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Case dkt Case dkt Presentation Transcript

  • Condom Usage & Behaviour Study Prepared for: JC04-03231, September 2004
  • Flow
    • Introduction
    • Research Objectives
    • Research Design & Methodology
    • Executive Summary
    • Research Findings
      • 1. Understanding the target profile: Demographics, Alcohol & Drug-Taking behaviour, Perception of Risk, HIV/AIDS Understanding, Media Habits and Communication Channels
      • 2. Sexual Behaviours and Sex Partners
      • 3. Condom Usage, Attitudes and Perception
      • 4. Condom Purchase Behaviours
      • 5. Condom Price Sensitivity
      • 6. Condom Needs: Desirable Features and Consideration
      • 7. Feedback on Samples
      • 8. Brand Building: Brand Health and Usage, Brand Association, OK brand focus
    • Appendix
      • Brand usage in various locations
      • Brand Users profile
  • Abbreviation
  • Introduction
  • Introduction
    • DKT Vietnam is a leading contraceptive social marketing organization whose mission is to provide couples with affordable and safe options for family planning and HIV/AIDS/STI prevention.
    • With the recent increase of over 5% in HIV cases across Vietnam, it is time to act quickly to try to stem this tide. In 2003 alone, some 920 people died from HIV infection, representing a 50% increase over the first 7 months of the previous year. ( Ministry of Health Statistics reported in August 2003)
    • With this in mind, it is clear that increased condom use is a high priority to reduce infection rates in Vietnam. In order to effectively market condoms, DKT requires relevant, recent and accurate information that reflects the current situation in Vietnam. This information should assist DKT to increase usage, awareness and knowledge of the product.
  • Research Objectives
  • Marketing Objectives
    • The key marketing issues are...
    • To determine incidence of usage per sexual encounter by target groups
    • To estimate number of condoms used by commercial sex trade during the average day/week/month
    • To determine condom brand market share in studied areas and by target groups
    • To determine what condom features appeal to the target groups
    • To understand the price sensitivity of new and existing condom brands across target groups
    • To determine availability & accessibility of condoms in studied areas
    • To determine consumer attitudes towards condom advertising & promotions
    • To understand present awareness, use of lubricants and willingness to pay
      • To provide sound and practical recommendations for implementation based on the results and overall knowledge gained of the Vietnam market.
  • Research Objectives
    • The objectives of the research project:
    • ... to understand the condom market ...
    • To determine the volume of condoms used by each target group, for production and distribution purposes
    • To identify DKT’s overall performance relative to the competition
    • To identify gaps and opportunities in terms of focused distribution
    • Condom feature preference to increase knowledge of preferences, increase usage and reduce HIV/AIDS/STI infections
    • To determine an ideal price range to provide more accessibility and usage of DKT’s condoms
    • To determine the price sensitivity of DKT’s new lubricant
    • To determine the most effective and relevant communication mediums for promoting condom usage and HIV/AIDS prevention
      • To ensure that DKT is in a position, on completion of the research to be able to develop practical and effective marketing projects
  • Research Design & Methodology
  • Methodology
    • Face-to-Face In-depth Interviews with cluster sampling
    • Fieldwork was carried out between 12 th of April to 24 th of May, 2004
    Stage I Mapping of High Risk Target groups FSW/MSM/IDU/PLWA/MB, etc Stage II Mapping of High Risk Locations: Bars / Nightclubs / Bia Om / Massage / Beauty Parlours / High streets / Stations / Hotels / Guesthouses, etc
  • Sample Size & Locations Total number of interviews: N = 1,415 + N = 240 Call backs = 1,655
    • Cluster sampling was used following provision of the “high-risk” locations list.
    • The list of sampling clusters were validated during the fieldwork process for future reference.
  • Targets Definition – Eight (8) distinctive groups
    • Female Sex Workers (FSW), n=350
      • Females aged 15 to 49
      • Including street-based, karaoke-based and other types of establishment
      • Have worked in the trade for at least 3 months
      • Sexually active in the past 3 months
    • Male Having Sex with Male (MSM), n=75
      • Males aged 15 up
      • Sexually active in the past 3 months (have had sex with male partners in the past 3 months)
    • Injecting Drug Users (IDU), n=75
      • Individuals, males or females
      • Aged 15 to 49
      • Injected drugs within the past 3 months
      • Sexually active in the past 3 months (have had sex in the past 3 months)
    • Male Sex Trade Clients (MSTC), n=300
      • Males, aged 15 up
      • Sexually active in the past 3 months (have had sex in the past 3 months)
      • Have multiple partners and frequent bars/brothels, etc (visited bars/brothels in past 3 months)
  • Targets Definition – Eight (8) distinctive groups
    • Community Members (CM), n=450
      • Males or females, aged 15 up
      • Married or single
      • Sexually active in the past 3 months (have had sex in the past 3 months)
      • Male individuals who have more than 1 sex partner occasionally
      • Female individuals who have had at least 1 sex partner in the past 3 months
    • Migrants/ Mobile Businessmen (MB), n=90
      • Males, aged 15 up
      • Sexually active in the past 3 months (have had sex in the past 3 months)
      • Live out of home city or
      • Have travelled out of home city for business in past 3 months and have engaged in sexual relationships during that travel.
    • People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWA), n=75
      • Males or females aged 15 up
      • Sexually active in the past 6 months (have had sex in the past 6 months)
  • Executive Summary
  • Executive Summary
    • The research objectives of this project are to investigate condom usage rates, sexual behavior, and product preferences among the target groups in Vietnam for the use of DKT International.
    • The target groups for this study include the traditional High-risk groups such as FSW, MSM, IDU, MSTC, Mobile dwellers and PLWA as well as the Community Members – Male & Female.
    • The following slides highlight the key findings of this project that address the marketing objectives.
  • Understanding the Target Group Profile
  • Target Groups Profile Summary
    • Target profile
    • Average age of survey respondents is 29.5 yrs.
    • FSW & IDU are youngest
    • Education levels & occupation types are diversified
    • FSW is the target with the lowest education.
    • Besides FSW group, ¼ engages in the commercial sex trade business – (PLWA, MSM & IDU)
    • Location
    • Average age varies, oldest in Danang (31.2) & youngest in Hai Phong (28.2)
    • higher percentage of younger respondents among major cities HCMC, Hanoi, Hai Phong.
    • Danang & Hanoi have highest education level compared to other locations.
    • A fair split in commercial sex trade across all 6 cities.
    • Marital status
    • Half are living with sexual partners
    • More than 1/3 are married & living with regular sex partners.
    • More than 1/3 are still single & not living with any sex partners – though sexually active
    • MSM group has the highest number of “single/ no-regular-partners” members.
    • Sex workers
    • Average age is 27.7,
    • 83% didn’t graduate high school, 28% have other jobs
  • Target Groups Profile Summary
    • Community Members
    • Most have a regular sex partner,
    • Large number are engaging in unfaithful sexual relationships with irregular partners,
    • Half in the sample are married.
    • Mobile Sex Clients (Mobile Group)
    • Slightly older than other groups.
    • Have obtained a fairly good education level
    • Have at least 9 years in school. Nearly 20% have University degree.
    • Almost all have engaged in commercial sex (>90%)
    • Sex partners remained unchanged between the last 3 to 12 months
    • One third have had casual relationship with irregular partners
    • Half of this target are currently married.
    • Male Sex Trade Clients
    • 46% are married and all participating in commercial sex
    • 20% had at least one irregular partner in the past 3 months.
    • Around 30 years of age, younger in Hai Phong – 2 years on average.
    • Most have a good education background, especially in Hanoi and Danang.
  • Summary of Alcohol & Drug Taking Behaviours
    • Alcohol consumption
    • Majority consume alcohol at least once a week (65%).
    • Higher amongst
      • MSTC (83%),
      • CM male (84%),
      • MB (76%),
      • MSM (74%).
    • Only 24% are considered light or non drinkers.
    • Drug Consumption
    • 16% of respondents use drugs.
    • 25% have tried drugs.
    • Of those, ¼ have used drugs in the past one month.
    • Heroin (60%) followed by Ecstasy (11%) most used illegal drugs
  • Summary of Alcohol & Drug Taking Behaviours
    • Profile Specifics
    • PLWA
    • Most have tried drugs.
    • 50% + are drug users - explains the “risk behaviour” that leads to HIV/AIDS.
    • Heroin
    • 66% of drug users in these target groups use intravenous injections.
    • Most are injecting, almost half of FSW-drug users are injecting.
    • Quang Ninh & Hanoi have the highest injection rate
    • Most inject drugs more than 3 times a week
    • 15% of the total injectors shared syringes at least once in the past month.
