai quoc ti dang dugc toan ciu boanhu hien nay, ddi hdi Cdng ty TNHH Nha nude mot thanh vien Thdng Nhit phai noi lirethuc sir trin hanh trinh tao dung cho minh mot thuang hieu Idn manh hon nira.3.4 Cac giai phap thuc hien thanh cong muc tieu chien luac xay dung va phat trienthuang hieu tai Cong ty TNHH Nha nude mot thanh vien Thdng Nhit 2007-20101. Xac djnh ro dac diim tam ly khach hang va khach hang muc tiiu2. Xac dinh va nam vung dac diim, tinh hinh ddi thii canh tranh3. Xac djnh ro va djnh hudng diing muc tieu chiin luge4. Nang cao chat lugng dich vu va phuc vu khach hang5. Xay dung va quang ba sau rong hinh anh Cdng ty6. Thudng xuyin cung cap san pham dam bao chat lugng chuan7. Thudng xuyin kiim tra, giam sat qua trinh thuc hien muc tieu va ki hoach xay dung vaphat triin thuang hieu8. Ap dung triet de quy trinh xay dung va phat trien thuong hiiu.3.4.1 Xac djnh ro dac diim tam ly khach hang va khach hang muc tieuVdi mgi doanh nghiep, khach hang la ddi tugng quan trgng nhit trong kinh doanh; cd itkhach hang nghTa la Igi nhuan it hoac khdng cd lgi nhuan, khdng cd khach hang tuc la khdngcd boat ddng kinh doanh. 84 /
  • Di tao uu the thu biit dugc nhieu khach hang phai nim dugc nhu ciu ciia khach hang; biitdugc hg cin gi, muon gi? sd lugng bao nhiiu, chit lugng the nao? gia ca, thdi gian, dja diimra sao? phong each phuc vu nao? can cu nao de hg chgn hoac khdng chgn san phim ciiaminh? Khi Cdng ty nam vung dac diim tam ly khach hang se xay dung dugc chuang trinhtriin khai hiiu qua nhat thoa man tdi da cac nhu cau va mong muon ciia khach hang, tao intugng sau sac cho khach hang.Tu viec nam vijng dac diim tam ly khach hang, Cdng ty se cung cip cho hg nhijng san phimdam bao chat lugng, gia ca hgp ly nhat, djch vu hau mai hoan hao nhit vdi chi do bao hanh,bao dudng va do tin cay cao nhat.Nhu da niu d trin (muc 3.3.4 - trang 82) Cdng ty Thdng Nhat xac dinh cd ba nhdm dditugng khach hang muc tiiu la: Khach hang la san xuat vua la nha thuang mai; Khach hang lanha thuang mai va khach hang la nha san xuat - bao gdm nhiiu thanh phan mua hang nhu:Cdng ty Nha nude, Cdng ty Cd phan, Cdng ty trach nhiem hiru ban, doanh nghiep tu nhan,ngudi tieu dung... viec tham gia quyit djnh mua hang ciia khach hang cd nhiiu ddi tugng vathanh phin khac nhau (la lanh dao, la can bd cdng nhan vien, la ngudi tiiu dung don le...)nhung qua trinh quyet djnh mua hang vin theo chu trinh chung la:Nhan thuc nhu ciu -> Tim kiim thdng tin -^ Danh gia cac lira chgn -> Quyit djnh muahang —> Tam ly sau khi mua. Hoac: Biet din san pham -^ Tim hieu ve san pham -> Thichsan phim -> Tin tudng -> Mua san pham dd.Khi mua hang ai cung mong mudn nhan dugc nhung uu ai hay mot su linh ddng nao dotrong giao djch, mudn dugc phuc vu tot, nhanh chdng, diing ban, thai do ddi tac cdi md, thanthien, vui ve... Nim dugc tam ly do la vin de hit sire quan trgng bdi khach hang ciia Cdng tykhdng dan thuin la mot ca nhan hay mot doanh nghiep ma la nhiiu nhdm vdi nhiiu doi 85
