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NGUYEN BA SINH_DE XUAT MOT SO BIEN PHAP.pdf

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  • 1. INTERNATIONAL EXECUTIVE MBA PROGRAM (leMBA) Chuong trinh cao hoc Quiin trj kinh doanh Quoc tcLUAN VAN TOT NGHIEPDE XUAT M p T SO BIEN PHAP NHAM XAY Dl/NG, QUAN LY VA PIIAT TRIEN THl/ONG IIIEU CONG TV MAI TRANG GIAI DOAN 2008 - 2013 NGUYEN BA SINH leMBA#3 THANG 05, 2007
  • 2. INTERNATIONAL EXECUTIVE MBA PROGRAM (leMBA) Chirang trinh cao hoc Quan trj kinh doanh Quoc te BAN LUAN VAN NAY DlTOC NO? CHO TRirdNG DAI HQC IRVINE (HOA KY) VA KHOA QUAN TRI KINH DOANH (TRirCJNG DAI HOC QUOC GIA HA N O I )BAN LUAN VAN LA M O T PHAN BAT BUQC TRONG CHLTONG TRINH DAO TAO THAC SY QUAN TRI KINH DOANH QUOC TE THANG 05, 2007
  • 3. Phe duyet ciia Chuong trinh Cao iioc quan tri kinh doanh quoc te Chu nhiem chuong trinhToi xac nhan rang luan van nay da dap ung dugc cac yeu cau cua mot luan van tot nghiepthuoc chuong trinh dao tao Thac sy Quan tri kinh doanh. PGS-TS. VuCongTy Chii tich Hoi dongChiing toi, ky ten duai day xac nhan rang chung toi da doc toan bo luan van nay va congnhan ban luan van hoan toan dap ung cac tieu chuan cua mot luan van Thac sy quan trj kinhdoanh. TS. Nguyen Viet Anh Giao vien huong danCac thanh vien Hoi dong(Xep thu tir ten theo bang chu cai)TS. Nguyen Viet AnhTS. TaNgpcCauNCS. Tran Phuong LanPGS-TS. Ngo Kim Thanh
  • 4. CAMKET Toi xin cam ket rang ngi dung cua ban luan van nay chua dugc nop cho bat ky motchuong trinh cap bang cao hoc nao cung nhu bat ky mot chuomg trinh dao tao cap bang naokhac. Toi cung xin cam ket them rang ban luan van nay la no lire ca nhan cua toi. Cac ketqua, phan tich, ket luan trong luan van nay (ngoai cac phan dugc trich dan) deu la ket qualam viec cua ca nhan toi. Tguyen Bd Sink
  • 5. LCn CAM OfNToi xin chan thanh cam an sir huong dan nhiet tinh, trach nhiem cua giang vien - Tien sTNguyin Viet Anh khoa HSB - Dai hoc Quoc gia Ha Noi da huong dan tao dieu kien totnhit cho toi trong qua trinh nghien cuu de hoan thanh luan van nay.Tran trgng cam an Cong ty Mai Trang da tao dieu kien cung cap tai lieu, thong tin trongqua trinh khao sat nghien cuu de tai.Chan thanh cam an tap the lop IeMBA#3 ve sir doan ket, h6 trg toi trong qua trinh hoctap, nghien cuu.Toi xin bay to long biet an den toan the giang vien, can bp cong nhan vien tham gia congtac giang day, phuc vu khoa dao tao leMBA#3 da giiip da toi hoan thanh tot khoa hoc. Nguyen Bd Sink
  • 6. DANH MUG CAC TlT VIET TATKy hieu, viet tat Viet day du Giai thich TNHH Trach nhiem huu han IBM International Bisiness Macine Tap doan IBM ICC International Criminal Court Cong ty hoa my pham quoc te LG Lucky Goldstar Tap doan LG VTB Viettronic Tan Binh Cong ty C phan dien tu Tan Binh O Vien nghien cuu va dao tao ve VIM Vietnam Industry Management quan ly HCTC Hanh chinh to chuc TOM Top of mind Muc do nhan biet thuang hieu
  • 7. MUC LUC PHAN M 6 D A U 0, jLI Ten de tai | 01L2 Ly do lira chon de tai 01L3 Muc tieu va y nghia cua viec nghien cihi de tai. 02L4 Phiroug phap nghien cihi 02L5 Cac dong gop cua de tai 03L6 Ket cau cua de tai 03 CHUOfNG I: CO S 6 LY LUAN VE THUONG HIEU VA XAY DlTNG THirCRVG HIEU, T H V C TRANG VE XAY DUlVG THUONG HIEU TAI 04 DOANH NGHIEP VIET NAMLI Ctf sa ly luan ve thirong hieu 04 1 1.1.1 Khai niem thuang hieu i 04 1.1.2 Tam quan trong cua thuang hieu 09 1.1.3 Cac chuc nang cua thuang hieu n : 1.1.4 Dae tinh cua thuang hieu i 13 1 i.2 Xay dung thu*oiig hieu | 16 1.2.1 Khai niem xay dung thuang hieu 16 1.2.2 Quy trinh xay dung thuang hieu 17
  • 8. 1.2.3 Thidt ki thuang hieu 211.3 Cac chien Iirac phat trien thuong hieu 24 1.3.1 Cach thuc duy tri thuang hieu 24 1.3.2 Cac chien luge phat trien thuang hieu 25 1 i 1.3.3 Tao dung hinh anh cho doanh nghiep ! 301.4 Thuc trang ve xay dung thuong hieu tai cac doanh nghiep Viet Nam | 31 1.4.1 Thuc trang ve cac thuang hieu Viet Nam 31 1.4.2 Thuc trang cong tac xay dung thuang hieu tai Viet Nam 40 1,4.3 Thuc trang dau tu cho xay dung thuang hieu 43 CHU^ONG II: TONG QUAN VA THlTC TRANG XAY DlTNG THirONG HIEU MAI TRANG 46Z.l Tong quan 461,2 Thuc trang xay dirng thirong hieu Mai Trang 50 CHlTONG III: CAC GIAI PHAP THlTC HIEN THANH CONG CHIEN LlfOC XAY DLTNG THlTONG HIEU 58 TAI CONG TY MAI TRANG VA KET LUANi.l Cac bien phap thyc hien thanh cong chien lutfc xay dung thvong hieu 58 3.1.1 Can xac dinh va nam viing dac diem, tinh hinh doi thu canh tranhj 58... . A 1. 1 3.1.2 Nam viing dac diem tam ly khach hang va khach hang muc tieu.. 60 3.1.3 Luon dinh huong dung muc tieu chien luge 63 3.1.4 Xac dinh ro va dinh huong diing muc tieu chien luge 64 3.1.5 Xay dung va quang ba sau rong hinh anh cua cong ty 66
  • 9. 3.1.6 Thuong xuyen cung cap san pham dam bao chat lugng chuan 68 3.1.7 Nang cao chat lugng dich vu va phat trien thuong hieu 69 3.1.8 Ap dung triet de qui trinh xay dung va phat trien thuang hieu 70 3.1.9 Ke hoach thuc hien xay dung thuang hieu 713.2 Nhung han che cua Luan van va huong nghien cihi tiep 723.3 Ket luan 72_ TAI LIEU THAM KHAO 74
  • 10. t 2 DANH MUG BANG BIEUBane 2-1 Co cau boat done kinh doanh cua Cone tv Mai Trane 48Bang 2-2 Doanh thu cua Cone tv Mai Trane 49
  • 11. PHAN MO DAU1.1 Ten 6k tkl:^^Bi xuat mot so Men phdp nhdm xay dung, quan ly vdphdt trien thuo^ng hieu Gong tyMai Trang giai doan (2008-2013)"1.2 Ly do lira chon de tai:Trong thai gian gdn day, thuang hieu va xay dung thuang hieu da trd thanh van de nongbong, thu hut dugc sir quan tam rong rai cua cac doanh nghiep va cong luan.Tren thuc te, day la mot van de khong mai, doi vai cac nuac phat tri^n tren th6 giai.Thuang hieu va xay dung thuang hieu luon la vkn dh c6 tam quan trong rat lan, la mottrong nhung moi quan tam hang dau doi vai moi doanh nghiep. Tuy nhien, tai Viet Namvan de nay chua dugc cac doanh nghiep quan tam dung muc.Theo danh gia chung cua nhieu chuyen gia kinh te, Thuang hieu Viet Nam hien nay conxkx kern, the hien ngay thi trucmg trong nuac, chua du lire de tham gia thi truang xuatkhau va hoi nhap. Hau het cac Doanh nghiep Viet Nam con dang trong giai doan buacdau ciia viec xay dung thuang hieu va cung dang gap rat nhieu kho khan. Tuy nhien, vande nay da bat dau thay doi mot each nhanh chong theo chieu huong tich cue do anhhuong tu Viet Nam hoi nhap vai nen kinh te khu virc va the giai. Cac doanh nghiep danhan bang thuang hieu la mot trong nhihig yeu to dam bao cho su thanh cong dai han vada dua van de thuang hieu va xay dung thuang hieu tra ve dung vai tam quan trong vonc6 cua no.Cong ty Mai Trang la cong ty TNHH dugc thanh lap nam 1996. Muai mot nam hinhthanh va phat trien, chuyen kinh doanh vat lieu xay dung, thiet bj ve sinh cao cap, kinhdoanh oto, van phong, saloon cho thue. Chien luge kinh doanh ciia cong ty Mai Tranggiai doan (2008-2013) la tap trung phat trien phan djch vu. Cong ty Mai Trang mai chi
  • 12. bat dau xay dung thuang hieu va mai a giai doan dau nen quy mo con nho, lugng kinhphi dau tu khong !an, han nua viec nhan thuc ve van hoa doanh nghiep va thuang hieudoanh nghiep thi lanh dao va can bo cong ty con han che, vi vay Cong ty Mai Trang danggap nhieu kh6 khan trong viec xay dung, quan ly va phat trien thuang hieu.Do do, viec tim ra va de xuat mot so nhung giai phap mang tinh thuc te nham giup Congty Mai Trang thuc hien cong tac xay dung thuang hieu m6t each bai ban va khoa hochon, giup cai thien hieu qua cua xay dung thuang hieu Cong ty Mai Trang la viec lam hetsue ckn thiet trong tinh hinh hien nay, han nua toi lai la Chu tich Hoi dong Quan trj kiemTong giam doc cong ty nen do la ly do tai sao toi lira chon de tai:"£)e xuat mot so bienphdp xay dung, quan ly va phat trien thuong hieu Cong ty Mai Trang giai doan (2008 -2013) " lam de tai nghien cuu.1.3 Muc tieu va y nghia cua viec nghien curu de taiXuit xu tir thuc trang noi tren, de tai nay nham vao muc tieu de xuat mot so giai phap cuthe va thiet thuc cho cong tac xay dung thuang hieu Cong ty Mai Trang.De thuc hien dugc muc tieu nay, de tai se neu khai quat mot so noi dung ly thuyet mangtinh ca so ly luan ve thuang hieu va xay dung thuang hieu, dong thai de cap den mot sovan de quan trong trong thuc tien xay dung thuang hieu cua cac cong ty tren the giai dadugc cac chuyen gia marketing tong hop va phan tich, tren ca so do se phan tich hientrang ve thuang hieu va xay dung thuang hieu Mai Trang de c6 the de xuAt giai phap.1.4 Phuong phap nghien cuu de tai- Phan tich thong ke- Nghien cuu truang hgp- Tai lieu tham khao cac thuang hieu trong nuac, bao doanh nghiep thuang hieu va mots6 cac tai lieu khac.
  • 13. 1.5 Cac dong gop cua de taiVai muc tieu va phuang phap nghien cuu tren, de tai mong muon dugc dong gop mot sovdn d^ ly luan va thuc tien sau:- Khai quat mot each c6 he thong nhiJng khai niem ca ban va mot so noi dung ly thuyetchii yeu ve thuang hieu, xay dung va phat trien thuang hieu.- Phan tich nhung bai hoc kinh nghiem dugc rut ra tir thuc tien xay dung thuang hieu cuacac cong ty, cac thuang hieu hang dau tren th§ giai d^ lam ro va hd sung them cho ca saly luan ve thuang hieu va xay dung thuang hieu.- Khai quat hien trang thuang hieu va cong tac xay dung thuang hieu Mai Trang- De xuat mot so giai phap giup Cong ty Mai Trang hoan thien tung khau trong quy trinhxay dung thuang hieu va nang cao hieu qua xay dung thuang hieu cho doanh nghiep.1.6 Ket cau cua luan van bao gom:Phan ma dauChuong I: Ca so ly luan ve thuang hieu va xay dung thuong hieu, thuc trgng xay dungthuong hieu tai cac doanh nghiep Viet Nam.Chuong II: Tong quan thuc trgng xay dung thuong hieu Mai Trang.Chuong III: Cac giai phdp thuc hien thanh cong chien lucre xay dung thuong hieu tgiCong ty Mai Trang va kit luan.
  • 14. CHUONG 1 CO S d LY LUAN VE THU^OfNG HIEU VA XAY DlTNG THlTONG HIEUTHirC TRANG VE XAY DUNG THUttNG HIEU TAI DOANH NGHIEP VIET NAM1.1 Ca set ly luan v^ thuong hieu:1.1.1 Khai niem ve thuong hieu:a/Khai niem thuong hieuThuang hieu (brand) vai y nghia de phan biet hang hoa cua doanh nghiep nay vai hanghoa cua doanh nghiep khac da c6 tu hang the ky truac. Sir xuat hien va phat trien cuathuong hieu da tao ra nhung thay doi lan trong kinh doanh va dac biet la trong ITnh vucMarketing. Theo djnh nghTa Hiep hoi Marketing Hoa Ky:Thuang hieu la:"mot cai ten, tir ngu, ky hieu, bieu tugng hoac hinh ve kieu thiet ke,...hoac tap hgp ciia cac yeu to tren nham xac dinh va phan biet hang hoa hoac dich vu cuanguai ban hoac nhom nguai ban vai hang hoa va dich vu ciia cac doi thii canh tranh"{Theo Hiep hoi Marketing Hoa Ky).Mot thuang hieu c6 the bao gom hai phan chinh:- Ten thuong hieu (brand name) (hay noi rong han la phan Phat am dugc): la nhung yeuto C the doc len dugc, tac dong vao thinh giac cua nguai nghe nhu ten cong ty (vi du Onhu: CocaCola, Pepsi, ....), cac cau khau hieu (nhu: Chi co the la Heneken, Bitis nangniu ban chdn Viet...), cac doan nhac dac trung va cac yeu to phat am dugc khac- Phan khong phat am dugc: la nhung bo phan khong doc len dugc ma chiing ta chi c6the nhan biet dugc bang thi giac nhung khong doc len dugc nhu bi6u tugng {symbol, logoof brand), hinh ve, mau sac, kieu dang, bao bi va cac yeu to nhan dang khac.0 Viet Nam hien nay, khai niem thuong hieu van thuong dugc hi6u la nhan hieu hanghoa. Tren thuc te, thuang hieu la mot khai niem rong, no bao gom tat ca cac yeu to ginlien vai san pham hoac djch vu nham lam cho chung c6 the nhan dien, phan biet de dang
  • 15. vai cac san phim, djch vu ciing loai, trong do c6 ca yeu to nhan hieu hang hoa. Cac yeut6 thuong hieu nhu ten thuang mai, ten gpi xuat xiir hang hoa, chi dan dia ly, ki€u dangcong nghiep va ban quyen... c6 the dugc phap luat bao ho duai dang la cac doi tugng sohiru tri tue.b/Nhgn dgng thuong hieuNgay nay tren the giai tran ngap cac loai hang hoa va dich vu. Do do, mot thuang hieumu6n t6n tai thi cac doanh nghiep clin phai biet lira chon, ket hgp cac yeu to sao cho sanphdm C dugc sir loi cu6n, an tugng va dac biet la phai c6 mot phong each rieng. Phong Oeach rieng chinh la cac dac diem nhan dang thuang hieu tren thj truang, hinh thanh cautnic toan the cho thuong hieu:Noi dung thuong hieu: mot thuong hieu phai c6 noi dung, do la dieu xuat hien ngay trongdau khi nguai ta nhac den thuong hieu. BMW ggi len toe do va kieu dang, noi den TrungNguyen la nguai ta nh6 den huong vj da dang cua cac ly cafe dugc sap xep theo so.Sheraton Hotel, Ha Noi mot khach san phong each nuac My Day la dieu ca ban truyenth6ng trong giao tiep, tuong ung vai vi tri tieu chuan cua thuong hieu.Tinh each thuong hieu: moi mot thuong hieu deu c6 mot tinh each rieng cung giong nhumoi con nguai deu c6 nhung each khac nhau de the hien minh. Enchenter nong nan vaquyen ru. Ford sang trong va lich lam... Tinh each tra thanh diem tap trung cua thuanghieu da dugc cong nhan tir thap ky 70. Cach don gian dl tao nen tinh each cho thuonghieu la gan no vai mot nguai phat ngon, mot ngoi sao hay mot con vat.Van hod thuong hieu: moi mot thuang hieu deu c6 net van hoa rieng. San pham, dich vuchinh la dai dien cho van hoa thuong hieu. Van hoa thuang hieu khong chi lam chonguai ta nhan ra san pham ma con mang y nghTa cho san pham va ca each xu su cuakhach hang. Vai xu huong trao doi thuang mai rong rai, su lien he van hoa da dugc tao
  • 16. ra giira cac nuac goc cua thuong hieu. Vi du nhu: Khach san CARAVENLLF mang sacthai cua van hoa Phap con Toyota, Yamaha, Nissan dac trung cho dat nuac Nhat Ban.Quan he thuong hieu co the tgo ra: thuang hieu cung c6 the ggi nen mot moi quan he.No thuang tao ra ca hoi cho sir trao doi v6 hinh giCra nguai vai nguai. Dieu nay dac bietdung vai nhirng thuang hieu trong ITnh vuc dich vu. Vi du nhu: Dimal la nai gap go cuathe he mai.Su phan anh cua thuang hieu: thuang hieu phan anh hinh anh cua khach hang, dai diencho nguai su dung chung, giup nguai ta c6 the uac doan ph4n nao ve mot nguai thongqua thuong hieu ma nguoi do dang su dung. Nhirng nguai sir dung xe hang Mecerdesthuong la nhirng nguai thanh dat, co dia vi cao, giau co va hai dung tuoi trong khi nhirngnguai sir dung hang BMW thi thuang tre tuoi hon. Tuy nhien, mot diem dang luu y lakhach hang khong de dang bi dinh huong hoac khong muon bj gan vao mot tinh each naod6, do do quang cao phai tinh te de ho tu nhan dang chinh minh qua hinh anh ciia sanpham, djch vu.Hinh anh rieng ma thuong hieu tgo ra cho khach hang: neu sir phan anh la tam guongben ngoai cua muc tieu thi hinh anh rieng chinh la tam guong ben trong. Thong qua thaido cua chiing ta vai nhiJng thuong hieu nhat djnh, chiing ta co the phat trien mot loaiquan he ben trong vai chinh chiing ta. Rat nhieu nguai su dung nhirng ehiec xe @ hayDylan de co the chung minh rang ho co kha nang mua cac loai xe do cho dii kha nang vatchat ciia ho chua phii hgp.Dieu quan trong de mot thuong hieu ton tai la phai xay dung dugc hinh anh thuang hieumot each dang nho bang nhung y tuong don gian va sang tao. Dac biet, muon co suemanh va sire song lau dai, luon trong bat ky moi truang nao, thuong hieu phai trungthanh vai each thuc giao tiep bang phong each rieng cua minh.