    • At least one fifth of PLWA shared a syringe in the past one month
    • FSW / CM / MSM
    • Drug use amongst CM & MSTC is very high especially MSM.
    • About 20% FSW’s or MSM’s are using at least one kind of addictive drug.
    • CM males drug use is higher than Sex Trade Clients.
  • Summary of Risk Protection without condom
    • Risk awareness very high for “at high-risk” when not using condoms with sex with irregular partners.
      • Highest awareness of “high-risk” in Hai Phong, Quang Ninh, and Danang.
      • mis-perception of risk amongst MSM, IDU and FSW .
      • 1/3 rd do not associate high risk with unprotected sex in HCMC / 25% MSM
    • Main reasons for high-risk
      • “ unsure about partners’ health”
      • “ the risk of getting HIV/AIDS infection” if no condom is used.
      • “ medium-risk” shared the same opinion as “high-risk”
    • Reason for “low risk” or “no risk” perception
      • “ Trust partners” and “always use a condom”
      • Optimistic about their current sexual “risky” behaviour.
      • Only 4% see themselves as “high-risk”
  • Summary of Risk Protection without condom
    • Other variances
      • Cantho & Hai Phong are more confident with current behaviour than others
      • More than 70% perceive themselves as “no risk”
      • HCMC & Quang Ninh are more aware of their own risk behaviour
      • IDU largest % of perceived “high-risk” behaviour, followed by MSM & FSW.
      • However, many of them do not admit their “risk behaviour”.
    • Recommendation
    • Vietnam’s high HIV/AIDS infection rate needs to be communicated on mass, to improve awareness and increase perceived risk.
    • A strong and persistent education campaign highlighting the risk of infections required prior to promoting the use of condoms.
  • Summary of HIV Understanding & Perception
    • Most are aware of HIV/AIDS in the society.
      • Significantly higher in Cantho, Quang Ninh and Hai Phong
    • Most are well exposed to the HIV/AIDS infections in the community.
    • IDU has highest awareness of HIV/AIDS infection.
    • Most key messages of HIV/AIDS are well conveyed.
    •  These messages still need to be reinforced
  • Summary of communication consumption
    • Preferred Source
    • TV (81%), Newspaper / magazines (64%), Pharmacies (36%), Outdoor ads (24%)
    • TV Viewing
    • VTV3 is the most watched channel in all Northern cities and also Danang,
    • HTV7 is most popular in HCMC, Vinh Long TV is most popular in Cantho.
    • Most popular TV programs among all targets are local news, Asian series, and sports.
    • Print readership
    • “ An Ninh The Gioi” – (political and criminal hot topics) is the most popular
    • Second most popular: Cong An tp HCM & An Ninh Thu Do (The Capital Security) - IDU’s skewed
    • For the general public, Tuoi Tre is also popular.
    • Condom advertising / mediums
    • Most aware of some communication relating to condoms
    • Danang – highest percentage of those unaware of condom information
    • TV & print are most effective communication channels
    • Outdoor advertising has some strength.
  • Summary of communication consumption
    • Source
    • Pharmacies are strong source of information
    • No major difference in location
    • Pharmacies appear less effective in Can Tho, Danang & Quang Ninh than mass media
    • Recommendation
    •  Mass media best to raise public concern of HIV/AIDS infection.
    •  TV seen as preferred source for information & perceived most reliable.
    •  Other direct approaches such as health consultants and peer educators promise little success in effective communication
  • Sexual Behaviours & Condom Usage
  • Summary of sexual history & sex partners
    • First time having sex & partner
    • All had first sexual encounter at early age. Most before 20.
    • Most had sex with regular partner, 1 st time
    • 1/5 experienced first encounter with commercial partner.
    • More than 1/5 first sex with non-commercial partner.
    • Profile segment
    • Majority of FSW’s first was spouse/live-in partner/lover (72%)
    • Almost ½ of MSM had non-commercial male partners
    • 25% with spouse/live-in/lover or non-commercial FEMALE partners
    • Most male CM started with spouse/live-in partner/lover & NCF partners (90%)
    • Almost 90% of female CM started with spouse/live-in partner/lover
    • Besides spouse/live-in partner/lover, 1/5 th PLWA first sex with commercial partner
    • MB and MSTC had highest rate of first sex with female sex workers (30% & 34%)
    • More in Hanoi & Hai Phong had with commercial partners/sex workers
    • More than half Danang claimed sex with an “irregular partner”
  • Summary of sex partners Transmission risk
    • MSM
    • “ One faithful partner” is not common.
    • A high number currently have more than one partners.
    • Majority have more than one male partners.
    • One quarter also engage in heterosexual relationships.
    • More than 60% have sex with their male partners at least once a week.
    • MB
    • Highest turnover of sex partners in the past 3 months
    • Highest numbers of sex partners in the past 1 month
    • 90% + MB had sex with sex workers in the past 3 months (92%) consistent over time
    • PLWA’s
    • Sex life changed; fewer partners once diagnosed with HIV/AIDS.
    • But continuing to engage in sex with sex workers (36% FSW / 15% MSW), (1% abstaining).
    • Venues:
    • Popular: hotels/guest houses in Quang Ninh, Hai Phong,
    • Beauty salons in Hanoi, bars/cafes and bia-oms in Cantho & Danang.
    • Hotels/guesthouses, karaoke om & bia om most popular for sex among high-risk groups.
    • Frequency: More than half have sex at least 2 times a week.
  • Summary of Condom Usage
    • 94% have used a condom , 6% never
      • Lower among MSM (84%), female CM (80%) and male CM (91%)
      • Many MSM do not understand the risk of unprotected sex among MSM
    • MSM highest risk - 50% + do not use condom during their last MSM sex.
    • MB, MSTC, MSM, IDU, and FSW do not always use protection partners
    • Condom usage last week very low , except for PLWA and IDU.
    • FSW condom usage more closely reflects the frequency of intercourse.
    • IDU shows the least rate of protection during intercourse here.
    • 25% start wearing condom during sexual process, before ejaculation
    • MSM (76%) don’t use condom 1 st time
    • Condom usage for the first time is small, highest among STC & MB.
    • Average age of first sex without condom is just above 19.
  • Summary of Importance of Condoms
    • PLWA understand importance of condom usage,
    • Others think use not necessary with partner.
    • Those who have sex with male commercial partners believe use a condom important
    • Only 56% FSW feel they ‘must’ use a condom,
    • 53% of MSM think condoms are unnecessary.
    • A large number believe condom usage with sex workers as “necessary” not a “must”
    • More than two thirds of males believe condom is necessary
    • MSTC & MB groups torn between ‘to use’ and ‘not to use’ with irregular female partners.
    • Those who used a condom at first sex, with commercial partners considered it a “must”.
  • Summary of Condom perception
    • CONDOM CONSTERNATION
    • Seen as a stigma to those who use
    • Key function of condom is limited to pregnancy prevention
    • Half of the survey sample believes that users have diseases.
      • Emotive benefits of condoms are not yet established
    • Condom Controversy
    • Seen as setting the mood and prolonging sex performance, but
    • Believed to reduce pleasure of sex
    • Minor differences between users and non-users, in terms of “fun”, “trust partners” & “users of condom have diseases”
    • Subsidized condoms
    • Half are aware of subsidized condoms, higher awareness among PLWA.
    • MSM least information about subsidized condoms
    • Danang has lowest awareness of subsidized condoms (25%)
    • Most believed that subsidized condoms are cheaper & given for free .
    • One third believed these condoms are of higher quality than commercial brands.
    • 80% PLWA think these condoms are free., higher among CM and FSW groups.
    • “ Strictly supervised quality” is a strong belief held by many
    • They believe subsidized condoms are cheaper than commercial condoms
  • Summary of motivators / Barriers for usage
    • Motivators
    • “ protection”, is the key motivator (purely functional)
    • Condom ever users believe condom USE helps prevent STI or HIV/AIDS
    • A large number use condoms to prevent pregnancy.
      • Only a few think condoms can add pleasure to sex.
        • More exposure to different brands of condoms with various features would help change this perception.
    • Hindrances
    • Key for not or never using condoms is…
      • NOT necessary’
      • Trust sex partners
      • Reduces pleasure of sex.
    • More than half of non-users insisted that they would not use condoms in the future.
    • Would not use in future (54%), ++++++++++++++++++++++++++ (28%) would Use
  • Condom Purchase Behaviours
  • Summary of Condom purchase behaviours
    • 77% of total sample reported to have bought condoms in the past 3 months. This figure dropped to 66% for those who bought in the past 1 month.
