INTERNATIONAL EXECUTIVE MBA PROGRAM (leMBA)     Chirang trinh cao hoc Quan trj kinh doanh Quoc teLUAN VAN TOT NGHIEP      ...
INTERNATIONAL EXCUTIVE MBA PROGRAM (leMBA)       Chirong trinh cao hoc Quan trj kinh doanh Quoc te              BAN LUAN V...
Phe duyet cua Chirong trinh Cao hoc quan trj kinh doanh quoc te                                                           ...
CAM KET        Toi xin cam ket rang noi dung cua ban luan van nay chua dugc nop cho bat ky motchuang trinh cap bang cao ho...
LCn CAM ON        Truac tien toi mudn gui lai cam an tai Khoa Quan trj Kinh doanh Quoc te HSB - Daihoc Qu6c Gia Ha Noi, tr...
MUC LUC                                          •       •PHANMODAU                                                       ...
1.3.2.2 Tai sao nen ban franchise?                                                ,-      1. 3.2.3 Tai sao nen mua franchi...
2.3.2 Thi truang xe dgp Viet Nam                                              57     2.4 Dae diem va mo hinh to chuc Cong ...
3.3.1 Tdm nhin                                                                       803.3.2 Muc tieu                     ...
PHAN MO DAUTen de tai                         XAY DlTNG VA PHAT TRIEN THl/ONG HIEU       TAI CONG TY TNHH NHA NlTdC MOT TH...
Qua thuc tien ciia nhieu doanh nghiep cho thay va c6 the noi xay dung thuang hieu tot thikinh doanh tot. Rot cue, neu chun...
trien thuang hieu tai Cong ty TNHH Nha nuac mot thanh vien Thong Nhat noi rieng cungnhu cac doanh nghiep Viet Nam noi chun...
2.3.1 Thj truang xe dap the giai      2.3.2 Thj truang xe dap Viet Nam2.4 Dac diem va mo hinh to chuc Cong ty2.5 LTnh vuc ...
CHirONG 1. CO Sd LY LUAN VE THl/ONG HIEU1.1 Tong quan ve thuang hieu1.1.1 Khai niem ve thuang hieuThuang hieu da xuat hien...
Xet ve ban chat thi thuang hieu dugc xay dung chu yeu nham giup khach hang de dang nhanbiet dugc san pham, qua do giup cho...
- Bi^u tugng: Bao gom cac dau hieu, hinh ve cung cac to hgp mau sac, khong phat am nhungC kha nang phan biet, tugng trung ...
Thuang hieu phai c6 y nghTa va ggi camDe C thi gay 4n tugng va tac dong vao tam tri cua khach hang, thuang hieu cung phai ...
thuang hieu, cin luu y viec phat am ten goi c6 the qu6c te hoa dugc khong, cac dac tinh hinhanh C phu hgp vai cac vung van...
doi hoi phai c6 thai gian va mot su khac biet. San pham c6 the ton tai hay mat di nhungthuang hieu van con song mai.1.2.3 ...
1.2.5 La mot cam ket giua nha san xuat vdi khach hangCung vai thai gian va nhiing no lire khong ngirng, thuang hieu ngay c...
luge hgp ly trong giai doan co bien dong vi chua tach hay sat nhap. De lam dugc dieu naycan C su danh gia khach quan tu be...
hieu rdt kho xac dinh, no dang nSm trong nhan thuc bien doi cua khach hang muc tieu. Chonen khi ban hay mua mot thuang hie...
thong tiep thi nay gan lien vai nhan hieu, thuang hieu, bieu tugng, khau hieu, tieu chi, quangcao va nhirng bieu tugng thu...
thuy cua Gloria Jeans la thay vi chi ban thuan tuy ca phe bgt dugc cung cap bai chii thuanghieu Gloria Jeans tai uc lai ch...
thuc va van hoa dja phuang... cung la nhung tra ngai khong nho. Phuang thuc nhugng quyen kinh doanh se giup doanh nghiep c...
ra, nhi6u chu thuang hieu con co the tinh them khoan phi quang cao (advertising fee) tuangduang 1-3% doanh s6.- Ban cac ng...
1.3.2.3 Tai sao nen mua franchiseDau tu* an toan la khon ngoanTheo con so thong ke tai My thi trung binh chi co 23% doanh ...
hieu la y^u t6 quy^t djnh khi ho lira chon mua san pham han. Ly do chu yeu la ho thay antam ve nguon gdc va chat lugng cua...
Commission - FTC) co ban hanh mot bg dihu le v8 franchise dk quan y cac franchisor vafranchisee. FTC ciing co mot so tai l...
1.4.1.2 Xay dirng chuang trinh quang caoTrong nhijng nghien cuu cua minh, Armand Dayan va Philip Kotler da dua ra mo hinh ...
Muc tieu hdnh dong de duy tri long trung thanh: Day la mot loai muc tieu hanh dong, gianti§p tac dong den quyet djnh mua v...
cung rdt quan trgng khi nhan hieu co the cung ung nhung lgi ich vat chat hay tinh nang dgciio.Dac trung ciia phaang tien q...
hang tu thj giac den thinh giac. Tuy nhien, chi phi cho quang cao truyen hinh la rat cao vathuang xuyen tang, thai gian ph...
cung dan gian hon, nhung sue thu hut nguai nhan tin kem. Tuy vay, neu su dung cac vatdung nhu du, 6, ban ghe, gat tan thuo...
nhijng buc thu nay nhu nhirng thu rac vi nguai ta khong thu nhan dugc lgi ich tu viec duy trinhan thu tu dong cua cong ty....
luu lugng truyen thong ma tren thir nghiem thuc te phai mit thai gian dai mai co dugc ketqua. Han nija, thu nghiem mo phon...
dai han. Nhirng no luc xay dung hinh anh thuang hieu mot each tich cue va ben bi la dieu v6cung quan trgng. Rat kho de xac...
2 1.4.2.2 Dac diem cua PRPR la mot qua trinh thong tin hai chieuDoanh nghiep (chu the ciia hoat dong PR) dua ra cac thong ...
phat tri^n ciang nhu quan dilm ciia doanh nghiep trong viec quan tam den quy§n lgi nguaitieu dung v6 nhijng uu the ciia sa...
phai nham tai nhom doi tugng khach hang cu the va can tap trung vao mot chii the nhat djnh. Chii de dugc huang tai co the ...
Tuy nhien, de dat dugc hieu qua cao trong viec cung cap thong tin va kich thich su nhapcuoc ciia bao chi, co the sir dung ...
Cac hoat dong tai trg cong dongCac hoat dong tai trg va tir thien can truac het xuat phat tu muc dich mang lai lgi ich cho...
1.4.3 Xu hudng sir dung quang cao va quan he cong chung lam phuang tien de phat trien thuang hieu 30 nam ve truac Al Ries ...
Cung khong nen xem nhe giai doan quang cao ciia mot chuong trinh tiep thi. Chi nen tung rachuong trinh quang cao mot thuan...
Nhu vay, chi co bg phan phap ly la xep hang dudi bg phan quang cao trong cuoc dieu tra ciia AAF. Mac du quang cao chiem ph...
Khi C dugc thuang hieu manh, nhung doanh nghiep khong biet hoac khong quan tam duy      O tri phat tri6n no thi khong khac...
vay doanh nghiep phai cd chien luge va ke hoach xay dung va phat trien thuang hieu moteach khoa hgc. Ke hoach xay dung thu...
Hinh 1.1 Quy trinh xay dung va phat trien thuang hieu                             (1)         Thanh lap y tirdng, xac djnh...
Budc thir nhat: Thanh lap y tirdng, xac dinh thj trirdng va khach hang muc tieuThanh lap y tudng d day la viec xac dinh nh...
Budc thir ba: Thiet ke nhan hieu hang hoa va cac doi tugng SHCN khac Tren ca sd y tudng va cac thong tin da co, doanh nghi...
Budc thir sau: Xay dung chien luge ve gia Ngudi tieu dung khong chi doi hoi chdt lugng san pham phai tot ma gia ca phai ph...
.X.Budc thir chin: Theo doi su phat trien va bao ve thuang hieuDay la budc dam bao cho thuang hieu ben viing. Viec theo do...
CHirONG 2           THirC TRANG XAY DlTNG VA PH AT TRIEN THl/ONG HIEU       TAI CONG TY TNHH NHA NlTOfC MOT THANH VIEN THO...
Nhan dan Thanh ph6 Ha Noi quy^t djnh sap nhap Cong ty Xe dap ViHa, Cong ty Xe dap -Xe may Dong Da vao Cong ty Xe dap - Xe ...
lugng cao"; dugc tang thudng nhieu huy chuang vang trong cac ky hoi chg, trien lam trongnude va quoc te.Trong chi§n tranh,...
Chi trong 02 nam gan day Cong ty da phat trien them han 60 mat hang mdi vdi chat lugngcao, kieu dang, mlu ma dep, rieng xe...
khau cao. San pham mang thuang hieu dgc quyen Thong Nhat da co mat tai nhieu thj trudngthuoc cac nude Au - My va cac khu v...
Trong xu the chuyen minh, nen kinh te Viet Nam dang cd tdc do tang trudng, phat triin manh me md ra nhijng thuan lgi mdi t...
NGUYEN HUU SON_XAY DUNG VA PHAT TRIEN.pdf
NGUYEN HUU SON_XAY DUNG VA PHAT TRIEN.pdf
NGUYEN HUU SON_XAY DUNG VA PHAT TRIEN.pdf
NGUYEN HUU SON_XAY DUNG VA PHAT TRIEN.pdf
NGUYEN HUU SON_XAY DUNG VA PHAT TRIEN.pdf
NGUYEN HUU SON_XAY DUNG VA PHAT TRIEN.pdf
NGUYEN HUU SON_XAY DUNG VA PHAT TRIEN.pdf
NGUYEN HUU SON_XAY DUNG VA PHAT TRIEN.pdf
NGUYEN HUU SON_XAY DUNG VA PHAT TRIEN.pdf
NGUYEN HUU SON_XAY DUNG VA PHAT TRIEN.pdf
NGUYEN HUU SON_XAY DUNG VA PHAT TRIEN.pdf
NGUYEN HUU SON_XAY DUNG VA PHAT TRIEN.pdf
NGUYEN HUU SON_XAY DUNG VA PHAT TRIEN.pdf
NGUYEN HUU SON_XAY DUNG VA PHAT TRIEN.pdf
NGUYEN HUU SON_XAY DUNG VA PHAT TRIEN.pdf
NGUYEN HUU SON_XAY DUNG VA PHAT TRIEN.pdf
NGUYEN HUU SON_XAY DUNG VA PHAT TRIEN.pdf
NGUYEN HUU SON_XAY DUNG VA PHAT TRIEN.pdf
NGUYEN HUU SON_XAY DUNG VA PHAT TRIEN.pdf
NGUYEN HUU SON_XAY DUNG VA PHAT TRIEN.pdf
NGUYEN HUU SON_XAY DUNG VA PHAT TRIEN.pdf
NGUYEN HUU SON_XAY DUNG VA PHAT TRIEN.pdf
NGUYEN HUU SON_XAY DUNG VA PHAT TRIEN.pdf
NGUYEN HUU SON_XAY DUNG VA PHAT TRIEN.pdf
NGUYEN HUU SON_XAY DUNG VA PHAT TRIEN.pdf
NGUYEN HUU SON_XAY DUNG VA PHAT TRIEN.pdf
NGUYEN HUU SON_XAY DUNG VA PHAT TRIEN.pdf
NGUYEN HUU SON_XAY DUNG VA PHAT TRIEN.pdf
NGUYEN HUU SON_XAY DUNG VA PHAT TRIEN.pdf
NGUYEN HUU SON_XAY DUNG VA PHAT TRIEN.pdf
NGUYEN HUU SON_XAY DUNG VA PHAT TRIEN.pdf
NGUYEN HUU SON_XAY DUNG VA PHAT TRIEN.pdf
NGUYEN HUU SON_XAY DUNG VA PHAT TRIEN.pdf
NGUYEN HUU SON_XAY DUNG VA PHAT TRIEN.pdf
NGUYEN HUU SON_XAY DUNG VA PHAT TRIEN.pdf
NGUYEN HUU SON_XAY DUNG VA PHAT TRIEN.pdf
NGUYEN HUU SON_XAY DUNG VA PHAT TRIEN.pdf
NGUYEN HUU SON_XAY DUNG VA PHAT TRIEN.pdf
NGUYEN HUU SON_XAY DUNG VA PHAT TRIEN.pdf
NGUYEN HUU SON_XAY DUNG VA PHAT TRIEN.pdf
NGUYEN HUU SON_XAY DUNG VA PHAT TRIEN.pdf
NGUYEN HUU SON_XAY DUNG VA PHAT TRIEN.pdf
NGUYEN HUU SON_XAY DUNG VA PHAT TRIEN.pdf
NGUYEN HUU SON_XAY DUNG VA PHAT TRIEN.pdf
NGUYEN HUU SON_XAY DUNG VA PHAT TRIEN.pdf
NGUYEN HUU SON_XAY DUNG VA PHAT TRIEN.pdf
NGUYEN HUU SON_XAY DUNG VA PHAT TRIEN.pdf
NGUYEN HUU SON_XAY DUNG VA PHAT TRIEN.pdf
NGUYEN HUU SON_XAY DUNG VA PHAT TRIEN.pdf
NGUYEN HUU SON_XAY DUNG VA PHAT TRIEN.pdf
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NGUYEN HUU SON_XAY DUNG VA PHAT TRIEN.pdf

  1. 1. INTERNATIONAL EXECUTIVE MBA PROGRAM (leMBA) Chirang trinh cao hoc Quan trj kinh doanh Quoc teLUAN VAN TOT NGHIEP XAY DlTNG VA PHAT TRIEN THl/ONG HIEU TAI CONG TY TNHH NHA NlTOfC MOT THANH VIEN THONG NHAT NGUYEN HlTU SON IEMBA#3 THANG 05, 2007
  2. 2. INTERNATIONAL EXCUTIVE MBA PROGRAM (leMBA) Chirong trinh cao hoc Quan trj kinh doanh Quoc te BAN LUAN VAN NAY Dl/OC N Q P C H O TRlTdNG DAI HOC IRVINE (MY) VA KHOA QUAN TRI KINH DOANH (TRU"6NG DAI HOC QUOC GIA HA N O OBAN LUAN VAN LA M O T P H A N BAT BUQC TRONG CHUONG TRINH DAO TAO THAC SY Q U A N TRI KINH DOANH QUOC IE THANG 05- 2007
  3. 3. Phe duyet cua Chirong trinh Cao hoc quan trj kinh doanh quoc te Chu nhiem chuang trinhToi xac nhan rang ban khoa luan nay da dap ung duoc cac yeu cau mot khoa luan totnghiep thuoc chuang trinh dao tao Thac sy Quan tri kinh doanh. Chii tich Hoi dong PGS.TS. Vu Cong TyChung toi, ky ten duoi day xac nhan rang chung toi da doc toan bo khoa luan nay va congnhan ban khoa luan hoan toan dap ung cac tieu chuan cua mot khoa luan Thac sy quan trikinh doanh. Giaovj^iHTimng dan TS. Nguyen Viet AnhCac thanh vien Hoi dongNCS. HA NGUYENTS. VU XUAN QUANGTS. NGUYEN VIET ANHTS. CHU THANH
  4. 4. CAM KET Toi xin cam ket rang noi dung cua ban luan van nay chua dugc nop cho bat ky motchuang trinh cap bang cao hoc nao cung nhu bat ky mot chuang trinh dao tao cap bang naokhac. Toi cung xin cam ket them rang ban luan van nay la no luc ca nhan cua toi. Cac ketqua, phan tich, ket luan trong luan van nay (ngoai cac phan dugc trich dan) deu la ket qualam viec ciia ca nhan toi. Hoc vien Nguyen Hitu San