  • tugng va ca nhan khac nhau, nhu ciu ciing khac nhau. Hiiu dugc khach hang mdi dua radugc chiin luge thich hgp nhim tbda man nhu cau, ghi lai diu in vdi hinh anh dac trung ciiaCdng ty trong tri nhd ciia khach hangDe hieu dugc tam ly khach hang, Cdng ty cin thudng xuyin trao doi, tham dd true tiep haygian tiep qua dieu tra, danh gia. Danh gia viec xay dung va phat trien thuang hiiu Cdng tycung cd thi kiim chung thdng qua danh gia muc do tang trudng vi doanh thu va san lugng,tin suat ciing nhu sd lugng, sd lan mua hang ciia khach hang trong tung quy, tung nam; itnhat mdi nam Cdng ty can cd mot lan tham dd, danh gia tam ly, nhu cau, mong mudn ciiakhach bang, tu dd danh gia hieu qua chiin luge phat trien thuang hiiu.3.4 2 Xac djnh va nam vung dac diem, tinh hinh ddi thu canh tranhQQ thuc hien tdt giai phap nay, Cdng ty can xac djnh dugc minh cd bao nhiiu ddi thii canhtranh, dd La ai? () dau? Canh tranh nhiing gi? Lgi the canh tranh ndi trdi la gi? Diim manh,diim yiu?... trin ca sd dd phan tich, ddi chieu so sanh vdi minh riit ra cho Cdng ty nhungchiin luge thich hgp nhit nham mang lai nhiing Igi thi ma ddi thii khdng cd. Lam tdt nhijngyeu ciu nay mot phin da mang lai thanh cdng cho Cdng ty.Mat khac moi ddi thii cd dac diem, kha nang canh tranh khac nhau (nhu: quy md hoat ddng,thj phin, san phim; cac chinh sach tiep thi, ban bang; cac djch vu va each phuc vu; cacchuang trinh xiic tiin thuong mai; cac chinh sach nhan su; van hda doanh nghiep; trinh dova tinh chuyin nghiep cua ddi thii...) cho nin nim dugc dac diem, tinh hinh tung ddi thii larit cin thiit trong qua trinh canh tranh ndi chung ciing nhu trong xay dung va phat trienthuong hiiu ndi riing.Nhan thuc sau sic vin de nay, Cdng ty Thdng Nhit xac djnh thj trudng muc tiiu ciia minh lacac tinh, thanh phd phia Bic: Ha Ndi, Ha Tay Hai phdng, Hai Duong, VTnh Phiic, Phii Thg, 86
  • Thanh Hda, Thai Nguyen; Thanh phd Hd Chi Minh va thi trudng Au My. Cac ddi thii canhtranh trong nude hien nay d khu vuc phia Nam la Martin, Asama (Dai Loan), OLimpic pro(Dai Loan); d phia Bic la Lixeba; hang nhap lau, chon thui ciia TQ, hang gia, hang nhai ciiacac C sd tu nhan tu lap rap. ONgoai ra, Cdng ty cung can thudng xuyen thu thap cac thdng tin liin quan khac nhim mucdich xay dung, dua ra cho minh nbiJng ddi sach thich hgp, tranh doi diu canh tranh khdng lanh manh... tao nhijng diim khac biit ndi trdi ban ddi thii. Thuang hieu Thong Nhit se datdiu an sau dam vao tam tri khach hang nhat khi cd dugc nhijng net khac biet ndi trdi banhan so vdi ddi thii canh tranh.3.4.3 Xac djnh ro va djnh hudng dung muc tieu chien luacDieu dau tiin cung la budc "nhan dudng" dQ xay dung va phat triin thuang hiiu cho minhdat hiiu qua cao nhat, Cdng ty Thdng Nhat phai djnh hudng diing muc tiiu, chiin luge phattrien chung cho ca Cdng ty phai phu hgp vdi nang luc thuc ti. Van de djnh hudng diing muctieu, cd chien luge hgp ly la vd cung quan trgng bdi neu dinh hudng sai, se hanh ddng saidan din hiiu qua thap tham chi that bai.Dk nang cao kha nang canh tranh trong nganh va trong nen kinh te hdi nhap qudc ti, Cdng tyThdng Nhit xac djnh chiin luge kinh doanh la: "Tang trudng nhanh, lien tuc cai tien cdngnghe; phat triin thj trudng cii, khai thac, md rong thj trudng mdi; cung cap san phimC chat luang chuin nhat vdi gia ca hap ly, djch vu hoan hao nhat" nham dat dugc cac Omuc tiiu ca ban la:"dat muc tang trudng muc tieu tu 20% trd lin; chiim 20% thj phin trong trong nganh xe dapca nude (giai doan 2007 - 2010) va trd thanh nha san xuat xe dap hang dau ciia Viet Nam"bing each: Ludn ludn cai tien va nang cao chit lugng cac djch vu cho khach hang; xay dung 87 /