    • Half of female community members did not buy condoms in past one or three months
    • There are multiple reasons for why condoms were not bought in the past one or three months including “given by partners”, “still have stock” or “given for free”
    • FSW which are the most regular buyers of condoms.
    • On average, each of the condom buyers in the sample bought about 10 condoms during their last purchase.
  • Summary of Condom purchase behaviours
    • Half of condom buyers tend to buy them once or twice a month.
    • FSW buy condoms more often – 62% buy more than once a week, followed by MSM with 40%.
    • Others in the sample tend to buy condoms less than once a week.
    • Pharmacies and drug stores are the venues where condoms are ‘most often’ bought (75%) and they are also the target’s favorite purchase locations (74%).
    • Overall, targets favorite venues are where condom quality can be assured, or where they will not be noticed when making the purchase. This is the same for where they ‘most often’ purchase condoms, however, ‘convenience’ also plays big role.
    • No clear winning pack type across target groups
      • One pack with various flavours seemed to gain the attention of most respondents across target groups
  • Summary of Condom Price
    • 75% believe condoms are reasonably cheap at current price
      • VND300-400 is considered too cheap, poor quality
      • Lowest reasonable price is VND 600
      • Normal price is VND700-1000.
      • Highest reasonable price is VND3000
    • Highest paid by Sex Trade Client = VND 2,000+ - - Lowest = VND 1,000
    • MSTC, MSM, and CM (male) pay higher prices on average
    • FSW and PLWA pay the lowest on average
      • VND750 is perceived as the normal price
      • Highest reasonable price for them is VND1800
    • Suggested price for sample of most liked Frenzy condoms is VND2000.
  • Summary of condom features & appeal
    • The most important overall is ‘reputable quality’.
    • Many factors are considered among the targets
        • Don’t tear (70%) , prevent STI (40%), Safe to use (35%)
    • The majority consider reputable quality to be condoms ‘that do not break/tear’.
    • Among FSW, ‘sufficient lubricant’ also important
    • MSM, ‘sufficient lubricant’ is more important than ‘reputable quality’.
    • For all other ‘reputable quality’ is key
  • Summary of Lubricant Usage and Perception
    • Only one third are familiar with lubricant
    • Low usage incidence 14%
        •  must educate & communicate reason to use”
    • Despite low usage, lubricant established amongst MSM group (70%)
    • Interested 67%, 30% Not interested in sachet sample
    • Price willing to pay prior trial ranges from VND2,000 up to 4,000 per sachet.
  • Feedback on Tested Samples
  • Summary of Feedback on product samples
    • Groups sampled flavored condoms and lubricant sachets.
    • Fiesta Strawberry is the best liked, followed by Frenzy Mint.
      • HCMC, Cantho and Danang like Fiesta Strawberry
      • Quang Ninh ranked Frenzy Orange first, then Mint and Banana.
    • Fiesta Strawberry is valued for its nice flavor, while Mint is popular due to its freshness.
    • Suggested penetration price for these flavored condoms is VND2000.
    • The least liked are OK condoms.
  • Summary of sachet lubricant
    • Half of those who tried Lubricant received positive feedback from their partners for it is believed to help avoid scratches or hurt during sexual performance.
    • While its flavour creates some interest to the targets in Hai Phong & Danang, those in Quang Ninh do not find this feature attractive. In fact, they felt less motivated using lubricant as it, to them, provides “no good feeling” and may be “too much” lubricant.
    • After having tried the product, the expected price for a lubricant sachet dropped from the minimum price of VND 2,000 to VND 1,373.
    • The maximum price per lubricant sachet also drops from VND 4,065 to VND 2,444.
  • Brand Health & Brand Share
  • Summary of brand health
    • Brand and ad awareness
    • DKT brands, top list of brand awareness both spontaneous and prompted
    • Yes and Hello are distant competitors M is quite low.
    • OK has the strongest presence in the market.
    • Hello and Yes have relatively high recognition / aided awareness, but low spontaneous recall
    • OK is the “condom” brand in Vietnam & has high brand recognition with all target groups.
    • Source
    • TV is the main source of advertising awareness, especially for OK and Trust.
      • There is some confusion between Trust & Super Trust re; advertising
    • Print and outdoor advertising also receive a fairly high amount of attention.
        •  They may be effective tools to generate public awareness of HIV/AIDS prevention in order to increase usage of condoms.
  • Summary of brand association
    • OK & the other two brands from DKT are almost identical in consumers’ mind
    • Yes and Hello are almost identical and much weaker than our brands.
    • Better distribution channel in Hanoi gives DKT some advantages
    • Our brands are also negatively associated with “bad/clinical smell” which limits the brand appeal to some extent. (Hanoi)
    • Again, Viva, Yes and Hello are far behind DKT’s brands in all attributes in Hanoi.
    • OK possesses a good position in Hai Phong, mainly thanks to its wide distribution, affordable price and the category’s generic attributes – protection against STD and undesirable pregnancy.
  • Summary of brand association
    • No significant difference in terms of how brands are perceived. In general – weak.
    • OK is considered “good value for money”
    • Its exciting brand name gives it a “cooler” image in Quang Ninh
    • The brand is also valued for “good protection”.
    • OK has no competitors in Quang Ninh
      • Hello, Viva and Yes have very weak brand image & association.
    • OK has set the benchmark for the “condom” category in HCMC for
      • good protection
      • affordability.
    • In HCMC, OK has no direct competitors since
      • Hello, Yes and Viva are all weak.
  • OK Brand Summary
    • Key weaknesses
    • Besides the category’s generic attributes, there is no clear image attached to the brand
    • Clinical smell, no flavour nor colour are the key drawbacks of OK
    • Key Strengths
    • High brand recognition and consideration / high brand share, no competitors
    • Strong category’s association
    • OK = condom in Vietnam
    • Threats
    • The launch of new flavours under a new brand name would potentially have negative impact on OK in the market
      • A potential number of OK fans would become OK lapsers
    • Opportunities
    • Create some ‘image’ for the brand besides the basic “protection against unwanted pregnancy and STDs”
    • Introduce new flavoured condoms to create ‘excitement’ which would lead to more use of condoms.
  • Section 8 Summary – Brand health & association
    • DKT brands were at the top of the list in terms of brand awareness at spontaneous and prompted level. ‘OK’ had the most awareness.
    • Hello and Yes are fairly high recognition, although, the targets were less able to recall these two spontaneously, meaning that they are less likely to come to mind at the time of purchase.
    • TV followed by print, and billboard advertising has created the most awareness for condom brands among the targets. Viva was the only exception where print ads were more well-known.
    • Among all of the targets, DKT’s brands were especially associated with protection against pregnancy and STD, and as being available everywhere. They were also considered among many as lubricated, and fitting comfortably, and priced reasonably.
    • A key drawback for OK was the perceived ‘clinical smell’, especially among Hanoians. The brand also has no clear image attached to it.
  • Summary of Objectives
  • Objective 1: determining incidence of usage based on setting assumptions for parameter setting Age 15 to 50 abstinence 5% Condon usage Per encounter Sexual behavior High / low risk Definitions must be examined to identify volume
  • Objective 1 To determine incidence of usage per sexual encounter by target groups - Condom usage incidence
    • 94% of the sample have used condoms before.
    • The incidence of condom usage for high risk groups vs. sexual encounters with regular partners in past 1 month does not match
    • PLWA has highest rate of condom usage with spouse/live-in partners
    • MB has lowest rate over the past one month
    • Not all sex for the PLWA group involves a condom.
    • Condom usage is much higher during commercial sex than with live-in partner/spouse.
    • Condom usage for FSW is relatively high,
    • But drops dramatically for sex with their spouse/live-in partner.
    • 76% of the sample did not use a condom for their ‘first time’.
    • About 40% of FSW. CM (female) & MSM do not think it necessary to use a condom with irregular male partners.
    • ¼ of MSTC, MB, and CM (male) feel it unnecessary to use condom during sex with irregular female partners
    • Negative perceptions of condoms include
      • people using them have diseases
      • don’t trust their partner
      • takes away the pleasure of sex
      • break easily.
    • Positive perceptions include;
      • prevents pregnancy
      • extra condom features makes sex more fun.
    Condom usage & perception
  • Objective 2 To estimate number of condoms used by commercial sex trade during the average day/week/month
    • Average number of clients per week is 14.5 x 50 week = 700 encounters
    • Average number of times use condom is 85% x 700 encounters = 600 /year
    • 10% of time may - may not use
  • Objective 3 To determine condom brand market share in studied areas and by target groups
    • Total share = Last used / Last purchased
    Mostly the same in all markets & for all targets
  • Objective 4 To determine what condom features appeal to the targets
    • The most important overall is ‘reputable quality’.