  5. 5. LCn CAM ON Truac tien toi mudn gui lai cam an tai Khoa Quan trj Kinh doanh Quoc te HSB - Daihoc Qu6c Gia Ha Noi, truang Dai hoc IRVINE (Hoa Ky) va cac giang vien da giup dachung toi trong qua trinh hoc tap, giup chung toi tap hop cac kien thuc c6 san thanh he thongd6 nang cao, cap nhat kien thuc mai, trang bj cho chung toi kien thuc day du de c6 the hoanthanh tot han cong viec cua minh. Toi xin chan thanh cam an giang vien TS. Nguyen Viet Anh, nguai da true tiep giuptoi trong viec tim de tai, tim kiem tai lieu tham khao ciing nhu giup toi sap xep, bo cue laicac nghien cuu, phan tich de ban khoa luan hoan chinh dugc nhu hien nay. Viec hoan thanh de tai nay nha vao tai lieu cua nhieu nha nghien cuu khoa hoc trongva ngoai nuac ve xay dung va phat trien thuang hieu. Toi xin gitri lai cam an tai cac tac giaPhilip Kotler, AlRies & Laura Ries, Richard Moore, Nguyen Canh Ch4t, Ly Quy Chung vamot so tac gia khac. Toi cung xin cam an cac ban hoc va cac cong su da giup do toi trong qua trinh khaosat, thu thap tai lieu va dong gop mot so y kien trong qua trinh nghien cuu, phan tich cua toi. Xin cam an Hoi dong bao ve Khoa luan da c6 nhung y kien quy bau d^ toi tiep tuchoan thien Khoa luan nay. Tran trong cam an! Hoc vien
  6. 6. MUC LUC • •PHANMODAU / Sycan thiet cua nghien ciru de tai 1 Muc dich nghien ciru de tai 2 Muc tieu nghien ciru 2 PhuCng phap nghien cvtu 3 Ket cau noi dung 3CHlfONGI CHirONG 1. CO S d LY LUAN VE THlTONG HIEU 5 1.1 Tong quan ve thycng hieu 5 1.1.1 Khdi niem ve thuang hieu 1.1.2 Cac yeu to cau thanh cua thuang hieu 7 1.1.3 Nguyen tac ca ban khi xdy dung thuang hieu 1.2 Cac chirc nang cua thuang hieu ^ 1.2.1 Phan dogn thi truang ^ 7.2.2 Phan biet vai cdc sdnphdm cung logi khdc 9 1.2.3 Dua sdnphdm khdc sdu vdo tarn trikhdch hang 1.2.4 Tgo nen dinh huang va y nghia cho sdn pham 1.2.5 La mot cam kit giita nha sdn xudt vai khdch hang 1.3 Cac heat dong c6 anh hyang quyet dinh den thuang hieu 1.3.1 Chia tdch, sap nhgp va mua ban thuang hieu ^^ 1.3.2 Nhugng quyen thuang hieu (Franchise) ^^ 1.3.2.1 Franchise la gi? ^^
  7. 7. 1.3.2.2 Tai sao nen ban franchise? ,- 1. 3.2.3 Tai sao nen mua franchise ,o 1.4 Nhirng bien phap thuang dugc su* dung nham xay dung va phat trien thuang hieu 1.4.1 Qudng cdo ^^ 1.4.1.1 Sa luac ve quang cao ^0 1.4.1.2 Xay dung chuang trinh quang cao 21 1.4.2 Quan he cong chung 28 1.4.2.1 Khainiem 28 1.4.2.2 Dae diem cua PR 29 1.4.2.3 Hoat dong PR ciang c6 nhijng han che nhat djnh 30 1.4.2.4 Chien luac quan he cong chung 30 1.4.2.5 Noi dung caban cua hoat dong PR 31 1.4.3 Xu huang sir dung qudng cdo vd quan he cong chung lam phuang tien de phdt trien thuang hieu 34 1.5 Gia tri thuang hieu, su can thiet phai xay dung va phat trien thuang hieu 36 1.6 Quy trinh xay dung va phat trien thuang hieu 37CHlfONGII THlfC TRANG XAYDUNG VA PHAT TRIEN THl/ONG HIEU TAI CONG TY TNHH NHA NlfOC MOT THANH VIEN THONG NHAT... 44 2.1 Doi net ve Cong ty TNHH Nha nuac mot thanh vien Thong Nhat 44 2.2 Dieu kien kinh te, chinh tri, xa hoi Viet Nam 4S 2.3 Tong quan ve thj truang xe dap toan cau 30 2.3.1 Thi truang xe dgp the gim SQ
  8. 8. 2.3.2 Thi truang xe dgp Viet Nam 57 2.4 Dae diem va mo hinh to chuc Cong ty Thong Nhat 51 2.5 LTnh vuc kinh doanh 54 2.6 Thj phan 55 2.7 Mang luai phan phoi va dich vu hau mai ^o 2.7.7 Triet ly kinh doanh vd van hod doanh nghiep ^Q 2.7.2 Net van hod dgc trung 57 2.8 Tinh hinh thuc hien xay dung va phat trien thuang hieu tai Cong ty TNHH Nha nuac mot thanh vien Thong Nhat 62 2.8.1 Nhirng ket qua da dgt dugc 62 2.8.2 Nhirng mat chua dugc 70CHlfONGIH KE HOACH VA GIAI PHAP THlTC HIEN THANH CONG CHIEN Ll/OC XAY DUTVG VA PHAT TRIEN THlTONG HIEU TAI CONG TY TNHH NHA NlTO^C MOT THANH VIEN THONG NHAT 71 3.1 Ke hoach Marketing 73 3.2 Cahoi va thach thuc. Lai the va han che ton tai 77 3.2.1 Ca hoi 77 3.2.2 Thdch thirc vd kho khan 78 3.2.3 Lai the, diem mgnh -o 3.2.4 Han che, ton tai 79 3.3 Muc tieu chien luac ve xay dung va phat trien thuang hieu cua Cong ty Thong Nhat giaidoan 2 0 0 7 - 2 0 1 0
  9. 9. 3.3.1 Tdm nhin 803.3.2 Muc tieu 803.3.3 Chien luge xdy dung vd phdt trien thuang hieu 2007-2010 813.3.4 Doi tugng khdch hang muc tieu tiem nang 823.4 Cac giai phap thuc hien thanh cong muc tieu chien luac xay dung va phat trien thuang hieu tai Cong ty TNHH Nha nude mot thanh vien Thong Nhat 2007-2010 843.4.1 Xdc dinh ro dgc diem tdm ly khdch hang vd khdch hang muc tieu 843.4 2 Xdc dinh vd nam vimgdgc diem, tinh hinh doi thu cgnh tranh 863.4.3 Xdc dinh ro vd dinh huang dung muc tieu chien luge 873.4.4 Nang cao chat lugng dich vu vd phuc vu khdch hang 883.4.5 Xdy dung vd qudng bd sdu rong hinh dnh Cong ty on3.4.6 Thuang xuyen cung cap sdn pham ddm bao chdt lugng chuan g^3.4.7 Thuang xuyen kiem tra, gidm sat qua trinh thuc hien muc tieu vd ke hogch xdydung vd phdt trien thuang hieu 923.4.8 Ap dung triet de quy trinh xdy dung vd phdt trien thuang hieu3.5 Ke hoach hanh dong 933.6 Han che cua khoa luan ^^3.7 KIEN NGHI VA KET L U A N ^, 94PHULUC 97
  10. 10. PHAN MO DAUTen de tai XAY DlTNG VA PHAT TRIEN THl/ONG HIEU TAI CONG TY TNHH NHA NlTdC MOT THANH VIEN THONG NHATSu can thiet cua nghien cuu de taiChua bao gia thuang hieu lai tra thanh mot chu de thai sir dugc cac doanh nghiep, cac caquan quan ly Nha nuac, cac hiep hoi quan tam mot each dac biet nhu hien nay. Da la doanhnghiep thi khong c6 mot doanh nghiep nao khong bo cong sue va tien cua de xay dung, duytri va phat trien thuang hieu.Cac doanh nghiep tren the giai tu lau da nhan biet sau sac rang thuang hieu la phuang tienghi nhan va the hien thanh qua cua doanh nghiep, no nang cao Igi the canh tranh va dem laisu phat trien ben vung cho doanh nghiep, khong nhirng the thuang hieu la mot tai san hetsue to Ian. Vi du: thuang hieu Coca-Cola dugc dinh gia 67ty USD, Microsoft - 56,9 ty USD,IBM 56 ty USD... a Viet Nam, mot so thuang hieu cung da dugc djnh gia va chuyennhugng, chang han kern danh rang Da Lan dugc hang Colgate cua My mua lai vai gia xap xi3 trieu USD.Mac du vay, vai nhieu doanh nghiep trong nuac, viec tao dung va quan trj thuang hieu vancon la mot van de xa la va mai me. Khong it doanh nghiep chi cham chut san xuat ra sanpham ma chua khai thac, tham chi de lang phi, mat mat tai san khdng 16 von c6 do khonghoac chua xay dung dugc thuang hieu. Mot so doanh nghiep khac quan niem dan gian, taodung thuang hieu chi thuan tuy la dat cho san pham mot cai ten, khong nhan thuc dky dudugc rang de c6 mot thuang hieu c6 gia tri thi do la ca mot qua trinh bhn bi, vai nhirng nolire lien tuc va can dugc trg giup bai cac phuang phap va ky nang chuyen biet.
  11. 11. Qua thuc tien ciia nhieu doanh nghiep cho thay va c6 the noi xay dung thuang hieu tot thikinh doanh tot. Rot cue, neu chung ta khong c6 thuang hieu tot, thi se khong c6 danh tiengva Igi nhuan, khong the canh tranh va tham chi khong the ton tai...Xay dung thuang hieu vua c6 y nghla khoa hoc vira c6 y nghTa thuc tien rat cao cho doanhnghiep noi chung va cong ty TNHH Nha nuac mot thanh vien Thong Nhat noi rieng. Xuatphat tu thuc te noi tren, toi lua chgn de tai: "Xay dung va phat trien thuang hieu tai Cong tyTNHH Nha nuac mot thanh vien Thong Nhat" lam khoa luan tot nghiep chuang trinh Caohoc Quan tn kinh doanh quoc te cua minh. Vai mong muon dugc ap dung nhung kien thucda ti8p thu dugc qua khoa hoc, cung vai nhung kien thuc thu dugc qua thuc te de phan tichva danh gia de xuat cac giai phap trong viec xay dung thuang hieu ciia Cong ty TNHH Nhanuac mot thanh vien Thong Nhat trong thai gian tai giup Cong ty nang cao kha nang canhtranh trong moi truang kinh te hoi nhap.Muc dich nghien cuu de taiCung c6 va nang cao nhan thuc ve ly luan thuang hieu noi chung, dac biet la van de xaydung, duy tri va phat trien thuang hieu.Van dung c6 hieu qua ly luan vao thuc tien, dac biet la ung dung hieu qua vao qua trinh xaydung, duy tri va phat trien thuang hieu cho Cong ty TNHH Nha nuac mot thanh vien ThongNhit.Muc tieu de taiNghien cuu lam ro ca sa ly luan ve thuang hieu, noi dung xay dung, duy tri va phat trienthuang hieu.Nghien cuu lam ro thuc trang xay dung thuang hieu cua Cong ty TNHH Nha nuac motthanh vien Thong Nhat. Cac giai phap nham nang cao hieu qua xay dung, duy tri va phat
  12. 12. trien thuang hieu tai Cong ty TNHH Nha nuac mot thanh vien Thong Nhat noi rieng cungnhu cac doanh nghiep Viet Nam noi chung.Phuong phap nghien cuu * Phuang phap chuyen gia, tu vanDe khoa luan dat chat lugng mong muon, khoa luan su dung phuang phap chuyen gia tu vankk hop vai khao sat, thu nhap, phan tich thong tin sa cap va thu c4p.* Phuang phap nghien cuu, thu thap du lieu qua cac tai lieuTai lieu nghien cuu la nguon thong tin v6 cung quan trong, giup cho ban than c6 tong hgpkien thuc da chieu ve ly luan tren ca sa so sanh va rut ra cac van de trong tam cho noi dungkhoa luan.Ket cau noi dungChuang 1. Ca sa ly luan ve thuang hieu1.1 Tong quan ve thuang hieu1.2 Cac chuc nang cua thuang hieu1.3 Cac hoat dong c6 anh huang quyet djnh den thuang hieu1.4 Nhung bien phap thuang dugc sir dung nham xay dung va phat trien thuang hieu.1.5 Gia tn thuang hieu, sir can thiet phai xay dung va phat trien thuang hieu1.6 Cac buac xay dung va phat trien thuang hieu.Chuang 2:Thuc trang xay dung va phat trien thuang hieu tai Cong ty TNHH nha nuacmot thanh vien Thong Nhat2.1 Doi net ve Cong ty TNHH Nha nuac mot thanh vien Thong Nhat2.2 Dieu kien kinh te, chinh tn, xa hoi Viet Nam2.3 Tong quan ve thi truang xe dap toan cau
  13. 13. 2.3.1 Thj truang xe dap the giai 2.3.2 Thj truang xe dap Viet Nam2.4 Dac diem va mo hinh to chuc Cong ty2.5 LTnh vuc kinh doanh2.6 Thj phan cua Cong ty2.7 Mang luai phan phoi va dich vu hau mai 2.7.1 Triet ly kinh doanh va van hoa doanh nghiep 2.7.2 Net van hoa dac trung cua Cong ty TNHH Nha nuac mot thanh vien Thong Nhat2.8 Tinh hinh thuc hien xay dung va phat trien thuang hieu tai Cong ty TNHHNha nuac mot thanh vien Thong Nhat 2.8.1 NhUng ket qua da dat dugc 2.8.2 Nhung mat chua dugcChuang 3. Ke hoach va giai phap thuc hien thanh cong chien luge xay dung va phat trienthuang hieu tai Cong ty TNHH Nha nuac mot thanh vien Thong Nhat3.1 Ke hoach Marketing3.2 Co hoi va thach thuc. Lgi the va han che ton tai3.3 Muc tieu chien luge ve xay dung va phat trien thuang hieu cua Cong ty Thong Nhat giaidoan 2007-20103.4 Giai phap thuc hien thanh cong muc tieu chien luge xay dung va phat trien thuang hieutai Cong ty TNHH Nha nuac mot thanh vien Thdng Nhat 2007-20103.5 Ke hoach hanh dong3.6 Han che cua khoa luan3.7 Kien nghi va ket luan
  14. 14. CHirONG 1. CO Sd LY LUAN VE THl/ONG HIEU1.1 Tong quan ve thuang hieu1.1.1 Khai niem ve thuang hieuThuang hieu da xuat hien each day hang the ky vai y nghTa de phan biet hang hoa cua cacnha san xuAt khac nhau. Chung ta c6 the de dang tim kiem cac djnh nghTa khac nhau vethuang hieu tren cac phuang tien thong tin dai chung va cac tai lieu tham khao.Theo Hiep hoi Marketing Hoa Ky: Thuang hieu la "mot cai ten, tu ngu, ky hieu, bieutugng, hinh ve thiet ke... hoac tap hgp cac yeu to tren nham xac djnh va phan biet hanghoa, dich vu cua mot ngucvi hoac mot nhom ngucri ban hang hoa va djch vu cua doi thucanh tranh".Theo chu giai thuat ngu thuang hieu cua Richard Moore: "Thuang hieu la tong hgp tat cacac yeu to vat chat, tham my, ly le va cam xiic cua mot san pham hoac mot dong sanpham, bao gom ban than san pham, ten goi, logo, hinh anh va moi su the hien hinhanh, dan qua thai gian tao dung ro rang trong tam tri khach hang nham thiet lap motcho dung tai do".Rieng toi rat an tugng vai khai niem: "Thuang hieu chinh la uy tin cua san pham, djchvu do doanh nghiep cung cap den nguai tieu diing va hinh anh ve san pham, djch vuhoac doanh nghiep dugc luu lai trong tam tri nguai tieu dung thong qua nhan hieuhang hoa, kieu dang cong nghiep, ten thuang mai, chi dan dja ly, ten goi xuat xu hoaccac yeu to khac nhu doan nhac, cau khan hieu..."