  • 17. c/ Cdc dgng thuong hieuDat thuang hieu la mot viec lam het sure can thi6t d6i vai ca doanh nghiep va nguai tieu diing. Nguai tieu dung dugc bi6t ve san pham, dich vu thong qua ten va cac ylu tdthuang hieu ma doanh nghiep cung cap. Do do, khach hang co the phan biet dugc nhirngdiem khac biet giua cac thuang hieu trong ciing mot loai san pham. Thuang hieu dugc sirdung cho cac san pham hang hoa vat chat, djch vu tham chi ca con nguai, to chuc va diadanh. Qua trinh thuc t6 phat triln cua thuong hieu dan den viec hinh thanh nhieu dangthuong hieu va each chia cac dang thuong hieu khac nhau, theo ITnh vuc san pham co thechia thanh cac dang: * Thuong hieu cho hang hod vat chatDat thuang hieu cho cac loai hang hoa vat chat la hinh thirc pho bien nhit hien nay. Cangnhieu loai san phdm khac nhau dugc ban hay khuyen mai true ti^p toi nguai tieu dung thicac kien thirc ve thuang hieu cang dugc chap nhan rong rai hon. Hang hoa vat chat co thechia lam hai dang:- Hang hod co ban: la nhung san pham ca ban den muc nguai tieu diing khong th6 phanbiet dugc ve mat vat chat vi du nhu nhihig san pham nong san. Trong nhieu nam qua, conhieu thuong hieu trong loai hang hoa nay da tra nen quen thupc vai nguai tieu diingnhu: nuac khoang Lavie, bia Heneken, cafe Trung Nguyen....- Cdc san pham cong nghe cao: Vai viec bung no cua nganh cong nghe thong tin, cac sanpham cong nghe cao ngay cang tra nen huu ich va cung phai chiu su canh tranh kh6c liet.De tieu thu dugc loai san phan nay, cac ky nang tiep thi da va dang dong vai tro ngaycang quan trong. IBM, Intel va Microsoft da chi hang tram trieu dola cho cac chi6n dichquang cao nham khuyeeh truang ten tuoi ciia hang. Doi vai thi truong nay, thanh cong taichinh khong chi con don thuan nha cai tien san pham hay dua ra cac dac tinh ky thuatmai nira.
  • 18. * Thuong hieu cho dich vuTrong thap ky nay, thuang hieu cho cac loai hinh dich vu da tang manh. Sheraton Hotel,CaRavellf Hotel, Hilton Hotel, Sai Gon Tourist, ... da tra thanh nhirng ten tuoi Ion trongnganh djch vu. Trong ITnh vuc nay, mot thach thiirc Ion la tinh v6 hinh va kha nang biend6i k chat lugng tuy thuoc vao s6 lugng nguofi, san pham cu the Hen quan den viec cungcip va sOr dung dich vu. Chinh vi vay, dM thuong hieu cho cac hang djch vu clin lam choban chdt triru tugng ciia dich vu tra nen cu the han.* Thuong hieu cho nguoi ban le vd nha phan phoiD6i vai nhung nguai ban le va cac nha phan phoi, thuong hieu co the tao ra su quan tam,thuong xuyen mua sam ciia khach hang. Su tin cay ma cura hang tao ra cang Ion thi thoiquen mua sSm cua khach hang tai cua hang cang tang. Cac nha phan phoi va nhungnguai ban le co the tu tao ra ban sac cua chinh minh qua each sap xep, phan loai, bai tricua hang, gia ca, phong each phuc vu... Cac yeu to nay se giup cho cira hang ban dugcnhieu san pham han va nha do Igi nhuan ciing se tang theo. Dien hinh cho cac thuonghieu nay la hang loat cac sieu thj da ra dai tren khap the giai va no dan tra thanh nhirngtap doan khong the thieu dugc trong ITnh vuc dich vu.* Thuong hieu cho con nguoi vd to chucCon nguai va cac to chuc cung co the dugc nhin nhan nhu la mot loai thuong hieu. Connguai va cac to chiirc cung c6 nhung hinh anh hoan toan xac dinh, dugc nguai khac bietden, hieu, ua thich hay khong ua thich. Tren thuc te, dieu nay dac biet tra nen diing vaicac guong mat dugc cong chung biet den nhu nhung nghe sy, nhung chinh trj gia, caccau thu bong da chuyen nghiep... Con cac to chuc thi thuang dugc bi6t d8n thong quacac chuong trinh, hoat dong va cac san pham ciia minh.
  • 19. * Thuong hieu doi voi vi tri dia lyThuang hieu doi vai vi tri dia ly tuong doi co dinh bai ten ciia dia danh it khi thay doi.Sue manh ciia thuang hieu la lam cho con nguai a moi noi khac biet den dia danh do.Cac thanh ph6, cac khu vuc hien nay dang khong ngimg quang cao, tiep thj de phat triennganh cong nghiep khong khoi: du Ijch.Ngoai ra, nguoi ta con chia cdc dgng thuong hieu theo qui mo cua san pham nhu:- Thuong hieu rieng ciia san pham- Thuong hieu chung ciia dong san pham- Thuong hieu chung cua chiing san pham- Thuong hieu chung cho nhieu san pham khac nhauHay C the phan biet theo hai dang la thuong hieu san pham va thuang hieu dich vu... O1.1.2 Tam quan trong cua thuong hieuThuc te da chOrng minh thuong hieu d6ng mot vai tro quan trong khong nhirng doi vaicac nha san xuat, cong ty, doanh nghiep ma con tao ra nhieu thuan Igi cho nguai tieudiing.* Doi voi cdc nha san xuat, dich vu.Ve phia cac cong ty, thuong hieu dap irng muc dich nhan dien san pham, djch vu. Vaimot thuong hieu manh, cac nha san xuat, djch vu se co doanh s6 cao va thu dugc Iginhuan Ion hon so v6i cac san pham, dich vu cung loai khong co ten tuoi tren thi truong.Co dugc thuang hieu, cac cong ty dugc bao ve hgp phap nhung dac diem, dac trungrieng ciia san ph^m, dich vu dugc bao ho doc quyen sa hiru tri tue, dem lai tu each hgpphap cho nguai chu so hiru. Qua do cac nha san xuat, dich vu co Xk dkw tu mot each antoan, phat trien thj truang ca ve chieu rong ISn chieu sau.Noi den thuong hieu ciia mot san pham, dich vu nguai ta co the coi do la mot cam ketcua doanh nghiep ve chat lugng ciia san pham, dich vu do. Nguai tieu diing khi tin tuong
  • 20. vao mot thuong hieu thi doanh nghiep co the thay doi ngu6n san xuit, dich vu d6 giamgia thanh ma khong can lo ngai ve viec giam doanh s6. Vi du nhu hang CocaCola c6 thesan xuat thir nuac giai khat nay tai hau khap cac nai tren the giai ma khong can mat congvan chuyen tir My, Sheraton Hotel a Viet Nam vin dugc huong san pham phong eachphuc vu nhu a My va cac nuac khac.Cac cong ty lan tren the giai da chung to rang co mot ten tuoi Ion coi nhu da co mot thuvu khi ca ban trong canh tranh. Long trung thanh ciia khach hang doi vai thuang hieugiiip cho cong ty de dang han trong viec kiem soat va du bao thj trucmg. No tao nen motrao can khien cho cac cong ty khac gap kho khan trong viec xam nhap thi truang cho diicac quy trinh cong nghe, chat lugng mau ma san pham, dich vu gia ca co the la tuongduong. Day la mot igi the Ion trong canh tranh ma bat ky mot nha san xuat, djch vu naoCling muon co.Thuang hieu dugc coi la mot tai san gia tri Ion ciia cac nha san xuat, dich vu vi no c6 khanang tac dong den thai do va hanh vi cua ngucri tieu diing. N6 co the tra thanh mot monhang C the dam bao thu nhap ben viing. Da khong it cac doanh nghiep phai chi tra mot Okhoan dau tu khong nho de c6 dugc mot thuong hieu, dac biet la trong cac lien doanh.* Doi voi nguoi tieu dung Thuang hieu co y nghia dac biet doi voi nguoi tieu diing. Qua thuong hieu, nguai tieudiing C the xac djnh nguon goc, xuat xiir ciia san pham, biet dugc nha san xuat, nha dich Ovu nao se ehju trach nhiem ve san pham do cho khach hang. Nha cac chuong trinh quancao, tiep thi, kinh nghiem ciia nhung nguai mua va sir dung truac va uy tin tren trjtruang, nguai tieu dung co the chon lira dl dang thuang hieu nao phii hgp vai nhu zhx vaqua do don gian hoa viec mua sam, su dung cua minh. Viec don gian hoa nay se giiip chonguoi tieu diing co the giam bat cong sue, thai gian va ca chi phi tim kiem, lira chon sanpham, dich vu. 10
  • 21. - Dt doi lay long tmng thanh ciia khach hang doi vai thuong hieu cua minh thi cac nhasan xuat, dich vu phai dap lai bang each thoa man cac nhu cau cua khach hang. Vi du nhucac tinh nang hgp ly ciia san pham, djch vu gia ca, cac chuong trinh khuyen mai hay dichvu sau ban hang... Day c6 the coi la cam ket ciia thuang hieu doi vai khach hang.- Thuong hieu con co mot Igi ich rat Ion la co the lam giam riii ro cho nguofi tieu diingkhi quyet djnh mua hay su dung mot san pham, djch vu. Khi mua hang hoac sir dungdich vu nguai tieu diing thuang hay gap cac rui ro ve tai chinh, xa hoi, thai gian, chiircnang, vat chit... Do do, su dung mot thuong hieu co uy tin la mot trong nhitng bien phapgiam thieu nhung riii ro nay mot each kha hu*u hieu.Co the noi thuang hieu da giiip cho viec mua sam sir dung cua nguai tieu diing tra nenthuan tien va phong phu hon.1.1.3. Cac chuc nang cua thuang hieu :Tren thuc t6, viec tao dung thuong hieu khong chi bao gom gan mot cai ten hay ve motbilu tugng, ma thuc chit do chi la nhung dau hieu ben ngoai. De xay dung nen motthuang hieu dung nghTa thi thuong hieu phai bao ham dugc cac chirc nang ca ban sau:* Nham phan dogn thi truong: Cac nha san xuat, djch vu phai tap hgp, dua ra cac thuoctinh ve the manh, Igi ich va dac trung ciia san pham hoac djch vu sao cho phii hgp vainhu cau ciia timg nhom d6i tugng nguai tieu diing cu the. Tir do, nha san xuat, djch vu sephai tao ra nhung dau hieu, dac diem khac biet nhat dinh ciia minh de c6 the thu hut sirchii y ciia cac khach hang tiem nang.* Tgo nen su khac biet trong suot qud trinh phat trien cua san pham: Mot thuang hieu radai va dat dugc nhirng thanh cong nhat dinh thi theo thai gian tat yeu co xu huong nhirngnha san xuit, djch vu khac se bat truac cac thuoc tinh tien bo ciia san pham va cac dacdi6m nay se nhanh chong quen thupc vai nguai tieu diing. Do do, thuang hieu mu6n tdntai thi khong chi don thuan la mot ten gpi ma con phai bieu hien cho sir nang dong sang 11
  • 22. tao va khong ngimg d6i m6i. Thuong hieu ciia nhung nha san xuit, dich vu nao di tienphong, dam chip nhan riii ro de cai tien san pham thi se gat hai dugc thanh c6ng."Sanpham C the tilp tue ton tai hay mat di nhung thuong hieu thi van con song mai vai thai Ogian" (Theo"r<70 dung vd quan tri thuong hieu - Danh tieng vd Igi nhuan " - VIM).* Dua san pham khac sau vao tam tri khdch hang: Khach hang se chii y den mot sanphim, dich vu thong qua cac chuong trinh quang cao, tiep thi va se ghi nha noi dung ciiasan pham, dich vu do thong qua qua trinh su dung. Cho nen de hinh anh ciia mot sanpham, dich vu co the khac sau vao tam tri khach hang thi chiing phai dugc truyen tai moteach nhit quan vai ciing mot thong diep. Mot thuong hieu co the ton tai tir th^ he naysang the he khac thong qua hoi ire. Do do, viec nhan biet mot thuang hieu hien tai se vantiep tue anh huong t6i nhan thirc ciia khach hang ve thuong hieu san pham, djch vu trongtuong lai.* Tgo ra phuong huong vd y nghia cho san pham: Mot thuong hieu phai chira dung cacthong tin ve san pham dong thai phai co kha nang thich ung dugc vai thai dai va bien doimot each linh hoat theo thj hieu nguoi tieu diing ciing nhu nhung tien bp khoa hpc congnghe. De truyen tai dugc noi dung, phuang huong chien luge va tao danh tieng tren trjtrucmg, thuang hieu can dugc dieu chinh thuang xuyen nhung van phai dam bao tinhnhat quan doi vai y nghTa cua san pham. M6i mot thuang hieu se co each phat trien riengvai cac cam ket, cong hien khac nhau.* La cam ket giira nha san xuat, dich vu voi khdch hang: Cam ket ma thuang hieu dua ramang tinh djnh tinh, thoa man mong muon va ky vpng cua khach hang va chi co khachhang la nguai cam nhan va danh gia. Tuy nhien cac cam ket nay khong mang tinh rangbupc v6 mat phap ly. Mot thuang hieu cang Ion va lau dai thi ky vpng ciia khach hangd6i vai no cang Ion. Neu thuang hieu thuc hien diing nhirng cam kit thi se co dugc sutmng thanh ciia khach hang cung nhu sir quan tam, don nhan cac san pham mai ma 12
  • 23. thuong hieu do dua ra. Day chinh la mot Igi the Ion, dac biet la trong nhirng thai diemkhiing hoang suy thoai ciia cong ty vi n6 se giiip cho thuang hieu ton tai tren thj truang.1.1.4. Dac tinh cua thuong hieu (Brand Identitv)a/Khdi niem ve dac tinh cua thuong hieuBk phan biet cac thuang hieu khac nhau, nguai ta dua ra cac dac diem de nhan dang. Cacdac diem nay tao thanh dac tinh ciia thuong hieu."Dac tinh ciia thuang hieu la mot taphgp duy nhat co lien kit thupc tinh ma cac nha chien luge thuong hieu mong muon tao rava duy tri. Nhung lien ket nay se phan anh cai ma thuong hieu huong tai va la sir cam ketciia nha san xuat, dich vu doi vai khach hang" (theo"rao dung vd quan tri thuong hieu -Danh tieng vd Igi nhuan " - VIM).Trong tam ciia mot chien luge phat trien thuong hieu la xac dinh dac tinh ciia no vi dactinh ciia thuong hieu the hien cac dinh huong, muc dich va y nghTa ciia thuong hieu. Cothe coi no nhu la"linh hon" cua thuong hieu.D6 xac djnh dugc dac tinh cho mot thuong hieu can phai tra lai cac cau hoi sau:- Nhinig net rieng cua thuong hieu la gi?- Tham vpng va muc dich dai han ciia thuang hieu ?- Chinh kien ciia no la gi?- Gia trj cua thuang hieu?- Chan ly ciia thuang hieu muon huong tai?- Nhirng diu hieu d6 nhan bi6t ra no?b/Cdc dac tinh cua thuong hieuDac tinh ciia thuang hieu dugc xem xet a bdn khia canh:- Thuang hieu nhu mot san phim- Thuong hieu nhu mot to chiirc- Thuang hieu nhu mot con ngudi 13
  • 24. - Thuong hieu nhu mot bieu tugngMot thuang hieu khong nhat thiet phai bao gom du ca bon khia canh nhung viec xem xettit ca cac dac tinh se giiip cho doanh nghiep lira chpn dugc cac khia canh thich hgp chothuang hieu ciia minh.* Thuong hieu - Nhu mot san phamDugc coi nhu mot san pham nen thuong hieu cung co cac dac dilm, thupc tinh cua motsan pham bat ky. Do do, san pham cung se chju tac dong cua cac ylu to:- Pham vi san pham: Yeu to cot loi chinh la chung loai san pham co khi nhac den thuanghieu, nhung quan trpng hon la thuong hieu se xuit hien diu tien trong tam tri khach hangkhi C nhu cau. O- Thupc tinh ciia san pham: Tao nen moi quan he chat che vai khach hang. Cac thupc tinhnay khong chi tac dong den hanh vi mua sam va tieu diing ciia khach hang ma con co khanang lam tang gia trj cho nha san xuat bai cac dac diem khac biet.- Chat lugng - gia trj: Chat lugng la mot trrong nhQ-ng yeu to quan trpng tao nen thupctinh cua san pham, no dugc danh gia tuong quan vai gia thap nhat ma cong ty chap nhandugc va nguai tieu diing phai tra tien tuong ung voi chit lugng do. Chat lugng chinh lamot trong nhirng nhan to de canh tranh. Gia tri tham gia vao co cau gia ca va cung co choyeu to chat lugng.- Lien ket vai co hoi tieu dimg: Mot thuong hieu co the tao nen mot nhom nhu ciu tieudung rieng biet.- Lien kit vai nguai tieu diing: De co nhung dac tinh va su khac biet n6i trpi, thuanghieu phai tao ra va duy tri dugc cac nhom khach hang rieng biet.- Lien he vai dat nu6c va khu vuc: Lien he vai dat nuac va khu vuc se lam tang sue hapdin va uy tin cho san pham.* Thuong hieu - Nhu mot to chuc 14
  • 25. Vai khia canh td chiirc, thuong hieu tap trung vao sir d6i mai, din diu ve chit lugng haymoi truang thong qua van hoa kinh doanh, cac chuong trinh tmyen thong, quang cao hayqua chinh cac nhan vien trong cong ty. Dac tinh to chire thi thuang ben vung bai no khosao chep, kho canh tranh va kho c6 tieu chi nao de so sanh va danh gia giu^a cac cong ty.Cac dac tinh t6t ve mat to churc se tao nen mot hinh anh dep ve cong ty truac khach hangva cong chiing.* Thuong hieu - Nhu mot con nguoiGiong nhu con nguai, thucmg hieu c6 the dugc the hien qua cac ca tinh ve canh tranh, uytin, tin cay, hai huac, nang dong, tre trung, tri tue hay doc dao. NhQ-ng ca tinh nay co thetao nen mot thuong hieu manh qua nhieu each khac nhau nhu;- Giiip khach hang tu the hien ca tinh rieng ciia minh.- Lam CO so cho moi quan he gitta thuang hieu va khach hang.- Giiip bieu hien cac dac tinh, loi ich chuc nang ciia san pham.* Thuong hieu - Nhu mot bieu tugngSir hien dien ciia mot bieu tugng an tugng va sau sac dong vai tro quan trpng doi vai suphat trien thuong hieu. Bat ky cai gi dai dien cho thuong hieu deu c6 the la mot bieutugng, tuy nhien co ba kilu bieu tugng chfnh la: bieu tugng hiru hinh, bieu tugng an duva sir thira kl ciia thuang hieu.Bieu tugng hiru hinh dugc xem la co an tugng va de nha nhit. Moi lien he giOa bieutugng va cac ylu to dac tinh khac dugc tao dung mot each nhat quan theo thai gian do domoi hinh anh in tugng se thu hut dugc nhilu hon sir tin cay va ton trpng ciia khach hangd6i vai thuong hieu.Bilu tugng se co y nghTa nhilu hon nlu no co thi chua dung va tmyin tai mot each in ducac cam kit mang lai cho khach hang nhOng Igi ich nao do khi mua thuang hieu, co thila v6 hinh hoac hiru hinh. 15