    • Many factors are considered among the targets
        • Don’t tear (70%) , prevent STI (40%), Safe to use (35%)
    • The majority consider reputable quality to be condoms ‘that do not break/tear’.
    • Among FSW, ‘sufficient lubricant’ also important
    • MSM, ‘sufficient lubricant’ is more important than ‘reputable quality’.
    • For all other ‘reputable quality’ is key
    • Fiesta Strawberry is the best liked, followed by Frenzy Mint.
      • HCMC, Cantho and Danang like Fiesta Strawberry
      • Quang Ninh ranked Frenzy Orange first, then Mint and Banana.
    • The least liked are OK condoms.
  • Objective 5 To understand the price sensitivity of new and existing condom brands across target groups
    • 75% believe condoms are reasonably cheap at current price
      • VND300-400 is considered too cheap, poor quality
      • Lowest reasonable price is VND 600
      • normal price is VND700-1000.
      • Highest reasonable price is VND3000
    • Highest paid by Sex Trade Client = VND 2,000+ - - - - - - - - Lowest = VND 1,000
    • MSTC, MSM, and CM (male) pay higher prices on average
    • FSW and PLWA pay the lowest on average
      • VND750 is perceived as the normal price
      • Highest reasonable price for them is VND1600
    • Suggested price for sample of most liked Fiesta condoms is VND2000.
  • Price matrix High Low 3,000vnd 500vnd 1,500 750vnd 2000 Fiesta Realistic price for most Perceived Quality Realistic MSTC Price Quality Lube sachet Perceived av. Condom Price = 1,200 vnd
  • Objective 6 To determine accessibility and availability of condoms in studied areas
    • On the whole accessibility is not an issue, nor is availability
    • ¾ prefer to buy and buy at pharmacies
      • Quality assurance
      • Confidentiality
      • convenience
    • 1/3 buy at Guesthouse, but only 10% prefer to buy there.
  • Objective 7 To determine attitudes towards condom ads and promotions
    • Preferred Source
    • TV (81%), Newspaper / magazines (64%), Pharmacies (36%), Outdoor ads (24%)
    • TV Viewing
    • VTV3 is the most watched channel in North
    • HTV7 is more popular in HCMC and Vinh Long TV is most popular in Cantho.
    • Most popular TV programs are local news, Asian series, and sports.
    • Print readership
    • “ An Ninh The Gioi” – (political and criminal hot topics) is the most popular
    • Second most popular Cong An tp HCM & An Ninh Thu Do (The Capital Security) - IDU’s
    • For the general public, Tuoi Tre is also popular.
    • Condom advertising / mediums
    • Most aware of some communication relating to condoms
    • TV & print are most effective communication channels
    • Outdoor advertising has some strength.
    • Danang ad consumption very different to rest of country
  • Objective 8 To understand present awareness, use of lubricants and willingness to pay
    • Only one third are familiar with lubricant
    • Low usage incidence 14%
    • Despite low usage, lubricant established amongst MSM group (70%)
    • Interested 67%, 30% Not interested
    • Price willing to pay prior trial ranges from VND2,000 up to 4,000 per sachet
    • Sachet received more positive reaction than ‘bundled product’ (74%)
    • After trial, expected price dropped from minimum VND 2,000 to VND 1,373.
    • The maximum price dropped from VND 4,065 to VND 2,444.
    • Lubricant seems to have least potential in Danang.
  • Research Findings
  • Section 1: Understanding the Target Group Profile
  • Demographics
  • The target profile - IDU and FSW are the youngest in the sample
    • The average age of survey respondents is 29.5 yrs.
    • FSW and IDU are the youngest.
    • Generally speaking, there is a fair spread of education levels and occupation types among respondents in the survey.
    • FSW is the target with the lowest education level.
    • Besides FSW group, one quarter of the total sample also engages in the commercial sex trade business – being the PLWA, MSM and IDU.
  • Profile – by locations
    • Average age of respondents varies across locations, oldest in Danang (31.2) and youngest in Hai Phong (28.2)
    • However, there is a higher percentage of younger respondents among the 3 main cities, HCMC, Hanoi and Hai Phong.
    • Respondents in Danang and Hanoi have the highest education level compared to other locations.
    • A fair split in commercial sex trade across all 6 cities.
  • Marital Status
    • More than one third of the sample are married and living with regular sex partners.
    • More than another third are still single and not living with any sex partners – though they are sexually active
      • with commercial partners
    • The MSM group has the highest number of “single/ no-regular-partners” members.
  • Profile by Perceived Risk groups
    • Those who perceived themselves as low-risk tend to be younger than others in the sample.
    •  Suggests that future educational materials must directly relate to this young target.
  • Profile – among HIV/AIDS savvy group
    • Out of 61% of those that hold a proper understanding of HIV/AIDS infection, more than half are under 30. However, those that lack understanding also tend to be younger.
      •  HIV/AIDS materials should be made available at youth venues to build awareness among the youth
  • Female Sex Workers focus - Demographics and Client’s Profile -
  • FSW focus – Demographics
    • Generally young with a low education level
        •  Message to this particular target should be “direct and easy to understand”
    • Their main income comes from sex work. Some also earn their living by having a second job, especially in Cantho and Danang.
  • FSW category
    • Nearly half of FSW in the sample are street-based
    • There are more Hotel-based sex workers in Quang Ninh (a tourist attraction) than other study locations
    • HCMC has the highest number of call-girls.
  • FSW in the commercial sex trade
    • More than half of FSW have over 2 years experience in the commercial sex trade.
    • Of all the study locations, Quang Ninh has the most experience with 70% of FSW having been in the business for over 2 years.
    • Quang Ninh is also where FSW have the highest average number of clients per day, followed by Hai Phong
        • The need for condoms per FSW in Quang Ninh is almost double that of Hanoi, HCMC or Cantho.
    56%
  • FSW in the commercial sex trade – Client Profile & Condom habits
    • A large proportion of FSW’s clients are...
      • Factory workers and long-distance truck drivers
    • More than one third are government officials and businessmen, many of whom are also their regular clients.
    • Majority of sex clients, according to these FSW respondents, are in the habit of using condoms, however, there are still remarkable cases where condoms are not used, especially among manual workers.
  • FSW in the commercial sex trade
    • The proportion of government officials that are sex trade clients is much higher in Hanoi and Hai Phong (50%).
    • Can Tho has the highest number of manual workers using commercial sex.
  • Community Members focus - Demographics and Sex Partners -
  • Community Member (CM) focus - Demographics
    • Average age of the overall “lower-risk” community is around 30, with a younger profile in HCMC.
    • Out of the 6 study locations, Hanoi’s community members have obtained the highest education level and they tend to be more successful in their careers than their counterparts in other locations.
        •  Indicates that different communication strategies may be required to reach this particular target in different locations.
  • Community Member – Sex partners Irregular partners
    • Most of these members have a regular sex partner, however, a large number are also engaging in unfaithful sexual relationships with irregular partners while more than half in the sample are married.
  • Community Member – Sex partners by locations There is a higher percentage of irregular female partners among CM group in Hanoi, Quang Ninh and Danang.
  • Male Sex Trade Clients (MSTC) focus - Demographics and Sex Partners -
  • Male Sex Trade Client (MSTC) focus - Demographics
    • Sex trade clients from this study are around 30 years of age.
    • However, they are significantly younger in Hai Phong – 27 years on average.
    • Most have a good education background, especially those in Hanoi and Danang.
  • Male Sex Trade Client (MSTC) focus – Sex partners
    • With 46% being married and all participating in commercial sex, nearly 2 out of 10 sex trade clients also had at least one irregular partner in the past 3 months.
  • Mobile group focus - Demographics and Sex Partners -
  • Mobile target (MB) focus - Demographics
    • This group tends to be slightly older than other groups in the sample.
    • Comparatively, they have obtained a fairly good education level as all have at least 9 years in school. Nearly two out of ten have a university degree.
  • Mobile target (MB) focus – Sex partners
    • Sex partners of this group remained unchanged from past 12 months to past 3 months period with almost all have engaged in commercial sex (>90%) and over one third have had casual relationship with irregular partners while nearly half of this target are currently married.
  • Summary – Profile of the target groups
    • After examining the demographics of the target groups, it is clear that IDU and FSW are the youngest groups on average, CM (male) and MB are the oldest.
    • FSW is the group with the lowest education, and 50% of the sample are married or living with a sexual partner.