  15. 15. Xet ve ban chat thi thuang hieu dugc xay dung chu yeu nham giup khach hang de dang nhanbiet dugc san pham, qua do giup cho doanh nghiep nhan lai dugc gia trj cong sue cua minhnha no lire dap ung tot nhat nhu cau khach hang.1.1.2 Cac yeu to cau thanh cua thuang hieu:Cac yeu to thuang hieu cua mot san pham dugc phap luat bao ho dual dang la cac doi tugngsa huu tri tue nhu: nhan hieu hang hoa, ten thuang mai, ten goi xuat xu hang hoa, chi dandja ly, kieu dang cong nghiep va ban quyen. Nhu vay nhin chung thuang hieu bao g6m cacyeu to:-Ten thuang hieu- Bieu tugng- Kieu dang bao bi nhan mac- Cac khau hieu triet ly kinh doanh- Mot so yeu to khacTen thuang hieu:Ten goi san pham/ djch vu cua cac ca nhan va to chuc dung trong hoat dong kinh doanh, baogom mot tap hgp cac chu cai, cac chij* s6, c6 the phat am dugc va c6 kha nang phan biet sanpham cua chu the kinh doanh nay vai chu the kinh doanh khac. Dong thai ten thuang hieucung la mot sir djnh danh san phim, hang hoa cua cong ty th^ hien tren bao bi, bieu hieuquang cao va truyen thong trong moi quan he giao djch thuang mai. Trong mot s6 truanghgp ten cong ty dugc dung cho ten toan bg san pham (Vi du: Cong ty Xich lip Dong Anh,Olimpic Pro...); Truang hgp khac, cac nha san xuat dat ten thuang hieu cho cac san ph4mmai ma khong lien quan tai ten cong ty nhu Xe dap Sport, xe dap BMX muourtain.
  16. 16. - Bi^u tugng: Bao gom cac dau hieu, hinh ve cung cac to hgp mau sac, khong phat am nhungC kha nang phan biet, tugng trung cho hinh anh san pham/ djch vu cua cong ty. O- Ki6u dang bao bi, nhan mac: Khong chi giup khach hang phan biet va nhan dien san phamma con giup th€ hien ca tinh san pham. Han the niia, no con giup truyen dat nhirng yeu tokhong nhin thay hoac kho nhin thay cua san pham.- Khau hieu kinh doanh: Bao gom mot tap hgp tu hoac mot doan van sue tich chua dung vatruyen tai nhung thong tin mang tinh mo ta va thuyet phuc ve thuang hieu. Cau khau hieuthuang dugc su dung kem ten thuang hieu va bieu tugng quang cao.Xay dung dugc mot khau hieu tot c6 the gia tang sue thuyet phuc doi vai khach hang va velau dai c6 the giup khach hang djnh vj triet ly kinh doanh cua cong ty.- Cac y§u t6 khac nhu logo, nhac dieu... ciang gop phan cau thanh nen mot thuang hieu.1.1.3 Nguyen tic ca ban khi xay dung thuang hieuTuy thuoc vao thj truang muc tieu, chien luge cua doanh nghiep, vi the canh tranh va cacy6u t6 moi truang tiep thj, doanh nghiep c6 the xay dung thuang hieu cho he san pham cuaminh. Tuy nhien, ve mat ky thuat can phai can nhac ky truac khi ra quyet dinh cuoi cung.Thuang hieu phai ngan gon, sue tich, de nhaDay la dieu kien het sue can thiet de tao nhan thuc cua thuang hieu doi vai nguai tieu dung.Tu ten goi, bieu tugng, kieu chir... phai dam bao hai yeu to ca ban: de chap nhan va de gginha (vi du nhu: xe dap VIHA, xe dap ASAMA). Do vay trong qua trinh thiet ke thuang hieucan tien hanh nghien cuu thu nghiem hai yeu to tren dua vao nhom khach hang muc tieu duki^n.
  17. 17. Thuang hieu phai c6 y nghTa va ggi camDe C thi gay 4n tugng va tac dong vao tam tri cua khach hang, thuang hieu cung phai Ochuyen cha mot y nghTa xac dinh. Muon vay thuang hieu phai dong thai c6 yeu to mo ta (thidu ggi cho nguai dgc nghT tai mot dac tinh noi bat nao do cua san pham, tinh thuyet phuc),nhan manh lgi ich san pham mang lai, vi!ra phai c6 nhung net vui ve, thu vi (y nghTa cauchu...) vua C tinh hinh tugng cao, gay cam xuc tham my. Vi du nhu Xe dap GIANT - nghTa Ola "nguai khong 15".Thuang hieu c6 tinh de bao hoNguyen tic nay dugc thS hien a hai khia canh: Phap luat va canh tranh. Muon vay can phai:(1) Chon cac y6u t6 thuang hieu de bao ho, ve mat phap luat tren ca sa quoc te; (2) Dang kychinh thuc thuang hieu vai ca quan phap luat; (3) Bao ve manh me thuang hieu chong sirxam hai ban quy^n va (4) Sir dung bi quyet rieng trong thiet ke de tranh sir bat chuac cua doithu. Vi du nhu SHIMANO hay PEUGEOT.Thuang hieu phai c6 tinh de thich ungDo kha nang thay doi cua thj hieu khach hang hoac su chuyen huang thj truang muc tieu,doanh nghiep phai sin sang cho nhijng su dieu chinh can thiet, vi vay tinh linh hoat va de caitien, de cap nhat cua thuang hieu la mot yeu to khong the bo qua. Thi du bieu tugng (logo)hoac cac dac tinh ciia thuang hieu cung phai de thay doi de tao hinh thuc bat mat hem, hiendai han (Xe dap MATIN).Thuang hieu phai co tinh de trien khai, khuyech truangMa rong thj truang ra nhiing phan khuc mai hoac nhirng khu vuc van hoa, dja ly khac nhau,ke ca thj truang quoc te la xu huang cua hau het doanh nghiep trong tuang lai. Do do khongthe xem nhe kha nang su dung thuang hieu tren nhung thj truang do. Muon vay khi thiet ke 8
  18. 18. thuang hieu, cin luu y viec phat am ten goi c6 the qu6c te hoa dugc khong, cac dac tinh hinhanh C phu hgp vai cac vung van hoa khac nhau khong... Nhu the, mot cai ten l<ii6ng c6 dau Otieng Viet c6 th6 thich hgp han va mot logo dan gian c6 the se de phat trien han (xe dapSIMANO, xe dap MATIN, xe JEP hay xe NEVADA).1.2 Cae chuc nang cua thuang hieu1.2.1 Phan doan thj truangThuang hieu c6 vai tro tich cue trong chien luge phan doan thj truang. Cac cong ty dua ramot t6 hgp cac thuoc tinh ly tuang ve cac the manh, lgi ich va dac trung cua san pham hoacdich vu sao cho chung phu hgp vai nhu cau tung nhom khach hang cu the. Do do, cong ty sephai tao ra nhijng diu hieu va su khac biet nhat dinh tren san pham cua minh de thu hutkhach hang tiem nang. Muon dat dugc yeu cau do thuang hieu phai tra lai cac cau hoi sau:- San pham hoac djch vu c6 nhijng thuoc tinh gi?- San pham hoac djch vu c6 nhung the manh gi?- San pham hoac dich vu dem lai nhij-ng lgi ich gi?- San pham hoac djch vu tugng trung cho cai gi?1.2.2 Phan biet vcri cac san pham cung loai khacMot so nguai cho rang cac san pham cung mot loai la giong nhau, chung chi khac nhau vethuang hieu ma thoi. Thuang hieu khong the chi dan thuan nhu mot ten goi hay mot bieutugng, hinh anh minh hoa tren san pham ma con bieu hien cho sir nang dong, sang tao,khong ngimg doi mai. Hom nay la san pham A, mai la san pham B, ngay kia la san pham C,cu the lien tuc doi mai, cong hien cho nguai tieu dung. Vi vay, tao dung mot thuang hieu
  19. 19. doi hoi phai c6 thai gian va mot su khac biet. San pham c6 the ton tai hay mat di nhungthuang hieu van con song mai.1.2.3 Dua san pham khac sau vao tam tri khach hangThuang hieu chi c6 the cam nhan dugc qua phan hon cua san pham va cac chuang trinhquang cao ve no. Noi dung cua san pham se dugc khach hang biet va cam nhan thong quacac hoat dong nay vai dieu kien no phai dugc truyen tai mot each nhat quan cung vai thongdiep.Cam nhan dugc ve mot san pham trong sir hinh thanh nhan thuc ve mot thuang hieu va nogiai thich tai sao hinh anh ve mot thuang hieu c6 the ton tai tu the he nay sang the he khac.Do do, viec nhan biet mot thuang hieu ngay hom nay se van tiep tuc anh huang tai nhanthuc cua chung ta ve san pham tuang lai. Vi du nhu nhiing nguai tung su dung loai xe dapPEUGEOT noi tieng cua Phap tir 30 den 40 nam truac roi den xe may PEUJOT va otoPEUJOT bay gia.1.2.4 Tao nen dinh huong va y nghla cho san phamThuang hieu phai chua dung trong no nhung thong tin ve san pham. Mot thuang hieu lanngoai viec thiet lap mot thong diep cua san pham tai khach hang phai con c6 kha nang thichung vai thai dai va thay doi linh hoat theo thj hieu khach hang cung nhu tien bo cong nghe.Thuang hieu nay c6 the quan tam tai viec nang cao do ben cua san pham trong khi thuanghieu khac lai muon phat huy tinh huu dung hay cai tien mau ma san pham.VI du: trong ITnh vuc xe dap, thuang hieu SHIMANO noi tieng cua Nhat c6 y nghTa la bin,dep va dang tin cay, gan lien vai hinh anh nguai Nhat can cu, sang tao lien tuc d6i mai duacong nghe phuc vu con nguai. 10
  20. 20. 1.2.5 La mot cam ket giua nha san xuat vdi khach hangCung vai thai gian va nhiing no lire khong ngirng, thuang hieu ngay cang tra nen c6 uy tintren thi truang. Nhung chuang trinh quang ba thuang hieu thuc su dugc xem nhu mot camket truac khach hang. Neu cong ty thuc hien dung nhung gi cam ket vai khach hang va demden cho khach hang su thoa man khi tieu dung san pham thi chac chan thucmg hieu se nhandugc nhirng cam nhan tot dep va sir trung thanh tu phia khach hang.Cam ket ma mot thuang hieu dua ra mang tinh djnh tinh, no thoa man nhiing uac muon vaky vong cua khach hang va chi c6 khach hang la nguai cam nhan va danh gia. Xe dapGIANT, xe dap Phugng Hoang cua Trung Quoc, xe dap MIFA cua Due, Nhat Ban, xe dapFAVOURIT cua Cong hoa Sec...Tuy nhien nhung cam ket nay lai khong mang tinh rang bupc truac cong chung ve mat phaply. Do do, chung ta can phan biet giua thuang hieu va cac dau hieu khac ve quan ly chatlugng nhu nhan hang hoa (label) hay tem bao dam hoac dau hieu chung nhan chat lugng.Nhan hang hoa hoac dau chung nhan chat lugng la mot cong cu cong bo va cam ket chinhthuc rang san pham thoa man tat ca cac thanh phan, tinh chat... ma cac ca quan quan ly Nhanuac hoac nha san xuat dat ra theo mot bang chi tieu chat lugng san pham.1.3 Cac hoat dong co anh huang quyet djnh den thuang hieu.1.3.1 Chia tach, sap nhap va mua ban thuang hieuTren thuc te, nhieu doanh nghiep dugc mua lai hoac bj chia tach hoac ban di mot s6 thuanghieu san pham cua no cho cac doi tac khac hoac nhugng quyen sir dung kieu dang congnghiep, phat minh sang che, giai phap hiju ich... vi the dan den viec nha quan tn thuang hieuphai tinh toan dugc gia tri thuang hieu trong qua trinh chuyen doi nay va thuc hien cac chiln 11
  21. 21. luge hgp ly trong giai doan co bien dong vi chua tach hay sat nhap. De lam dugc dieu naycan C su danh gia khach quan tu ben ngoai ve gia tri thuang hieu ma cong ty dang sa huu Odk tai san thuang hieu dugc chia tach minh bach.Doi vai cac thuang hieu dugc mua lai, nguai ta khong muon hinh anh thuang hieu bj kiemsoat bai nguai khac, vi the thuang la mua dut hoac co mot qua trinh chuyen giao de ben doitac C the thich ung. Trong truang hgp tiep can mot thj truang mai a nuac ngoai thi lira Ochon mua lai mot thuang hieu san pham cung loai thong thuang dugc ua chuong vi no chophep tiet kiem thai gian va cong sue de xay dung hinh anh va he thong kenh phan phoi mai.Sau khi tiep quan la viec chuan hi cho mot chien luge doi mai thuang hieu tir thuang hieucu. Do la truang hgp budc dau tham nhap vao thj truang tieu dung Viet Nam, Elida da quyetdjnh mua lai P/S vai gia 5 trieu USD de co dugc toan bo he thong kenh phan phoi thay vixay dung lai tir dau. Sau nay Cong ty TNHH Elida P/S lai dugc giai the va sat nhap cung vaiCong ty Unilever Bestfoods de thanh lap doanh nghiep 100% von nuac ngoai vai tong sovon dang ky la 54,6 trieu USD va ten la Cong ty TNHH Bestfoods va Elida P/S.Cac cong ty toan cau dang dja phuang hoa hinh anh cua ho thong qua cac vu mua lai va doikhi viec nhung hinh anh qua thanh cong a vung dat nay khong phai la thich hgp tren motvung dat mai. Van de dat ra a day la da so cac cong ty Viet Nam co thuang hieu vai pham vianh huang kha nho va dia phuang nen viec xac dinh gia trj toan cau la rat th^p. Tren thjtruang co phieu, co phan cua mot so thuang hieu dugc mua di ban lai thuang xuyen nhungluon xay ra hien tugng thj truang thong tin khong can xung do co thj truang c6 philu nhungchua C thj truang thong tin, vi the viec xac djnh gia tn mot tai san thuang hieu tai Viet Nam Ola mot quyet djnh khong dan gian do thieu thong tin can thiet. Truang hgp doanh nghiepmuon ban thucmg hieu thi ho can phai can nhac that ky cang vi gia trj hien tai cua thuang 12