  • 26. Sir kl thira co y nghTa va hgp ly tir cac dja danh hay nhirng thuong hieu cti da ndi tilngcung C the lam nen dac tinh ciia mot thuang hieu. OMot bieu tugng tot co the coi la nen tang ciia chiln luge thuang hieu.1.2. Xay dung thuong hieuL2A Khai niem xay dung thuong hieuXay dung thuang hieu (brand building) la ca mot qua trinh phuc tap ciia marketing. Xaydung thuang hieu co the dugc djnh nghTa theo nhilu each khac nhau nhu:- Xay dung thuong hieu la qua trinh tao ra su gan ket giiJa ten gpi, bieu tugng, cam xiichoac sir cam nhan vai mot san pham, mot dich vu hoac mot doanh nghiep can thu hut sutmng thanh cua ngu6i tieu diing va tao su khac biet v6i cac san pham, djch vu doanhnghiep khac.- Xay dung thuong hieu la qua trinh tao ra va duy tri moi quan he hai chieu vai motnhom khach hang dugc chpn lira thong qua sir the hien hinh anh thuong hieu mot eachnhat quan qua thai gian.- Don gian hem, xay dung thuong hieu cung co the dugc hieu la qua trinh lam cho motsan pham, dich vu voi mot cai ten, von chi mang chiirc nang phan biet mot san pham, djchvu vai cac san pham, dich vu canh tranh, tra thanh mot thuong hieu vai day du y nghTa,gia trj va sire manh ciia no nghTa la tao dung cho thuang hieu nhung net dac trung rieng,ban sic rieng, gia tri rieng va hon niia nhung dac trung, ban sac va gia tri do phai khacbiet vai cac doi thu, giiip phan biet giQ-a thuang hieu voi cac doi thii.BQ xay dung dugc mot thuong hieu, doanh nghiep can xac dinh mot so yeu to co bansau:- Dii tugng tieu dung muc tieu cua thuong hieu la ai?- Doanh nghiep mong muon thuong hieu se mang nhung y nghTa va gia tri gi doi vainhom nguai tieu dimg muc tieu bang each nao? 16
  • 27. - Nhihig y nghTa va gia tri nay se dugc chuyen tai din nhom nguai tieu dung muc tieubing each nao?- Lam sao de duy tri va khong ngimg nang cao nhihig gia tri va y nghTa cua thuong hieutrong tam tri nguai tieu dimg, qua do duy tri sir yeu thich, ua chuong va trung thanh cuanguai tieu dimg.L2.2 Quy trinh xay dung thuong hieuof Xdc dinh thi truong muc tieu - Phan dogn thi truongDo nhirng giai han ve nguon lire, mot doanh nghiep khong thi tham gia vao tit ca cacphan doan thj truang hoac phuc vu tot cho tat ca cac nhom doi tugng khach hang khacnhau. Mat khac, mot thuang hieu vai cac dac tinh rieng co nhimg gia trj rieng nen khongthe phii hop vai mpi loai nhu cau va so thich cua nguai tieu dimg. Do do, doanh nghiepphai tap trung vao mot so phan doan thi truang voi mot doi tugng khach hang cu thenham lam cho thuong hieu cua minh co y nghTa va gia trj dac biet doi vai nhom nguaitieu dung nay.De xac djnh dugc nhom doi tugng khach hang muc tieu can dua vao cac ket qua nghienciiru va phan doan thj truang. Viec phan doan thi truang can phai can bang giu*a Igi ich vachi phi. Phan doan thi truang cang hep, cac chuong trinh tiep thj cang hieu qua do dapimg chinh xac nhu ciu va nhan dugc nhung phan hoi tich cue tir phia khach hang. Nhungmat khac, viec phan doan thj truang se dan tai viec tang chi phi san xuit va tilp thj dosan phim khong dugc chuin hoa vai s6 lugng Ion.Co nhilu tieu chi dk phan doan thi trucmg nhung thuang mang tinh mo ta, dua tren khachhang hoac mang tinh hanh vi dua tren san phim. Mot so tieu chi mang tinh huong dinma cac doanh nghiep thuang hay chii y: 1. D I xac dinh: Phan doan thi truang do co thi xac djnh va lugng hoa dugc khong? 17
  • 28. 2. Quy mo: San pham, dich vu de phuc vu khach hang tilm nang trong phan doan nay co dii Idn hay khong? 3. D I tiep can: Cac phuang tien truyen thong va kenh phan phii co kha nang tilp can phan doan nay mot each de dang khong? 4. Kha nang phan iing vai cac chuong trinh tiep thi: Phan doan nay se phan irng tich cue nhu thi nao neu co cac chuong trinh tilp thi rieng?h/ Dinh vi thuong hieuDinh vj thuong hieu Ia"c6ng viec tim kiem cho thucmg hieu mot vi tri noi bat, rieng bietcon trong trong tam tri nguai tieu diing va gianh lay mot vj tri noi bat, truac khi bj doithii canh tranh chiem giir". Vi vay, can tra lai cac cau hoi khi dinh vi thuang hieu: • Vi sao khach hang sir dung? Lgi ich cu thi cua khach hang va thupc tinh noi trpi the hien trong thuong hieu la gi? • Doi tugng muc tieu ciia thuong hieu la ai? • Khach hang sir dung san pham, dich vu khi nao? • Doi thii canh tranh la ai?Dinh vj mot thucmg hieu khong the tach rai khoi doi tugng khach hang ma doanh nghiepda xac dinh. Can cur vao cac ylu t l tam ly, sinh ly, thu nhap, loi song... ciia khach hangma doanh nghiep co thi dinh vj thuang hieu ciia minh theo nhieu phuang thirc khac nhaunhu:- Djnh vj bing lgi ich;- Dinh vj bing thupc tinh;- Dinh vi theo each siir dung;- Dinh vi theo nguai su dung;- Dinh vi de canh tranh; 18
  • 29. - Djnh vj theo chat lugng va gia ca hay tai dinh vi (thuang thuc hien khi hinh anh ciiathuang hieu bj mo nhat, khong c6 su khac biet dac biet khi thuang hieu c6 hinh anh bitlgi hoac khi doanh nghiep muon tung ra mot san phim, djch vu moi, mot thj truangmdi...).Nhung cho dii doanh nghiep co chpn theo phuong thuc nao cung can chu y den cac tieuchi sau:- Hinh thirc ciia san pham, djch vu co thich hgp vai dinh vi thj truong cua no khong?- Kha nang va dong co sir dung cua khach hang se nhu the nao qua su djnh vi nay?- Sir dinh vi nay se mang lai mot quy mo thi truang nhu the nao?- Sir dinh vj nay co tinh kha thi hay khong?- Ngan sach tai chinh can danh cho dinh vi thuong hieu nay la bao nhieu?- Sir dinh vi nay co tan dung dugc nhung Igi the ve chat lugng chinh ciia san pham, dichvu hay khong?- Sir djnh vj nay co kha nang thich ung va thay doi trong truang hgp suy thoai ciia sanpham, djch vu hay khong?Dinh vi la mot khai niem cin thilt dk cong ty co the xac dinh mot each chinh xac vj triciia minh tren thi truang. Nhung mot thuang hieu nhieu khi lai dai dien cho nhieu sanphim, djch vu nen trong truang hgp nay khai niem ve dac tinh thucmg hieu la thich hgp hon.c/Xdy dung gia tri cua thuong hieuViec xay dung gia tri thuang hieu doi hoi kien thirc, ky nang va nghe thuat cua nhihignguai lam marketing trong viec xay dung marketing: tinh nang, tien nghi, sir hoan haotrong siir dung, cac dich vu cham soc khach hang, cac chuong trinh quang cao, khuyinmai, quan he khach hang.... Va hang loat cac yeu t l khac. Doanh nghiep phai cam nhan,xem xet, danh gia va ghi nha vai muc dich cung cap cho hp nhung ly do tai sao nen chpnlira thuang hieu do. 19
  • 30. Thong diep cua thuong hieu co the dugc chuyen tai din nguai su dung bing nhilu hinhthuc nhu:- Khau hieu di kem theo logo cua thuong hieu (slogan).- Khiu hieu (gag line) hoac doan van (body, copy) su dung trong cac chuong trinh quangcao.- Thong diep djnh vj ciia thuang hieu.- Cac bai viet giai thieu vl thuong hieu tren cac phuang tien truyin thong.Viec chuan bi mot thong diep cho thuong hieu phai dam bao nguyen tic 3C: ro rang(Clear), ngan gpn (Concise) va nhit quan (Consistent).d/ Chon lug cdc cong cu truyen thonzTmyen thong trong marketing (marketing communication) la khau co vai tro hit surequan trpng trong qua trinh xay dung thuong hieu. Day la cong doan chuyin tai thongdiep cua thuang hieu den vai nguai tieu diing. Trong cong doan nay, thong diep ciiathuong hieu se dugc"ma hoa" thanh nhihig doan van, cau van, khau hieu, hinh anh, amthanh... ngan gpn, dl nha, dl hilu va co kha nang tao an tugng manh vai nguai tieudiing, the hien qua cac chucmg trinh quang cao, khuyen mai, quan he cong chung...Muc dich cua tmyen thong la huong den nguai tieu diing qua timg khau trong mo hinh: - Hinh thanh sir nhan biet thuong hieu Create Awareness - Thu hiit sir quan tam d6i vai thuong hieu Hold Interest - Tao nhu ciu a nguoi sir dung Create Desire - Kich thich nguai su dung Lead to Action - Duy tri sir trung thanh vai thuong hieu Maintain Loyaltyd/ Cdc nguyen tdc co bdn ciia qud trinh xdy dung thuong hieu 20
  • 31. Cac chuyen gia marketing tren thi giai da neu ra nhu*ng nguyen tic cin tuan thu dk dambao xay dimg thuang hieu thanh cong: 1. Mpi no lure xay dung thuong hieu diu phai dugc tap trung vao khach hang {customer-focused). 2. Coi trpng tat ca cac moi quan he, giao tiep giCra cong ty va thuong hieu vai khach hang {contact). 3. Quy trinh xay dung thuong hieu can dugc kiem soat chat che a tat ca cac cong doan {control). 4. Tat ca cac yeu to nhu muc tieu cua qua trinh xay dung thuong hieu, dinh vi, gia tri, thong diep ... deu phai xac djnh ro rang {clarity). 5. Sir dung ciing mot ngu* dieu, mot phong each (tone of voice) de giao tiep vai khach hang. 6. Siir dung nhat quan mot thong diep cho cac viing thi truang khac nhau, tren cac phuang tien truyen thong khac nhau, theo cac kenh tmyen thong khac nhau va duy tri thong diep do trong mot thai gian dai {consistence). 1. Cam ket coi trpng thuong hieu, cam ket dau tu nghiem tiic va lau dai cho thuong hieu {commiment). 8. Dac biet coi trpng su giao tiep giira doanh nghiep va thucmg hieu voi khach hang {communicate).Day dugc gpi la nguyen tic 8C trong xay dung thuong hieu.1.2,3 Thiit ki thuong hieua/ Cdc yeu to tgo nen ten thuong hieuKhong mot doanh nghiep nao co the cong bo day la mot thuang hieu Ion, dieu nay chidugc minh chung bing sure song tren thi truang, sir ton tai, duy tri qua thai gian. Viecdanh gia mot thuang hieu nao do la manh hay yeu phu thupc vao nhilu ylu t6 khac nhau 21
  • 32. nhu: chit lugng san pham, dich vu tinh trang tai chinh, kha nang canh tranh, sir nhay bentrong kinh doanh, sir thuc thai va tat nhien ca may man.b/ Cdc nguyen tac marketing 1. Thu hiit sir chii y: day la chirc nang ciia quang cao, can "chop liy" khach hang tiem nang ngay tir cai nhin dau tien, bupc hp phai dung lai va muon tim hieu them. 2. Kich thich su quan tam: phai noi cho khach hang biet ve kha nang ma san pham dich vu cua cong ty c6 the dap iing. 3. Tao sir mong mu6n: Thong qua thuong hieu, cac chuong trinh quang cao, truyen thong tac dong din cac nhu cau can ban ciia khach hang nhu cac nhu ciu vl siire khoe, giai tri, tham my... 4. Dap ung nhu cau: Kit thuc vdi lai chao hang hap dan de khach hang khong the cuong lai dugc va lam cho khach hang hao hiirng sir dung.Mot thuang hieu Ion la mot phin khong thi thilu dugc trong kl hoach marketing. Dovay, dii a mire dp nao ciing can phai dap img cac yeu to tren.c/ Thiet ki thuons hieu* Ten thuong hieu vd mdu logo: La hai ylu t l hinh anh de nhan biet nhat.- Ten thuang hieu thuang dugc chpn trong giai doan diu phat triln cong ty, truac khi timra mot tinh each thuang hieu hoac djnh ro thi trucmg muc tieu. Nhung do lai chinh la khokhan cho cong ty vi ten thuong hieu la su dien dat bing lai quan trpng nhit ddi v6i dienmao cong ty ma trong truang hgp ly tuong nen thuang hieu phat triln la nha vao chinhtinh each cua thuang hieu cong ty. Ten thuong hieu co thi hoan toan la ten mang tinhchit mo ta, ten hp, ten ghep... Ten thuong hieu khong nhit thilt phai la ten dang ky ciiacong ty, tham chi khong cin giong ten cong ty. Vi vay ten thuang hieu khong nhung chi 22
  • 33. can don gian, de doc, than thien, co y nghTa ma no con can co su khac biet, noi trpi vadoc dao.- Logo la su diln dat thuong hieu hinh anh. No co the gom cac kieu chir dugc thiet kedhc biet hoac c6 thi la chG kit hgp vai nhilu ylu t l d l hoa tugng trung hay triru tugng.Vi no xuit hien tren toan bp cac tai lieu truyen thong marketing cua thuong hieu, nenlogo phai C kich ca tir vai milimet din vai met, nli bat tren nhung net sang toi, co the de Odang tai ban tren nhilu may in. Cung nhu ten thuong hieu, logo cua thuong hieu phaiciing diln ta nhihig net cot loi da chpn cho tinh each thuong hieu. Do co tinh hinh tugngcao nen logo va bieu tugng dugc xem nhu mot cong cu hun hieu nham tang cuong nhanbill ve thuong hieu va khac biet hoa trong canh tranh.- Mau sac cua thuong hieu: qua nhieu nam, cac nha tam ly hpc nhan biet nhung cam giackhac nhau gin liln vai timg mau. Do do can luu y khi quyet dinh chpn mau sac thuanghieu. Dac biet, khi gia nhap thj truang quoc te, mau sac thuang hieu con gan lien vai vanhoa dac trung ciia timg quoc gia. Mau sac cua thuong hieu dugc sOr dung nhu la mot phanchinh yeu trong ban sac thuong hieu va no con giiip cho thuang hieu tim dugc mot vi tritrong tai san co djnh.- Kieu chu* cua thuong hieu: Viec lira chpn mot hoac hai kieu chu* de siir dung nhat quantrong tmyen thong thuang hieu rat quan trpng boi cac kieu chir khac nhau mang am dieuchuyen tai khac nhau va kilu chu* phan anh tinh each thuong hieu.- MIU thuang hieu: Phai la mot cong thiirc that linh dong de co the sap xep can dii cacloai tai lieu truyen thong marketing gan vai thuong hieu. Cang duy tri dugc tinh nhitquan trong mau chuan cang co the tao ra mot hinh anh thuong hieu dac trung trong tamtri ciia cong chiing. 23
  • 34. * Cau khau hieuCm khiu hieu la mot doan van ngin dung va tmyen tai nhung thong tin mang tinh mo tava thuyet phuc ve thuang hieu. No thuang xuat hien tren cac muc quang cao va dugcxem nhu mot each thiire quang ba thuong hieu. Day la mot cong cu ngan gpn, sue tich vacue ky hieu qua trong viec tao dung gia tri thuang hieu.* Nhgc hieuNhac hieu la mot yeu to cau thanh thuong hieu dugc the hien bang am nhac. Nhac hieuthuang C sire thu hut va loi cuon nguai nghe, lam cho muc quang cao tra nen hap dan va Osinh dong. Nhac hieu co the la mot doan nhac nen hoac la mot bai hat ngan. Nhac hieu cothe tang cuong nhan thuc cua khach hang ve ten thuong hieu bang each lap di lap lai moteach kheo leo ten thucmg hieu trong doan nhac hat.1.3 Cac chien luac phat trien thuong hieuL3J Gdeh thuc duy tri thuong hieuKhi thai gian khong ngimg troi, thi truang khong ngimg phat trien, dpi ngii nhan vien bithuyen chuyen, cac hang quang cao va cac nha tu van truyen thong marketing cung thaydoi thi mot thach thuc Ion dugc dat ra la viec duy tri ban sac thucmg hieu de no khong bixuong cip. Co ba yeu cau chinh dugc dat ra de duy tri ban sac thuang hieu tot nhit theothdi gian;a/Xdy dung mot bdn sac thuong hieu mgnhNeu khong co mot ban sac thuang hieu hieu qua dua tren mot tinh each thuong hieu phiihgp vai doanh nghiep thi doanh nghiep se phai dieu chinh lai ban sac thuang hieu choden khi no phu hgp thi thoi.Ngay cang co nhieu nha chuyen mon ve truyen thong, nhieu hang quang cao, nhieu hangthiet ke va tu van... co the hd trg cho mot doanh nghiep phat trien ban sac thuong hieu,nhung dilu cot loi la doanh nghiep vIn phai dong vai tro chii chot. Can phai nghien cuu. 24
  • 35. lira chpn cac nha tu vin, thilt kl, truyen thong va lap cac kl hoach hgp tac nhu: thao luancac vin dl marketing cin giai quylt, xem xet cac giai phap ma nha tu vin dua ra co phiihgp hay khong, dua ra cac yeu ciu ve lich trinh va ngan sach...h/ Tgo du lieu ve thuong hieu cho tuong laiNgay ca mot thuong hieu dugc tao ra mot each can than nhat ciing se"xu6ng cap" theothai gian nlu khong tao du" lieu cho thuong hieu do trong tuong lai. Theo thai gian, bansac thuong hieu se co the khong eon dugc nha tai mot each ro ret, no trof nen ma nhat,tmyIn thong marketing co the tra nen it dac biet va tai san co gia tri c6 the bj mat. Dengan chan nguy co nay, doanh nghiep can dau tu vao viec dua ra cac chi din ro rangmieu ta thuong hieu la gi va thuong hieu trong nhu the nao qua cac phuong tien thong tinpho bien. Mot phuang phap hiru hieu nhat la tao dti* lieu va mo ta thuong hieu mot eachsing dong nhu the do la mot con nguai tir trang phuc den tinh each.c/ Qudn ly thuong hieu chat cheBan sac thuong hieu phai du linh hoat de ho trg cho thuang hieu trong mot thj truangphat trien. Tuy nhien, cac ca nhan thuang hay bi cam do thay doi cac thanh phan cuathuang hieu theo nhieu huong khong co hieu qua. Mot ban sac thuang hieu se duy tri laudai neu nhu no la mot phan ciia van hoa doanh nghiep. Dieu nay chi lam dugc khi doanhnghiep nhan manh den tinh ting the cua thuang hieu va giao pho cho mot nguai co nanglire ehju trach nhiem duy tri dac tinh thuang hieu dong thai de cho nguoi do co quyenthuc hien trach nhiem ciia minh.L3,2 Cdc ehiin luocphdt trien thuong hieuTir thuc tien kinh doanh cua cac doanh nghiep tren thj truong, nguai ta da tong ket co saudang chien luge de phat trien thuong hieu. Moi chien luge the hien ro vj tri va each thiirclien kit vdi san phim, djch vu. 06 dang chien luge nay mang tinh lira chpn moi quan hegiiJa thuang hieu va san pham, dich vu. 25