  • ddi ngii can bd cdng nhan viin cd tinh chuyen nghiep cao nhim tao ra binh anh riing bietgay in tugng sau sac cho khach hang dugc phuc vu.Nhim djnh hudng cho viec thuc hien tdt chiin luge xay dung va phat trien thuong hiiu,Cdng ty Thdng Nhat can xac djnh ro tu tudng la viec xay dung va phat triin thuang hiiucung nhu viec bao vi thuang hieu dd can dugc thuc hien liin tuc trong sudt qua trinh phattriin tiip theo va can cd sir dam bao lien tuc vi tai chinh di cd dii kha nang duy trie dn djnhva phat huy lgi thi canh tranh. Can tranh ngg nhan dan din chii quan hoac qua tu ty ma bd IdC hdi; khdng dau tu xay dung va phat trien thuong hiiu Ian man mot each lang phi, nen tap Otrung ngudn lire nang cao sue canh tranh trd thanh ddi tac chiin luge cua cac nha tiiu thu IdndQ cung cap san pham mang thuang hiiu Thdng Nhat rong khap ban.Viec djnh hudng diing muc tieu chien luge cdn thi bien d kit qua thu dugc. Cdng ty ThdngNhit cin thudng xuyin cd su thdng ki, phan tich, danh gia sd lieu hang thang, hang quy,hang nam qua: doanh thu, doanh so, so lugng khach hang tang trudng hay mit di trongthang, quy, nam; thi phin tang, giam moi nam?; sd khach hang nhan biit vi Cdng ty tangmdi nam den dau?... qua dd cd bien phap diiu chinh ki hoach, cd giai phap thuc hien hiiuhieu va kjp thdi nhu vay muc tiiu chien iugc se ludn dugc djnh hudng diing va sat thuc.3.4.4 Nang cao chat luang djch vu va phuc vu khach hangAi cung biet: thuang hieu la "hinh anh vi san phim, djch vu hoac doanh nghiep dugc luu laitrong tam tri khach hang..." nang cao chit lugng djch vu cung chinh la nang cao gia trjthuong bieu.Ddi sdng cang phat trien, nhu ciu cua khach hang cung ngay cang tang. Thuong hiiu ciiaCdng ty khdng chi thi hien d chit lugng san phim ma cdn thi hien d phong each phuc vu, dnhung yeu to huu hinh nhu: phong each phuc vu cua nhan viin, djch vu van chuyen, djch vu 88
  • tai chinh... do do Cdng ty cin phai dao tao dugc ddi ngu can bd nhan vien mot each bai banva ky nang phuc vu chuyin nghiep cd dii kha nang tao ra chit lugng tot trong djch vu vaphuc vu khach hang; tao ra diim khac biet d thai do phuc vu, tinh thin trach nhiem vdikhach hang trudc, trong va sau khi mua hang... tat ca can phai chuin hda theo nhirng quy tacnhit djnh (Cir chi, hanh ddng than thien chan thanh; tac phong nhanh nhen, dut khoat),khdng cd khach hang nao lai khdng hai long khi ngudi phuc vu cd nhiing pham chit dd.Ngoai ra, Cdng ty phai ludn: Cai tien da dang, gia tang gia tri su dung cho san pham; Tangcudng cung cap cac djch vu van chuyin, dich vu tai chinh cho khach hang - lam tdt cdng tacnay se tao ra diim khac biit cho Cdng ty bdi day la nhijng djch vu ma nhieu ddi thii khdngc6.Chat lugng djch vu va phuc vu la nhijng yiu td rat quan trgng vi nhirng yeu td nay se ngaylap di lai an tugng trong tri nhd khach hang dugc phuc vu; do vay Cdng ty nang cao dugcchat lugng dich vu va phuc vu khach hang la da nang cao dugc hinh anh Cdng ty cung nhuthuong hiiu Cdng ty trong tri nhd khach hang,3.4.5 