  22. 22. hieu rdt kho xac dinh, no dang nSm trong nhan thuc bien doi cua khach hang muc tieu. Chonen khi ban hay mua mot thuang hieu nguai ta deu phai tien hanh danh gia lai long trungthanh cua khach hang, sue manh thuang hieu va dong luc dang sau hanh dong mua lai do.1.3.2 Nhugng quyen thuang hieu (Franchise)1.3.2.1 Franchise la gi?Tu Franchise co nguon goc tu" tieng Phap la "Franc" co nghTa la "free" (tu do). Franchise lamot phuang thuc nhan rong thuang hieu, nhan rong mo hinh kinh doanh co xuat xu tu ChauAu each day ca tram nam nhung lai phat trien manh nhat tai My. Theo dinh nghTa tu tu dienAnh - Viet cua Vien ngon ngil hoc thi fran - chise co nghTa la nhugng quyen kinh doanh haycho phep sai do chinh thuc dugc ban hang hoa djch vu cua mot cong ty a mot khu vuc cu thenao do. Con theo djnh nghTa cua tu dien Webster thi Fanchise la mot dac quyen hay ban sanpham cua chu thuang hieu. Noi khac han thi Franchise la mot phuang thuc tiep thj va phanphoi mot san pham hay djch vu dua tren moi quan he giija hai doi tac; mot ben goi lafranchior (ben nhugng quyen hay chu thuang hieu) va mot ben goi la Franchisee (ben dugcnhugng hay mua Franchise). Hai ben doi tac nay se ky mot hgp dong, goi la hgp dongfranchise.Do do Cling C djnh nghTa cho rang franchise la mot loai hgp dong, thoa thuan giira hai ben, OC the bang van viet hay noi. Vi du: Hoi dong Thuang mai Lien bang Hoa Ky (Federal Trad OCommission) djnh nghTa franchise nhu sau: "Franchise la mot hgp dong hay mot thoa thuangiira it nhat hai nguai, trong do: Nguai mua franchise dugc cap quyen ban hay mot thoathuan giua it nhat hai nguai, trong do: Nguai mua franchise dugc cap quyen ban hay phanphoi san pham, djch vu theo cung mot ke hoach hay he thong tiep thj cua nguai chu thuanghieu. Hoat dong kinh doanh cua nguai mua Franchise phai triet de tuan theo ke hoach hay he 13
  23. 23. thong tiep thi nay gan lien vai nhan hieu, thuang hieu, bieu tugng, khau hieu, tieu chi, quangcao va nhirng bieu tugng thuang mai khac cua chu thuang hieu. Nguai mua Franchise phaitra mot khoan phi, true tiep hay gian tiep, goi la phi Franchise".Dii C kha nhieu djnh nghTa khac nhau ve thuat ngu Franchise nhung noi chung hinh thuc Okinh doanh Franchise van thuang nam trong hai lai dien hinh sau day: Nhugng quyen phanph6i san pham (product distribution franchise) hoac nhugng quyen sir dung cong thuc dieukien (business format franchise).Doi vai hinh thuc nhugng quyen phan phoi san pham, ben mua franchise thuang khong nhandugc su ho trg dang ke nao tu phia chu thuang hieu ngoai trir dugc phep sir dung ten nhanhieu (trade mark), thuang hieu (trade name), bieu tugng (logo) va phan phoi san pham haydich vu cua ben chu thuang hieu trong mot pham vi khu vuc va thai gian nhat djnh. Dieunay co nghTa la ben mua se quan ly dieu hanh cua hang nhugng quyen cua minh kha doc lap,it bj rang buoc nhieu bai nhung quy djnh tu phia chu thuang hieu. Ben mua franchise trongtruang hgp nay tham chi co the che bien cung each phuc vu va kinh doanh theo y minh.Hinh thuc nhugng quyen nay tuang tu vai kinh doanh cap phep (licensing) ma trong do chuthuang hieu quan tam nhieu den viec phan phoi san pham cua minh va khong quan tamnhieu den hoat dong hang ngay hay tieu chuan hinh thuc cua cua hang nhugng quyen. Do domoi quan he giixa chu thuang hieu va nguai mua franchise la mdi quan he nha cung c4p vanha phan phoi va pho bien nhat tai phuang Tay la cac tram xang dau, cac dai ly ban oto vacac cong ty san xuat nuac giai khat Coca - Cola hay Pepsi.Thuang hieu ca phe Gloria Jeans cua My di vao thj truang Uc bang con duang nhugngquyen nhu the nay. Doanh nhan Peter Irvine sau khi mua nhugng quyen su dung thuanghieu doc quyen vao nam 1996 da quyet dinh cai tien va bo sung mo hinh kinh doanh nguyen 14
  24. 24. thuy cua Gloria Jeans la thay vi chi ban thuan tuy ca phe bgt dugc cung cap bai chii thuanghieu Gloria Jeans tai uc lai chu trong phuc vu khach uong ca phe tai cho. Mo hinh nay saudo da dugc ti6p tuc nhan rong khap nuac Uc thong qua hinh thuc ban franchise va thanhcong den noi cac cua hieu Gloria Jeans tai My cung da chuyen doi mo hinh goc cua minhtheo phien ban tai Uc.Ddi vai hinh thuc nhugng quyen su dung cong thuc kinh doanh ma co the tom tat la nhugngquyen kinh doanh thi hgp dong nhugng quyen bao gom them viec chuyen giao ky thuat kinhdoanh va cong thuc dieu hanh quan ly. Cac chuan muc cua mo hinh kinh doanh phai tuyetdoi dugc giij" dung. Moi lien he va hgp tac giiia ben ban va ben mua franchise phai rat chatche va lien tuc, day ciang la hinh thuc nhugng quyen pho bien va hieu qua nhat hien nay.Ben mua franchise co the la khoan phi tron goi mot lan, cung co the la khoan phi hang thangdua tren doanh so va cung co the la tong hgp luon hai khoan phi ke tren. Tat ca tuy vao uytin thuang hieu, su thuang lugng va chu truang cua chu thuang hieu. Vi du: neu dugcnhugng quyen kinh doanh mot cua hang thuc an nhanh Me Donalds noi tieng the giai cuaMy vao thai diem nam 2005, ben mua franchise phai tra mot khoan phi nhugng quyen bandau la 45.000USD va phi franchise hang thang la 1,9% tren doanh so.1.3.2.2 Tai sao nen ban franchise?Nhan rong mo hinh kinh doanhCo le hau het doanh nghiep nao cung muon nhan rong mo hinh kinh doanh cua minh mot khida dugc chung minh la thanh cong. Kho khan lan nhat thuang lien quan den ngan sach haykha nang tai chinh, vi doanh nghiep nao du thanh cong den dau cung co mot giai han, dacbiet la khi doanh nghiep muon dua thuang hieu minh vuan ra khoi ranh giai mot thanh phohay quoc gia. Ngoai van de ngan sach, cac yeu to khac nhu yeu to dja ly, con nguai, ki§n 15
  25. 25. thuc va van hoa dja phuang... cung la nhung tra ngai khong nho. Phuang thuc nhugng quyen kinh doanh se giup doanh nghiep chu thuang hieu chia se nhung kho khan neu tren cho ben mua franchise, ben se chju toan bo phan dau tu cua cai vat chat va tu quan tri lay tai san cua minh. Va mot khi mo hinh kinh doanh cua doanh nghiep dugc nhan rong nhanh chong thi gia tn cua cong ty hay thuang hieu cung Ian manh theo. Doi vai cac doanh nghiep Viet Nam dang co tham vgng dua thuang hieu minh ra th^ giai nhung chua du lire dk dau tutrue tiep thi mo hinh nhugng quyen thuang hieu co le la phu hgp nhat la do khong phai bovon va lai bao ho va quang ba thuang hieu cua minh.Tang doanh thuChu thuang hieu hoan toan co the cai thien doanh so cua minh bing viec nhugng quy^n sudung thuang hieu va cong thuc kinh doanh ma ngay nay da dugc xem nhu la mot thu tai sanquy gia nhk cua doanh nghiep. Thong qua hinh thuc nhugng quyen kinh doanh, chu thuanghieu C the nhan cac khoan tien sau day tu viec ban franchise: O- Phi nhugng quyen ban dau (initial fee): Phi nay chi dugc tinh mot lan nhu d6i vai truanghgp Mc Donalds la 45.000USD khi dugc nhugng quyen kinh doanh trong nuac My. Day lakhoan phi hanh chinh, dao tao, chuyen giao cong thuc kinh doanh cho ben mua franchise.- Phi hang thang (monthy fee): phi nay la phi ma ben mua franchise phai tra cho viec duy trisu dung nhan hieu, thuang hieu cua ben ban franchise va nhijng djch vu ho trg mang tinhchat tiep dien lien tuc nhu dao tao huan luyen vien, tiep thj, quang ba, nghien cuu, phat triensan pham mai... Phi nay co the la mot khoan co djnh theo thoa thuan cua hai ben hoac tinhtheo phan tram tren doanh so cua ben mua franchise va thuang dao dong trung binh tu 3 -6% tuy loai san pham, mo hinh va ITnh vuc kinh doanh. Tai My, chi co khoang 8% cac cuahang nhugng quyen la khong phai tra phi hang thang nay (royalty fee). Ngoai phi hang thang 16
  26. 26. ra, nhi6u chu thuang hieu con co the tinh them khoan phi quang cao (advertising fee) tuangduang 1-3% doanh s6.- Ban cac nguyen lieu dac thu: Nhieu chu thuang hieu yeu cau cac doi tac mua franchise cuaminh mua mot so nguyen lieu dac thu do minh cung cap, vua de dam bao tinh dong bo cuasan pham hay mo hinh kinh doanh, vua mang lai nguon lgi nhuan phat trien song song vaitinh hinh kinh doanh cua ben mua franchise. Vi du nhu Mc Donalds cung cap va ban chocac cua hang nhugng quyen cua minh mot so nguyen lieu quan trong nhu khoai tay chien,pho mat, banh tao.Tiet giam chi phi.Cac doanh nghiep co ap dung hinh thuc nhuoTig quyen deu c6 uu the mua hang gia re han domua vai so lugng lan han (de phan phoi cho cac cua hang nhugng quyen trong mot sotruang hgp). Ngoai ra cac chi phi ve tiep thj, quang cao cung dugc tiet giam nha uu the cothe chia nho ra cho nhieu dan vj cung mang ten mot nhan hieu chia se vai nhau thong quanghTa vu hang thang cua ben mua franchise.Uy tin thuang hieu cua doanh nghiep thuang Ian manh song song vai so lugng cua hang maima ra, cho du la thuoc sa huu 100% cua cong ty me hay cua doi tac mua franchise. Su lanmanh ve thuang hieu nay dac biet la gay su chu y va quan tam cua cac nha dau tu va nganhang - la nhung nguai ma chu thuang hieu sam muon gi cung can dugc cong tac va ho trg.Day cung la lgi the cua viec ban franchise. 17
  27. 27. 1.3.2.3 Tai sao nen mua franchiseDau tu* an toan la khon ngoanTheo con so thong ke tai My thi trung binh chi co 23% doanh nghiep nho kinh doanh dgc lapC the tdn tai sau 5 nam kinh doanh, trong khi do con so nay doi vai cac doanh nghiep mua Ofranchise la 97%. Noi khac di, xac suat thanh cong cua doanh nghiep mua franchise cao hanrat nhieu so vai cac doanh nghiep bat dau thu nghiem mo hinh kinh doanh lan dau va nhanhieu chua ai biet den. That vay, thuang hieu hay uy tin cua nhan hieu dong vai tro v6 cungquan trong doi vai khach hang khi ho quyet djnh chon mua san pham nao.Nhieu cuoc thu nghiem da chimg minh rang nguai tieu dung bj anh huang qua nhieu baithuang hieu, tham chi han ca chat lugng thuc su cua san pham. Nhu cuoc thu nghiem mu(san pham dugc cho vao bao bi khong co nhan) cua hai san pham giai khat noi tieng Coca -Cola va Pepsi. Ket qua cho thay da so nhij*ng nguai tham gia cuoc thu nghiem khang djnhrang ho dugc uong Coca trong khi tren thuc te la Pepsi hoac ngugc lai.Tuang tu doi vai cuoc thu nghiem ve vj tri cua san pham ba lac co vj ngon - dat tien va loaiC vi da - re tien. Nguai ta bi mat bo ba lac co vj da - re tien vao hu vai thuang hieu n6i Otieng, va ba lac co vi ngon - dat tien vao hu vai thuang hieu v6 danh. Tat ca dugc yeu cauchi ra san pham ba lac nao la ngon nhat. Ket qua cho thay da so nhij-ng nguai tham gia deucho rang loai ba lac - re tien nhung dung trong hu co thuang hieu noi tieng la ngon han.Dieu nay chung minh sue manh cua thuang hieu quyet dinh cua khach hang hay noi eachkhac, khi mua franchise cua mot san pham da co thuang hieu thi kha an tam do se co lugngkhach hang toi thieu tu ban dau.Theo mot cuoc dieu tra so bg cua truang Dai hoc Kinh te TP. Ho Chi Minh thi trong sonhijng nguai tieu dung tai Tp. Ho Chi Minh dugc phong van co den 89% cho rang thuang 18
  28. 28. hieu la y^u t6 quy^t djnh khi ho lira chon mua san pham han. Ly do chu yeu la ho thay antam ve nguon gdc va chat lugng cua san pham han. Ket qua nay cang ciing co them tinh xacthuc cua cac cuoc thu nghiem cua Coke va Pepsi va san pham ba lac ke tren. Ngoai ra, ketqua nay cho thay ngay nay nguai tieu dung khong nhung a nuac ngoai ma ngay tai VietNam ciing c6 nhan thuc rat cao ve thuang hieu.De vay tien ngan hang hanDo xac suat thanh cong cao hon nen cac ngan hang thuang tin tuang va cho cac doanhnghiep mua franchise vay tien. Noi dung ra hau nhu tat ca cac doanh nghiep kinh doanhnhugng quyen Ion tren the giai deu chu dong dam phan, thuyet phuc ngan hang ung ho cacdoi tac mua franchise tiem nang cua minh bang each cho vay vai lai suat thap. Noi khac di,chu thuang hieu thuang dong vai tro cau noi giup nguai mua franchise mugn tien ngan hanghoac chinh minh dung ra cho vay, nham phat trien va nhan rong mo hinh kinh doanh nhanhhem. Dieu nay chua xay ra tai Viet Nam do hinh thuc kinh doanh nhugng quyen chua phobien va chu truong cho vay doi vai doanh nghiep nho cua he thong ngan hang ta con giaihan. Nhung sam mugn gi thi Viet Nam cung di theo xu huang the giai nhat la khi da gianhap WTO.Du-gc chu thirtfng hieu giup do"Nguai mua franchise luc nao cung nhan dugc sir giup do, ho trg tu phia chu thuang hieutruac va sau khi cua hang nhugng quyen khai truang. Day la mot lgi the lan, dac biet doi vainguoi tu kinh doanh Ian dau. Trong thai gian truac khai truang, doi tac mua franchisethuang dugc ho trg ve dao tao, thiet ke, chgn dja diem cua hang, nguon hang, tiep thj, quangcao... Sau khai truang, ho tiep tuc dugc ho trg nhieu mat, trong do noi bat nhat la khau tiepthj, quang cao va tai dao tao. Tai Hoa Ky, Hoi dong thuang mai lien bang (Federal Trade 19