  • 36. a/ Chien luge thuong hieu - sdnphdm, dich vu.Muc tieu cua chiln luge thuong hieu - san pham, dich vu la an dinh rieng cho m6i sanphim, dich vu mot cai ten duy nhat va phii hgp vai dinh vj cua san pham, dich vu do trenthj trucmg. Kit qua ciia chien luge nay la moi mot san pham, dich vu mai ra doi se comot thuong hieu rieng ciia minh. Do do, cac doanh nghiep se co mot danh muc san pham,djch vu tuong img vai mot danh muc thuang hieu.De thich u:ng vai nhiing thay doi ve cong nghe hay trong xu huong, thj hieu tieu diing thicac thupc tinh, dac diem ciia thuong hieu ciing can phai dupe dieu chinh mot each thichhgp va cin tai dinh vi tren thj truong.Doi vai nhung doanh nghiep tap tmng vao timg phan doan thi truang nhat djnh thi day layeu cau mang tinh chiln luge vi no giiip doanh nghiep ma rong toi da thi phan cua minh.Neu nhung phan doan nay khong khac biet nhau nhieu thi viec lira chpn cho moi sanpham, dich vu mot thuang hieu se giiip cho nguai tieu diing coi cac san pham, djch vu c6be ngoai giong nhau, dac biet khi cac san pham, dich vu co be ngoai giong nhau. Viecgin ket mot thucmg hieu cu the cho mot loai nhu cau hoac mong muon nhat dinh se nhanmanh sir khac biet ve thupc tinh va lgi ich gitJa cac san pham, djch vu.Chien luge thuong hieu - san pham, djch vu phii hgp vai nhung doanh nghiep co tinhsang tao cao, lien tue doi mai va mong muon chiem ITnh truoc dugc vi the tren thjtruang. No cho phep cac doanh nghiep dam mao hiem khi tham gia va thi truang mai domli thuang hieu la doc lap vai nhau nen neu mot thuong hieu nao do boat dong kem hieuqua se khong de doa den cac thucmg hieu khac cung nhu ten cua doanh nghiep.Tuy nhien, mot thach thuc Ion trong chien luge nay la van de chi phi dau tu. M6i mot sanphim, djch vu mai dugc dua ra thj truong dong nghTa la mot thuong hieu mai ra dai keotheo mot khoan ngan sach quang cao, truyen thong dang ke. Day la mot khoan dau tudang ke, dac biet doi vai nhung doanh nghiep nho. Ngoai ra, cac doanh nghiep cung can 26
  • 37. luu y din kha nang va toe dp hoan von dau tu, phii hgp voi cac thi trucmg c6 tic dp tangtruang cao.h/ Chien luge thuong hieu theo dayChiln luge nay md rong mot khai niem, mot y tuong hoac mot cam hung nhit dinh chocac san pham, djch vu khac nhau va do do cho cac thucmg hieu khac nhau.Day san pham, djch vu dap umg yeu cau ve cac san pham co dac tinh bo trg nhau duaiciing mot ten gpi. Mot day san pham, djch vu co the dugc tao lap tren ca sa thanh congciia san pham, dich vu goc vai nhijng biln the gan giii vai tu nhien. Day san phim, djchvu cung C the la mot thuc the hoan chinh vai mot so san pham, dich vu co tinh chit bd Osung nhau dua tren cimg nguon cam hung.Uu diem ciia chien luge nay la:- Lam tang kha nang tieu thu cua thucmg hieu va tao ra hinh anh tich cue ve tinh nhatquan cua san pham, dich vu.- Giiip ma rong day.- Giam chi phi dua san pham, djch vu ra thi truang.Tuy nhien, no ciing co nhiing nhugc diem la nguai ta thuang co xu huong bo qua giaihan cua day san pham, dich vu. Mot doanh nghiep chi nen gop cac san phim, dich vumai hoac nhung san pham, dich vu co lien quan mat thiet voi san pham, dich vu dang tontai. Ngoai ra, viec ket hgp cai tien san pham, djch vu theo each nay se lam han che suphat trien ciia san pham, djch vu.c/ Chien luge thuong hieu nhomThucmg hieu nhom dat mot nhom san pham, dich vu co cung phim chat duai cung motten thuong hieu va mot cam ket, tuy nhien trong ket cau nay cac san pham, dich vu vangiir nguyen ten thupc tinh cua no. 27
  • 38. l/u dilm cua chiln luge nay la tranh dugc sir loang thong tin do tap trung vao mot tengpi duy nhat va do each xay dung nhan thiirc vl thuong hieu va tir do la nhan thiirc chocac san phim. Ben canh do, thuong hieu co thi quang ba lai cam kit ciia minh vl sanphim, djch vu mot each cu thi. Dac biet no chi can tap trung quang cao va tuyen tmyIncho mot vai san pham dien hinh cua ca nhom, qua do se tac dong den cac san phim conlai. Mot uu diem nti:a ciia chien luge theo nhom la chi phi cho cac chien dich quang bas^n pham mai khong qua Ion.Tuy nhien, van de thuang gap cua chien luge la khi thuong hieu dugc ma rong thi no laitro nen ma nhat. Ten thuong hieu cua cac nhom san pham, dich vu thilu tinh khac biet vabit ciir thuong hieu nao ciing co the dugc gan cho ciing mot cong thuc. Do do, xuat hienhai yeu cau: mot mat thuong hieu can dugc phat trien de co the the hien dugc net riengciia minh, mat khac ngucyi tieu diing can dugc hS trg de chpn lira dugc nhihig san pham,djch vu nhu y.df Chien luge thuong hieu hinh 6Vofi chien luge thuong hieu hinh 6, mot thuong hieu se dugc diing cho nhilu loai sanpham, dich vu trong cac thj truang khac nhau, m6i san pham, djch vu co chinh sachquang ba va cam ket rieng cho dii san pham, dich vu vin co ten thupc tinh ciia minh.iTu diem chinh ciia chien luge nay la quy tu ve mot ten gpi duy nhat. Cac thuong hieuhinh 6 dugc cac tap doan da quoc gia rat ua chuong tren pham vi toan thi giai. Ten tuoiva uy tin cua hp la co sd chii yeu de hp tham gia vao cac khu vuc doi hoi diu tu chomarketing khdng nhieu. Va tham chi trong nhihig khu vuc nho hon thuang hieu vin cothe thanh cong ma khdng can mot su quang ba cu the nao. Do do, no giiip tiet kiem dugcmot khoan dau tu dang ke khi tham gia vao nhimg khu vuc thi trucmg mdi mang tinhchien luge. Chien luge hinh d cho phep phat trien thuong hieu cot loi bang viec gan ketvdi cac san pham, dich vu ciia no nhung gi trudc day chua dugc gan ket. 28
  • 39. Tuy vay no cung co nhirng han che nhat djnh: thuong hieu cang bao triim nhieu loai sanpham, dich vu thi no ngay cang yeu va phan tan. Do do, nhung thuong hieu mai va yluse khdng the xuyen suit he thdng va bao triim cac san pham, dich vu khac nhau. Thuonghieu tdng the se tao ra nhieu cac thuong hieu chuyen mdn nhung nhan thiirc tir anh huongciia thuong hieu tdng thdi chua dii ma cac san pham, djch vu phai chung minh hieu quaciia minh trong moi thi truong. Mot van de hay gap phai trong quan ly chiln luge thuanghieu la viec danh gia sai ve cau. Cho dii thuang hieu va cac san pham, dich vu chinh ciiano manh nhu the nao thi n6 vin de bj tdn hai khi md rong.Mot thuang hieu dugc nhieu ngudi biet din chua chic da la sir lira chpn tdi uu trong conmat ciia khach hang neu no khdng chuong minh dugc hieu qua ciing nhu nhihig Igi ich cuaminh. Mot nhugc diem nCra la sir tu do ciia thuang hieu hinh d ddi khi lai gay tac dongvon C ciia minh thi trong mpi truong hgp, each truyen thdng diep ciia chiing phai gidng Onhau.d/ Chien luge thuong hieu chuanChien luge thuong hieu chuan la mot trong nhiing each it tdn kem ho trg cho danh tiengciia doanh nghiep va giiip cho doanh nghiep gianh dugc mot vi the thuang hieu nhatdjnh.e/ Lua chon chien lugeDdi vdi mot doanh nghiep, cau hoi quan trpng dat ra la: Lira chpn chien luge nao la phiihgp nhat? Tren thuc te, mdi chien luge thuong hieu deu chira dung nhirng dilm manh vadiem yeu rieng. Tuy nhien, doanh nghiep cung khdng the chi dua tren danh sach liet kemot each don gian nhung diem manh va diem yeu nay de lira chpn rdi ap dung vao motthj truong cu the nao do. Bdi viec lira chpn chien luge thuang hieu khdng phai cd tao ramot phong each rieng ma la mot quyet djnh chien luge dau tu dai han cho thuong hieunham nang cao dugc uy tin va long tmng thanh tir phia khach hang, day manh tieu thu 29
  • 40. san phim, djch vu. Do do, viec lira chpn chien luge phat trien thuong hieu cin phai dua trenba yeu td:- San phim hoac djch vu;- Thj hilu va thdi quen su dung;- Vj the canh tranh ciia cdng ty tren thj truong.1.3.3 Tao dung hinh anh cho doanh nghiepHinh anh ciia doanh nghiep thuong dugc lien he vai hinh anh trong tri nhd ngudi tieudiing nhu mot nha san xuat hay cung img dich vu. Do do, hinh anh dich vu chi dugc lienhe mot each cu the khi thuang hieu doanh nghiep dong vai tro ndi bat trong chien lugexay dung thucmg hieu.Cac chuyen gia marketing cho rang yeu td quan trpng thiic day quyet dinh mua hang ciiangudi tieu diing la nhan thiirc cua hp ve toan bd vai tro cua mot cdng ty trong xa hdi, nhudoanh nghiep ddi xu vdi ngudi lao dong ra sao, ddi xu vdi cac ddi tac, cac cdng ty djaphuong nhu the nao...."Ngudi tieu dung ngay nay khdng chi mudn biet ve san pham,dich vu ma hp con mudn hieu ro ve cdng ty san xuat ra san pham, dich vu do" (theo Tdnggiam ddc cua hang Procter & Gamble, Ed Artz). Cac doanh nghiep cung coi"Lgi thecanh tranh ben vihig duy nhat cua bat ky nganh kinh doanh nao chinh la danh tieng cuano".Hinh anh ciia cdng ty phu thupc nao mot sd yeu td nhu:- Cac san pham, djch vu ma cdng ty tao ra;- Cac hoat dong ma cdng ty tien hanh;- Cach thiirc cdng ty giao tiep vdi khach hang.Tdng giam ddc cua hang Johnson & Johnson nhan xet:"Danh tieng phan anh thai dp maban bay td hang ngay va tir nhung viec nhd nhit. Cach ma ban quan ly danh tilng cuaminh la ludn luon nghT den nd va cd gang lam diing hang ngay". 30
  • 41. Khi xay dung hinh anh doanh nghiep, thuong hieu doanh nghiep phai ggi len dugcnhihig lien tuong hoan toan khac so vdi thuang hieu ciia cac san pham, djch vu don lechi dai dien cho mot hoac mot nhom san pham, djch vu ciia minh.1.4 Thuc trang ve thuang hieu va xay dung thuong hieu tai cac doanh nghiep VietNamL4,l Thuc trang ve cdc thuong hieu Viet Nama/Nhimg thanh cong buac dauTrong thdi gian qua, cac doanh nghiep Viet Nam da khdng ngimg no lire va phan dau detao dung thuong hieu, khang djnh vj tri cua minh tren thi truong, qua do kha nhieuthuang hieu Viet Nam da gat hai dugc nhung thanh cdng dang ke khi chiem dugc su uachuong va tin nhiem ciia ngudi tieu diing, canh tranh manh me vdi cac thuang hieu ngoainhap. Sir hd trg cua Chinh Phii, ciia cac ca quan truyen thdng va ciia ngudi tieu diingtrong nude da gdp phan het sire quan trpng va thanh cdng nay thdng qua cac chuongtrinh quang ba thuong hieu Viet Nam, cu the nhu chuong trinh binh chpn"Hang VietNam chit lugng cao" hien dang dugc td chuc hang nam va trong hai nam trd lai day lachuong trinh"Sao vang dat Viet".Khdng ai cd thi phii nhan thanh cdng ciia cac thuang hieu Vinataba (thudc la), Kinh Dd(banh keo), Trung Nguyen (ca phe), Bitis (giay dep), Sai Gdn (bia), Thai Tuan (vai),Dong Tam (gach men). My Hao (hoa my pham)..vv.. tren thi truong trong nude.Vinataba hien la mot trong nhiing san pham thudc la cd lugng tieu thu Idn nhat tren thitmdng trong nude. Thuang hieu ca phe Tmng Nguyen khdng chi khang dinh vj tri hangdiu tai Viet Nam ma con la thuang hieu dau tien phat trien hinh thirc chuyen nhugngquyin ra nude ngoai. My Hao da tirng tir chdi Idi dl nghi mua thuang hieu vdi tri gia 10trieu USD ciia Unilever. 31
  • 42. Nhihig thanh cdng dd diu la ket qua cua each nghT, each lam dung din, chimg td cacdoanh nghiep trong nude vdi nhung han chi Idn vl quy md va kinh phi vin cd thi thanhcdng trong xay dung thuong hieu. 6 day xin don cir mot sd truong hgp dien hinh: J TRUNG I NGUYlk Biti s, Trung Nguyen - Nhimg thuong hieu dd tgo dung dugc uy tin tren thi truong- Vao thdi diem nhung nam 1996 - 1998, Trung Nguyen da tao ra mot bude dot pha trenthi truong ca phe bang each gidi thieu vdi ngudi tieu dung mot phong each udng ca pheddc dao va khac han. Dd la quyen lira chpn huong vi ca phe minh yeu thich ngay taiquan, ket hgp vdi viec nhugng quyen kinh doanh thuong hieu Trung Nguyen. TrudcTrung Nguyen chua cd thucmg hieu ca phe nao lam viec nay. Thanh cdng cua TmngNguyen khdng phai d cho ca phe ngon hon, chat lupng on dinh hon, phong each trang trisang trpng hon...., ma chinh la sir khac biet rat cd y nghTa ddi vdi ngudi udng ca phe vangudi kinh doanh ca phe.- Vdi 12 chi nhanh, 3 trung tam thuong mai va hon 4.500 cua hang, dai ly cd mat khip64 tinh, thanh pho trai dai tir Lao Cai den miii Ca Mau, Bitis da trd thanh doanh nghiepkinh doanh cd mang ludi phan phdi rong khap dat nude. San pham Bitis da chung td themanh vl chit lugng va cung each phuc vu vdi 8 nam lien dugc ngudi tieu dung binhchpn la"Hang Viet Nam chat lugng cao". Cau khau hieu"Nang niu ban chan Vief da trdnen quen thudc ddi vdi ngudi tieu diing Viet Nam khi lira chpn giay dep. Hon thi, nhanhieu Bitis da xuit hien tai gin 40 thj trudng tren thi gidi. Website cua Bitis la mot trong10 website dugc ngudi tieu dung danh gia dap ung dugc nhu ciu thdng tin va dat yeu ciu 32
  • 43. ve my thuat. Dk bao hd cho thuong hieu cua minh khdng nhung tai thi trudng trongnude, cdng ty Binh Tien da dang ky thuong hieu theo he thong Madrid dk cd thi de danghoat dong kinh doanh tai cac nude tren thi gidi.- Cach day hon 2 nam, Vitek-VTB, vdi tu each la mot thuong hieu Viet Nam, tham giavao thi trudng hang dien tiir gia dung vdi siirc mua 1 trieu TV va 1 trieu dau VCD moinam, nai cac thuang hieu nude ngoai nhu Sony, LG, Sam sung, Toshiba... dang thdngtrj. Den nay, Vitek-VTB da thanh cdng bude dau, trong dd cd mot phan Idn la nhd ddingii cac nha quan trj tai nang va nhieu kinh nghiem ma cdng ty thu hiit dugc, nhiingngudi da tao ra nhimg gdi gia trj rieng cd cho Vitek-VTB bang chinh sach bao hanh ddcdao"3 nam + 4 thang, ludn ca bong den hinh", bang viec sir dung dich vu ciia nhung cdngty quang cao chuyen nghiep trong xay dung thuong hieu. Rieng miirc dau tu cho sanphim FAVFTV phing cua ngudi Vief da len den hon 5 ti dong. Din nay, Vitek-VTBda cd thi phan 8-10% tren mot thj trudng canh tranh het sire khdc liet.- Dau nam 2002, cdng ty ICC da tung ra thj trudng mot san pham bdt giat Bay va dau gpidau Veo-nhiJng thuong hieu Viet Nam. Cac thuong hieu nay lap tue gay tieng vang trenthj trudng,"an" vao tam tri ngudi tieu dung nhd hang loat cac chuong trinh quang cao vakhuyen mai vdi an tugng khdng thua kem chuong trinh cua cae"dai gia" ve hoa my phamnhu Unilever va P&G. Chi sau vai thang, san pham ciia ICC tran ngap cac tinh dongbing sdng Ciiru Long vdi mirc gia ban le thap hon 20% so vdi Omo va Tide, bupcUnilever va P&G phai giam gia san pham de canh tranh. Den nay, ICC da dau tu khoang30 ti ddng di xay dung cac thuang hieu Bay va Veo. Mae du hien nay ICC dang gap khdkhan trong canh tranh gia vdi Unilever va P&G, nhung nhiing gi ma ICC da lam dugcvin la nhChig bai hpc kinh nghiem het sure dang tham khao.- Khac vdi ICC, My Hao la thuong hieu hoa my phim thanh cdng ma hiu nhu khdng cindin kinh phi quang cao - khuyin mai. Thay vi tin cdng vao cac dd thi Idn - nai tap trung 33
  • 44. tit ca cac ddi thu canh tranh dang gianh giat thj trudng vdi nhung khoan chi phi quangcao khdng Id, My Hao chpn con dudng den vdi cac vimg ndng thdn, phuc vu dii tugngngudi tieu diing ddng dao nhit nhung cung cd thu nhap thip nhit. Bi quylt thanh cdngciia My Hao la chpn diing ddi tugng muc tieu va cung cap dung cai hp can: chat lupng Indinh, bao bi hop thj hieu, gia ca hgp ly va he thdng phan phdi rong khap.b/Hgn che cua phan Ion cdc thuong hieu Viet NamMac dii thuong hieu Viet Nam da cd nhihig thanh cdng dang ke ndi tren, nhung cung canphai nhin nhan mot each trung thuc rang phan Idn thucmg hieu Viet Nam vin cdn nhunghan che khdng kem phan quan trpng - dac biet la thuong hieu ciia cac doanh nghiep virava nhd. Dd la: vin cdn cd nhiing san pham quan trpng chua cd thuong hieu va nhiingthuong hieu da hinh thanh nhung van cdn rat yeu kem.Tren thj trudng qudc te, su yeu kem cua cac thuong hieu Viet Nam da din den nhihigthiet thdi rat Idn ve kinh te. Viet Nam dang xuit khau manh cac mat hang ndng san, thucpham che bien, giay dep, quan ao, thu cdng my nghe, thuy hai san... va chat lupng cacmat hang nay ngay cang tang. Tuy nhien, tdi 90% hang Viet Nam vin cdn phai vao thjtrudng the gidi thdng qua trung gian dudi dang thd, hoac gia cdng cho cac thuong hieundi tilng ciia nude ngoai. Theo Hiep hdi Da Giay Viet Nam, kim ngach xuat khau dagiay ca nude hang nam dat tren 1 ti USD, tuy nhien ty trpng san pham xuat khau bangthuong hieu Viet Nam la khdng dang ke. Trong ITnh vuc xuat khau ndng san, hat tieu vagao la nhirng mat hang ma Viet Nam cd san lupng xuat khau hang dau the gidi, tuy nhiengia tri kinh tl lai thip hon nhieu so vdi cac nude khac do chua cd thuang hieu Viet Nam.Day la mot sir ylu kem, thua thiet Idn cua hang xuat khau Viet Nam tren thi trudng nudengoai.Tren thj trudng ndi dia, cac thuong hieu trong nude vin cdn dang phai chat vat khingdinh chd dung tren thi trudng va trong long ngudi tieu diing. Dai da si cac thuang hieu 34