  • Their Alcohol and Drug-Taking Behaviour
  • Alcoholic Usage
    • The majority consume alcohol at least once a week.
    • This figure is higher amongst MSTC (83%), CM male (84%), MB (76%) and MSM (74%)
  • Drug-Taking Behaviour
    • At least one quarter of the total sample have tried drugs. One quarter of those that have ever tried drugs have done so in the past one month.
    • Most of PLWA have tried drugs. The incidence of drug taking amongst CM and MSTC is at an alarming level, especially within MSM.
  • Drug-Taking Behaviour – Current use
    • 16% of the total survey sample are taking drugs, including the IDU specific.
    • Almost 2 out of 10 FSW’s or MSM’s are using at least one kind of addictive drug.
    • The drug usage rate among CM males is even higher than Sex Trade Clients.
    • More than half of PLWA are drug takers which explains the “risk behaviour” that leads to HIV/AIDS.
  • Form of drug used
    • 66% of drug users in these target groups use intravenous injections.
    • Most drug users in the PLWA group are injecting.
    • Almost half of FSW-drug users in the sample are injecting.
  • Form of drug use – by locations
    • Base: Those who currently use drugs
    • Quang Ninh & Hanoi have the highest injection rate of all study locations
  • Length of drug injecting among IDU
    • Majority in IDU have been injecting for over a year.
    More than 1 year 71%
  • Frequency of drug injections among IDU
    • Most inject drugs quite often – more than 3 times a week
    82% more than 3 times a week
  • Syringe sharing behaviour amongst injecting drug users
    • 15% of the total shared at least once in the past month. This figure was consistent with 14% saying they had shared the syringe during their last injection.
    • At least one fifth of PLWA shared a syringe in the past one month and this figure was the same for those that had shared the syringe during their last injection.
  • Their Perception of Risk
  • Understanding of risk if no condom is used with irregular sex partners
    • Most understand that they would be at “high-risk” if a condom is not used when having sex with irregular partners.
  • Understanding of Risk by targets & locations
    • High awareness of “high-risk” if condom is not used with irregular partners perceived by respondents in Hai Phong, Quang Ninh, and Danang.
    • There are some mis-understanding of risk behaviour amongst MSM, IDU and FSW - the ‘high-risk’ groups in society.
  • Reasons for perceived risk
    • Some differences across the targets in terms of what could be the reasons for getting high-risk, main reasons are “unsure about partners’ health” and knowing that “the risk of getting HIV/AIDS infection” if no condom is used.
    • Caution: * = small base
    • Those who perceived no condom with irregular partners is “medium-risk” shared the same opinion with those who realized the “high-risk” of such behaviour.
  • Reasons for perceived “low-risk” and “no risk”
    • “ Trust partners” and “always use a condom” are the main reasons for “low risk” or “no risk” perceptions if condom is not used when having sex with irregular partners.
  • Perceived risk of current sexual behaviour
    • Most are quite optimistic about their current sexual “risky” behaviour.
    • Only 4% see themselves as “high-risk”
    •  Vietnam’s high HIV/AIDS infection rate needs to be communicated on mass, to improve awareness and increase perceived risk.
  • Perceived risk of current sexual behaviour
    • Respondents in Cantho & Hai Phong are more confident with their current behaviour than those in other locations. More than 70% perceive themselves as “no risk”
    • Those in HCMC & Quang Ninh seem to be more aware of their risk behaviour.
  • Perceived risk of current sexual behaviour – by target groups
    • IDU has the largest percentage of perceived “high-risk” behaviour, indicating a higher awareness, followed by MSM and FSW.
    • However, many of them do not admit their “risk behaviour”.
        •  A strong and persistent education campaign highlighting the risk of infections may be required prior to promoting the use of condoms to increase their ‘perceived’ risk.
  • HIV/AIDS Understanding & Perception
  • HIV/AIDS awareness – personal link with HIV/AIDS A large proportion are already aware of HIV/AIDS in the society. This figure is significantly higher in Cantho, Quang Ninh and Hai Phong
  • Most are aware of at least one HIV/AIDS case
    • Most are well exposed to the HIV/AIDS infections in the community.
    • IDU is the group with highest awareness of HIV/AIDS infection.
  • Understanding of HIV/AIDS Issues - By Target Groups
    • The above agree scales suggests all key messages of HIV/AIDS infection are well conveyed. However, these messages still need to be reinforced, especially the last statement.
  • Section 1 Summary – Knowledge of HIV/AIDS & Risk Behaviours
    • There is a fairly high awareness of HIV/AIDS among the sample, with 74% personally knowing of at least one case.
    • Nearly 80% perceive it to be high risk behavior to partake in sex without a condom with irregular partners.
  • Their Media Habits
  • Top 10 TV Channels most often watched
    • It is obvious that VTV3 and VTV1 have the highest viewership in Vietnam thanks to their wide coverage.
    • No clear difference across target groups.
  • However, it’s the local stations that are often turned on
    • When it comes to favourite channels, VTV3 is chosen in all Northern cities and also in Danang, while HTV7 is more popular in HCMC and Vinh Long TV is most popular in Cantho.
  • TV Programs Watched
    • Most popular TV programs among all target groups are local news, Asian series, and sports.
        •  Should be considered for media booking.
  • TV Programs Watched vary across target groups
  • Newspapers/ Magazines
    • “ An Ninh The Gioi” (The World Security – featuring all political and criminal hot topics) is the most popular title, following by its brothers, Cong An tp HCM (HCMC Police) and An Ninh Thu Do (The Capital Security). These three titles are also IDU’s most-often-read newspapers.
    • For the general public, Tuoi Tre is also popular.
    • There is no clear preference towards a particular publication when it comes to favourite choice.
  • Communication Channel
  • Condom Communication Awareness
    • Most claimed to be aware of some communication relating to condoms.
  • Condom Communication Awareness
    • No significant difference across study locations except Danang – highest percentage of those unaware of condom information.
  • Condom Source of Information
    • TV and print appear to be the most effective communication channels across all target groups.
    • Outdoor advertising has some strength in communication.
    • Pharmacies are obviously a strong source of information for condom messages.
  • Condom Source of Information by Locations
    • There is no clear difference in terms of source of information across study locations.
    • TV and print are still best to convey the message to the community.
    • Traditional outlets such as pharmacies show less effective in Can Tho, Danang and Quang Ninh where other mass medium better reach the targets.
  • Reliable Source of Information for Condoms
    • Preferred Source of information...
    • TV (81%)
    • Newspaper / magazines (64%)
    • Pharmacies (36%)
    • Outdoor ads (24%)
    • Health consultants (19%)
    • Radio (12%)
    • Government doctors (11%)
    • Peer Educators (11%)
    • Public announcements (9%)
    • Private doctors (7%)
    Indifferent 3% Interested in more condom information 79% Not interested about condom information 18%
    • Perceived most reliable sources...
    • 1.  (49%)
    • 2.  (13%)
    • 3.  (13%)
    • 4. (very small sample)
    • 5.  (8%)
    • Mass media is best to raise public concern of HIV/AIDS infection. TV is seen as the preferred source for information and perceived most reliable.
    • Other direct approaches such as health consultants and peer educators promise little success in effective communication.
    Total sample = 100%
  • Section 1 Summary – Communication channel
    • Overall, TV is the most popular source of condom information, followed by newspapers/magazines.
    • Local news, Asian news and sports are the most popular shows on television, and VTV3 & VTV1 are the most watched stations among the sample.
    • The top publications in terms of readership among the groups include An Ninh The Gioi, Cong An tp HCM, and An Ninh Thu Do.
  • Section 2: Sexual Behaviour & Sex Partners
  • Sexual History
  • Age of 1 st sex All experienced their first sex at an early age. Most were before 20.  Safe sex practices and HIV/AIDS prevention education should be aimed at the youth, and reflect youth values Average Age 18 19 18 20 22 19 20 20
  • First sex partner
    • More than half in the sample started their sex life with a regular partner.
    • Of the total sample, nearly one fifth experienced their first sex with a commercial partner.
        •  Need to communicate “safe sex” to sex buyers
    • More than one fifth had the first sex with a non-commercial partner.