  29. 29. Commission - FTC) co ban hanh mot bg dihu le v8 franchise dk quan y cac franchisor vafranchisee. FTC ciing co mot so tai lieu huang dan dau tu mot franchise, vi du trang webhttp://www.franchise.org. 1.4 Nhirng bien phap thtfcrng dirge su* dung nham xay dyng va phat trien thuang hieu 1.4.1 Quang cao 1.4.1.1 S& lu-gc ve quang caoQuang cao la mot trong nam cong cu chu yeu ma cac cong ty sir dung de huang thong tinthuyet phuc vao nguai mua va cong chung muc tieu. Ta dinh nghTa quang cao la mgi hinhthuc trinh bay gian tiep va khuyech truang y tuang, hang hoa hay djch vu dugc nguai baotrg nhat djnh nhij-ng nguai hanh nghe chuyen nghiep va cac to chuc xa hoi quang cao sirnghiep cua minh cho cong chung muc tieu khac nhau. Quang cao dugc su dung a tat ca cacnuac tren the giai, ke ca cac nuac xa hoi chu nghTa. Quang cao la mot each phan phat thongdiep C hieu qua ve chi phi du cho no nham tao dung sir ua thich nhan hieu cho Coca-Cola Ohay nham khuyen khich nguai tieu dung trong nuac uong sija hay han che sinh de.Cac to chuc tien hanh quang cao theo nhiJng each khac nhau. a nhixng cong ty nho quangcao dugc giao cho mot nguai a phong kinh doanh hay marketing, nguai nay lien ket vaicong ty quang cao. Cong ty lan thi thanh lap bg phan quang cao cho rieng minh, nguai quanly bg phan nay true thuoc quyen pho chu tjch phu trach marketing. Nhiem vu cua bg phanquang cao va cac chien dugc do cong ty quang cao de xuat va dam nhiem quang cao bangthu true tuyen, trung bay hang 6 cac dja ly va cac hinh thuc quang cao ma cong ty quang caothuang khong lam. Hau het cac cong ty deu sir dung cong ty quang cao ben ngoai de giup hgtrien khai cac chien luge quang cao va lira chon, mua phuang tien truyen thong. 20
  30. 30. 1.4.1.2 Xay dirng chuang trinh quang caoTrong nhijng nghien cuu cua minh, Armand Dayan va Philip Kotler da dua ra mo hinh cacbuac tien hanh quang cao de tra lai cho nhung cau hoi can ban cua mot chuang trinh quangcao: Muc tieu cua chuang trinh ngan sach danh cho chuang trinh, thong diep can truyenthong, su dung phuang tien quang cao nao vai tan suat ra sao va cuoi cung la danh gia ketqua chuang trinh.Muc tieu ciia quang cao thong tinQuang cao mang lai hieu qua to Idn cho thuang hieu, nham dua thuang hieu den dugc vaicong chung va de cong chung cam nhan ve thuang hieu va gia trj cua thuang hieu trong tieudung san pham. Khi tien hanh quang cao, can dat dugc cac muc tieu sau day:Tgo ra nhan thirc ve thucmg hieu: Mot thong tin mai tham nhap thj truang rat can co nhijngchuang trinh quang cao de nguai tieu dung nhan biet ve sir ton tai cua thuang hieu. Truachet, nham tang cuang nhan thuc cua khach hang muc tieu hien tai, tao ra nhan thuc ve su tontai cua thuang hieu cho cac khach hang mai hoac tai thj truang mai, cuoi cung la nang caonhan thuc ve thuang hieu mai trong mot thi truang ngach chua tung dugc tiep can.Tgo ra su hieu biet ve thuang hieu: Chuang trinh quang cao dugc hieu la chuang trinh duakien thuc den khach hang muc tieu, lam thay doi cac an tugng cua khach hang, cung co niemtin ve thuang hieu hoac thu nhan nhilng thong tin xx ich cho quyet djnh mua.Thuyet phuc nguai dinh mua: Khach hang chi mua san pham khi co niem tin ve thuang hieu,niem tin nay dugc tao dung mot phan thong qua cac chuang trinh quang cao nham kich thichcac cam xuc hien thai cua nguai tieu dung ve mot thuang hieu. Tren ca sa niem tin vaothong tin khach hang se dua ra quyet dinh mua hgp ly. 21
  31. 31. Muc tieu hdnh dong de duy tri long trung thanh: Day la mot loai muc tieu hanh dong, gianti§p tac dong den quyet djnh mua vai cac chuang trinh quang cao dugc thiet ke khong tacdong den doanh so ban tuc thai ma no huang dan khach hang tham gia vao chuang trinh tudo C kinh nghiem ve thong tin va nang cao nhan thuc ve thuang hieu. OQuyet dinh ngan sach va muc tieu quang caoQ day ta se trinh bay nhijng yeu to cu the can xem xet khi xac djnh ngan sach quang cao.- Giai doan trong chu ky song cua san pham: Nhijng san pham mai thuang nhan dugc ngansach quang cao lan de tao ra sir biet den va kich thich nguai tieu dung dung thu. Nhijng nhanhieu da dung chan thuang chi dugc ho trg bang nhung ngan sach nho han theo ty le vaidoanh so ban.+ Thj phan va ca sa tieu dung: Nhijng nhan hieu lan thuang doi hoi chi phi quang cao it hontheo ty le phan tram doanh so ban de duy tri thj phan cua minh. De tao ra thj phan bang eachtang quy mo thj truang doi hoi chi phi quang cao Ian han. Ngoai ra, neu tinh chi phi tren antugng thi viec tiep can nhung nguai tieu dung mot nhan hieu dugc su dung rong rai it tonkem han la tiep can nhirng nguai tieu dung nhieu nhan hieu su dung it.+ Canh tranh va quan tu: Tren thj truang co dong doi thu canh tranh va chi phi quang caonhieu, mot nhan hieu phai dugc quang cao manh me han de vugt len tren nhieu cua thjtruang. Ngay ca tinh trang huyen nao do quang cao khong true tiep canh tranh vai nhan hieudo gay ra ciing doi hoi phai quang cao manh hem.+ Tan so quang cao: So lan lap lai can thiet de dua thong diep cua nhan hieu den dugc nguaitieu dung cung gop phan quyet djnh ngan sach quang cao.+ Kha nang thay the cua san pham: Nhung nhan hieu thuoc loai thong thuang (Vi du thuocla, bia, nuac nggt) doi hoi quang cao manh de tao nen mot hinh anh khac biet. quang cao 22
  32. 32. cung rdt quan trgng khi nhan hieu co the cung ung nhung lgi ich vat chat hay tinh nang dgciio.Dac trung ciia phaang tien quang caoQuang cao true tiep thong qua kenh ban hang true tiep ca nhan, nghTa la su dung luc lugngban hang - chao hang co ky nang tot, tinh chuyen nghiep cao, nam vung tam ly va hieu rosan ph^m de tiep xuc true tiep giai thieu va thuyet phuc khach hang. Tap trung vao tungnguai mua cua tiang thj truang muc tieu, no nuoi duang hinh anh thuang hieu va khuyenkhich hanh dong su dung thuang hieu trong tuang lai. Nguai ban hang cho khach hang muctieu ve hang hoa, diem manh cua hang hoa, dich vu sau ban, ve gia ca va phuang thuc thanhtoan, su than thien, hip dan loi cuon cua thuang hieu... Hinh anh cua doanh nghiep vathuang hieu phu thuoc rat nhieu vao doi ngu nhan vien ban hang true tiep do. Do vay, muonsu dung doi ngu nay hieu qua, truac moi chien djch can co chuang trinh dao tao nhan vien,ve ky nang ban hang, hieu biet ve khach hang, hieu biet ve cong ty, triet ly thuang hieu, kienthuc ban hang va dac biet la phat trien pham chat ca nhan cua nhan vien ban hang thong quaviec biet lang nghe va thong cam, the hien cai toi cua ca tinh dep vai cac toi cua thuanghieu.Quang cao tren cac phuang tien truyen thong (media advertising): Truyen hinh, radio, bao,tap chi... uu the cua cac phuang tien nay la tac dong manh, pham vi anh huang rong vaphong phu, tuy nhien, doi hoi chi phi cao va tan suat lan. Moi phuang tien truyen thong conhijng dac trung rieng biet, co nhung diem manh nhung cung co nhijng diem yeu. Viec lirachgn phuang tien nao la hoan toan phu thuoc vao muc dich va kha nang cua doanh nghiep.Vai truyen hinh, quang cao co the mo ta dugc hinh anh, am thanh, su chuyen dong va mausac, tat ca tao nen net rieng biet cho mot thuang hieu va co su cam nhan ro rang cua khach 23
  33. 33. hang tu thj giac den thinh giac. Tuy nhien, chi phi cho quang cao truyen hinh la rat cao vathuang xuyen tang, thai gian phat hanh quang cao bj han che tuy thuoc vao dac diem riengcua moi khu vuc, moi dia phuang. Ben canh truyen hinh, radio cung la phuang tien quangcao ph6 bi8n vai kha nang thong tin nhanh va lan rong, nhung no lai hoan toan phu thuocvao am thanh va ngon ngij bieu dat nen bj han che doi vai nhijng thong tin can sir mo tabang hinh anh hay mau sac. Thong thuang, quang cao qua bao van chiem mot ty le cao vi nodam bao dugc thong tin tren cac thj truang dugc lua chgn. Bao thuang mang tinh chat diaphuang hay ITnh vuc rieng nen giup doanh nghiep de dang trong djnh vi nhom khach hangde quang cao. Tuy nhien, thai gian song cua bao lai ngan, lai mang tinh dia phuang va chatlugng hinh anh quang cao khong cao va thong diep chi truyen tai thong qua quang cao. Dekhac phuc yeu diem nay, nhieu doanh nghiep lua chgn phuang thuc quang cao qua tap chi vithai gian song cua tap chi dai nen noi dung quang cao xem dugc nhieu lan, tinh lua chgn dgcgia cao, chat lugng hinh anh dep. Mac du vay, quang cao tren tap chi thuang tap trung aphan dau, giiJa va cuoi nen tinh canh tranh cao; chi phi quang cao dat han bao, thoi gianduyet ban thao lau han.Quang cao true tuyen (Direct response advertising): Dung thu tin, dien thoai, email, ta rai,internet, gui cataloge, hang hoa qua, buna dien. Hinh thuc nay dac biet hieu qua ve khia canhkinh te, thong tin dugc truyen tai true tiep den khach hang muc tieu. Tuy nhien, ngay nay doC qua nhieu cong ty su dung phuang thuc nay, nen nguai tieu dung khong muon nhan "thu Orac" va kha nang chap nhan cua doi tugng muc tieu thap.Quang cao phan phoi (place advertising): Bang ron, pano, ap phich, phuang tien giao thong(xe buyt, xe lam...) bang dien tu... cac phuang tien nay cho phep khai thac toi da cac loaikich ca, hinh dang khac nhau danh cho quang cao. Viec sir dung mau sac va hinh ve do vay 24
  34. 34. cung dan gian hon, nhung sue thu hut nguai nhan tin kem. Tuy vay, neu su dung cac vatdung nhu du, 6, ban ghe, gat tan thuoc la... de quang cao nhu mot loai qua tang thi nguai tieudung se luu trij thong tin lau tren phuang tien quang cao.Quang cao tai diem ban (Point of pruchase advertising): Dung nguai giao hang tai cac khuvuc thuang mai, tan dung loi di, quay ke, bo tri am thanh, tivi, video, hoac phuang tientruyen thong ngay tai cua hang de tac dong true tiep doi vai nguai mua. Cac diem ban ledugc cac cong ty phan phoi tan dung do dugc huang chiet khau tir doanh thu.Quang cao dien tu (E-Advertising): Truac het la xay dung trang Web va he thong thu dientu cua doanh nghiep. Trang Web phai co giao dien dong gop mot yeu to thong nhat vao viectruyen tai hinh anh thuang hieu trong he thong nhan dien thuang hieu. No dong nhat vakhong khac biet so vai cac yeu to thuang hieu khac dugc truyen tai. Thong thuang ngoaiviec giai thieu ve doanh nghiep va thuang hieu, cac trang Web phai ho trg cac tien ich chokhach hang nhu cac djch vu tu van, huang dan tieu dung, huang dan chgn san pham, thuanghieu, tra cuu, thong tin, djch vu bao hanh, tien tai xay dung trang Web thanh cong giao dichtrue tuyen cua doanh nghiep. Ben canh do co the sir dung e-banner tren cac trang web khac.Mot each thuc khac la cac cong ty lap ra cac mailing list de trao doi vai cac khach hangtrung thanh, su dung cac ban tin dien tu (e-newletters) lap ra cac dien dan (forum) de khachhang C khong gian ao trao doi cac dac tinh san pham va thuang hieu cua cong ty. Day la Onguon thong tin phan hoi tot. Mot so cong ty khac mua danh sach cac dja chi thu dien tu cuakhach hang va gui thong diep quang cao den danh sach thu dien tu nay. So lugng cac congty quoc te tien hanh su dung phuang phap nay qua nhieu, den noi cac hom thu ca nhan ngaynay deu dat che do "spam email" hay khoa cac dja chi gui den cho than chu khach hang coi 25
  35. 35. nhijng buc thu nay nhu nhirng thu rac vi nguai ta khong thu nhan dugc lgi ich tu viec duy trinhan thu tu dong cua cong ty.Thong diep va thir nghiem quang caoThong diep cua mot chuang trinh quang cao phai mang day du y nghTa thong diep muontruyen dat. Thong diep thuang hieu trong thong tin quang cao phai the hien dugc day du cac lien kit nhSm kit n6i bg nha cua khach hang vai thuang hieu. De trinh bay mot thong diep,nha thiet ke phai dam bao dugc cac yeu to ve mat thong tin, hgp ly le, each thuc loi cuon doitugng quang cao, dong thai xem xet den kha nang dua ra cac diem nhan, lap lai, menh lenhtrong thong diep hoac xay dung hinh anh bieu tugng de lien tucmg tu thong diep den thongtin trong tam tri khach hang. Dieu nay tuy don gian nhung thuc su kho khan vai cong ty, neumuon dua ra thong diep quang cao thich hgp. De thoa man cac yeu to tren, nha thiet kequang cao can no lire dau tu rat lan. Vi vay, nguai ta thuang chi lira chgn thong qua vai netdac trung noi bat cho thong diep va dua vao thu nghiem. Cach tot nhat van la tien hanh cacnghien cuu va phan tich sau sac truac khi dua ra mot thong diep. Vidu menh lenh maDecolgen dua ra la "Ngay khi c6 dau hieu cam cum hay dung Decolgen". Thong diep doi khidugc lap di lap lai nhu "Da tot nay con tot han" la each thuc ma mot so cong ty dang c6gang the hien.Khi da lira chgn dugc thong diep, neu cong ty khong tien hanh giai doan "cau noi" - thunghiem ma da lap tuc quang cao dai tra thi co the co nhung that bai do tinh chat khong thichung cua doi tugng thu nhan quang cao vai thong diep quang cao. Co hai phuang phap la thirnghiem tren moi truang thuc te va thu nghiem tren moi truang mo phong. Mot so thunghiem chi co the do luang thong so qua phong thi nghiem vai thiet bj chuyen diing. Dongthai nguai ta co the dua ra nhieu bien so cua su thay doi moi truang chinh tri, canh tranh. 26