  • 45. Viet Nam diu d trong tinh trang chua tao dugc ban sic rieng, chua cd chd dimg vimgchic va sue canh tranh cdn yeu. Ben canh dd, cac cdng ty da qudc gia, ngoai viec tangcudng quang ba thuong hieu Viet Nam, bing each bd tien mua lai cac thuong hieu nditilng va khai thac mot each cd bai ban. Dien hinh la viec Unilever mua thuang hieuthudc danh rang P/S vdi gia 5 trieu USD va sau dd ddi mdi hinh anh va cung da chop cohoi de dau tu khai thac chi din dia ly"Phii Qudc" vdi san pham Nude mam Knorr PhuQuic. Mot sd cdng ty nude ngoai khac da dang ky thuong hieu ndi tieng ciia Viet Nam,din den viec cac cdng ty Viet Nam mat quyen khai thac thuong hieu cua chinh minh trenthj trudng qudc te.Mot each khai quat, cd the nhan dinh rang phin Idn cac thuong hieu Viet Nam hien naychua lam tit cac nhiem vu ciia thuong hieu, chua hoan toan la cac thuong hieu vdi tit cay nghTa ciia thuong hieu.Cu thi hon, nhirng ylu dilm cua cac thuong hieu Viet Nam, dac biet la thuang hieu ciiacac doanh nghiep vdi han che ve von va nhan lire, dugc the hien qua mot sd yeu td sau:+ Thi phan nhoNhu da dl cap d tren, thi phan cua cac thuong hieu Viet Nam tren thi trudng the gidi lakhdng dang kl, chii ylu la xuit khiu cac san phim gia cdng mang thuong hieu nudengoai.Tren thj trudng trong nude, ngoai trir mot sd rat it cac thuang hieu Viet Nam dugc coi lathanh cdng nhu bia Sai Gdn, thuoc la Vinataba, banh keo Kinh Dd, biit bi Thien Long,dep Bitis, ca phe Trung Nguyen..., dai da sd cac thuang hieu Viet Nam chi chilm cacthj phin rit nhd be so vdi tong quy md thj trudng. Theo kit qua dilu tra ciia NFO trongnam 2002, cac thuang hieu Viet Nam chi chilm 8% thi phin tren thj trudng nude giaikhat cd ga, 2% thi phin tren thj trudng may vi tinh, 12% tren thj trudng TV, v.v... 35
  • 46. Trong nganh thuoc la, hon 400 thuong hieu Viet Nam chia se 40% thi phin, trong khi60% cdn lai do 10 thuong hieu nude ngoai chiem giir. Tuong tu, 8 thuong hieu xa phongnude ngoai san xuit tai Viet Nam chiem 91% thj trudng, trong khi hang tram thuonghieu xa phong trong nude chi chiem mot thj phan nhd la 9%.Hien nay, rat nhieu thuong hieu Viet Nam dang sdng nhd cac thuang hieu nude ngoaingay tren thj trudng trong nude. Cac nha may thudc Tdng Cdng ty Hoa chat Viet Namhien dang gia cdng khoang hon 50% san lupng bdt giat Omo cho Unilever, va thuonghieu nay chiem 66% thi phan tren thj trudng bdt giat, trong khi cac thuang hieu ndi djado chinh cac nha may nay san xuat lai chi chiem thi phan khdng dang ke - nam 2002, cacloai bdt giat Lis va Net chi chiem 3-4% thi phan mdi loai.Tuy nhien, tren day mdi chi de cap den thj phan cua nhimg doanh nghiep Idn. Q cacDNWN, thj phan ciia cac thuong hieu tren thi trudng cdn nhd be hon rat nhieu. Ca nudehien cd khoang 50 thuong hieu nude tinh khiet ddng chai va thj phan ciia hang chucthuong hieu ciia cac DNVVN nhu Ba Na, Vital, Dapha... chi d miirc 0,5-0,7%.+ Su nhan biet thuong hieu o mirc do thapQua dilu tra so bd cua Dai hpc Kinh te Thanh phd Hd Chi Minh, trong sd nhihig nguditieu dung thanh phd Hd Chi Minh dugc phdng van, 89% cho rang thuong hieu la ylu tlquylt dinh khi hp lira chpn mua sim. Ly do chii yeu la thuang hieu tao cho hp sir an tamvl thdng tin xuit xur, tin tudng vao chit lugng san pham, tiet kiem thdi gian tim kilmthdng tin, giam riii ro... Kit qua nay cho thay ngay nay nhan thirc cua ngudi tieu dimg vethucmg hieu da cao hon rit nhilu so vdi trudc day. Tuy nhien, theo kit qua cac dot dilutra thi trudng vdi chi tieu TOM (top of mind) ve mOre dp nhan biet thuong hieu dugc tilnhanh bdi cac cdng ty nghien curu thi trudng nhu AC Nielsen, NFO hoac TNS, mirc dpnhan bill cua ngudi tieu dung vl cac thuong hieu Viet Nam hien nay thi lai cdn rit ylu.Cd thi dan cu mot sd kit qiia dilu tra trong nam 2002 nhu sau: 36
  • 47. - Tren thj trudng bia, ti le nhan biet TOM dat 84% ddi vdi Tiger, 68% vdi Heneikennhung chi dat 25% vdi bia Sai Gdn, 30% vdi bia Ha Ndi va 10% vdi bia Bin Thanh.- Tren thi trudng nude udng ddng chai, ti le nhan biet TOM dat 67% vdi La Vie nhungchi dat 10% vdi VTnh Hao. St r*^ Sv-* tt«l p*|*!tS rii"! t#is «M» ^1>C $*Nj| La Vie, VTnh Hao cung san xuat nuac udng dong chai nhung muc do dugc nguoi tieu dung ua thich rat khdc biet- Tren thj trudng nude giai khat cd ga, dieu tra TOM cho thay 90% cac thuong hieu mangudi tieu dimg nhan biet va nhd den la cac thuong hieu nude ngoai nhu CocaCola,Pepsi, Fanta, Milinda, Seven-up, v.v... Ty le TOM ddi vdi CocaCola la 84%, Pepsi la63% trong khi Chuong Duong chi dat 4%, Tribeco khdng dang kl.- Nhin chung, cac thuong hieu Viet Nam it tao dugc nhirng dau an dam net trong tam tringudi tieu diing, do dd ty le thuong hieu bi lang quen rat cao. Mat khac, phan Idn cacthuong hieu Viet Nam chua tao dugc cho thuang hieu ciia minh nhimg net dac trung,nhimg ban sic rieng, nhitng su khac biet rd ret vdi cac doi thu canh tranh, va do dd khdngthi ndi bat len khdi mot nhdm ddng cac thuong hieu canh tranh ciing nganh nghi.Day cung la mot thach thiire ddi hdi doanh nghiep cin phai chu y diu tu mot each thichdang cho thuang hieu nlu muon chiln ITnh thi trudng.+ Hinh anh thuong hieu yeu vd mo nhgtTrong suit hang chuc nam qua, sir ngheo nan vl von, trinh dp cdng nghe va ky thuat sanxuat ciia cac doanh nghiep trong nude cdng vdi tam ly chuong hang ngoai cua mot bd 37
  • 48. phan khdng nhd ngudi tieu diing da dan den tinh trang cac san pham san xuit trong nudethuong bi gan lien vdi hinh anh"kem chat lugng". Ben canh dd, cac yeu td"be ngoai" cuasan pham Viet Nam nhu kieu dang, mlu ma bao bi, djch vu di kem... vin cdn chua dugcchii trpng dung muc, cang lam cho thanh kien ngay mot trd nen tram trpng. Thdi giangin day, mac dii chat lugng san pham trong nude da dugc cai thien dang ke va cting dadugc ngudi tieu diing thira nhan - dac biet la thdng qua cac chuong trinh binh chpn"HangViet Nam chat lupng cao", nhung thanh kien ve chat lugng san pham trong nude vanchua hoan toan dugc xoa bd.Hon nita, thanh kien nay hoan toan khdng de xoa bd khi vin cdn nhung trudng hgp nhuxe buyt Transinco - thuong hieu xe buyt Viet Nam cua cdng ty Old 1-5. Chi sau 10 ngaydugc dua vao su dung, du luan lai mot lan nQa xdn xao vi chat lugng cua xe Transincoqua thip, cac hdng hdc ky thuat phat sinh hang loat. Qua trinh dieu tra ve nguyen nhanciia sir cd nay da cho thiy su ciu tha va ylu kem trong san xuat. Hon 50 can bd ciia Cdngty 1-5 da phai nhan ky luat vl sir sai sot cua hp. Din nay, van de da lang dju, nhung dieucin quan tam d day la su c l nay mot lan niira lam suy yeu them long tin cua ngudi tieudiing vao cac thuong hieu Viet Nam.Mat khac, sir ylu kem vl trinh dp quan ly kinh doanh ndi chung va trinh dp chuyen mdnvl xay dimg thuang hieu ndi rieng d phin Idn cac doanh nghiep da dua din tinh trangxay dung thuang hieu mot each tuy tien, thilu ca sd khoa hpc va thuc tiln, bd qua quytrinh xay dung thuong hieu ...Kit qua tit ylu ciia cac thuc trang tren la anh thuang hieu Viet Nam cdn rit ylu, rit mdnhat trong Idng ngudi tieu dimg.+ Chua tgo ra dugc gia tri tdng them cho thuong hieuVdi thj phin nhd, miirc dp nhan bilt thip, hinh anh ylu va md nhat, mot thuang hieukhdng thi hy vpng vao sir ua chuong va trung thanh cua ngudi tieu diing, va cang khdng 38
  • 49. thi hy vpng thuong hieu dd se mang lai cho ngudi tieu dimg nhung gia trj ngoai gia trj sirdung, vi du nhu cam giac yen tam va sir tu hao khi sir dung thuang hieu, sir tu thi hien vakhing djnh ban than... Vi vay, cac gia trj tang them cho thuong hieu cdn rit it di va hiunhu khdng dang ke.Bilu hien cu the nhit d day la loi nhuan ciia doanh nghiep Viet Nam. Hien nay, mac diichua cd cude dieu tra nao danh gia dugc mot each cu the ve tinh hinh lgi nhuan cua cacdoanh nghiep, tuy nhien vin cd the khang djnh rang lgi nhuan cua cac doanh nghieptrong nude cdn kha thap, chua du de tai dau tu hien dai hoa cdng nghe va thilt bi, diu tucho ngudn nhan lire va xay dung thuong hieu. Lgi nhuan thip mot phan la do cdng nghelac hau, quan ly chua tdt, dan din gia thanh cao. Nhung mat khac, gia ban cung la motnguyen nhan quan trpng. Hau hit cac doanh nghiep hien nay deu phai chip nhan miirc giaban thap, khdng dam tang gia, khdng dam dinh gia cao - chu yeu la vi sg thi trudngkhdng chap nhan. Chinh ylu to"khdng chap nhan" da ndi len su yeu kem cua thucmghieu. Do dd, ty le Igi nhuan tren doanh thu vin cdn d mure thap la dieu duong nhien.+ Khd ndng cgnh tranh yeu kemVdi cac yeu td tren, phan Idn thuang hieu Viet Nam hien nay cdn rat yeu kem ve khanang canh tranh, de bj danh bai bdi cac ddi thu ngoai nhap.Vl mat ly thuylt, hinh anh thuong hieu md nhat, miirc dp nhan biet thuong hieu thap selam cho thuong hieu bj loai ra khdi danh sach lira chpn cua ngudi tieu dimg khi hp naysinh nhu ciu mua mot san phim. Khi dd, ngudi tieu dimg cd xu hudng chpn mua nhimgthuang hieu chilm nhiing vj tri tren ciing trong tam tri hp - nhihig thuang hieu tao dugcmiirc dp nhan bilt cao, in tugng manh va hinh anh tdt dep, quen thudc vdi ngudi thieudung. Han nira, khi ngudi tieu diing chua hinh thanh su ua chuong va tmng thanh vdimot thuang hieu, hp se de dang chpn mot thuong hieu khac sin cd, hoac thu mot thuonghieu mdi ma ho nhan bilt. 39
  • 50. Tren thuc te, kha nang canh tranh yeu kem ciia cac thuong hieu Viet Nam the hien rorang khi cac thuong hieu nay thuong xuyen va rit de bj danh bi trong canh tranh gia. Qday, ICC la mot minh chung cu thi. Giira nam 2002, sau khi bj bdt giat Bay chilm thjtrudng manh me, Unilever va P&G da phan cdng bang each ddng loat giam gia Omo vaTide, miirc giam gia cd liic len din gan 50% bang cac hinh thirc khuyin mai. Kit qua lathuong hieu Bay vin cdn mdi me roi vao tinh trang khd khan trim trpng, khdng thi tieuthu dugc. Cude chien nay keo dai trong suit 6 thang va din culi nam 2002 khi Omo vaTide dua mat bang gia ve vj tri cu Bay vin tilp tue d tinh trang khd khan cho din thdidilm hien nay.+ Viec bao ho thuong hieu chua dugc quan tam dung mircChi trong thdi gian gan day, viec bao hd thuang hieu, dang ky ddc quyen kieu dang...mdi bat dau dugc cac doanh nghiep quan tam. Trudc dd, cac doanh nghiep hau nhu rat itquan tam den van de nay, va hau qua tat yeu la tinh trang"nhai thuang hieu" hoac bj matthuong hieu vao tay ngudi khac, trong dd tinh trang"nhai thucmg hieu" - hay cdn gpi latinh trang"an theo", bat trudc theo ten gpi, thiet ke bao bi, mau sac... cua cac thuonghieu nli tilng - rit phd biln tren thj trudng Viet Nam. Mat khac, tinh trang thuang hieuViet Nam bj tranh chip d nude ngoai ciing da xay ra trong thdi gian gin day.1.4.2. Thuc trang cong tac xay dung thuong hieu tai Viet NamCuli nam 2002, bao Sai Gdn Tilp Thi va Cau lac bd Hang Viet Nam chit lugng cao daphii hgp t l chiirc mot chuong trinh tham dd 500 doanh nghiep Viet Nam, bao gdm nhieuloai hinh doanh nghiep d nhihig quy md khac nhau, vl hien trang xay dung va quang bathucmg hieu cua cac doanh nghiep. Kit qua cude tham dd da lam sang td nhieu van de vethuc trang cdng tac xay dung thuong hieu d cac doanh nghiep Viet Nam.a/Nhan thirc vi thuong hieu vd xdy dung thuong hieu 40
  • 51. Mot si doanh nghiep Viet Nam da bat dau quan tam din viec xay dung va bao hd thucmghi^u, ma trudc tien la dang ky sd hiha dd vdi cac thuong hieu cua minh. Tuy nhien, phinIdn cac doanh nghiep Viet Nam chua cd nhan thiirc dung muc vl vin dl thuong hieu dodd cdn gap nhieu khd khan trong viec xay dung, giir gin uy tin va hinh anh thuong hieuciing nhu phat trien thuong hieu.Theo kit qua dieu tra ciia du an"Ho trg doanh nghiep Viet Nam vl xay dung va quang bathuong hieu" (thang 10/2002), do bao Sai Gdn Tilp thi va Cau lac bd doanh nghiep VietNam chat lupng cao thuc hien, vdi mlu la 500 doanh nghiep Viet Nam thi hien nay viecxay dung thuong hieu la quan tam thu hai cua doanh nghiep Viet Nam sau diy manh tieuthu. Tuy nhien, mdi chi cd 4,2% doanh nghiep cho rang thuong hieu la vu khi trong canhtranh; 5,4% cho rang thuong hieu la tai san cua doanh nghiep. Chi cd 30% doanh nghiepcho ring thuong hieu se giiip ban hang dugc gia cao hon va dem lai tu hao cho nguditieu dung. Hiu hit doanh nghiep chua nhan rd sir ddng gdp quan trpng cua thuong hieutrong gia tri san pham.Viec chua nhan thuc diy dii vl thuang hieu din din thilu chien luge, thieu sir dau tuchuyen sau ciing nhu thilu tinh chuyen nghiep trong cdng tac marketing ndi chung vaxay dung uy tin thuong hieu ndi rieng. Rit it doanh nghiep nhan ra cac dac dilm tieudiing, nhu ciu, thj hilu... cua dii tugng khach hang muc tieu va do dd khdng cd dinhhudng tmdc khi phat triln san phim, xay dung thuong hieu.Trong bdi canh hien nay, canh tranh tren thj trudng thi gidi dang trd thanh mot cudechiln giira cac thuang hieu, cung vdi"chiln tranh gia ca, chit lupng" thdng thuong. Viecchua quan tam tdi tai san vd hinh la thuong hieu, di ddi vdi viec chua djnh vj that rd thitrudng, khach hang muc tieu va thilu nilm tin vao gia trj gia tang do thuong hieu tao dacan trd viec diu tu cho xay dung va phat triln thuang hieu.b/ Kho khan chit yeu trong xdy dung thuong hieu 41
  • 52. Ben canh khia canh thanh cdng ndi tren, cac cude tham dd cung cho thiy cac khd khanchinh ma cac doanh nghiep hay gap phai la: vdn tai chinh (23%), nan hang gia va vipham ban quyIn (19%)), co chi chinh sach, thii tue... (14%), ngudn nhan lire (11,8%),xay dung chiln luge va each thuc hien (8%), thii tue hanh chinh (7,2%), gia dich vu(6,3%)...Hau ket cac doanh nghiep neu ra 3 khd khan chung trong viec xay dung:- Mot, ve mat chu quan, cac doanh nghiep Viet Nam thieu kien thiirc chuyen mdn vethuang hieu va xay dung thuong hieu, nhilu doanh nghiep khdng bilt phai xay dungthucmg hieu nhu the nao va bat dau tir dau. Phan Idn cac doanh nghiep Viet Nam la cacdoanh nghiep vira va nhd, bj han che nhieu ve mat tai chinh, thieu kinh phi de thuc hiencac chuong trinh quang ba thuong hieu cd quy md va lau dai. Mat khac, cac doanhnghiep Viet Nam chua dii sure dk Idi keo va dai ngd nhan tai tir cac cdng ty nude ngoai,do dd ky n^ng xay dung va quan trj thuong hieu cdn rit han che.- Hai, ve mdi trudng ben ngoai, sue ep canh tranh gay git tir cac cdng ty nude ngoai vdingudn lire tai chinh ddi dao va kinh nghiem day dan vl xay dung thuong hieu la mot trdluc Idn ddi vdi cac doanh nghiep Viet Nam. Cac thuang hieu trong nude, dac biet laDNVVN, chua su dung cac dich vu tu vin chuyen nghiep thue ngoai nhu tu vin, thilt kl,quang cao, quan he cdng chung ... do gia thue cdn qua cao.- Ba, chinh sach cua nha nude quy djnh trong Luat thul thu nhap doanh nghiep vl mucchi cho tilp thj, quang cao, khuyin mai... khdng dugc vugt qua 7% tdng chi phi hgp ly,la mot rao can Idn. Viec khdng cdng nhan quang ba, xay dung thuong hieu la diu tu daihan cua doanh nghiep, ban chi chi phi diu tu xay dung thuong hieu, vd hinh chung dakhiln doanh nghiep bupc phai bd qua viec diu tu xay dung thuong hieu, xay dung nangluc canh tranh cho chinh minh trong luong lai. 42
  • 53. 1.4.3 Thuc trang dau tu cho xay dung thuang hieua/Ddu tu cho con nguoiCac doanh nghiep Viet Nam, dac biet la cac doanh nghiep vira va nhd hien nay rit khdthu hiit dugc nhan tai, khd"chieu md" dugc nhan sir quan ly gidi, cd trinh dp va kinhnghiem ca ve quan ly ndi chung va nghiep vu xay dung thuong hieu ndi rieng. Q day, cdthi neu ra 3 nguyen nhan ca ban:- Quy md cua doanh nghiep cdn nhd be so vdi cac doanh nghiep Idn, cac cdng ty nudengoai.- Tinh hinh kinh doanh khdng dn djnh, nhilu rui ro.- Chinh sach dai ngd chua tdt.Trong dd, chinh sach dai ngd la mot trong nhung nguyen nhan chu yeu lam cho nhungnhan sir gidi khdng mudn ve dau quan cho cac doanh nghiep Viet Nam. Trong cude thamdd 500 doanh nghiep, 65% doanh nghiep /cdng ty tu nhan va 50% doanh nghiep Nhanude tra luong dudi 2 trieu ddng/thang cho nhung nhan su quan ly thuong hieu. Chi cd8% thuang hieu /cdng ty tu nhan va 6% doanh nghiep Nha nude tra muc luong 4 trieuddng/thang cho nhung nhan sir nay. Muc dai ngd nay la qua thap nlu so vdi miirc luongbinh quan khoang 7,5 trieu ddng/ thang (500 USD) cho vi tri Trg ly Giam ddc Thuonghieu va 10,5 trieu dong/thang (700 USD) cho vj tri Giam ddc Thuang hieu d cac cdng tynude ngoai. Ben canh dd, cac chinh sach dai ngd khac nhu khen thudng, hgp ddng laoddng, bao hilm ... thudng khdng thuc hien tdt tai cac doanh nghiep Viet Nam.Ve cdng tac dao tao, khoang 60% cac doanh nghiep dugc tham dd cho bilt cd cu nhanvien di tham du cac khoa huin luyen vl thuong hieu, chii ylu la cac khoa huin luyenngin ngay to chu-c trong nude, khoang 5% cu nhan vien tham du huin luyen tai nudengoai, nhung cung cd din hon 30% doanh nghiep khdng tiln hanh cac hoat ddng dao taocho nhan sir quan ly thuang hieu tai doanh nghiep minh. 43