        •  The message of condom usage to prevent unwanted pregnancies should be strengthened and reinforced with “HIV and STD prevention”
    NON-COMMERCIAL 21% COMMERCIAL 16% REGULAR 63%
  • First sex partner varies across groups
    • Majority of FSW’s first sex was with spouse/live-in partner/lover (72%)
    • Almost half of MSM had first sex with non-commercial male partners, while almost half of the remainder had first sex with spouse/live-in/lover or non-commercial FEMALE partners
    • Most male CM had started their sex life with spouse/live-in partner/lover and non-commercial female partners (around 90%)
    • Almost 90% of female CM started with spouse/live-in partner/lover
    • Besides spouse/live-in partner/lover, one fifth of the PLWA had their first sex with a commercial partner
    • Amongst the targets, MB and MSTC had the highest rate of first sex with female sex workers (30% and 34% respectively)
        •  The importance of “self protection” during sexual contact with sex workers must be conveyed to these target groups.
  • First sex partner – differences by locations
    • More respondents in Hanoi and Hai Phong had their first sex experience with commercial partners/sex workers
        •  They are more likely to be at risk if “unprotected”
    • More than half of respondents from Danang claimed to first have sex with an “irregular partner”,
        •  More likely to use a condom to prevent undesirable pregnancy
  • Number of Sex Partners and Types of Partners over a Period of Time
  • Sex Partners & number of partners
    • “ One faithful partner” is not common among the MSM group
      • A substantially high number of MSM currently have more than one partner and
      • Majority have more than one male partners.
        • Risk of passing HIV/AIDS/STD to irregular partners is extremely high
    • MB is another high-risk group with a high turnover of sex partners in the past 3 months
      • More likely to pass on the risk to others in the communities
    • Similarly, those in MSTC group are dangerous risk carriers, with the highest numbers of sex partners in the past 1 month
        • A strong message of HIV infection needs to be loudly and clearly conveyed to the mobile group and sexually active sex clients.
  • Types of Partners
    • Besides homosexual relationship, one quarter of MSM also engage in heterosexual relationships.
    • High proportion of MB involve in sexual activities with sex workers in the past 3 months (92%). This figure was consistent in the past 12 and 6 months, suggesting it is a regular behaviour.
  • PLWA – Sex partners
    • PLWA’s sex life has positively changed; they tend to have less partners after being diagnosed with HIV/AIDS.
    • However, there is still a very high number continuing to have engaged in sex with sex workers (36% with FSW and 15% with MSW). Only 1% reported to abstain from sex since discovering they were HIV positive.
    Before HIV diagnose After HIV diagnose
  • Sex Contact Venues
    • A full list of entertaining venues as “high-risk” locations. The most popular are Bars/cafes and hotels/guesthouses.
  • Sex Contact Venues
    • Not much different from where sex workers are based. Popular venues for sex are hotels/guest houses in Quang Ninh, Hai Phong, beauty salons in Hanoi, bars/cafes and bia-oms in Cantho & Danang.
  • Sex Contact Venues
    • Hotels/guesthouses, karaoke om and bia om are the most popular places for sex contacts among perceived high-risk groups.
  • Sex frequency
    • More than half in the survey sample have sex at least 2 times a week.
  • Sexual behaviours amongst target groups
    • More than 60% MSM have sex with their male partners at least once a week
      • The chances of any infections being spread among, and by, this group is extremely high without the use of condoms.
    • Besides oral, anal sex is a common practice among MSM whereas vaginal sex is the most common among PLWA.
  • MSM Sex Behaviours
    • Various forms of sex are practiced between MSM.
    • Oral and anal are the most popular.
        •  High risk behaviour if no condom is used  requires education.
  • Section 2 Summary – Sexual behaviours & sex partners
    • For intercourse the first time, IDU and FSW both had the lowest average age of any of the groups, which was 18 years old. Community members (female) had the oldest average age of 22.
      • These age groups and lifestyles indicate what ages to target to instill safe sex habits from the beginning.
    • Nearly one fifth of the sample first had sex with a commercial partner. More of these were from Hanoi and Hai Phong, and were among the MB and MSTC groups.
    • Other than MSTC and FSW, MB had the highest usage rate of the sex industry, with 92% having used it over the past 6-12 months.
    • Over one fifth of MSM have also had sex with females within the past 3 months.
    • About 50% of PLWA also made use of the commercial sex trade over the past 6-12 months. Only 1% have abstained from sex since discovering that they were HIV positive. 60% partook in sex with live-in partners/spouses over the past 6-12 months.
  • Section 2 Summary – Sex venues & Forms of practice
    • Bars/cafes and guesthouses/hotels/brothels are the most popular locations for sex contacts. Beauty salons are also popular for sex workers to locate themselves in Hanoi.
      • This shows where education campaigns can be targeted for those engaging in the sex industry.
    • Oral, vaginal, and handsex are the most common forms of sex among all groups, respectively.
    • Vaginal sex is most popular for PLWA, and oral, anal, and handsex are the most popular practices among MSM.
  • Section 3: Condom Usage & Behaviours
  • Usage of condom Have never used 6% Ever used condoms 94% Their profile
    • Some differences across segments
      • Higher in Cantho (98%), Quang Ninh (97%) and lower in Danang (90%)
      • Lower among MSM (84%), female CM (80%) and male CM (91%)
    CONDOM USAGE Base: All respondents (n=1,415)
  • Non-Users profile
  • Condom habits among MSM 59% 19% 72% 20% Oral (n=72) 41% Anal (n=63) 81% Hand-sex (n=67) 28% Masturbation (n=35) 80% MSM (N=75) From “rarely” to “every time” Never Many MSM do not understand the risk of unprotected sex among MSM
  • Condom use during last MSM sex is low Condom during last MSM sex (N=75) 72% 28% 28% 72% 72% 28% 57% Yes No 43% Total (n=75) Hanoi (n=25 * ) HCMC (n=25 * ) Danang (n=25 * ) Note: * small base
    • Again, MSM present extremely high risk as more than half of them did not use condom during their last MSM sex.
  • Condom incidence per sexual intercourse By target groups
  • With spouse or live-in partners in past one month
    • High-risk targets like MB, MSTC, MSM, IDU, and FSW do not use condoms during all of their sexual intercourse with permanent partners ie spouses, live-in partners or lovers  very high risk of HIV spreading amongst low risk society.
  • With spouse or live-in partners in past one week
    • Caution: * small sample
    • Again, condom usage rate is very low over the past 1 week for most targets, except for PLWA and IDU. These are the targets that are committed to the safety of their permanent partners by wearing condoms during intercourse.
  • With Male Commercial Partners in past one month
    • Condom usage rate for male commercial partners especially among MSM group in the past 1 month shows that these high-risk targets are reckless in their efforts toward protection as not all intercourse involves the use of a condom.
  • With male commercial partners in past one week
  • With female commercial partners in past one month
    • With female commercial partners, levels of protection (condom usage rates) more closely reflect the frequency of intercourse.
  • With female commercial partners in past one week
    • Here, levels of protection and sexual behavior match for the past one week, indicating regular and positive protection practices.
  • With female non-commercial partners in past one month
    • Caution: * = small sample
    • The behavior between the groups and female non-commercial partners changed dramatically compared to condom usage rates with female commercial partners. Overall, only 80% practiced safe-sex with female non-commercial partners in the past one month. As a group, IDU and MSTC demonstrated the lowest condom usage rates.
  • With female non-commercial partners in past one week
    • Caution: * = small sample
    • Again, there is no match between frequency of intercourse and use of a condom. The rate is better compared to sex with female non-commercial partners in the past month.
    • As a group, IDU show the least rate of protection during intercourse here.
  • With male non-commercial partners in past one month
    • Among the most significant groups having sex with male non-commercial partners, only 66% of cases of intercourse involved the use of a condom. FSW had the lowest rate of condom usage for past one month.
  • With male non-commercial partners in past one week
    • For the ‘past one week’, the rate of condom usage was even lower than for the ‘past month’ for male non-commercial partners. Sex with MSM had the lowest rate of condom usage, followed by FSW.
  • Condom Usage How, when, who
  • Condom usage – When?
    • As many as two fifth of the total sample only start wearing condom in the middle of the sexual process, before ejaculation
        •  an intensive and clear education of condom usage is needed to minimize misuse of condom
  • Condom usage – Who decides?
    • One third of the survey sample claimed to make joint-decision when deciding whether or not to use a condom.
    • Another half make decision themselves
        •  Communication should be aimed at individual’s self-protection
  • Condom usage – by target groups
    • MSM tend not to use condoms from the beginning, but during sexual performance.
    • No significant difference in terms of who makes decision to use a condom across target groups.
  • Condom at First Sex Who used? Who did not?
  • Condom at 1st sex
    • High likelihood of infection during first time as most respondents (76%) reported that they did not use a condom the first time they had sex.
        •  We need to establish safe behaviours from the onset of sexual activity before it becomes habitual.
        •  Not just about protection of undesirable pregnancy but overall understanding of sexual healthcare.