  36. 36. luu lugng truyen thong ma tren thir nghiem thuc te phai mit thai gian dai mai co dugc ketqua. Han nija, thu nghiem mo phong tiet kiem hon thu nghiem thuc te. Dan gian la trongmoi truang thuc tl, nha quang cao phai thue cac thiet bj, khong gian va phuang tien truyenthong thuc su va dieu nay tieu ton kha nhieu ngan sach. V4n de la cong ty dinh chia baonhieu cho hai loai ngan sach nay. Mot dieu nija phai nhac den la mot so nha thu nghiemquang cao mo phong da di qua xa trong viec dua ra nhieu thu nghiem khac xa moi truangthuc tien. Trong nghien cuu mo phong, nguai ta phai dua tren cac yeu to gia dinh roi kiemtra tung yeu to tac dong, nghien cuu cac mat tac dong rieng biet, trong khi tai moi truangthuc te, con nguai chju tac dong tong hoa cua nhieu yeu to cung mot luc. Nhung chac chanphai C giai doan thu nghiem de nhan biet thai do cua doi tugng quang cao vai thong diep Oquang cao.Thuc hien va danh gia chirang trinh quang caoKhi da ke hoach hoa chuang trinh quang cao vai cac buac chuan bj chi tiet, cong ty tienhanh thuc hien chuang trinh. Trong qua trinh thuc hien, can tao ra ca che phai hoi hiju hieude nam bat thuang xuyen tac dong cua chuang trinh. Thong thuang cac cong ty lap ra cacdanh muc can kiem tra trong qua trinh thuc hien roi sir dung cac cong cu kiem tra d6 danhgia kha nang tac dong va thu nhan cac phan hoi tu nguai nhan thong diep quang cao.Co the nhanh chong danh gia tac dong cua mot chuang trinh quang cao tai doanh thu banhang trong ngan han, nhung viec mot thuang hieu dugc quang cao truac day nhieu nam vanC nhieu anh huang cho cac the he sau do hinh anh thuang hieu da nam sau trong nhan thuc Onguai tieu dung. Coca-Cola la mot vi du, cac quang cao truac co nhieu anh huang ve matnhan thuc den ngay nay. Do vay, danh gia quang cao la danh gia thai do nhan thirc cua nguaitieu dung doi vai thuang hieu thong qua thong diep quang cao trong cac giai doan ngan va 27
  37. 37. dai han. Nhirng no luc xay dung hinh anh thuang hieu mot each tich cue va ben bi la dieu v6cung quan trgng. Rat kho de xac lap vi tri tot trong tam tri khach hang nhung rui ro luon xayra de khach hang "tay chay" thuang hieu. Can xay dung "niem tin" doi vai thong tin trongchuang trinh quang cao khi ma xu the hien nay, nguai tieu dung cang it tin vao quang cao.Gia trj cua niem tin se tao dung long trung thanh cua khach hang vai thuang hieu, tu do giatang uy tin cua thuang hieu va anh huang den quyet djnh mua tich cue.1.4.2 Quan he cong chung1.4.2.1 Khai niemQuan he cong chung (Tieng Anh la public relation) - PR dugc hieu la mot he thong nguyentac va cac hoat dong co lien quan mot each huu ca, nhat quan nham tao dung mot hinh anh,mot an tugng, mot quan niem, nhan dinh hoac mot su tin cay nao do.Q nuac ta, nhung nam gan day, da co mot so doanh nghiep su dung PR nhu la mot cong cuquan trgng trong tiep thj va phat trien thuang hieu. Vi du nhu chuang trinh: "Thap sang uocma" cua Nha may Xuat khau ViHa tang 500 xe dap cho hgc sinh ngheo vugt kho; Chuangtrinh "Hanh trinh xuyen Viet" tang xe dap the thao cho hgc sinh, sinh vien Truang Dai hgcBach khoa Ha Noi trong chuyen di xuyen Viet tu Ha Noi vao Thanh pho Ho Chi Minh vimoi truang.Ve ca ban, phat trien thuang hieu la hang loat cac tac nghiep, cac c5ng viec va cac bien phapma doanh nghiep can phai lam. Hoat dong PR chi la mot trong so cac tac nghiep do va lahoat dong mang tinh tong hgp cao, co quan he rat mat thiet vai cac hoat dong khac. De datdugc hieu qua cao trong phat trien thuang hieu va tiep thj, doanh nghiep can tien hanh PRmot each thuang xuyen, co ke hoach va gan hoat dong PR vai cac hoat dong khac. 28
  38. 38. 2 1.4.2.2 Dac diem cua PRPR la mot qua trinh thong tin hai chieuDoanh nghiep (chu the ciia hoat dong PR) dua ra cac thong tin ve hang hoa, djch vu, vedoanh nghiep va hoat dong cua doanh nghiep tai nhom doi tugng djnh truac ma con phailang nghe cac y kien phan hoi tu doi tugng dugc tuyen truyen.Doanh nghiep thong qua PR de biet va hi^u dugc tam ly, nhung mong mu6n va nhan djnhcua doi tugng ve hang hoa, djch vu de tu do co the dieu chinh dugc chiln luge sao cho phuhgp vai tung doi tugng hoan canh cu the. Day la co hoi de doanh nghiep ti§p xuc true ti8p valang nghe nhirng y kien tu nguai tieu dung ve san pham hoac djch vu cua minh.PR mang tinh khach quan caoPR thuang dung cac phuang tien trung gian (nhu cac bai viet tren bao chi, cac phong sirtruyen hinh, truyen thanh, cac chuang trinh tai trg, cac hoat dong tu thien...) cho nen mgithong diep den vai cac nhom doi tugng tieu dung dugc chap nhan han, it the hien tinhthuang mai han.Nguai tieu dung khi tiep nhan thong tin ve hang hoa, djch vu thuang cam th^y thoai mai vade tin hon, it bi cam giac "hoi chung quang cao", nhat la khi nhijng nguai viet bai, nhungnguai tham luan la nhQng nha khoa hgc, cac yeu nhan. Dieu nay se mang den nhijng ca hoirat tot de tao dung an tugng, mot su tin tuang cua nguai tieu dung vai hang hoa mangthuang hieu dugc tuyen truyen.Hoat dong PR chuyen tai mot lugng thong tin nhieu honNguai tieu dung co ca hoi nhan dugc lugng thong tin nhieu va ky hon ve hoat dong ciia banthan doanh nghiep cung nhu san pham ciia doanh nghiep. Hg co the hinh dung ve huang 29
  39. 39. phat tri^n ciang nhu quan dilm ciia doanh nghiep trong viec quan tam den quy§n lgi nguaitieu dung v6 nhijng uu the ciia san pham ma doanh nghiep cung cap.Hoat dong PR thuang mang den Igi ich cu the cho doi tugngCac doanh nghiep mang lai cho nguoi tieu dung nhung lgi ich dich thuc "nhu cac chuangtrinh bieu dien nghe thuat, cac khoan dong gop tu thien, qua do no rat gan bo vai nguai tieudung va tao cho nguai tieu dung su gan gui, than thien nhieu han doi vai doanh nghiep vasan pham cua doanh nghiep. Vi du nhu chuang trinh tang xe Ian tay cho nguai khuyet tatThanh pho Ha Noi ciia Nha may Xe may - xe dap Thong Nhat.PR thucrng co chi phi thapPR thuang co chi phi thap han so vai quang cao tren cac phuang tien truyen thong, trong khihieu qua lai khong thap han do tinh chat tap trung ciia doi tugng va nha tac dung rong raicua truyen mieng.1.4.2.3 Hoat dong PR cung co nhirng han che nhat dinh- Thong tin khong den dugc vai mot so lugng rat Ion cac doi tugng trong mot thai gian ngando hoat dong PR chi tap trung a mot nhom doi tugng trong khu vuc djnh truac.- Thong diep dua ra thuang khong gay "an tugng manh" va kho ghi nha han so vai quangcao.- Trong mot so truang hgp se kho kiem soat noi dung thong diep do phai truyen tai qua benthu ba (nha bao, chuyen gia, su kien...)1.4.2.4 Chien lugc quan he cong chungHoat dong PR luon gan lien vai mot nhom doi tugng cu the va gan lien vai hoat dong tuyentruyen, quang cao. Xuat phat tu do, doanh nghiep can xay dung chien luge PR cho hoat dongnay. Chien luge PR khong the tach rai khoi chien luge kinh doanh ciia doanh nghiep, no can 30
  40. 40. phai nham tai nhom doi tugng khach hang cu the va can tap trung vao mot chii the nhat djnh. Chii de dugc huang tai co the la mot san pham, mot thuang hieu hang hoa cu the (vi du nhu san pham xe dap dien ViHa, Grace...), mot quoc gia, thuang hieu quoc gia (Viet Nam - diem d6n ciia thien nien ky mai). Can luu y rang, tap khach hang ciia doanh nghiep khac vai tap khach hang ciia san pham; muc dich tuyen truyen cua doanh nghiep khac vai muc dich tuyentruyen cho hang hoa; sir quan tam ciia khach hang den doanh nghiep. Vi the chii de va noi dung tuyen truyen can gan vai tinh chat, dac diem ciia nhijng lgi the uu viet ciia san pham setuyen truyen; muc tieu hoat dong cua cong ty; doi tugng khach hang ciia doanh nghiep vacua san pham ma doanh nghiep kinh doanh; cac dac diem ve tam ly, van hoa, chinh tri, kinhte, phap luat cua nhom doi tugng trong mot dia ban nhat dinh, cac yeu to anh huang den ITnhvuc hoat dong va san pham cong ty.1.4.2.5 Noi dung co ban ciia hoat dong PRQuan he bao chi va cac phuang tien truyen thongDay la cac hoat dong nhay cam va rat quan trgng. Com cac cong viec la: To chuc hgp bao degioi thieu san pham mai va ITnh vuc hoat dong ciia doanh nghiep, soan thao cac thong caobao chi, to chuc cac buoi thong tin, chi dan mang tinh cap nhat cho cac nha bao ve hang hoava hoat dong ciia doanh nghiep, dac biet khi giai thieu nhirng thuang hieu mai ma doanhnghiep se kinh doanh, sap xep cac buoi phong van, phong sir dac biet ve doanh nghiep, ve tuvan tieu dung hang hoa... Tuy theo muc dich tuyen truyen va dieu kien cu the ma doanhnghiep co the tien hanh hoat dong giai thieu san pham mai nhu each ma nhieu cong ty trongITnh vuc dien tu thuang ap dung hoac giai thieu ve cac hoat dong xa hoi ma doanh nghiep dalam cung nhu chinh sach chat lugng ma doanh nghiep theo duoi... vi du nhu giai thieu sanpham xe dap gap, xe dap bieu dien, xe dap khong xich v.v... 31
  41. 41. Tuy nhien, de dat dugc hieu qua cao trong viec cung cap thong tin va kich thich su nhapcuoc ciia bao chi, co the sir dung chien thuat "ro ri" thong tin, chien thuat nay khong chi gaysir to mo cho bao chi ma con hap dan ca cac doi tugng khac nhu cac nha dau tu, doi tac,khach hang va ngay ca nhan vien doanh nghiep.To chirc cac sir kienTham gia va to chuc tot cac su kien co the nhu khai truang dong tho, khanh thanh, cac le kyniem, la nha tai trg chuang trinh cho sinh vien Truang Hgc vien Ky thuat Quan su thiROBOTCOM... Day se la dip tot de khach hang hieu biet nhieu han ve doanh nghiep, hanghoa va hoat dong ciia doanh nghiep. Ben canh do tao niem tin va long tu hao rieng cho doingu nhan vien trong doanh nghiep, gop phan ciing co quan he giira cac bg phan trong doanhnghiep. Tham gia cac sir kien, doanh nghiep can to chuc tot cac chuang trinh quang cao,tuyen truyen. Cung can luu y rang sir tham gia tran lan cac su kien thuang lam cho doanhnghiep phai chi qua nhieu, trong khi an tugng ve thuang hieu ciia doanh nghiep cung bi xemnhe. Nen chgn Igc cac su kien c6 lien quan va gan bo vai thuang hieu, can tuyen truyen vacan C su dau tu thich dang khi tham gia nham tao su chii y ciia cong chiing. ODoi pho vo"! riii ro va khac phuc cac su* coDoi pho vai cac su co, giai quyet tot cac khieu nai hoac sir co cua khach hang, tham chi cothe la nguy ca canh bao hang gia, boi thuang cho khach hang, ngoai ra Cong ty co chuangtrinh giai thieu hang that, hang gia, tem chong hang gia... Chinh dieu nay da tao dugc longtin ciia khach hang doi vai hoat dong va san pham cua doanh nghiep. Tuy nhien can het suetinh tao vai cac hoat dong nay vi rat co the thuang hieu ciia doanh nghiep se bj tay chay vadoanh nghiep se phai tra gia vi su de dai trong xu ly cac su c6. 32
  42. 42. Cac hoat dong tai trg cong dongCac hoat dong tai trg va tir thien can truac het xuat phat tu muc dich mang lai lgi ich chocong d6ng, ben canh do la quang ba thuang hieu. Cac chuong trinh cho hoat dong nay canthiet thuc, phu hgp vai hoan canh thuc te va khong qua lam dung quang cao vi rat co the setao ra tac dung ngugc, gay kho cho doi tugng dugc tuyen truyen. Hoat dong tai trg congdong va tu thien thuang dugc su dung trong qua trinh quang ba thuang hieu, doanh nghiep,bai trong truang hgp nay hinh anh ve mot doanh nghiep de dugc chap nhan hon la mot hinhanh ve mot hang hoa cu the. Viec quang ba thuang hieu trong hoat dong tu thien de lam doitugng dugc tai trg va tuyen truyen co each nhin sai lech ve y do cung nhu thien chi ciiadoanh nghiep.Cac hoat dong phi thirang mai true tiep vai khach hangDo la cac hoi nghj khach hang, chuang trinh huan luyen ve su dung va van hanh san pham,chuang trinh sir dung thu hang va lay y kien nguai tieu dung, to chuc cac trien lam,showroom... la cac nhom hoat dong c6 chi phi doi khi khong qua cao nhung hieu qua thuangrat Idn. Day la ca hoi tot nhat de nguai tieu diing tiep xiic true tiep vai hang hoa ciia doanhnghiep va dugc tu van day dii, chinh xac tu doanh nghiep. Lam tot cac hoat dong nay,thuang hieu ciia doanh nghiep se c6 nhieu ca hoi de in dam trong tam tri nguoi tieu dung.Tuy nhien, khi tien hanh cac hoat dong nay can xac djnh ro doi tugng khach hang can hudngtai. Djnh vj khong chinh xac doi tugng khach hang se mang den nguy ca that bai. 33