  • 54. b/Ddu tu ve kinh phiNhin chung, kit qua ghi nhan dugc tai cac doanh nghiep tham gia cude tham dd cho thiyxu hudng gia tang kinh phi diu tu cho cdng tac xay dung thuang hieu. Nam 2001, chi cd4% sd doanh nghiep dau tu 5-10 doanh thu va 3% doanh nghiep diu tu tren mirc 10%doanh thu cho xay dung thuong hieu. Thuc trang chung vin cdn rit dang lo ling:- Khoang 20% doanh nghiep dugc tham dd hoan toan khdng diu tu kinh phi cho xaydung thuong hieu, trong dd cd 23% so doanh nghiep tu nhan va 15% sd doanh nghiepNha nude.- 73% sd doanh nghiep Nha nude chi dau tu dudi 5% doanh thu cho xay dung thuanghieu. Tuong ung, ty le nay d doanh nghiep tu nhan la 56%.Nhu vay, muc dau tu cua cac doanh nghiep Viet Nam cdn qua thap so vdi cac ddi thunude ngoai ca ve ty le kinh phi lln sd tuyet ddi. Hien nay, muc dau tu binh quan cho xaydung thucmg hieu ciia cac cdng ty nude ngoai la khoang 7% doanh thu, ca biet cd nhimgcdng ty dau tu d mire 10-15% doanh thu va muc dau tu tuyet ddi la rat Idn do doanh sdciia cac cdng ty nay phan Idn deu d miire"khdng Id".* Nhan dinh chung:Ttr viec phan tich hien trang ciia cac thuang hieu Viet Nam va qua trinh xay dung thuanghieu, cd thi dua ra nhan dinh chung la cac thuong hieu Viet Nam cdn kha yeu mac dii dacd mot sd thuang hieu thanh cdng tren thi trudng.Sir ylu kem ciia cac thuong hieu Viet Nam xuat phat tir nhieu nguyen nhan, trong dd cdnguyen nhan chii yeu la:- Han chi ngudn lire tai chinh, hon nti-a thilu kinh phi diu tu do lgi nhuan thip.- Nhilu doanh nghiep qua chu trpng vao ban hang trong ngin han, chua cd cai nhin va tuduy dai han, do dd chua manh dan diu tu kinh phi cho xay dung thuang hieu. 44
  • 55. - Chua cd dugc nhiing hieu biet day dii ve thuong hieu va bien phap xay dung thuanghieu, thilu nhan vien gidi, du trinh dp de phu trach vin dl nay, do dd chua cd dugcnhihig bude di diing dan va thilu sir sang tao trong xay dung thuong hieu.- Chua ap dung diing va du qui trinh xay dung thuang hieu, thi hien sir ylu kem va thiluchuyen nghiep d hau nhu tat ca cac khau trong quy trinh nay.Hien nay, Viet Nam dang bude vao giai doan hdi nhap vdi khu vuc va thi gidi. Cacthuong hieu nude ngoai se xuit hien nhieu hon va nhanh hon tren thi trudng nude ta.Thilu nhung thuang hieu manh, cac doanh nghiep Viet Nam se thua ngay tren san nha vakhd cd the vuon ra thj trudng the gidi. Do dd, viec xay dung thuong hieu ngay cang trdthanh biire thilt ddi vdi cac doanh nghiep Viet Nam.d day, ngoai y chi va quyet tam, cac doanh nghiep cdn phai cd phuong phap dung dan vakhoa hpc, khic phuc dugc cac dilm ylu hien tai va hpc tap kinh nghiem tir cac cdng tynude ngoai, kit hgp vdi su sang tao sin cd dl cd thi xay dung dugc nhiing thuong hieumanh - trudc hit la tren thi trudng trong nude, lam tien de cho su tdn tai va phat trientrong mdi trudng canh tranh ngay cang khdc liet trong tuong lai. 45
  • 56. CHU^ONG 2 TONG QUAN VA THlTC TRANG XAY DlTNG THU^ONG HIEU MAI TRANG2.1 Tong quan ve Cong ty Mai Tranga/ Dac diem vd mo hinh to chirc Cong ty Mai Trang- Cdng ty Mai Trang dugc thanh lap ngay 06 thang 9 nam 1996- Vdn dilu le: 10.000.000.000- So dd td chiirc Hdi ddng quan tri Tdng giam die Phd tdng Phd tdng Ban giam ddc giam ddc giam ddc Phong kinh Phdng tai chinh Phdng HCTC Phdng du an doanh san xuat ke toan Hdi ddng sang lap (Hdi ddng quan tri) 2 ngudi Phdng ban chiirc nang: - Phdng hanh chinh td chiirc 3 ngudi - Phdng du an 5 ngudi - Phdng kinh doanh san xuat 50 ngudi - Phdng tai chinh kl toan 4 ngudi 46
  • 57. - Trong dd bao gdm: -Dai hpc 10 ngudi - Cao dang 2 ngudi -Tmngcip 10 ngudi - Pho thdng 45 ngudib/ Kinh doanh, dich vu. chat luongHoat ddng kinh doanh cua Cdng ty Mai Trang, bao gdm: - Kinh doanh vat lieu xay dung, trang thiet bi ndi thit ve sinh cao cip; - Dai ly tieu thu d td, Djch vu bao tri bao duong; - Kinh doanh Van phdng cho thue; - Khach san du lich. Bang 2-1: Caeau hoat dong kinh doanh cua Cong ty Mai Trang STT Loai hinh Ti trpng % 1 - Kinh doanh vat lieu xay dung 25% 2 - Kinh doanh dai ly d td, sOra chira, bao tri 45% 3 - Kinh doanh van phdng cho thue 20% 4 - Khach san du lich 10% Ngudn: Bao cao quylt toan Cdng ty Mai Trang (2005-2006) 47
  • 58. Doanh thu phu thudc tinh hinh phat triln cua xa hdi, va xu hudng hdi nhap, cac chinhsach nha nude theo Id trinh khi Viet Nam hdi nhap va tac ddng Idn theo thi trudng trongva ngoai nude. Doanh thu cd tang lgi nhuan khdng cao. Bang 2-2. Doanh thu cua Cong ty Mai Trang Don vi tinh: ty ddng Loai hinh 2003 2004 2005 2006 Vat lieu xay dung 2,545 2,325 2,565 3,256 Old 5,530 6,245 6,056 6.756 Cho thue van phdng 0.98 1,532 2,572 2.463 Du Ijch, khach san 0,535 1,283 1,503 1.953 Tdng 9.59 11.385 12.723 14.428 Ngudn: Bao cao tai chinh Cdng ty Mai Trang (2003-2006) a Vat lieu XD • Kinh doanh oto D Cho thue VP D Du Ijch, KS 2003 2004 2005 2006el Tinh hinh canh tranhTic dp phat triln ciia Viet Nam nam qua phat triln rit nhanh. Chit lupng va sd lugng,nganh xay dung phat triln manh nhu ciu di lai mua ban xe d td rit cao. Viet Nam da hdinhap cac nha diu tu d td vao Viet Nam tham dd co hdi diu tu Idn, du Ijch cung rit phattriln. Xong cung cd nhilu khd khan nhu: Cac chinh sach, nghi djnh ... chua nhat quan, 48
  • 59. cac dai dich nhu djch SART bung nd, nan khiing bl... hon nira din nay chu ylu la cacdoanh nghiep tu nhan, cd phin... hoat ddng mang tinh canh tranh, thilu he thing., hoatddng trong nin kinh tl thi trudng nen tinh canh tranh khdng lanh manh say ra manh me.Sd ddi thu ngay cang gia tang, vdi dac dilm chung vl canh tranh nhu tren, Cdng ty MaiTrang khdng nam ngoai su canh tranh khdc liet dd.Trudc day cac nha tu nhan Viet Nam xay nha d mat phd dl cho cac cdng ty Viet Namhoac nude ngoai thue. Theo xu hudng thi cac cdng ty trong nude va nude ngoai hp khdngthue nhu vay ma tap trung cac loai hinh van phdng lai nha cao ting va tap trung, diy dutien nghi, phuc vu hoan hao. Nen d at cac nha dau tu Viet Nam va nude ngoai lien doanhxay dung cac nha cao de, trung tam de kinh doanh tao ra tinh thi canh tranh khdc liet.Di ciing vdi phat trien cua ddi sdng, vat chat van hoa, dich vu ngay cang cao thi nhu causiir dung cac djch vu ngay cang phat trien.De dap ung nhu cau dd Cdng ty Mai Trang ludn quan tam va dap iing day du kjp thdi cacdich vu cho khach hang khi cd nhu cau bang each Cdng ty Mai Trang ludn sin sang cdcac dich vu, ludn cd dpi ngu nhan vien cd trinh dp hpc hanh bai ban, boat ddng chuyennghiep cd bd may dilu hanh hgp iy va chuin muc ludn dap irng cho khach hang bingmpi each.Bk cd dugc mot Cdng ty Mai Trang nhu ngay hdm nay, viec phat triln dd khdng thi tachrdi nhiem vu xay dung thuang hieu cua doanh nghiep trong suit ca chang dudng gin 11nam qua. Dk dam bao cho sir phat triln bin vung do chiing ta ciing nghien cim chilnluge xay dung thuong hieu cua Cdng ty Mai Trang thdng qua thue trang xay dungthuang hieu cua Cdng ty Mai Trang trong thdi gian vira qua, dl nhin thiy nhirng cai dava dang lam va nhung mat ton tai ciia nd qua dd dk xuit mot sd bien phap nhim xaydung, quan ly, phat triln thuang hieu cua Cdng ty Mai Trang trong giai doan (2008-2013). 49
  • 60. 2.2. Thwc trang xay dung thuong hieu tai Cong ty Mai TrangKhai quat chung tinh hinh xay dung thuang hieu tai Cdng ty Mai Trang:Cdng ty Mai Trang la mot doanh nghiep kinh doanh tren ITnh vuc thuong mai va dich vu,trai qua 11 nam kinh doanh khdng ngimg phat triln vdi Tdc dp tang trudng binh quanhang nam 15-20%.Cdng ty Mai Trang la mot doanh nghiep da va dang trong giai doan phat triln cua motdoanh nghiep vira va nhd, chua cd vj thi canh tranh manh tren thj trudng, chua cd thuonghieu ndi trpi.Vdi dac diem hinh thanh va phat triln ciia Cdng ty Mai Trang la doanh nghiep trachnhiem hu*u ban, nen viec ra ddi va phat triln trong bude ban diu khdng the tranh khditinh tranh thieu tinh chuyen nghiep, thieu tinh dinh hudng chien luge lau dai. Vi vay viecxay dung thuang hieu Cdng ty Mai Trang cung cdn nhieu tdn tai, hien nay mdi chi dangd giai doan diu ciia qua trinh xay dung thuong hieu cho doanh nghiep dd la cd ytudngcho xay dung thuang hieu, chua xay dung dugc chien luge hay ke hoach xay dungthuong hieu.Tuy nhien din nay Cdng ty Mai Trang ciing cd dugc hinh anh nhit dinh tren thj trudngnhu: da cd bilu tugng, logo da dugc dang ky ban quyIn sd hun, xay dung trang websitehinh anh vl doanh nghiep cung da dugc nhilu co quan, doanh nghiep trong va ngoainude bilt din Cdng ty Mai Trang.a/ Ddnh gid thuc trgng viec xdy dung thuong hieu.De danh gia thuc trang viec xay dung thuong hieu cua Cdng ty Mai Trang, tdi xin dugcdi tir ba khia canh, thu nhit la dua vao cac dac tinh ciia thuong hieu, thiir hai la dua vaoquy trinh hay cac bude thuc hien xay dung thuang hieu, thir ba la dimg tren gde dp khachhang dk lam can cu danh gia.+ Xet tren goc do dac tinh cua thuong hieu 50
  • 61. Thuong hieu nhu mot san phim; Thuang hieu nhu mot td chirc; thuang hieu nhu motcon ngudi; thuang hieu nhu mot bilu tugng.Vl dac tinh thuong hieu nhu mot san phim tiirc la thuang hieu dugc gin vdi san phimnhit dinh cua cdng ty, sdn phim dd dugc gin vdi chit lugng, gia tri dich vu gia ca haydja ly.Vl dac tinh thuong hieu nhu la mot td chu-c tue la thuang hieu gin vdi sir ddi mdi, dandiu ve chit lugng san phim va dich vu hay tinh chuyen nghiep, xet vl dac tinh nay Cdngty Mai Trang da va dang tao ra dugc hinh anh vl quy md quan ly chuyen nghiep trongkhach hang.Ve dac tinh thuang hieu nhu la mot con ngudi dd la cac cam nhan vl ca tinh: ddc dao,canh tranh, nang ddng... Vdi dac tinh nay Cdng ty Mai Trang dugc coi nhu la ngudichuan ve chat lupng, phong each phuc vu.Ve dac tinh thuang hieu nhu mot bieu tugng: Cdng ty Mai Trang da dugc gan vdi bieutugng hinh trdn mau xanh tham, tren canh cung sir no lire vuon tdi phat triln, hinh chii S phong each phuc vu hoan hao, chan thanh cua eon ngudi Viet Nam. - Theo nhan xet cua dng: Richard Moore thudc td chiirc ASSOCOATES - Chua gay in tugng trong tam tri khach hang. Xet tren bin dac tinh cua thuong hieu ta thiy Cdng ty Mai Trang it nhilu ciing da cd thuong hieu, tuy nhien thuang hieu ciia Cdng ty Mai Trang cdn dang rit ban chi, bdi vi cac dac trung dd chua thi hien ro net de khac sau vao tam tri khach hang dugc.+ Xet tren goc do quy trinh cdc bude xdy dungphdt triin thuong hieu.Thdng thudng qua trinh cac bude xay dung phat triln thuong hieu dugc qua cac bude sauday: 1. Thanh lap y tudng, xac dinh thj trudng va khach hang muc tieu; 51
  • 62. 2. Tim kilm thdng tin, phan tich ddi thu, xac dinh mmh la ai, muc tieu cin thuc hien; 3. Thiet ke nhan hieu; 4. Xac lap quyen; 5. Xay dung chien luge; 6. Td churc va nhan su; 7. Td chiirc he thdng dich vu; 8. Theo ddi sir phat triln va bao ve thuong hieu.Vl thanh lap y tudng, xac djnh thj trudng, khach hang muc tieu: Cdng ty Mai Trang dacd y tudng la cho xay dung thuang hieu dd la da xac dinh cho cdng ty phai cd su khacbiet san pham dich vu de dua den cho khach hang san phim djch vu chit lugng cao honhoac la su khac biet hon ddi thu, dd la dau hieu ve bieu tugng chat lugng de nhd, de gpi.Cdng ty Mai Trang da xac djnh dupe ddi tugng khach hang cua minh la:Kinh doanh khach san du lich:- Khach VIP: Cac co quan ngoai giao nude ngoai cdng tac lam viec tai Viet Nam; caclien doanh.- Khach Ha Ndi va cac tinh le.Day ciing la mot ylu td rit cin cho dinh vj thuong hieu cho doanh nghiep va Cdng tyMai Trang da lam dugc. Bdi vi thdng qua dd Cdng ty Mai Trang da biet minh phai lirachpn phong each chit lupng nao, djch vu ra sao dk phuc vu tit khach hang.v l tim kilm thdng tin, phan tich ddi thu, xac djnh minh la ai, muc tieu cin di din dau dldam bao cho qua trinh boat ddng, Cdng ty Mai Trang ludn quan tam va thuc hien triet dldin thu thap thdng tin tren cac khia canh.Ve thilt kl nhan hieu va hang hoa: tren ca sd y tudng mdi dimg d gde dp bilu tugnglogo. 52
  • 63. v l xac lap quyIn: Trong thuong hieu cd rit nhilu ylu t l khac nhau, cd thi la nhan hieu,ten xuit xir, ten thuong mai, kilu dang.... Cdng ty Mai Trang da xac djnh dugc quyIn sdhuu cho minh la dang ky logo vdi cue sd bun cdng nghiep Viet Nam.v l xay dung chiln luge chit lupng san phim dich vu: Can cu theo dac dilm timg loaisan pham djch vu cua nganh ciing nhu cua minh, Cdng ty Mai Trang da xac dinh chitlugng san pham qua cac tieu chi co ban vl djch vu la: hoan hao.Co bd phan nhan sir thuc hien cdng viec xay dung, duy tri phat triln thuong hieu chocdng ty la lit can thiet, nhung thuc tl Cdng ty Mai Trang chua cd dpi ngii dk lam cdng viec nay.Ve td chuc he thdng djch vu:Can ciir vao quy md cua minh, Cdng ty Mai Trang da xay dung va thuc hien dugc cacdjch vu: dpi ngu nhan vien cham sdc khach hang; cac dich vu thanh toan nhanh, hudngdin tra Idi nhung y kien khach hang can, tinh than chan tinh, chu dao.v l theo ddi sir phat trien va bao ve thuong hieu:Day la bude dam bao cho thuong hieu dugc ben vimg. Viec theo ddi nham dieu chinhcho thuong hieu di dung hudng, chdng lai cac hanh vi canh tranh khdng lanh manh. Bdphan quan tri va phat triln thuong hieu cua Cdng ty Mai Trang chua dugc hinh thanh,cho nen chua cd viec theo doi, kilm tra, danh gia.Can ciir vao qui trinh cac bude xay dung, phat triln va duy tri thuang hieu va thuc tl ciiaCdng ty Mai Trang cd thi thiy ring viec xay dung thuong hieu cua Cdng ty Mai Trangcdn cin quan tam nhilu hon nira tren tit ca cac mat, tir viec dinh hudng din triln khaithuc hien.+ Xet tren goc do la khdch hdngTren gde dp la khach hang, thuang hieu dugc nhan bilt qua hinh anh va cam nhan vecdng ty hay dich vu la dilu quan trpng nhit. Nhung nhung gi Cdng ty Mai Trang manglai hinh anh va cam nhan cho khach hang cdn dang md nhat, chua cd dilm ndi trpi hay 53
  • 64. khac biet nhilu, bdi vi Cdng ty Mai Trang chua cd nhirng ylu td ro net vl dac tinh cuathuong hieu: Ten thuong hieu khdng dugc khac biet, bilu tugng hay mau sic chua cdtuong phan dl so sanh gay in tugng. Dilu ndi bat nhit dd la cdng chiing nhan bilt vlCdng ty Mai Trang cdn qua it.Diu nam 2006, Cdng ty Mai Trang da td chirc tham dd khach hang su nhan bilt thuonghieu Mai Trang tai hdi nghj keu gpi diu tu cua UBND tinh Thanh Hoa tai khach sanMelia va hdi chg triln lam Giang Vd Ha Ndi, 16,5% khach hang cac nha diu tu bilt dinMai Trang.Mac du Mai Trang cd trang Website nhung sd lupng ngudi truy cap cdn rit it (thi hienthdng sd ngudi truy cap).Vdi thuc trang thuong hieu cua Cdng ty Mai Trang nhu vay, viec xay dung chiln lugethuang hieu ndi rieng, va xay dung chien luge cdng ty ndi chung la viec lam rit can thiltva cd y nghTa vd ciing quan trpng cho su phat trien va trudng tdn cua Cdng ty Mai Trang.b/Chien luge xdy dung thuong hieu cua Cong ty Mai Trang+ Khdi qudt ve muc tieu chien luge kinh doanh cua Cong ty Mai TrangVdi muc tieu ciia Cdng ty Mai Trang la doanh thu tang trudng 15-20% /nam; Igi nhuansau thul 3-3,2% doanh thu; va mong muon trd thanh doanh nghiep tdp dau trong ITnh vuckhach san du lich dich vu, trong khi Cdng ty Mai Trang cdn dang la doanh nghiep qui mdvira va nhd, chua cd thuong hieu ndi trpi, chua cd kha nang canh tranh cao. Tuy nhienCdng ty Mai Trang lai da cd miirc tang trudng cao, da cd hinh anh trong nude va qudc tl.Day la vin d6 dat ra cho nha quan ly cua Cdng ty Mai Trang trong xay dung chiln lugeCdng ty ndi chung cung nhu xay dung chiln luge thuong hieu ciia Cdng ty Mai Trangndi rieng. B% xay dung thanh cdng thuang hieu ciia minh, Cdng ty Mai Trang cin phaidat chiln luge xay dung thuong hieu trong tdng thi cua chiln luge kinh doanh cua Cdngty. 54
  • 65. Ve chien luge kinh doanh cua Cong ty Mai Trang dirffc xac dinh do la:"Phat trien thj triroTig cu, khai thac ma rong thi trudng mdi; Cung cap san phim cdchat lirgng chuan vdi gia ca hgp ly, dich vu hoan hao"."Chien luge phat triin thi trudng cH" cd nghTa la tang sd lugng Idn vao thi trudng hiencd dl tang doanh thu, nang cao thj phin. Phuong phap dk thuc hien chiln luge nay la:+ Phat triln tang them khach hang, thu hiit khach hang ciia ddi thu vl Cdng ty MaiTrang.+ Tang sd lugng sir dung va sd lan quay vdng ciia timg khach hang va xay dung khachsan Resort theo tieu chuan qudc te."Chien luge khai thac thi truong mdi" dd la khai thac md rong them thi trudng ma launay Cdng ty Mai Trang chua vuon tdi, hay chua cung cip san pham, dich vu vao dd.Chiln luge nay cd the thdng qua cac hinh thiirc.+ Tim kilm khach hang tiem nang;+ Xay dung khach san. Resort cac phdng dc tien nghi hien dai theo tieu chuan qudc te.Xay dung khach San"Mai Trang Hotel: 16- Pham Hiing, cum khach san,. Du Hch sinhthai"Ho Hoa Binh" Gia Lam Ha Ndi."Mai Trang Resort Sim Son"tao thanh mot tua dulich hoan bao.""Chiin luge cung cdp san pham co chat lugng chuan " la ludn cung cap cac san phamdung qui each, diing phim cip, dung tieu chuan nhu cac phdng dc va tien nghi cua khachsan. Resort... theo tieu chuin va phii hgp vdi Khach hang muc tieu cua Mai Trang xacdinh.*Chien luge gid cd hgp ly " la duy tri muc gia thip so vdi cac ddi thu Idn, nhung phii hgpvdi mong muon cua khach hang."Chiin luge dich vu hoan hao " la cung cip diy dii (hoac cao hon) cac djch vu ma khachhang mong mudn. 55