  • Condom at 1st sex – by target groups
    • Generally speaking, the use of a condom for the first time is of small percentage. It is highest among sex trade clients and mobile groups.
        •  The chance of getting infected right from the first sex is high  this behaviour should be changed over time in order to prevent HIV/AIDS spreading.
  • Age of first sex without condom
    • Average age of first sex without condom is just above 19.
        •  Need to promote “safe sex” among young target by raising the perceived risk of HIV/AIDS infections.
  • The Importance of Condom To Use or Not To Use?
  • Condom or not with Regular Partner
    • PLWA understand the importance of condom usage in sexual behaviour with their regular partners. The other groups tend to think that a condom is not necessary when having sex with their spouse or live-in partners.
  • Condom or not with Male Commercial Partners
    • Those who have sexual contact with male commercial partners believe that is it important to use a condom.
    • However, only 56% of FSW feel that they ‘must’ use a condom, and 53% of MSM think condoms are unnecessary.
        •  Need specific education campaign targeting the MSM community.
  • Condom or not with Female Commercial Partners
    • Caution: * = small sample
    • The red light is on when it comes to sexual relationships with female commercial partners (sex workers).
    • A large number still think of condom usage with sex workers as “necessary” rather than “must”  need to see this “must” figure increase.
  • Condom or not with Irregular Male Partners
    • Among those who have sexual relationships with male non-commercial partners, there is some confusion as to whether to use a condom when having sex with an irregular male partner
      • Almost equally split between “necessary”, “must” and “not necessary” with a slight skew towards “unnecessary”.
  • Condom or not with Irregular Female Partners
    • While more than two thirds of male community members believe a condom is necessary, sex trade clients (MSTC) and mobile groups are torn between ‘to use’ and ‘not to use’ condoms in sexual activity with irregular female partners.
      • It should be noted that these two targets are of high-risk as they also have frequent contact with sex workers besides their regular and irregular partners.
  • Condom or not - by those who did not use condom at first sex More than half of those who did not use a condom at first sex recognize the importance of protected sex with sex workers. Commercial partners
  • Condom or not – By those who used condom at 1 st sex According to those who used a condom at first sex, the use of a condom in sex with commercial partners is considered a “must. However, at 70%, this figure is expected to increase in the future. Commercial partners
  • Condom Perception Attitudes and Beliefs Towards Condom
  • Perception of condom Half of the survey sample believes that users have diseases. Key function of condom is limited to pregnancy prevention. Seen as a stigma to those who use Emotive benefits of condoms are not yet established
  • Perception of condom – by cities Almost all think of condom as a “pregnancy prevention” Controversial opinion about condoms, especially in Hai Phong for it can be seen as setting the mood and prolonging sex performance, but it is also believed to reduce pleasure of sex and make sex less fun. It is more “fun’ in Cantho
  • Perception of condom – by users and non-users of condoms Minor differences between how condoms are perceived by users and non-users, especially in terms of “fun”, “trust partners” and “users of condom have diseases” People who use condoms do not trust their partner Condoms help prevent undesirable pregnancy People use condoms when they have a disease Condoms make sex more fun Condoms tend to break easily Use of a condom takes away the pleasure of sex Condom makes lovemaking last longer Condoms with extra features help set the mood for sex
  • Aware of subsidized condoms
    • Nearly half in the sample are aware of subsidized condoms. There is higher awareness among PLWA.
    • MSM community seem to receive the least information about subsidized condoms.
  • Aware of subsidized condoms – by locations
    • Danang is the location with the lowest awareness of subsidized condom brands in the market.
  • Perception of subsidized condoms
    • Most believed that subsidized condoms are cheaper than other brands and even given for free .
    • Nearly one third of the total sample believed that these condoms are of higher quality than commercial brands.
  • Perception of subsidized condoms – by target groups  There is some confusion about the quality of subsidized condoms. Nearly 80% of PLWA think these condoms are free. This perception is higher among CM and FSW groups. “ Strictly supervised quality” is a strong belief held by many across the target groups. They also think that subsidized condoms are cheaper than other commercial ones.
  • Condom Motivators & Barriers Reasons to Use or Not to Use condoms
  • Condom Motivators – Reasons to use
    • The key motivational aspect of using a condom is limited to “protection”, which is purely functional
      • Those who have ever used a condom believe that the use of a condom will help prevent them from getting STI or HIV/AIDS infections.
      • A large number also use condoms to prevent them from undesirable pregnancy.
      • Only a few think condoms can add pleasure to sex.
        • More exposure to different brands of condoms with various features would help change this perception.
  • Condom Barriers – Why not condoms?
    • To those who do not use or have never used condoms, the key reasons include ‘they are unnecessary’, they trust their sex partners and condoms reduce pleasure of sex.
    • More than half of these non-users insisted that they would not use condoms in the future.
    Would not use in future (54%) Would use in future (28%)
  • Section 3 Summary – Condom usage incidence
    • 94% of the sample have used condoms before.
    • The incidence of condom usage for high risk groups MB, MSTC, MSM, IDU & FSW against number of times they’ve had sex with their spouse/live-in partner in the past one month does not match.
    • PLWA has the highest rate of condom usage during sex with spouse/live-in partners while MB has the lowest rate over the past one month.
    • Alarmingly, while a very small percentage, not all sex for the PLWA group involves a condom.
    • Condom usage rate among these groups appears to be much higher during commercial sex that with live in partner/spouse.
    • Condom usage for FSW during commercial sex is relatively high, although drops dramatically for sex with their spouse/live-in partner.
    • 76% of the sample did not use a condom for their ‘first time’.
      • For the high risk groups it is particularly important to break this trend to effect future habits. Promotional materials/education needs to reach them at the right age and place.
    • About 40% of FSW. CM (female), and MSM do not think that it is necessary to use a condom during sex with irregular male partners.
    • About a quarter of MSTC, MB, and CM (male) feel that it is unnecessary to use a condom during sex with irregular female partners.
    • Negative perceptions of condoms include that people using them have diseases, or don’t trust their partner, it takes away the pleasure of sex, and/or they break easily.
    • Positive perceptions include that it prevents pregnancy (nearly the whole sample), and some say that it extra condom features makes sex more fun.
    Section 3 Summary – Condom usage & perception
  • Section 3 Summary – Condom motivators & barriers
    • Key reasons for the non-use of condoms include ‘it’s not necessary’, they ‘trust sex partner’, and it ‘takes away the pleasure’ .
    • Top reasons for using condoms include prevention of HIV/AIDS, pregnancy, and other STD’s.
      • HIV/AIDS-other STD prevention as a benefit of condoms is more likely to appeal to usage during sex with irregular/commercial partners than between those in relationships, due to the issue of trust.
      • The issue of trust might be addressed indirectly by emphasizing non-disease benefits of condoms, and directly, by appealing to the importance of trust in a relationship e.g. ‘trust your partner to use a condom’.
      • Those who know they have been unfaithful need to be able to use a condom with their regular partner during sex without being perceived as having a disease and having been unfaithful.
  • Section 4: Condom Purchase Behaviours
  • Condom Purchase History
    • 77% of total sample reported to have bought condoms in the past 3 months. This figure dropped to 66% for those who bought in the past 1 month.
    Buying history 74 26 66 34 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Yes No Base: All Bought P3M (n=1415) Bought P1M (n=1415)
  • Condom Purchase History – by target groups Half of female community members did not buy condoms in past one or three months  the behaviour has not yet become habitual. FSW (n=350) MSM (n=75) IDU (n=75) CM (male) (n=330) CM (female) (n=120) PLWA (n=75) MSTC (n=300) MB (n=90)
  • Reasons for no purchase
    • There are multiple reasons for why condoms were not bought in the past one or three months including “given by partners”, “still have stock” or “given for free”
  • Purchase interest among non-buyers
    • Caution: * = small sample
    • More than half of those who did not buy any condoms either in the past one or three months do not feel the need to buy any condoms in the future. This figure is much significantly higher in Hanoi, Quang Ninh & Danang.
  • Purchase interest among non-buyers – by targets
    • Caution: * = small sample
    • It seems that PLWA is the group most interested in buying condoms. However, the sample size for this target is not sufficient to make this figure reliable.
  • Number of purchases in past one month
    • Average number of purchases across targets is more than 3 times, slightly higher in Hanoi (4 times) and HCMC, and a little less often in Can Tho.
  • Number of purchases in past one month
    • No significant difference amongst various target groups, except for FSW which are the most regular buyers of condoms.
  • Number of condoms bought last time
    • On average, each of the condom buyers in the sample bought about 10 pieces of condoms during their last purchase.