  43. 43. 1.4.3 Xu hudng sir dung quang cao va quan he cong chung lam phuang tien de phat trien thuang hieu 30 nam ve truac Al Ries la dong tac gia mot loat bai bao dang trong tap chi Advertisting Age duai nhan de: "Thai dai ciia dinh vj da den". Cac bai bao da an khach ngay tuc thi. Chang may choc thuat ngu dinh vi (positioning) bien thanh ngon ngiJ thai thugng trong gidi quang cao va tiep thj.Neu ngay nay chiing ta cung viet mot loat bai tuang tu nhu vay cho tap chi do, thi dau de cua no se phai doi thanh "Thai dai ciia quan he cong chiing da den". Nhin vao dau ta cung thay sir chuyen djch day kjch tinh tu tiep thi djnh hudng quang cao sang tiep thj dinh hudngquan he cong chiing.Ban khong the tung ra mot thuang hieu mdi bang quang cao bdi vi quang cao khong mangtrong no tinh chat dang tin cay. No chi la nhijng tieng noi tu reu rao ciia cong ty dang nonglong tim each de ban dugc hang ciia minh.Ban chi c6 the tung ra dugc nhijng thuang hieu mdi bang thong tin dai- chiing (publicity)hoac bang quan he cong chiing (public relation - PR). PR giiip ban noi ra cau chuyen ciiaminh mot each gian tiep thong qua ben thu ba, ma trudc het do la phuang tien thong tin daichiing.PR C dugc tinh chat dang tin cay. Quang cao thi khong, PR dem den nhiing nhan thuc tich Ocue ma mot chien djch quang cao, neu dugc to chuc tot, co the khai thac dieu do.Quang cao phai di theo sau PR ca ve phuang dien thai diem lan de tai. Quang cao la sir kltuc ciia PR bang phuang tien khac va chi nen dugc bat dau sau khi chuang trinh PR da hoanthanh muc tieu. Han thi nira, de tai ciia chuang trinh quang cao phai lap lai nhijng nhan thucda dugc hinh thanh trong dau khach hang tiem nang do chuang trinh PR tao ra. 34
  44. 44. Cung khong nen xem nhe giai doan quang cao ciia mot chuong trinh tiep thi. Chi nen tung rachuong trinh quang cao mot thuang hieu la noi tieng va bdi mot cong ty co kha nang dapung dugc nhu cau dai hon ma mot chien djch quang cao doi hoi.Nhijng ngudi lam quang cao doi khi ha thap chuc nang PR, coi do la thu yeu, chi co ich khixay ra khiing hoang hoac chi co tac dung de quang ba cho chien dich quang cao mdi nhat mathoi. Do la suy nghT sai lam.Doi vdi hau het cac cong ty ngay nay, PR co vai tro rat quan trgng, khong the coi la thu yeuso vdi quang cao dugc. Xet ve nhieu phuang dien thi vai tro cua chiing da dao ngugc. Baygid PR ngoi vao vi tri ciia ngudi cam lai va se dan dat, chi dudng cho cac chuang trinh tiepthj.Mot minh chiing cho dieu nay la cuoc dieu tra 1.800 can bg quan ly doanh nghiep gan daydo Lien doan quang cao My (American Advertising Federation - AAF) tien hanh cho thayquan he cong chiing dugc coi trgng hon quang cao. Khi dugc hoi bg phan nao ciia cong ty laquan trgng nhat giup cho su thanh cong ciia cong ty, thi ket qua tham do nhu sau:+ Phat trien san pham 29%+ Lap ke hoach chien luge 27%+ Quan he cong chiing 16%+ Nghien cuu va phat trien 14%+ Chien luge tai chinh 14%+ Quang cao 10%+ Phap ly 3% 35
  45. 45. Nhu vay, chi co bg phan phap ly la xep hang dudi bg phan quang cao trong cuoc dieu tra ciia AAF. Mac du quang cao chiem phan dang ke trong ca cau ngan sach ciia cong ty, nhung dudi con mat ciia nha quan ly thi cho dung ciia no da bj sdi moi nghiem trgng. Al Ries va Laura Ries da dung mot hinh anh rit hay cho sir thay doi nay do la: "Quang cao thoai vj va PR len ngoi". 1.5 Gia tri thirang hieu, sy can thiet phai xay dung va phat triln thuang hieu Thuang hieu cd mot gia tri ciia thuang mai va nhiJng lgi ich dem lai cho t^t ca cac ben tham gia trao doi, viec thiet ke thuang hieu khong phai dan gian chi de trang tri cho doanh nghiep ma C ban la de tao ra gia trj cho doanh nghiep va khach hang, chiing co the dugc coi la mot O bg phan cau thanh ben tai san cd ciia bang tong ket tai san ciia doanh nghiep. Nhung d8 danh gia mot each day dii ve gia trj nhan hieu lai khong phai viec lam dan gian, dl lam. Gia triciia thuang hieu dugc biet den qua nam hinh thuc:- Su nhan biet thuang hieu ciia khach hang- Su trung thanh ciia khach hang vdi cong ty.- Su cam nhan gia trj/chat lugng ciia san pham thong qua thuang hieu.- Su cong hudng uy tin trong tap hgp thuang hieu.- Cac gia tri gia tang khac nhau ciia thuang hieu.Tuy nhien ly do quan trgng nhat va ciing la ly do ma doanh nghiep quan tam nhat trong vaitro lanh dao la yeu to kinh te. No luc ma doanh nghiep dau tu de xay dung mot thuang hieutot se dugc den dap mot each xung dang bang gia trj cao hon cua san pham va dich vu vangay ca gia trj tai chinh ciia doanh nghiep. Noi mot each dan gian, xay dung thucmg hieu totthi kinh doanh tot. 36
  46. 46. Khi C dugc thuang hieu manh, nhung doanh nghiep khong biet hoac khong quan tam duy O tri phat tri6n no thi khong khac gi doanh nghiep da khong biet su dung va dao tao nhan tai ma doanh nghiep dang co. Vdi ly do tren, viec xay dung thuang hieu r4t can thiet cho doanh nghiep, song hoan toan khong phai la viec chi tao ra mot thuang hieu, tien hanh dang ky bao hg thuang hieu do va roi C the yen tam khai thac Igi ich ma chiing mang lai cho doanh nghiep. Mot thuang hieu O se khong phat trien, tham chi kho ton tai neu chii sd hiJu no khong co cac chien luge hgp ly de duy tri va phat trien no theo dinh hudng thj trudng va theo su phat trien chung ciia doanh nghiep. Qua trinh duy tri va phat trien thuang hieu co the bao gom nhieu hoat dong nhSmnuoi dudng va co dinh hinh anh thuang hieu trong tam tri khach hang, tao co hoi de ngaycang nhieu khach hang biet den, ghi nhd dugc no va co thai do tich cue (la mua hang) doivdi thuang hieu ciia doanh nghiep. Thuc te chi ra rang, qua trinh phat trien duy tri va lai phattrien thuang hieu la mot qua trinh ben bi va lien tuc doi hoi sir no luc khong ngung ciiadoanh nghiep. Thanh cong chi den vdi nhijng doanh nghiep biet tir khang djnh minh va tandung nhijng ca hoi thj trudng bang viec xay dung, duy tri va phat trien thuang hieu. ._1.6 Quy trinh xay dung va phat trien thuang hieuXay dung thuang hieu hay quan trj thuang hieu la viec quan ly mot each hieu qua nhan thucciia khach hang va nhijng ngudi cd lien quan nham toi da hoa gia trj hoat dong kinh doanhciia cong ty. Tren thuc te, de cho khach hang nhan biet dugc ve san pham, djch vu ma doanhnghiep cung cap va luu lai dugc hinh anh san pham, djch vu do trong hg khong phai lachuyen dan gian trong ngay mot ngay hai se co dugc, ma no doi hoi doanh nghiep phai lientuc phan dau, giij vung chat lugng, gia thanh hgp ly, to chuc dich vu hau mai that tot... Do 37
  47. 47. vay doanh nghiep phai cd chien luge va ke hoach xay dung va phat trien thuang hieu moteach khoa hgc. Ke hoach xay dung thuang hieu nen dua theo cac budc ca ban sau (Hinh 1.1-trang 39). 38
  48. 48. Hinh 1.1 Quy trinh xay dung va phat trien thuang hieu (1) Thanh lap y tirdng, xac djnh thi trudng va khach hang muc tieu (2) Tim ki^m thong tin, phan tich d6i thii, xac dinh minh la ai, muc tieu can di den dau , , (3) Thiet ke nhan hieu hang hoa va cac ddi tirgng sd huu cong nghiep khac (4) Xac lap quyen V (5) Xay dung chien luge chat lugng san pham (6) Xay dung chien luge ve gia (V) To chuc va nhan su (8) To chiic he thong dich vu (9) Theo doi su phat trien va bao ve 39 thuang hieu
  49. 49. Budc thir nhat: Thanh lap y tirdng, xac dinh thj trirdng va khach hang muc tieuThanh lap y tudng d day la viec xac dinh nhijng dac tinh rieng co ciia san pham, djch vu coth§ la dua den cho ngudi tieu dung san pham, djch vu chat lugng cao han hoac la su khacbiet, theo do dat cho san pham, djch vu mot cai ten, xac djnh kieu dang, mlu ma, nhan mac,hay mot dau hieu nao do that de nhd, de ggi nham thu hiit dugc ngudi tieu dung.Khi thiet lap y tudng cho thuang hieu, doanh nghiep can luu y den doi tugng khach hang ciiaminh la ai, phan khiic thj trudng nhu the nao va thong diep gi ciia doanh nghiep mong muondua den ngudi tieu diing... Vidu nhu san pham ma doi tugng tieu dung la tre em thi cannhijng cai ten con giong, ten ciia nhan vat hoat hinh ma tre em ua thich va kem theo do lanhijng hinh anh ngg nghlnh danh cho tre em... se mang lai ket qua tot.Budc thir hai: Tim kiem thong tin, phan tich doi thu, xac djnh vj tri va muc tieu ciiacongtyTren ca sd y tudng kinh doanh, doanh nghiep can tim kiem cac thong tin lien quan de xacdjnh cho y tudng cua minh. De dam bao thong tin co hieu qua cho viec xay dung phat trienthuang hieu, doanh nghiep ciin tap trung cac thong tin sau:- Thong tin doi vdi cac san pham cung loai da co tren thj trudng, trong do tap trung thong tinv6 gia, v6 thj phan, thong tin ve dan vj san xuat mat hang do nhu the nao?- Thong tin vl cac san pham co the thay the.- Thong tin v6 nhung thuang hieu ma d6i thii da dua ra thj trudng va each xay dung, quangba thuang hieu ciia hg.Sau khi co thong tin ckn ihik, neu cd nhung dau hieu nao triing hoac tuang tu vdi thong tinda C ciia doanh nghiep thi phai xem xet thay doi ngay. O 40
  50. 50. Budc thir ba: Thiet ke nhan hieu hang hoa va cac doi tugng SHCN khac Tren ca sd y tudng va cac thong tin da co, doanh nghiep se thilt ke nhan hieu cho san ph^m ciia minh. Khi thi6t kl, nen co nhi^u phuang an khac nhau da co thi lira chgn. Cac tieu chi de doanh nghiep co the dua ra thuang hieu tot: - De dgc, de phat am, de danh van - Dgc dao, an tugng, de nhd - Truyen tai dugc thong tin can thiet ve san pham hoac djch vu - Tao dung hinh anh thich hgp cho khach hang - De dugc phap luat bao hg Budc thir tu: Xac lap quyen Trong thuang hieu co rat nhieu yeu to khac nhau, c6 thd la nhan hieu hang hoa, co the la tenggi xuat xu, la ten thuang mai, kieu dang hay la nhijng yeu t6 thuoc ve quyen tac gia nhudoan nhac hay ten khau hieu... Viec xac djnh yeu to nao can dang ky va dang ky dugc lamot van de khong phai bat ky doanh nghiep nao cung lam dugc.Budc nay rat quan trgng va phai lam cang sdm cang tot bdi neu khong rat de xay ra nhiingrac roi nhu mat nhan hieu va trong trudng hgp nay la mat thuang hieu do lam hang gia, hangnhai hoac do bj ngudi khac dang ky trudc.Budc thir nam: Xay dung chien luge san phamDay la khau r^t quan trgng, xu the canh tranh gay gat nhu hien nay muon san pham/ djch vuciia minh dugc ngudi tieu dung chap nhan nhat thiet doanh nghiep can quan tam den chatlugng san ph§m, djch vu. Tuy theo tung loai san pham, djch vu ma doanh nghiep phai tuantheo tieu chuin ciia no. Chk lugng san pham dugc the hien qua cac tieu chi ca ban nhu:Cong nang, do b^n, tinh an toan va su dam bao ve sinh moi trudng ciia san pham, dich vu. 41
  51. 51. Budc thir sau: Xay dung chien luge ve gia Ngudi tieu dung khong chi doi hoi chdt lugng san pham phai tot ma gia ca phai phu hgp, do vay viec xay dung chien luge gia anh hudng manh d^n chien luge kinh doanh ciia doanh nghiep. Lam th6 nao d% gia phu hgp ma van bao dam Igi nhuan ciia doanh nghiep. Theo Philip Kotler cd mot so each xay dung gia: 1. Dat tien hon de cd chat lugng cao hon 2. Gia giiJ nguyen nhung chat lugng cao han 3. Giir nguyen chat lugng nhung gia re hon 4. Giam bdt tinh nang song gia lai re di nhieu 5. Chat lugng cao hon nhung gia thanh lai re han. Budc thir bay: To chirc nhan su Doanh nghiep can thanh lap bg phan, co the la mot phong dgc lap hoac g4n no vdi bg phanmarketing, nhan sir ciia no nhieu hay it tuy thuoc quy mo ciia doanh nghiep. Bg phan nayphai dugc gan ket vdi cac bg phan chuyen mon khac trong doanh nghiep de co the nSm bitthong tin va xu ly kip thdi cac tinh huong khi xuat hien co hoi hoac co su co.Budc thir tam: To chirc he thong djch vuBat cii* san pham, djch vu nao cung can cd he thong djch vu. He thong nay nho hay to, dongian hay quy mo phu thuoc vao quy mo cua doanh nghiep. He thong djch vu nay bao g6m:He thong ban le hay ban buon (dai ly), he thong cham soc khach hang, thai do djch vu vadjch vu hau mai. Trong do dich vu hau mai mang tinh quyet djnh, vi trong xu the hang hoada dang va nhieu nhu hien nay, chat lugng dich vu san pham tuong duang nhau, gia ca rdtcanh tranh thi doanh nghiep cd thai do phuc vu tot hon va djch vu hau mai chu dao thi doanhnghiep dd se thanh cong. 42