  • 66. Giai phap dk thue bien cd hieu qua chien luge canh tranh nay la: 1, Ket hgp hai hoa hai chien luge lam mot khi trien khai ban hang cho khach; 2, Tang cudng sd lugng sir dung va sd lan quay vdng.Bk thuc hien thanh cdng sir menh, hoan thanh dugc muc tieu, chiln luge kinh doanh dadugc xac dinh, Cdng ty Mai Trang can dac biet quan tam den viec xay dung cac chuongtrinh (chien luge) Mareketing, va thuc hien tdt chiln luge xay dung thuang hieu Cdng tyMai Trang.b.Muc tieu chien luge xdy dungphdt trien thuong hieu den nam 2013.+ Muc tieu xdy dungphdt trien thuong hieu:Can cir muc tieu va chiln luge kinh doanh ciia Cdng ty Mai Trang da dat ra, can ciir thuctrang xay dung phat triln thuang hieu din nam 2013 can dat dugc cac chi tieu sau day:- Thue hien hoan chinh ndi dung chin bude xay dung thuang hieu.- Din hit nam 2008 xay dung xong sd tay chit lupng thuang hieu.- Cd quan he giao dich cac tour du Hch trong va ngoai nude, cac khach san Ha Ndi va cacdilm du lich Idn trong dd 100% khach hang da va dang su dung, 70% khach hang tuonglai bilt cdng ty dac trung va chit lugng noi trpi ciia san phim va cac djch vu Cdng ty MaiTrang dang cd.- So vdi nam 2005, moi nam tang trudng 25% so khach hang va cdng chiing nhan biltdugc hoat ddng kinh doanh ciia Cdng ty Mai Trang.- Phin diu 80% ddi tac trong va ngoai nude nhan bilt rd hinh anh dac trung vl Cdng tyMai Trang.+ Chien luge xdy dungphdt triin thuong hieucan cir muc tieu da dugc xac djnh, dl thuc hien tdt muc tieu tren, Cdng ty Mai Trang xacdinh cho minh chiln luge xay dung phat triln thuang hieu dd la: 56
  • 67. Ludn cung cap cac san pham, dich vu dat chat lupng tieu chuan: Phdng 6c hien dai, sangtrpng; tien nghi diy dii; theo diing tieu chuin qudc tl. Du lich: Cac tour du lich chitlugng cao; phdng an, d theo tieu chuan qudc te cho khach hang, khdng ngimg cai tiln vanang cao chat lugng cac djch vu, xay dung dugc dpi ngii can bd nhan vien lam viec cdtinh chuyen nghiep cao de tao ra hinh anh rieng biet (cd trinh dp thanh thao vl chuyenmdn cao, cd kha nang gay cam tinh, gay an tugng ddi vdi khach hang) cua mot cdng tytrong nganh khac san djch vu, du lich thdng qua chuong trinh tmyIn thdng khuyen mai de:- Tao ra cho khach hang cd cam nhan (an tugng) dac biet ve Mai Trang;- Ghi sau cam nhan ve hinh anh cua Mai Trang vao khach hang.Cac chuong trinh tmyen thdng khuyen mai dd la:- Quang cao bing cac hinh thiirc: Dang quang cao, dich vu, bieu tugng logo, sach baonien giam;- Kich thich khach hang bang qua tang, giam gia chiet khau, giao luu khach hang;- Quan he quan chiing nhu: Ddng gdp tir thien, td chuc cac sir kien; md rong quan hecdng ddng;- Marketing true tilp bing hinh thirc hdi nghi khach hang, tiep thi chao hang true tilp,giri catalog din tit ca cac ddi tugng khach hang. 57
  • 68. CHirONG 3 CAC GIAI PHAP THlTC HIEN THANH CONG CHIEN LlTOC XAY DlTNG THlTcnVG HIEU TAI CONG TY MAI TRANG3.1 Cac giai phap thuc hien thanh cong chien luge xay dung thuong hieu Cong tyMai Trang giai doan (2008 - 2013).Can cu vao phan tich da trinh bay d cac phin tren, Cdng ty Mai Trang dua ra cac giaiphap CO ban cho thuc hien muc tieu va chien luge xay dung phat trien thuang hieu giaidoan (2008-2013) dd la:- Xac djnh va nam vting dac diem, tinh hinh ddi thu canh tranh;- Xac dinh ro dac diem tam ly khach hang va khach hang muc tieu;- Xac dinh rd va djnh hudng dung muc tieu chiln luge;- Xay dung va quang ba sau rong hinh anh ciia cdng ty;- Thudng xuyen cung cip san phim djch vu dam bao chit lupng chuin;- Nang cao chit lugng djch vu va phuc vu khach hang;- Ap dung triet dk qui trinh xay dung va phat triln thuong hieu;- Thudng xuyen kilm tra, giam sat qua trinh thuc hien muc tieu va kl hoach xay dungphat triln thuang hieu;- Kl hoach thuc hien xay dung thuong hieu;3.1.1 c i n xac djnh va nim virng dac dilm, tinh hinh doi thu canh tranhBQ thue hien tdt giai phap nay trudc hit cdng ty cin xac djnh minh cd bao nhieu ddi thu,ho la ai, d dau, hp canh tranh nhiing gi, lgi thi canh tranh ndi trpi la gi, diem manh, dilmylu la gi... tren ca sd thu thap cac thdng tin dd, cdng ty cin phan tich va so sanh vdicdng ty minh dk dua ra cho cdng ty nhiing chinh sach, sach luge thich hgp nhat, nhammang lai nhilu uu thi ma ddi thu khdng thi cd dugc. Lam tdt dugc dilu dd mot phin damang lai thanh cdng cho cdng ty, bdi vi,bilt djch, bilt ta, tram tran tram thing", trong 58
  • 69. kinh doanh doi thii la djch, hp ludn mudn chiln thing, mudn ta thit bai, hp ludn tim each,tim diem yeu cua ta de canh tranh danh bai ta de hp thing ITnh thi trudng. Mat khac moiddi thu lai cd dac diem, kha nang, quan diem canh tranh khac nhau, vi vay nim virng dacdiem, tinh hinh tirng ddi thu la rat can thiet, rat quan trpng cho Cdng ty Mai Trang trongqua trinh canh tranh ndi chung ciing nhu trong xay dung chien luge thuong hieu ndirieng.Cac dac diem, tinh hinh ciia ddi thu can nim dd la: Qui md boat ddng, thj phan, sanphim, cac chinh sach tiep thi, cac dich vu va phuc vu, cac chuong trinh xiic tien thuongmai, du lich cac chinh sach nhan sir, van hoa doanh nghiep, trinh dp va tinh chuyennghiep cua doanh nghiep .. .v.vXuit phat tir vai trd y nghTa cua viec nim dugc dac dilm, tinh hinh ddi thii canh tranhnhu trinh biy tren day, Mai Trang xac dinh thj trudng cua minh;Ddi vdi Kinh doanh Du lich, Khach san, Resort. - Khach hang la cac co quan ngoai giao thudng tru va ddng tai Viet Nam; Ngudi nude ngoai, cu tni va lam viec tai Viet Nam, Tmng Qudc, Ha Ndi, cac nude chau Au, chau A khac, cac tinh le...Vdi thj trudng muc tieu ciia Mai Trang da xac djnh, thi ddi thu canh tranh la ai? Cdnhung dac dilm gi? thi manh chu ylu nhu thi nao?Cac cdng ty tu nhan xay nha lam khach san nhd le thi gia ca rit thip, san phim phdng dctien nghi binh thudng khdng dat tieu chuin, cac dich vu kem theo khdng ddng bd, dia chikhd tim, di lai nai dl xe d td khdng thuan Igi. Cdn cac khach san Idn nhu Sheraton, Meliagia ca qua cao chi phi bd may Idn.Cdn Cdng ty Mai Trang thi san phim phdng dc tien nghi, dich vu kem theo ddng bd theotieu chuin qudc tl, gia ca hgp ly, vi tri thuan lgi"dic dia" nim tren tnic Dudng PhamHung, noi tap trung nhilu ca quan Idn trung uong va dia phuang, qudc tl, di lai rit thuan 59
  • 70. lgi khdng tic dudng iing ngap khi lu lut Mai Trang cdn cd he thdng tour du lich hoan haonhu:"Mai Trang TOWER" 16- Pham Hiing vdi cum khach san. Resort, Du Hch sinhthai."Mai Trang Hd Hoa Binh" tren dien tich 21 ha each trung tam Bd Hd 11km. Dugcbao bpc mat rong, bo nude vdi cac dao nhd, phong canh son thuy hu*u tinh.."Mai Trangsim Son" vdi khu Resort sinh thai biln, vj tri die dia dugc ngudi Phap khing dinh taikhu nghi mat Sam Son Thanh Hoa. Cd cac mdi quan he lan nhau, ho trg tao thanh mot hethdng dich vu hoan hao.Tir cac thdng tin va dac diem cua cac ddi thu va cua Mai Trang nhu tren Mai Trang cungthudng xuyen thu thap thdng tin khac nhim muc dich xac dinh rd cho minh dilm manhdk phat buy... va biet dugc ddi thu hp dang lam gi? Hp quan tam den van de gi? Cachthirc hp trien khai nhu the nao?... tir dd Mai Trang dua ra dugc cac giai phap hgp ly.Thuong hieu ma Mai Trang chi di vao khach hang khi Mai Trang cd dugc su khac biet rorang hon ddi thu.3.1.2 Nim vung dac diem tam ly khach hang va khach hang muc tieu.Khach hang la ddi tugng quan trpng nhit trong boat ddng kinh doanh doi vdi bit kldoanh nghiep nao, khdng cd khach hang tire khdng cd hoat ddng kinh doanh, khach hangit cd nghTa loi nhuan it hoac khdng cd.Mudn thu hiit dugc nhilu khach hang phai hilu, phai bilt dugc khach bang hp cd nhu caugi, mong mudn gi, sd lugng bao nhieu, bao gid can, khi nao hp quylt djnh, can ciir vaodau hp quylt dinh (cd hoac khdng).. dd chinh la nhimg dac dilm, tam ly ciia khach hangma ta (cdng ty) cin phai nim. Khi nim vihig dac dilm tam ly cua khach hang Cdng tyMai Trang mdi cd thi tao ra cac hinh anh cd in tugng sau cho khach hang thdng qua thoaman tdi da cac nhu ciu va mong muon cua khach hang.Vdi vai trd y nghTa vd ciing quan trpng dd viec nim viing dac diem tam ly khach hang larit cin thilt cho cac doanh nghiep ndi chung, Cdng ty Mai Trang ndi rieng. Cac dac dilm 60
  • 71. tam ly khach hang Mai Trang cin nim la: Nhu ciu khach hang cin san phim loai gi, sd lupng bao nhieu, chit lugng mong mudn din dau, hp thich phong each giao dich thi nao.Tir viec nSm viing dac dilm tam ly khach hang Mai Trang cung cip va thilt kl cho khachhang nhiing san phim dam bao chit lugng, kip thdi gian, cung cip cho khach hang cacdjch vu tdt nhit ca vl tien ich kinh tl, lan tinh thin dugc yen tam va tin cay cao nhit. Cdlam dugc nhu vay thuang hieu, hinh anh ciia Mai Trang mdi din an sau vao tam trikhach hang. Khach hang muc tieu cua Mai Trang (Khach hang muc tieu uu tien thu tu tir tren xudng dudi)- Khach VIP, thuong gia, dai dien ca quan ngoai giao, ngudi nude ngoai cdng tac va lamviec tai Viet Nam- Khach Tmng Qudc.-Khach Ha Ndi.- Khach tinh le, khach thu nhap trung binh.Khach hang muc tieu ciia Mai Trang bao gdm rat nhieu thanh phan, cd nhu cau sd thichkhac nhau da dang, nhung qua trinh quyet dinh sir dung san pham va dich vu cua khachhang van theo chu trinh chung dd la:Cd nhu ciu -^ tim kilm thdng tin -> nhan thiirc van de -^ danh gia va lira chpn -> Quyltdjnh sir dung san phim va dich vu -^ Hanh vi sau khi su dung san pham, dich vu cuakhach hang van theo mot chu trinh ve trang thai dd la.c i n ^ B i l t dln-> Hilu bilt^Thich->Tin tudng^Quylt djnhKhi sir dung san phim va djch vu, khach hang muc tieu ciia Mai Trang cd dac diem tamly chung dd la: Mong mudn san phim tdt nhit, phuc vu tot nhit, linh boat, chan thanh,thai dd than thien thoai mai, vui ve... dac biet gia thanh phai hgp ly. 61
  • 72. Tuy nhien ngoai dac dilm chung, thi dii tugng khach hang se cd mot sd dac dilm rieng.Khach san, Resot: Khach VIP, thuong gia, gidi thuong luu thi that sang trpng, tien nghithat diy dii, tranh dn ao, rieng biet yen tTnh dl nghi ngai ban thao .... Cdn khach TmngQudc chu ylu la khach tour, sd lugng nhilu, phuc vu nhanh, lich dua ddn doan, an d thatchinh xac... cac mdn an phuc vu phai phii hgp phong tue tap quan cua Trung Hoa.Viec nim viing dac dilm, tam ly ciia khach hang la vin dl vd cimg quan trpng trong kinhdoanh ndi chung, dac biet trong xay dung thuang hieu, bdi vi ddi tugng khach hang cuaMai Trang khdng phai don thuan la mot ca nhan hay mot doanh nghiep, ma d day MaiTrang cd rat nhieu nhdm khach hang, trong moi nhdm lai cd rat nhieu doi tugng, hay cacca nhan khac nhau tham gia vao qua trinh sir dung. Chinh dieu do tao ra rat nhieu sir khacbiet trong khach hang, hieu dugc khach hang la da mot phan phuc vu tdt cho khach hang,mat khac cd hieu dugc khach hang Mai Trang mdi dua ra dugc cac chiln luge thich hgpthoa man dugc nhu cau khach hang, khi thoa man dugc khach hang thi Mai Trang mdi cddugc hinh anh trong khach hang.De hieu dugc dac diem tam ly, khach hang Mai Trang can phai thudng xuyen nim viing,nghien ciru dac tinh tam ly khach hang bang viec trao ddi, tham dd true tilp hay gian tiepqua dilu tra. Viec nghien ciiru danh gia thoa man nhu cau hay danh gia phat trien cuathuang hieu cd thi thdng qua danh gia mirc tSng trudng vl doanh thu va san lupng, cungnhu tang trudng vl sd lupng va tin suit ciing nhu sd lupng, so lan su dung cua khachtrong timg qui hay nam nhit la sd lin khach su dung san phim, djch vu nhilu lin haymot lin rdi thdi. It nhit moi nam phai cd mot lin tham dd danh gia tam ly nhu ciu, mongmudn cua khach hang, dk tir dd danh gia hieu qua thuang hieu ciia minh. 62
  • 73. 3.1.3 Ludn dinh huong dung muc tieu chien lugeD I thuc hien mot each cd hieu qua muc tieu, chiln luge xay dung phat triln thuang hieu,tmdc hit viec djnh hudng muc tieu, chiln luge phat triln chung cua Cdng ty Mai Trangtrong tiln trinh hdi nhap kinh tl thi gidi phai phii hgp va sat vdi thuc tl. Djnh hudngdiing muc tieu, cd chiln luge hgp ly la vin dl rit quan trpng cho Mai Trang, bdi vi nludjnh hudng sai, khdng sat thue tl se dan din hanh ddng sai, hieu qua thip hoac tham chithat bai.Xay dung va dinh hudng muc tieu la djnh hudng con dudng di va dich cin din, la thudcdo qua trinh thuc hien chien luge vi vay djnh hudng diing muc tieu va chiln luge la ritcan thiet trong qua trinh thuc hien chien luge xay dung thuong hieu cua Mai Trang, bdivi de xay dung thanh cdng thuong hieu, Mai Trang gin liln viec xay dung thuang hieutrong viec thuc hien cac chien luge chung ciia cdng ty trong sudt qua trinh boat ddng.Din nay, de nang cao kha nang canh tranh trong nganh va trong nen kinh te hdi nhap MaiTrang xac dinh cho minh chien luge kinh doanh do la:"Phat trien thi truong cu, khaithac md rong thi trudng mdi tren eo* sd gia ca hgp ly, dich vu so 1", nham dat dugccac muc tieu co ban la doanh thu tang trudng 25-30%/nam; Igi nhuan cao nhat bang eachthuc hien tdt chien luge xay dung thuong hieu dd k:"Lu6n cai tien vd ndng cao chdtlugng cdc san pham dich vu cho khdch hdng, xdy dung dugc doi ngU cdn bo nhan vienlam viec co tinh chuyen nghiep cao de tgo ra hinh anh rieng biet (co trinh do thanh thaovi chuyen mon cao, co khd ndng gay cdm tinh, gay dn tugng tot voi khdch hdng) cua MaiTrang, thong qua chuong trinh truyin thong khuyin mdi de: 1, Tgo ra cho khdch hdng co dn tugng (nhan thuc) dac biet ve Mai Trang; 2, Ghi sdu hinh anh cua Mai Trang vao khdch hdng.Bk thuc hien tdt dinh hudng tren viec xay dung va phat triln thanh cdng thuong hieu ciiaCdng ty Mai Trang la vd ciing quan trpng, vi vay Mai Trang cin xac djnh rd rang tu 63
  • 74. tudng trong viec xay dung phat triln thuong hieu ciia minh dd la chiln lupc phat trilnthuong hieu cin dugc thuc hien thing nhit trong thdi gian dai va cd sir dam bao nhitdinh vl tai chinh dl cd dii kha nang dn djnh phat buy lgi thi canh tranh. Cin tranh ngdnhan dl din din chii quan hoac thay vi qua tu ti ma bd Id ca hdi, khdng diu tu xay dungthuang hieu mot each lang phi, ma nen tap trung nguon luc nang cao nang luc canh tranhcd the trd thanh cac ddi tac chien luge cua cac khach hang qudc tl va trong nude dk cungcip san pham dich vu mang thuong hieu ciia chinh minh.Tuy nhien djnh hudng bing muc tieu, chiln luge cu thi da la nhu vay, nhung dilu quantrpng d day Mai Trang can quan tam den ket qua dl tir dd mdi cd can cu* danh gia va diluchinh cho phii hgp. Cac can cir cd thi diing dk danh gia dd la doanh thu, doanh so, solugng khach hang tang trudng va mat di trong thang, nam la bao nhieu, thi phin tang moinam la bao nhieu, sd khach hang nhan biet ve cdng ty tang bao nhieu, de lam dugc dieunay Mai Trang phai cd su thdng ke, phan tich, danh gia sd lieu thudng xuyen hang thang,qui, ddng thdi cd cac bien phap dieu chinh kl hoach, cd giai phap thuc hien hiJu hieu vakip thdi, cd vay muc tieu va chien luge mdi cd djnh hudng dung.3.1.4. Xay dung va quang ba sau rong hinh anh cua Mai Trang.Hinh anh la ndi dung ciia thuang hieu, nhu da trinh bay trong phan co sd ly luan"thuanghieu la hinh anh vl san phim, dich vu hoac doanh nghiep dugc luu lai trong tam tri nguditieu diing..." Vi vay Mai Trang cin phai cd bien phap quang ba sau rong hinh anh ca vlsan phim va dich vu ciing nhu cac ylu td khac lien quan din toan bd boat ddng ciiadoanh nghiep din dugc vdi khach hang.Hinh anh ciia cdng ty Mai Trang phai dugc lien he va hinh thanh trong tri nhd ciia khachhang vl Mai Trang nhu mot nha thuong mai hay cung img djch vu. Hinh anh Mai Trangphu thudc vao cac yeu td nhu: + Cac san phim djch vu ma cdng ty kinh doanh; 64