Xay dung va quang ba sau rong hinh anh Cong tyHinh anh la ndi dung ciia thuong hieu, la nhijng gi luu lai trong tri nhd ciia khach hang vithuang hiiu dd vi vay Cdng ty cin cd bien phap quang ba sau rong hinh anh ca vi san phamva djch vu cung nhu cac yiu td khac lien quan den toan bd boat ddng ciia doanh nghiep dindugc vdi khach hang.Hinh anh ciia Cdng ty Thong Nhit phai dugc hinh thanh trong tri nhd khach hang nhu motnha vua san xuit vua la nha thuong mai cung ung djch vu. Hinh anh do se la cac yiu to: Sanpham san xuit kinh doanh; Cac boat ddng dugc Cdng ty tiin hanh; Cach thiic phuc vu, giao 89
  • tiep vdi khach hang. Cdng ty cd thi lam dugc diiu nay bang sir no lire thuc sir ciia ddi ngii can bd cdng nhan viin ludn sSn sang bang mgi each tbda man nhu ciu khach hang. Hinh anh bay thuang hiiu ciia Cdng ty phai ggi liin tudng den san phim, djch vu ciia Cdng ty; phai lam cho khach hang biit din la mot Doanh nghiep sin sang dap ling dugc mgi nhu ciu ciia hg. Dk tao sir liin tudng hinh anh ve cac gia tri thuang hiiu minh, Cdng ty cin bd ra mot khoan tai chinh nhat dinh bang each tham gia cac chuang trinh hoat ddng ho trg, tai trg cdng ddng, cac quan hi cdng chiing... qua dd hinh anh ciia Cdng ty se phat triin sau rong hon. Mat khac, di tao dung dugc hinh anh tdt han Cdng ty Thong Nhit cin tao ra dugc sir tin nhiem ciia khach hang va cd dugc long tin cua hg vdi Cdng ty. Sir tin nhiem ciia Cdng ty lien quan den danh tiing ma Cdng ty cd dugc tren thj trudng. DQ cd dugc su tin nhiem dd, Cdng ty can xay dung dugc mot sd yiu cau: duac ddnh gid Id trung thuc, ddng tin cay, nhgycam vai nhu cau cua khdch hdng; Cong ty phdi co site thu hut (duac nhieu nguai ua thich,CO sice hut mgnh me vd ndng dong... ) : Cong ty phdi co tinh chuyen nghiep.Cdng ty cd nhiiu each true tiip, gian tiep di tao ra hinh anh va quang ba cho binh anh dd.Tuy nhiin, khi thuc hien giai phap nay Cdng ty can tang cudng giao tiep vdi khach hang,nghien cuu ky nhijng nhu cau va mong mudn ciia hg nham dua ra chuang trinh hanh dgngcu thi khien hg de dang cam nhan, dua ra nhiing danh gia tich cue ve thuang hiiu. Tdm laitao ra hinh anh cho Thong Nhit chinh la se tao ra gia trj thuang hiiu cho Thdng Nhat.3.4.6 Thudng xuyen cung cap san pham dam bao chat lug-ng chuanDac tinh ciia thuang biiu ludn gin liin vdi doanh nghiep va san pham; san pham va chitlugng san phim ludn gin chat vdi nhau vi vay cung cip san pham dam bao chat lugng chokhach hang la vd cung quan trgng liin quan din uy tin ciia thuang hieu. 90 y
  • Vay the nao la "chit lugng chuin?". Moi loai san phim (hang hda) se cd hi thdng cac tieu chi chit lugng khac nhau; viec xem xet cac chi tiiu nay phai dat trong cac diiu kiin tieu dung giong nhau hoac trong nhirng diiu kien tiiu dung khac nhau thi sir dap ung cac yeu ciu ciia ngudi tiiu dung cung khac nhau, do dd Cdng ty cin xac dinh khach hang se su dung hang hda ciia minh vdi tieu chi chat lugng nao? Khi da xac dinh dugc nhu ciu sir dung trong dieu kiin nhat djnh Cdng ty se tao ra dugc nhijng san phim khac biit dap ung tdt yiu ciu dd tao ra sir an tam cho khach hang khi su dung san phim. Cung vdi nhirng yiu ciu vi chit lugng, khach bang cung mong mudn chi phai bd ra mot