  52. 52. .X.Budc thir chin: Theo doi su phat trien va bao ve thuang hieuDay la budc dam bao cho thuang hieu ben viing. Viec theo doi nhim dieu chinh cho thuanghieu di diing hudng, chong lai cac hanh vi canh tranh khong lanh manh va hanh vi xampham phai dugc thuc hien hit sue nghiem ngat. Bg phan quan trj va phat trien thuong hieuphai xac dinh va xu ly cho dugc cac van de sau:- Xac djnh thi hieu va thoi quen ciia ngudi tieu dung doi vdi san pham, djch vu ciia minh vacua cac doi thii canh tranh.- Riit kinh nghiem ve each lam thuong hieu ciia doanh nghiep khac, dua ra phuang an ciiaminh va can nhac van de tai chinh.- Thdi diem can phai doi mdi san pham, doi mdi thuang hieu va thj trudng.- Xac djnh dja ban (khu vuc) nao la dia ban thudng bi lam hang gia hoac tieu thu hang gia.- Xac djnh dan vj nao la dan vi co kha nang canh tranh vdi mat hang cung loai ciia minh.- Xac djnh thdi diem xuat hien hang xam pham.- Cach thuc chong lai cac hanh vi canh tranh cua doi thii va each thiic chong lai cac hanh vixam pham quyen xay ra. 43
  53. 53. CHirONG 2 THirC TRANG XAY DlTNG VA PH AT TRIEN THl/ONG HIEU TAI CONG TY TNHH NHA NlTOfC MOT THANH VIEN THONG NHAT Mu6n xay dung va phat trien thuang hieu thanh cong d Cong ty TNHH Nha nude mot thanh vien Thong Nhat, ngudi xay dung phai phan tich, khai quat va co cai nhin tong quan tren tat ca cac yeu to moi trudng noi bg cung nhu xung quanh doanh nghiep, tu do dua ra nhijng nhan dinh, nhUng chien luge va cac giai phap huu hieu nhat cho Doanh nghiep.2.1 Doi net ve Cong ty TNHH Nha nude mot thanh vien Thong NhatCong ty TNHH Nha nude mot thanh vien Thong Nhat hien nay tien than la Xi nghiep xe dapTh6ng Nhat ra ddi ngay 30/6/1960 tai Ha Noi. Co the noi: trai qua gin 50 nam tu khi ra ddi,thuang hieu Thong Nhat da hinh thanh phat trien cung vdi nhiing dien bien thang tram ciiaLjch su Viet Nam.Nam 1954 hai mien Nam - Bac Viet Nam bi chia cat, mien Bac dugc giai phong qua do dilen Chii nghTa Xa hoi, mien Nam tiep tuc dau tranh chong de quoc My va tay sai, hai milnvdi hai nhiem vu khac nhau nhung co chung muc tieu: thong nhat dat nude. Trong bdi canhdo, nam 1957 Tap doan Sai Gon da che thu thanh cong chiec xe dap hoan chinh d^u tien,mang y nghTa chfnh trj sau sac, the hien y chi sat son va mong mudn Nam - Bic mot nha:THONG NHAT.Trai qua nhieu giai doan thu thach, khiing hoang, chia tach, sap nhap, nhat la trong thdi kychuyen doi ca che tu ca che bao cap sang ca ch§ thj trudng, rdi lai phuc hoi, phat trien saud6i mdi 1986, dac biet phat trien manh tu nhijng nam 2000, den thang 11 nam 2004 Uy ban 44
  54. 54. Nhan dan Thanh ph6 Ha Noi quy^t djnh sap nhap Cong ty Xe dap ViHa, Cong ty Xe dap -Xe may Dong Da vao Cong ty Xe dap - Xe may Thong Nhat; Viec sap nhap nay nang Congty len mot tam cao mdi, vdi nhirng thuan lgi va kho khan mdi nay sinh, song Cong ty khongchi tap trung thao gd kho khan ma khai thac toi da thuan lgi, thao go dan kho khan dua Congty vugt qua nhung thu thach gay go nhat. Co the noi, chua thdi ky nao xe dap Thong Nhatlai C sue hap dan nhu bay gid: kieu dang, mau ma hien dai, da dang, mau sac dep hai hoa, Oda cong dung, gia ca hgp ly, chat lugng cao...Cac loai xe Thong Nhat, ViHa, TVD Click, xedap 8X, 9X, xe Mountain, xe dap gap - Foldingbike, Xe dap dien, khung xe hgp kim nhom,hoac vat lieu dac biet... canh tranh vdi xe dap Trung Quoc, xe dap cac nude trong khu vuc,xuat khau sang Chau Au. Den thang 11 nam 2005, mot lan niJa Cong ty Xe may - Xe dapThong Nhat lai dugc UBND TP Ha Noi ra quyet dinh chuyen doi thanh Cong ty TNHH Nhanude mot thanh vien Thong Nhat, chuan bj duang dau vdi nhijng kho khan, thach thiic vathanh cong mdi khi Viet Nam gia nhap WTO.Trai qua ljch su truyen thong hang nua the ky, san pham ciia Cong ty TNHH Nha nude motthanh vien Thong Nhat da dat dugc nhijng thanh tiru dang kich le mang tinh dot pha, dugcghi dau bang hang loat giai thudng nhu: danh hieu Doanh nghiep xuat khau xuat sac, doanhnghiep xuat khau uy tin 03 nam lien (2004-2006); la mot trong so 115 doanh nghiep vathuang nhan dugc trao giai thudng "2006 Business Excellence Awards" do Uy ban Quoc giave Hgp tac kinh te quoc te phoi hgp vdi bao Thuang mai, thuang mai dien tu (E-Tradenews) cung vdi 53 ca quan thuang vu Viet Nam tai cac nude, vung lanh tho xet chgn va traotang; cac giai thudng khac nhu: Giai sao vang dat Viet; Clip vang ISO chia khoa hoi nhap;Danh hieu "Thuang hieu manh", dugc ngudi tieu dung binh chgn la "hang Viet Nam chit 45
  55. 55. lugng cao"; dugc tang thudng nhieu huy chuang vang trong cac ky hoi chg, trien lam trongnude va quoc te.Trong chi§n tranh, xe dap Thong Nhat la thuang hieu dgc ton van phat trien manh, xuat hienh§u nhu d mgi liic, mgi nai: tham gia chien djch, co mat tir cac cuoc dieu hanh trgng the nhatdin nhirng sinh hoat thudng nhat nhat ciia ngudi Viet, giiip con ngudi song va lam viec hieuqua hem, da vat va han... Chua cd loai xe dap nao nhu xe dap Thong Nhat nhijng nam dotham chi con dugc lam ho sa, cap bien kiem soat dang ky luu hanh giao thong nhu 6 to, xemay.Ngay nay, Cong ty TNHH Nha nude mot thanh vien Thong Nhat da trd thanh mot Cong tyIdn vdi ba nha may true thuoc: Nha may xe may - xe dap Thong Nhat; Nha May xuat kh4uViHa va Nha may phu tung Dong Da, moi nha may deu co nhijng ITnh vuc rieng, thanh congrieng, song deu cd nhijng dong gop Idn lao trong sir nghiep phat trien mai nha chung: Congty TNHH Nha nude mot thanh vien Thong Nhat.Bang nhijng no lire khong ngung ciia toan the doi ngu Can bg cong nhan vien va Ban lanhdao Cong ty, ba nha may dang ngay cang phat trien, hoan thien. Nha may xe may - xe dapThong Nhat dugc sap xep, to chuc thanh mot he thdng dong bg lien hoan theo kieu "daychuyen nude chay" tir khau che tao khung, phu tung linh kien, den lap rap xe dap hoan chinhthanh pham. Nha may xuat khau ViHa dugc to chuc sap xep thanh he thong day chuyendong bg, chuyen san xuk cac mat hang noi that va kim khi tieu dung xuat kh§u; Nha mayphu tung Dong Da cung dugc to chuc thanh he thong day chuyen dong bg chuyen chi taocac loai phu tung xe may, xe dap de vua cung cap cho noi bg Cong ty vua dap ung nhu c4uthj trudng trong nude va xuat khau. 46
  56. 56. Chi trong 02 nam gan day Cong ty da phat trien them han 60 mat hang mdi vdi chat lugngcao, kieu dang, mlu ma dep, rieng xe dap da co gan 100 loai, mau sic khac nhau phu hgpvdi tung thj trudng va thi hiiu ciia ngudi tieu dung; trong nhijng nam 2004 din 2006 Congty lien tuc dat miic tang trudng binh quan trin 22%/ nam, trong do rieng san pham xuat khaudat kim ngach tang hem 14 lan chiim gan 40% doanh thu ciia Cong ty nam 2006, Cong tydang ngay cang dugc phat trien ca ve san lugng, chat lugng va chiing loai san pham, thuanghieu Thong Nhat da trd thanh thuang hieu manh co mat tren nhieu thj trudng co sue canhtranh cao tren the gidi.Hoa trong xu hudng hoi nhap khu vuc va quoc te, dac biet khi Viet Nam da gia nhap WTO,cac doanh nghiep trong nude dang dung trudc nhung ca hoi va thach thuc mdi. DQ chuan bjsin sang cho tiin trinh phat trien tiep theo, Cong ty TNHH Nha nude mot thanh vien ThongNhat da co nhijng budc chuan bj dau tu ve chiiu sau mdi trin nhieu mat: khoa hgc, congnghe va thiet bi tien tien hien dai, ca viec dau tu md rong quy mo san xuat cung nhu mdrong ve to chuc, dac biet la dau tu vi ca sd ha tang: Cong ty dang khan truang trien khai (dukiin se hoan thanh vao thang 6 nam 2008) hai du an dau tu xay dung nha may md rong sanxuat tai Thanh Liet (Thanh Tri), trin dien tich 16.000m^ va Nha may d Cau Dien (Tu Liem)Ha Noi tren dien tich lO.OOOm^; ngoai ra Cong ty con liin doanh dau tu vdi Cong ty Thuangmai Hoa Binh hoat dong trong ITnh vuc thuang mai, kinh doanh bat dong san, van phonggiao djch cho thue, trung tam sieu thi se khai truang va di vao hoat dong vao quy I nam2008; Cong ty Lien doanh FER - Diic chuyin san xuat hang xuat khau (chii yeu la den xedap, xe may), xuat khau sang thj trudng Chau Au.Den nay, Thdng Nhat da trd thanh thuang hieu manh co uy tin, dugc ngudi tieu dung bietden khong chi qua Xe dap - Xe may ma con qua nhieu san pham da dang cd gia trj xu4t 47
  57. 57. khau cao. San pham mang thuang hieu dgc quyen Thong Nhat da co mat tai nhieu thj trudngthuoc cac nude Au - My va cac khu vuc khac, md ra nhieu trien vgng cho Cong ty phat trien ben vUng hem trong thdi gian tdi.2.2 Dieu kien kinh te, chinh tri, xa hoi Viet Nam - Moi trudng kinh doanhNam 1986, nude ta thuc hien chii truang cua Dang va Nha nude tiin hanh doi mdi dudng loikinh te tu ca chi quan liiu bao cap chuyen sang ca che thj trudng co su quan ly ciia Nhanude. Hon 20 nam nhin lai, bg mat nin kinh te Viet Nam da cd nhung budc chuyen bien to Idn, da dat dugc nhijng thanh tich dang khich le. Theo cong bo cua Tong cue Thong ke, tangtrudng san pham trong nude (GDP) ciia Viet Nam tang cao nhat la nam 2006 la 8,17%, GDPtang trung binh 7,5%/ nam (2000 - 2005); nganh cong nghiep lien tuc tang trudng trong 15nam qua tu 16 - 22%)/ nam, thu nhap binh quan/ ngudi tuy chua cao nhung van tang lien tucvdi binh quan 400-500 USD/ ngudi/ nam.Cung vdi sir phat trien va tang trudng nen kinh ti, nin chinh trj ciia Viet Nam luon dugc duytri, dugc danh gia la mot trong nhiang nude co nen chinh trj on djnh nhat khu vuc. Day cungla mot diem mau chot co sue loi cuon cac nha dau tu nude ngoai vao Viet Nam. Mat khac,van de dan so va trinh do dan tri ciia Viet Nam cung dang dugc Nha nude trii trgng; VietNam la nude cd nguon dan sd tre, tiep thu nhijng tiin bg ve cong nghe va khoa hgc ky thuattien tien (trong nude va thi gidi) hit sue nhanh nhay; vdi tren 80 trieu dan, Viet Nam con ladat nude co luc lugng lao dong doi dao cung nguon tieu thu san pham tiem nang.Viet Nam da ra nhap WTO vdi nhijng chinh sach thong thoang cho hoi nhap, phat triin; hethong phap luat ngay cang dugc hoan thien va khoa hgc han, tao thuan lgi tren nhiiu matdac biet tac dong manh me cho phat trien kinh ti xa hoi. 48
  58. 58. Trong xu the chuyen minh, nen kinh te Viet Nam dang cd tdc do tang trudng, phat triin manh me md ra nhijng thuan lgi mdi trong hoat dong san xuat kinh doanh cho nhiiu nganh, nhiiu ITnh vuc trin ca nude. Cong ty TNHH Nha nude mot thanh vien Thong Nhat vdi muctieu chien luge trong nganh san xuat Xe dap - Xe may hudng tdi thj trudng xuat khau cungdang dung trudc nhung ca hoi mdi, vdi nhung thach thuc mdi.- Dieu kien cong ngheChiing ta dang song trong thdi dai kinh te tri thuc, su phat trien cong nghiep ca kim khi cungdua tren tinh tri thuc ay, viec cap nhat cac cong nghe mdi va cong nghe thong tin da trdthanh khau tat yeu khong the thiiu doi vdi moi doanh nghiep, doi hoi Cong ty TNHH Nhanude mot thanh vien Thong Nhat phai xem xet nghiin cuu cac diiu kien cong nghe, thudngxuyen quan tam din sir thay doi va tiin bg cua nganh d trong nude cung nhu the gidi de xaydung chien luge cho Cong ty la v6 ciing quan trgng.Diiu kien cong nghe co anh hudng true tiep den chien luge kinh doanh ciia Cong ty, bdi sirphat trien ciia nin cong nghe hien dai se dem lai nhiiu ca hoi cho qua trinh dau tu, mang lailgi nhuan cao do dat din muc tieu vi nang suat, chat lugng; song nguy ca riii ro cao neuCong ty dau tu nhung diiu kien cong nghe tien tien hien dai ma lai khong tan dung dugc nohoac khong phat huy hit cong suat do gia tri dau tucao, gia thanh cao, chi phi Idn...Nhirng nam gan day, Cong ty TNHH Nha nude mot thanh vien Thong Nhat da dau tu han 2trieu USD mua sam bd sung them hang loat may moc, thiet bj, cong nghe tien tien, hien daiciia cac nude cd nen cong nghiep hang dau tren the gidi, cung cap cho cac day chuyin sanxuat trgng yeu co tac dung quyet djnh, nang cao chat lugng va san lugng hang hoa, dap ungnhu cau trong nude ngay cang cao va xuat khau. Trong sd dd, dang ke nhat la he thong cacmay ep nhira cao cap, day chuyen san xuat khung xe dap, day chuyen lap rap xe dap, day 49

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