  • 75. + Cac hoat ddng dugc cdng ty tien hanh; + Cach thiirc cdng ty giao tilp vdi khach hang.Hinh anh Cdng ty Mai Trang, thuang hieu cdng ty phai ggi len dugc nhirng lien tudngdin cac san phim, djch vu cua minh, cung dugc phan anh qua tinh each va dac dilm ciianhan vien trong Cdng ty. Gia tri thuong hieu ciia Cdng ty cung dugc nang len nhd cacnhan vien trong td chuc cua minh, chu yeu la nhd nhiing no lire cua dpi ngu nhan vien vasir phat triln quan he ciia hp vdi khach hang. Dd la nhiing nhan vien sin sang lam bit cuviec gi trong kha nang cho phep dk lam thoa man khach hang.Trong nhirng nam tdi can phai dat dugc cac yeu cau sau trong viec quang ba hinh anh ciiaminh dd la:Tgo dugc su lien tuong ve hinh dnh cong ty tap trung vao khdch hdng la lam cho khachhang biet den Mai Trang nhu mot nai sin sang dap ung yeu ciu cua khach hang va chamsdc khach hang. Khi dd, khach hang tin ring"nhu ciu cua hp se dupe thiu hieu" MaiTrang va Cdng ty Mai Trang can la cd va tin tudng, than thien.Giai phap de Mai Trang tao sir lien tudng hinh anh va cac gia tri cua minh, Mai Trangcan thdng qua cac chuong trinh va boat ddng ho trg, tai trg cdng ddng, dilu do cd nghTala Mai Trang mudn tao binh anh ciia minh trong khach hang va cdng chiing dugc saurong thi Mai Trang cin phai cd diu tu mot khoan tai chinh nhit dinh.Bk cd hinh anh tdt Mai Trang cin tao dugc sir tin nhiem ddi vdi khach hang va long tinciia khach hang vao cdng ty, ring dd la Mai Trang la nai cung cap san pham, dich vuthoa man nhu ciu va mong muln ciia khach hang. Sir tin nhiem ciia cdng ty lien quandin danh tilng ma cdng ty cd dugc tren thj trudng. Nhung sir tin nhiem dd Cdng ty MaiTrang cin tao ra cho minh cd dugc cac ylu to sau: + Sir chuyen nghiep; + Yen tam va tin tudng; 65
  • 76. + Thoai mai khi sir dung san phim va djch vu.Tdm lai, tao nen hinh anh cho Mai Trang la se tao ra gia tri thuang hieu Mai Trang, Cdngty phai cd nhilu each - true tilp hay gian tilp - tao ra nhiing hinh anh va quang ba hinhanh mot each tich cue va hieu qua nhit. Khi thuc hien giai phap nay, dieu quan trpng laMai Trang cin tang cudng giao tilp vdi khach hang va nghien ciiru ky nhung nhu ciu vamong muln cua hp dk dua ra nhung chuong trinh cu thi ma khach hang cd thi de dangcam nhan, thau hilu va hinh thanh su danh gia tich cue ciia minh vl thuang hieu, hinhanh cua Mai Trang.3.1.5. Thudng xuyen cung cap san pham dam bao chat lugngDac tinh cua thuong hieu ludn gan lien vdi doanh nghiep va san phim, san phim va chitlugng san pham ludn gan chat vdi nhau, tuy hai nhung la mot, vi vay cung cip san phimdam bao chat lupng cho khach hang la viec lam vd ciing quan trpng trong qua trinh xaydung thuong hieu cua Mai Trang.Chat lugng va chat lugng san pham la pham tru triru tugng, trong de tai nay tdi chi xin dlcap din quan diem ve chat lugng san pham va dich vu.Theo quan diem ciia cd nhan Toi, chdt lugng Id cdc chi tieu, cdc thuoc tinh, cong dungcua sdnphdm vd de thoa mdn nhu cau cua khdch hdng.Moi mot san phim se cd be thdng cac chi tieu chat lugng khac nhau cd san pham chi cdmot hay hai chi tieu, nhung cd san pham cd den may chuc tham chi den ca tram chi tieurieng le. Tuy nhien, cung cin phai luu y rang viec xem xet cac chi tieu nay phai dat trongdilu kien tieu diing gidng nhau, hay ndi each khac di trong nhiing dilu kien tieu diingkhac nhau thi sir dap img cac yeu ciu cua khach hang cu thi se su dung hang hoa vdi tieuchi chit lugng nao la thich hgp nhit. Khi da xac djnh dugc nhu ciu sir dung trong dilukien nhit dinh nao dd tue la Mai Trang se va da tao ra dugc mot san phim djch vu khacbiet va se mang lai cho khach hang mot su an tam, thoai mai tin tudng trong su dung. 66
  • 77. Khach hang ludn mong mudn cd dugc chat lugng nao dd tir san phim ciia cdng ty phucvu cho hp, nhung ddng thdi cung mong muln cd gia hgp ly nhit. Trong dilu kien canhtranh ngay cang quyet liet, cdc doanh nghiep ludn tim each giam gia dt nang cao siirccanh tranh thi viec tao ra su cam nhan vl chat lupng dugc nang len se la nhan td quantrpng va cd y nghTa quylt djnh de thu hut khach hang.Nhu nhirng vdn de dd de cap den o tren, chdt lugng sdn phdm md cong ty cdn quan tdm& cdc goc do cu the sau day: Tinh tien ich trong su dung san pham va djch vu- Tinh chuan xac va hgp ly ve gia.Tinh tien ich trong sir dung san pham va dich vuDay la chi tieu dac trung cho kha nang su dung san phim va dich vu, tao dilu kien khachhang su dung san pham cd hieu qua nhit, tranh lang phi, chi phi cao hon nhu khuRESOT va phdng khach san phuc vu khach VIP, phdng nghi, phdng ve sinh, va phdnghpp ban cdng viec .... lap dat ket ndi mang, tien ich cho viec nghi dudng va sir ly cdngviec nhung ddi vdi nhimg khach khac va khach tour (khach Tmng Qudc), khach thu nhapbinh thudng thi khdng can phdng hpp ket ndi mang Internet...Sir phu hgp d day cdn dugc dac trung phii hgp ve tam ly thdi quen, tap quan, sd thich,phii hgp tam ly khach hang se tao ra cho hp mot cam giac tin tudng, thoai mai ddng thdimang lai hieu qua cao cho khach hang. Vi the se tao ra an tugng tot dep cho thuong hieuMai Trang.Tinh chuan xac gia hgp ly cho san phim dich vuTinh chuin vl gia cho san phim, djch vu la mot vin dl khach hang rit quan tam. Trudckhi quylt dinh su dung san phim dich vu khach hang thudng lira chpn, can nhic so sanhkhi sir dung san phim va djch vu nay thi cd phii hgp gia khdng so sanh tien ich trong sudung thuc t l va vdi chit lugng san phim djch vu se dem lai lgi ich mong mudn cho 67
  • 78. khach hang, cung chinh sir tin tudng, yen tam, thoai mai cua khach hang se mang lai giatri va sir Trung Thanh ve thuang hieu cho Mai Trang.3.1.6 Nang cao chat lugng dich vu va phuc vu khach hang.Thuang hieu la"hinh anh vl san pham, djch vu hoac doanh nghiep dugc luu lai trong tamtri ngudi tieu diing..." vi vay nang cao chit lugng dich vu va phuc vu khach hang ciingchinh la nang cao gia trj thuang hieu.Dac tinh co ban ciia san pham, dich vu khac vdi cac san phim la hang hoa la tinh vd hinhciia chiing. Thuang hieu cua cdng ty chi la chat lupng san pham nhu ndi tren, ma cdn laphong each phuc vu ciia nhan vien, nhiJng yeu td mang tinh hGu hinh nhu: dich vu, giaotiep, djch vu tai chinh, tiep ddn hudng dan tan tinh, chu dao, an can, thu ngan khoangeach khach hang vdi nhan vien cdng ty.Xa hdi cang phat trien, nhu cau thuan tien ngay cang cao, sue canh tranh ngay cangmanh, viec nang cao chat lugng djch vu va chat lugng phuc vu khach hang cang dugc coitrpng vi nd cd gia tri cao cua viec tiep xue mat ddi mat giu^a dpi ngu nhan vien cdng tyvdi khach hang. Thai dp cua cac nhan vien va tinh chuyen nghiep ciia nhan vien se quyetdjnh chat lupng dich vu va chat lupng phuc vu cua cdng ty. Chinh vi vay Mai Trang canphai dao tao dugc dpi ngu nhan vien mot each bai ban ve cac ky nang nghiep vu de cd dukha nang tao ra chit lupng tdt trong djch vu va phuc vu.Cac djch vu can quan tam dd la:- Gia tang gia tri sir dung san phim, dich vu cho khach hang (ngoai sir dung nhimg vatdung trong phdng cdn su dung cac dich vu kem theo nhu: khu RESOT, khu the thao, blbai, tap golt... khdng phai tra them tiln) tao thanh he thdng tour du lich hoan hao giu:acac khu vdi nhau ciia Cdng ty Mai Trang.- Tang cudng cung cip dich vu that tien lgi cho khach hang, nhu dich vu thanh toan tilnnhanh, quy ddi ngoai te, hudng din chi dudng, an cin khi cd khach yeu ciu. Quan he tot 68
  • 79. vdi cac hang hang khdng, cip VISA va cac dich vu khac...tao Idng tin cho khach hang,yen tam thoai mai nhu chinh nha minh.Cac dich vu nay se tao ra dilm khac biet cua thuong hieu Mai Trang, bdi day la nhungdich vu ma nhieu ddi thu ciia Mai Trang khdng dl cd dugc.Chit lugng djch vu khdng nhung bing viec tang cudng va nang cao chi biln dk lam giatang gia tri sir dung ciia san phim hay cung cip nhilu cac djch vu tien ich ma nd cindugc thi hien bing nhung gia tri vd hinh dd la Mai Trang phai tao ra dugc hinh anh chitlupng phuc vu khach hang, dac biet d day thai dp phuc vu, tinh thin trach nhiem ciianhan vien ddi vdi khach hang trudc, trong va sau khi sOr dung. Cac cir chi, hanh ddngthan thien, chan tinh, tac phong nhanh nhay... cin phai theo mot chuin hoa nhit dinh dkkhi giao dien vdi khach hang la thoa man nhung nhu cau va mong mudn cua khach hang.Chat lugng dich vu va chat lupng phuc vu la yeu td quan trpng trong giao dien vdi khachhang vi rang day la cac lien ket bd nhd cua khach hang lien quan den hinh anh ve djch vuciia Mai Trang cung nhu thuang hieu Mai Trang.3.1.7 Can tap trung thuc hien tot mot so noi dung trong qui trinh xay dung va phattrien thuong hieu.Phat triln thanh cdng mot sd chit lugng thuong hieu khdng phai la chuyen don gian, quanghien ciru tdi nhan thiy: tren co sd can nam viing va thuc hien tdt cac bude xay dungphat triln thuong hieu nhu tai phin tren da trinh biy, tuy nhien Mai Trang cin va cd Idtrinh cu thi cho viec thuc hien theo qui trinh quan tri chit lupng thuong hieu do, theo ddMai Trang trudc mit trong giai doan 2008 den 2012 can thue hien tdt va nhin manh motsd ndi dung co ban sau: • Phat triln cac thanh td cua thuang hieu; • Xac dinh nhihig cam kit cua thuang hieu; • Phae thao md hinh thuong hieu theo dinh hudng khach bang; 69
  • 80. • Dinh vj thuong hieu; • Tmyen thdng chd dung thuong hieu.Sd dT Mai Trang cin phai chii trpng nhin manh mot sd ndi dung nay bdi vi vj tri thuanghieu cua Mai Trang chua dugc xac djnh rd rang, thuc hien truyin thdng cua Mai Trangtrong thdi gian qua chua t6t..v.v Cac ndi dung nay dam bao cho cac bude tilp theo datkit qua tdt ban, vi dii sao chang nira viec xay dung phat triln thuong hieu la ca mot quatrinh lau dai, bin bi va phai kit hgp bing nhieu hinh thiirc, bien phap khac nhau.Qui trinh quan tri chit lupng thuang hieu la kim chi nam cho tu tudng va hanh ddngtrong suit qua trinh xay dung, duy tri va phat trien thuong hieu cua Mai Trang ndi riengciing nhu ddi vdi doanh nghiep khac ndi chung, vi vay dk xay dung va phat triln thanhcdng thuang hieu ngoai viec thuc hien va trien khai cac giai phap phii hgp vdi thuc trang(nhu trinh biy d tren), Mai Trang cdn phai thuc hien tot qui trinh quan tri chit lugngthuong hieu da trinh bay d tren.3.1.8 Thu-ong xuyen kiem tra, giam sat qua trinh thuc hien muc tieu va ke hoachchat lugng xay dung phat triln thuong hieu.O day trudc bet la thuc hien cac bien phap va dua ra dugc cac tieu chuan va chuan mucchat lugng cua san pham de san pham ludn phii hgp vdi yeu cau, mong mudn ciia khachhang; khdng de chat lugng cac djch vu, cung nhu chat lupng phuc vu khdng dap ungmong nudn cua khach hang, phai thudng xuyen lam cho cac binh anh ve chat lugng sanphim, djch vu, phuc vu cua cdng ty dugc khach tin tudng thoai mai, hai long va ghi nhd.Tren ca sd cac chi tieu da dugc qui djnh, thdng qua viec kiem tra giam sat cd danh gia, sosanh vdi muc tieu yeu ciu ciia cdng ty da dat ra, de phat hien va dieu chinh kip thdi caccac bilu hien sai lech dk gdp y kiln cua khach hang de san pham va djch vu dugc sira ddibd sung kjp thdi. 70
  • 81. De thuc hien tot ndi dung nay cdng ty md hdm thu gdp y kiln khach hang, phai djnh kyhang qui tham chi hang thang phai cd philu tham dd y kiln khach hang vl nhan bilt vlthuong hi Mai Trang, tham dd vl mirc dp hai long cua khach hang. Ddng thdi hangthang, hang qui tu Mai Trang cd the thdng qua tdng hgp, phan tich sd lieu doanh thu, sdkhach hang giao djch nhit la so lugt khach hang su dung lai san phim djch vu vv... dedanh gia kit qua va hieu qua xay dung phat triln thuong hieu ciia minh.D I viec kilm tra, giam sat cd hieu qua, Mai Trang cin xay dung qui trinh kiem tra danhgia, tren ca sd dd giao cho bd phan nhan sir cd trach nhiem thuc hien tdng hgp, phan tichdanh gia mot each sau sic va dua ra dugc giai phap khic phuc kjp thdi nhimg tdn tai,dilu chinh phii hgp kl hoach xay dung va phat triln timg giai doan cho phii hgp.3.1.9 Ke hoach thue hien xay dung thuong hieu.Ke hoach la kim chi nam cho banh ddng, de thuc hien cd hieu qua chiln luge xay dungthuang bieu cho minh can cd ban ke hoach hanh ddng tdng the nhu sau: Noi dung cong viec Nhan sir Thdi gian TH Kinh phiXay dung ban de cuong xay dung 1 1-3/2008 10 trieuthuang hieuPhe duyet de cuong 5 3/2008 01 trieuTrien khai thuc bien du an 1 3/2008-12/1012In Catalog, phong bi, thue thiet ke 50 trieumlu trang phuc cho can bd ciiacdng ty, phat td raiQuang cao tren cac loai bao, thdng 500 trieutin dai chiing, tham gia hdi thaochuyen nganh, de quang caoHoat ddng cdng ddng 300 trieu 71
  • 82. 3.2 Nhihig han che cua luan van va hudng nghien ciru tiep theo.Qua nghien cijru va trien khai thuc hien viet luan van nay ban than tdi thiy dugc luan vannay van cdn rit nhilu han che, nhung cd thi tdm gpn ra mot sd ban chi sau:- Tai lieu sSn cd chua dugc nhieu.- Thdi gian danh cho nghien ciiru, thuc hien de tai cdn ban chi.- LTnh vuc thuang hieu cdn mdi trong tu duy ciia nIn kinh tl Viet Nam, dilu nay anhhudng den ket qua tham khao, hay tham van ciia cac ddng nghiep, hay nhan vien cdn bjban chi rat nhieu.Hudng nghien cuu tilp theo cua ban than la can ciir nhiing tdn tai tren ban than cin taptmng nhieu thdi gian bon nita de di sau tim hilu them tai lieu, nghien cuu ky cac ndidung, phan tich sau cac co sd ly luan, xay dung ndi dung phii hgp hon.3.3 Ket luanXay dung va phat trien thuong hieu Cdng ty la bai toan khdng de tim Idi giai trong dieuki8n tu do hda thuong mai, canh tranh qudc te ngay cang gia tang, tuy nhien bai toan khdkhan nay nay lai md ra cho Mai Trang nhiJng ca hdi de phat buy tinh sang tao, sir khdnngoan hgp ly trong viec dieu chinh cac quyet dinh chien luge, chinh sach va chuong trinhhanh ddng gin- vdi thi trudng muc tieu, khach hang trpng diem.Trong khudn khd muc tieu nghien ciiru cua dl tai, Tdi da tap trung lam rd mot sd ndidung CO ban tir he thdng ly thuylt xay dung phat trien thuang hieu ndi chung den thuonghieu Cdng ty Mai Trang ndi rieng. Quan niem phat trien thuang hieu dugc xac lap thingnhit tir giai doan xay dung thuong hieu, din viec lam gia tang gia tri thuang mai ciiathuong hieu. Quan dilm va each tilp can dd dugc chuyen hda va sir dung trong phan tichthue trang phat triln thuang hieu ciia Mai Trang. Bh dam bao tinh khach quan trong viecphan tich thue trang nay, Tdi da tiln hanh thu thap va xiir ly nhilu ngudn thdng tin tu lieudk riit ra mot so kit luan danh gia va ggi md tu duy cho mot so phuang an, giai quylt vindh phuc tap ciia thuong hieu. 72
  • 83. Tren co sd nhiing dinh hudng chiln luge phat trien ciia Mai Trang, kha nang ap dung cacgiai phap cho da dugc tap trung giai quyet trpn gdi trong quy trinh quan trj chiln lugethuong hieu. Dilm hip dan thii vi cua md hinh nay la d cho vira cho phep chiing ta nhinra tdng the con dudng dai de di den dich, vira chi ra timg chang dudng vdi nhung budenhiy hgp ly dl cd thi ap dung cho nhilu loai hinh doanh nghiep, vdi trinh dp phat trilnkhac nhau trong quan tri thuong hieu.Nhiing vin dl phiire tap ciia thuang hieu ciing se khdng giai quylt dugc mot each triet dlnlu thilu di nhiing vin dl bd sung hd trg cho muc tieu quan trpng culi ciing cua viecphat triln thuong hieu la nhim cd dupe cho diirng viing chic trong tam tri khach hang, dltac ddng den hanh vi van hda img xiir trong quyet dinh siir dung san phim djch vu ciiakhach hang, do dd ben canh nhimg ndi dung trpng ylu cin phai xir ly lien quan din phattrien thuang hieu, ket qua nghien cuu ciia dl tai da dua ra nhirng khia canh trong xaydung ndi dung cot Idi cho thuong hieu, dd la khdng ngimg nang cao chat lupng sanpham, djch vu hai hda hinh anh chat lugng ben trong cua san phim, djch vu vdi sir thihien hinh thirc ben ngoai, nudi dudng cam xiic tieu dung tich cue giira nhiing gi khachhang thue sir hudng thu vdi nhiing gi dugc bilu Id va nhin thiy thdng qua ben ngoai (tengpi, bilu tugng...).Mot diem cudi chiing tdi mudn de cap den la nhung nghien cuu tren ly thuyet dii cd nolire den dau de tang them tinh kha thi va tinh thuc te cung chi thay dugc ket qua thuc sirkhi nd dugc sir ddn nhan va kilm chiing cua chinh Cdng ty, nhung van de ma tdi nghiencuru rat mong nhan dugc sir gdp y chan thanh cua cac Giang vien, cac nha nghien ciin,cac ddng nghiep, cac can bd, nhan vien Cdng ty va cac ban quan tam den ITnh vuc nay.Bk hoan thanh de tai nghien ciru nay tdi da nhan dugc sir giiip dd ciia nhieu Thay cdgiao, cac nha quan ly va nhilu ban be, dong nghiep. Tdi khdng quen nhiing su giiip dd ddva xin chan thanh cam on! 73
  • 84. TAI LIEU THAM KHAO1. Cue xue tien thuong mai - Bd Thuong mai: "Dl an xay dung va phat triln thuang hieuqudc gia".2. Khoa Quan trj Kinh doanh qudc tl HSB: "Dai hpc Quoc gia Ha Ndi" tai lieu hudngdin mdn hpc Marketing.3. Richard moore, 2003 tiep thj va thiet ke. Nxb. Ban dd.4. Bao dien tir 21/10/2003; 3/2/2004.5. Tai lieu bao cao tai chinh cua Cdng ty Mai Trang. 74