khoan chi phi hgp ly nhat cho san pham, do vay nang cao chat lugng nhung van giam giathanh dc nang cao siic canh tranh, tao ra sir cam nhan vi chat lugng dugc nang lin se la motyiu td quan trgng cd y nghTa quyit djnh de thu hiit khach hang.Xet trong Cdng ty Thdng Nhat, van di chat lugng san pham se dugc xet d cac gdc do: Mucdo chudn xdc vd tinh hap ly ve gid; Mire do thuan tien trong sir dung.Muc do chuan xac va gia ca hap ly cho san pham: Day la van di dugc khach hang quantam hang diu. Khi cd y djnh mua hang, khach hang se phai xem xet, chgn lira, can nhac kyludng ma chii yeu la xem xet ve do chuan xac ciia san pham so vdi tiiu chi nhu cau: ve kiiudang, chi tiit ky thuat; vi do ben chac va su phdi hgp hai hda giija cac mau sac; chi do baohanh bao dudng sau khi mua hang... va diiu quan trgng la gia ca phu hgp vdi chat lugng sanphim. De so sanh do chuin xac va gia ca hgp ly, mot mat khach hang se di thu thap thdngtin tu thj trudng mot mat da so sanh rdi mdi tin cay vao uy tin ciia Cdng ty, do vay viec dambao dn djnh, chuin xac chat lugng san phim cdng vdi gia ban hgp ly la da dem lai lgi ichnhu mong muon cho khach hang, cung chinh tu sir tin tudng yin tam nay se mang lai gia trjva su trung thanh ciia khach hang doi vdi thuang hieu Thdng Nhit. 91 /
  • Chit lugng chuan cdn the hien d muc do thuan tien trong sir dung: Day la mot khia canh dac trung cho kha nang su dung thuan tiin, da nang ciia san pham nhim ban che nhung khiim khuyet va nang cao hiiu qua sir dung. Khi san phim khdng dem lai cho khach hang nhiing tiin ich nhu mong mudn, hieu qua su dung se khdng cao, thj phan ciia Cdng ty se giam. San pham thuan tiin cho su dung cd thi la su phu hgp hay da dang vi kiiu dang, kich cd, chiing loai, di bao tri, bao dudng bay thay thi phu tung; Su phii hgp d day cdn dugc dactrung bdi sir phu hgp vi tam ly khach hang nhu nhu do tuoi, thdi quen, sd thich vi mau sac, kiiu dang... dua din cho khach hang san pham phu hgp (hay mot loai xe dap phu hgp) laCdng ty da tao ra cho hg mot cam giac bap dan, tu tin khi su dung, ddng thdi dem lai hieuqua mong mudn nin ciing tao ra dugc an tugng tdt dep ddi vdi thuang hiiu Thdng Nhat.3.4.7 Thudng xuyen kiem tra, giam sat qua trinh thuc hien muc tieu va ke hoach xaydung va phat trien thuang hieuNhu da niu d muc 3.4.3 (trang 87) viec xay dung dugc muc tiiu chiin luge va cd ki hoachtrien khai thuc hien chiin luge dd din dau can phai dugc danh gia bang chi do kiem tra,giam sat thudng xuyin hang thang, quy, nam (it nhit la hang nam); Qua kit qua tdng hgp vidoanh thu, su tang giam sd lugng, tang giam vi thj phan... di cd bien phap dieu chinh dinhhudng tiep theo phu hgp va hieu qua nhit.3.4.8 Ap dung triet di quy trinh xay dung va phat trien thuang hieuDe triin khai thuc hien thanh cdng muc tiiu chien luge xay dung va phat triin thuang hieukhdng phai la chuyin dan gian. Cdng ty Thdng Nhit cin thuc bien tot 09 budc xay dung vaphat triin thuang hiiu (muc 1.6 - trang 38) nham dam bao cho cac budc tiep theo dat kit quatot ban. Cdng ty vin xac djnh ring viec xay dung va phat triin thuang hiiu la ca mot qua 92
  • trinh liin tuc, lau dai, ben bi va phai ket hgp bing nhiiu binh thuc, bien phap khac nhau. Quy trinh xay dung va phat triin thuang hiiu nay se la kim chi nam cho tu tudng va hanh ddng ciia Cdng ty trong suot qua trinh xay dung, duy tri, phat triin va bao vi thuang hieu ciia Cdng ty Thdng Nhit ndi rieng cung nhu cac doanh nghiep khac ndi chung. 3.5 Ke hoach hanh dong Viec vach ra dugc chuang trinh, ki hoach hanh ddng phii hgp cho Cdng ty Thong Nhit nhim triin khai thuc hien hiiu qua chien luge xay dung, phat trien thuang hieu cd thi coi la kim chi nam cho hanh ddng. Cdng ty dua ra ban ki hoach sau: Thdi gian Trien khai Kinh phi STT Noi dung Ghi chu (thang/nam) thuc hien (VND) Xay dung ke hoach 01 T5-8/2007 Nhom 30 trieu va phe duyet ke hoach 02 T8/2007-12/2010 Trien khai thirc hien Nhom 03 Quang cao 500-600 trieu 04 Hoat dgng cdng chiing 200-300 trieu 05 Thiet ke Website, Catalogue 50-100 trieu3.6 Han che cua khoa loan- Thdi gian danh cho nghiin cuu, thuc hien dk tai cdn ban chi.- Xay dung thuang hieu van cdn la mot dk tai mdi nin qua trinh thu thap, tham khao y kien,tai lieu bj anh hudng nhiiu.- Kha nang cdn ban chi. 93
  • 3.7 KIEN NGHI VA KET LUAN3.7.1 Kien nghj- De nghj Nha nude cd chinh sach day manh cac bien phap chdng hang nhap lau trdn thui,hang gia, hang nhai khdng cd ngudn gdc xuat xu; Quan tam ban niJa den cac van dQ bao hgdgc quyen nhan hiiu hang hda.- Mong dugc Hdi ddng Giam khao gdp y bd sung cac ndi dung cdn thiiu va cac van di canthiit khac di nang cao chat lugng ddng thdi di de tai dugc hoan thien han.3.7.2 Ket luanThuang hieu thuc sir cd vai trd bet sue quan trgng. Dau tu xay dung thuang hiiu da trdthanh ddi hdi cap bach hon bao gid hit ddi vdi su tdn tai va phat trien ciia mgi doanh nghiep.Mudn xay dung thuong hiiu thanh cdng, cac doanh nghiep can day manh ban nija cdng tacxay dung va phat triin thuong hiiu di ddi vdi viec bao vi thuang hieu dd.Trong qua trinh triin khai cac ke hoach xay dung va phat triin thuong hiiu d di tai nay, tdida tap trung lam ro mot so ndi dung ca ban tu hi thdng ly thuyit xay dung va phat triinthucmg hiiu ndi chung den thuong hiiu Cdng ty TNHH Nha nude mot thanh vien ThdngNhit ndi riing. Viec xay dung va phat trien thuang hieu dugc xac lap thdng nhat tu giaidoan ly luan xay dung thuang hieu (chuang I) den viec lam gia tang gia trj thuong mai ciiathuang hiiu thi hien qua phan tich thuc trang tinh hinh xay dung va phat triin thuang hiiutai Cdng ty TNHH Nha nude mot thanh viin Thdng Nhit (chuang 2). Trong chuang 3, trinC sd nhijng ki hoach, muc tiiu chiin luge phat trien, tdi dua ra kha nang ap dung nhung Ogiai phap thuc hien thanh cdng muc tiiu chien luge dd tai Cdng ty TNHH Nha nude motthanh vien Thong Nhit. Nhu vay, nhung chien luge nay vua cho phep chiing ta nhin ra tdngthi con dudng dai dat den muc tiiu, vua chi ra chang dudng vdi nhung budc nhay hgp ly de 94
  • cd thi ap dung cho Cdng ty TNHH Nha nude mot thanh viin Thdng Nhit cung nhu chonhiiu loai hinh doanh nghiep vdi trinh do phat trien khac nhau trong quan tri thuang hiiu.Nhiing vin di phuc tap ciia thuang hiiu cung se khdng giai quyit dugc mot each triet de neuthiiu di nhijng y kiin bd sung ho trg cho muc tiiu quan trgng cudi cung ciia viec phat triinthuang hiiu la nham cd dugc cho dung vijng chic trong tam tri khach hang, d% tac ddng dinhanh vi tich cue trong quyet djnh chgn mua san phim ciia Cdng ty. Ben canh nhijng ndidung trgng yiu can xu ly lien quan din xay dung va phat triin thuang hiiu, ket qua nghiincuu cung da dua ra nhung khia canh trong xay dung ndi dung cdt loi cho muc dich thuanghieu dd la khdng ngung nang cao chat lugng san pham; hai hda hinh anh chat lugng bintrong cua san pham vdi su the hien binh thiic ben ngoai; nuoi dudng cam xuc tiiu diing tichcue giija nhijng gi khach hang thuc sir hudng thu vdi nhung gi dugc biiu Id va nhin thaythdng qua bin ngoai bang biiu tugng hoac tin ggi.Can 50 nam trudng thanh va phat triin vdi nhiiu thang tram; thuang hiiu Thdng Nhat dangay cang vGng manh ban, ngay cang khang dinh dugc vi the canh chim dau dan ciia lang xedap Viet Nam. Thuang hiiu Thdng Nhat hien nay van ludn danh dugc su tin tudng ciiangudi tiiu dung. Nhirng danh hiiu ma Cdng ty da dat dugc nhu Doanh nghiep xuat khauxuat sic; Hang Viet Nam chit lugng cao; Thuang hiiu manh... coi nhu la sir ghi nhan chonhirng nd luc cua toan the can bd cdng nhan viin trong Cdng ty TNHH Nha nude mot thanhviin Thong Nhit; viec Viet Nam gia nhap WTO se mang lai nhiiu ca hdi, thach thuc honcho Cdng ty nhung ddng thdi cung se la thdi co de thuang hiiu Thdng Nhit khang djnhminh bay cao hon, vuon xa ban nija.Va diem cuoi cung tdi muon de cap la nhung nghiin cuu trin ly thuyet du cd nd lire din dausong chi nhung ket qua thuc sir tai Cdng ty TNHH Nha nude mot thanh viin Thong Nhit 95
  • mdi la cau tra Idi mong dgi cuoi cung cho tinh kha thi ciia de tai. Nhung vin de ma tdi duara d di tai nay rit mong nhan dugc su gdp y chan thanh ciia cac Giang viin, cac nha nghiincuu, cac ddng nghiep, cac can bd cdng nhan viin Cdng ty Thong Nhit va tit ca nhung aiquan tam din ITnh vuc nay de Cdng ty TNHH Nha nude mot thanh viin Thong Nhit cd cosd diiu chinh, td chuc trien khai ki khoach xay dung va phat triin thuang hiiu dat hiiu quamong mudn. Tdi xin chan thanh cam an! 96
  • PHU LUC PLOl. Logo Cong ty TNHH Nha nude mot thanh vien Thong Nhat t,.™.!. p ThongnhatCdng ty TNHH Nha nude Cdng ty TNHH Nha nudemot thanh vien Thdng Nhat mot thanh viin Thdng Nhat (Logd cu) (Logo mdi) >V6» Thongnhat C-/ BICYCLECdng ty TNHH Nha nude Cdng ty TNHH Nha nudemot thanh viin Thdng Nhat mot thanh viin Thdng Nhat Nha may ViHa (Logo mdi) 97
  • TAI LIEU THAM KHAO1. Richard Moore (Tai ban lan thii* nhat) "Thuang hieu danh cho lanh dao" NXB Tre.2. Nguyin Canh Chit (2005) "Xay dung va trien khai chien luge kinh doanh" VIM - NXB Lao ddngxa hdi.3. Le Anh Cudng (2003) "Tao dung va quan trj thuang hiiu - danh tieng va lgi nhuan" NXB Lao ddng.4. Nguyin Qudc Thjnh va Nguyen Trung Thanh (2005) "Thuang hiiu vdi nha quan ly" NXB Van hoa thdng tin.5. Lien hiep cac Hdi khoa hgc va ky thuat. Sd 24/6/2005 "Tao chi Nha quan ly".6. Philip Kotler "Quan trj Marketing" NXB Thong Ki.7. Cac tai lieu ciia Cdng ty TNHH Nha nude mot thanh viin Thdng Nhit.8. Al Ries & Laura Ries (2005) "Quang cao thoai vj & PR lin ngdi". NXB Tre.9. TS Ly Quy Trung (2006) "Bi quyit thanh cdng bang md hinh nhugng quyin kinh doanh" NXB Tre.10. TS Ly Quy Trung (2006) "Mua Franchise - ca hdi mdi cho cac DNVN" NXB Tre.11. HSB, Giao trinh cac mdn hgc. 98