    • Buyers in Da Nang and Hai Phong tend to buy more condoms than their counterparts in other locations.
  • Number of condoms bought last time
    • At the moment, FSW are the heaviest buyers of condoms due to higher frequency of usage compared to the other targets
        • To increase the use of condoms in society, other targets should be made aware of the risk without condoms
  • Purchase Frequency
    • Half of condom buyers tend to buy them once or twice a month. Over one third buy condoms more often, especially in HCMC and Danang.
  • Purchase Frequency – by targets
    • FSW buy condoms more often – 62% buy more than once a week, followed by MSM with 40%.
    • Others in the sample tend to buy condoms less than once a week.
  • Where to get condoms
    • Pharmacies appear to be the most popular selling venues for condoms and they are also the target’s favourite venues.
  • Why pharmacies?
    • There is no difference as to why particular venues are preferred or chosen. “Quality assurance” and “not being noticed” are the most important reasons as to the decision of where to buy.
  • Condom Pack Types and Pack Sizes
    • The idea of one pack with a few flavours (multi pack with more than one flavour) is liked, especially in HCMC, Cantho and Hanoi.
    • 3-condom packs are still commonly preferred amongst all target groups.
  • Condom Pack Types and Pack Sizes – by targets
    • No clear winning pack type across target groups.
    • However, one pack with various flavours seemed to gain the attention of most respondents across target groups, while nearly four out of ten MSM prefer a single pack type.
  • Section 4 Summary – Condom purchase behaviours
    • 77% of total sample reported to have bought condoms in the past 3 months. This figure dropped to 66% for those who bought in the past 1 month.
    • Half of female community members did not buy condoms in past one or three months
    • There are multiple reasons for why condoms were not bought in the past one or three months including “given by partners”, “still have stock” or “given for free”
    • FSW which are the most regular buyers of condoms.
    • On average, each of the condom buyers in the sample bought about 10 condoms during their last purchase.
  • Section 4 Summary – Condom purchase behaviours
    • Half of condom buyers tend to buy them once or twice a month.
    • FSW buy condoms more often – 62% buy more than once a week, followed by MSM with 40%.
    • Others in the sample tend to buy condoms less than once a week.
    • Pharmacies and drug stores are the venues where condoms are ‘most often’ bought (75%) and they are also the target’s favorite purchase locations (74%).
    • Overall, targets favorite venues are where condom quality can be assured, or where they will not be noticed when making the purchase. This is the same for where they ‘most often’ purchase condoms, however, ‘convenience’ also plays big role.
    • No clear winning pack type across target groups
      • One pack with various flavours seemed to gain the attention of most respondents across target groups
  • Section 5: Condom Price Sensitivity
  • Price paid last purchase – much higher than retail price Lowest possible is VND 1,000 Highest paid by Sex Trade Client with VND 2,000+
  • Current price of condoms is considered reasonable or cheap
  • Price Sensitivity Meter – About the analysis (Van Westendorp)
    • Measures price thresholds, optimum price and acceptable price range
    • Reveal where price becomes a barrier either because too expensive or too cheap
    At what price would you consider a condom to be TOO EXPENSIVE that you would not consider buying it? At what price would you consider a condom to be TOO CHEAP that it would be of poor quality? At what price would you consider a condom to be EXPENSIVE but still be possible to buy regularly? At what price would you consider a condom to be INEXPENSIVE/CHEAP but still of acceptable quality? Four price-related questions are asked…
  • About the analysis – PSM (2)
    • The cumulative frequencies are plotted, and the four key intersections are interpreted.
      • The point at which an equal number of respondents believe the test product is expensive as believe it is too cheap is referred to as the Point of Marginal Cheapness (PMC)
      • The point at which an equal number of respondents believe the test product is too expensive as believe it is cheap is referred to as the Point of Marginal Expensiveness (PME)
      • The point at which an equal number of respondents believe the test product is expensive as believe it is cheap is referred to as Indifference Price Point (IPP)
      • The point at which an equal number of respondents believe the test product is too expensive as believe it is too cheap is referred to as the Optimal Price Point (OPP)
  • Price Sensitivity Meter to most respondents, the lowest reasonable price for a condom is VND650 Lowest reasonable price (PMC) is VND 600 (Neither expensive or too cheap) Perceived normal price (IPP) is VND 700-1000 (Neither Inexpensive or expensive) Optimal price (Penetration price) is VND 1,000 (Neither too cheap or too expensive) Highest reasonable price (PME) is VND 3000 ( Neither inexpensive or too expensive) Premium price (≥VND 4000)
  • Price Expectation – Very close to what the target expected We’re here!
  • Price sensitivity among Female Sex Workers Lowest reasonable price (PMC) is VND 550 (Neither expensive or too cheap) Perceived normal price (IPP) is VND 750 (Neither Inexpensive or expensive) Highest reasonable price (PME) is VND 1800 ( Neither inexpensive or too expensive) Premium price (≥VND 4000) Optimal price (Penetration price) is VND 1,200 (Neither too cheap or too expensive)
  • Section 5 Summary – Condom Price
    • Of the target groups, MSTC, MSM, and CM (male) pay higher prices on average.
    • FSW and PLWA pay the lowest for condoms on average.
    • Current price of condoms is considered reasonable or cheap.
    • Lowest reasonable price is VND 600, while the perceived normal price is VND700-1000.
    • Highest reasonable price is VND3000
    • About VND300-400 is considered too cheap, poor quality.
    • Among FSW, the most frequent buyers of condoms, VND750 is perceived as the normal price, and the highest reasonable price for them is VND1800.
  • Section 6 : Condom Needs - Features & Consideration -
  • Reputation would be first considered when buying condoms
    • Sufficient lubricant & something to increase sensitivities in sexual performance would be considered an advantage to trigger trials.
    • However, recognized quality of the brand is the most important driver.
    Product Features Image Product Performance
  • What does “ reputable quality” mean to the targets?
    • According to the targets, “reputable quality” is consistently defined as follows;
  • Factors considered in different locations
    • The reputable quality of the brand is again first considered, especially in Cantho.
    • Condoms which have sufficient lubricant would have more appeal to the targets in Hanoi than in other locations.
  • Factors considered when buying condoms amongst FSW
    • To FSW group, it is also important that the brand quality is known.
    Product Features Image Product Performance
  • Factors considered when buying condoms amongst MSM
    • Lubricant and sensitivity are the factors that are most attractive to MSM.
    • Lubricant is chosen as the most important factor.
    Product Features Image Product Performance
  • Factors considered when buying condoms amongst IDU
    • IDU group look at various features when considering a condom brand. However, reputable quality is the most persuasive factor to this target.
    Product Features Image Product Performance
  • Factors considered when buying condoms amongst CM males
    • It is clear that reputable quality of the brand is the most important factor considered by the male community members too.
    Product Features Image Product Performance
  • Factors considered when buying condoms amongst CM females
    • Sharing the same opinion with their male counterparts, females in the community showed more concern of reputable quality of the brand than other factors. It is also the most important factor to this target.
    Product Features Image Product Performance
  • Factors considered amongst PLWA
    • Similarly, reputable quality is considered as important and it is also the most important factor considered when purchasing a condom brand to PLWA.
    Product Features Image Product Performance
  • Factors considered amongst MSTC
    • Again, quality and sensitivity are important to MSTC with quality being the most important factor.
    Product Features Image Product Performance
  • Factors considered amongst MB
    • Consistent with other targets, reputable quality is considered important among MB target.
    Product Features Image Product Performance
  • Section 6 Summary – Condom features & consideration
    • Many factors are considered among the targets in the purchase decision of condoms, however, the factor that appears to be the most important overall is ‘reputable quality’.
    • The majority consider reputable quality to be condoms ‘that do not break/tear’.
    • Among FSW, ‘sufficient lubricant’ is also fairly important and for MSM, ‘sufficient lubricant’ is more important than ‘reputable quality’. For all other groups, ‘reputable quality’ is certainly seen as the most important factor.
  • Lubricant Usage and Perception
  • Lubricant Usage Incidence
    • Only one third of the total sample are familiar with lubricant
    • There is low usage incidence in the survey sample with only 14% claimed to use lubricant in sexual performance
        •  Lubricant and its use should be clearly communicated with a strong “reasons to use” to create interest to the targets.
    Base: Total sample (n=1415)
  • Familiar with lubricant – by target groups
    • Despite low usage incidence, lubricant is already established amongst MSM group. It is less known of by other groups, especially the sex clients – MB and MSTC.
  • Lubricant Usage Incidence
    • Consistent with low awareness of lubricant, there is low usage incidence of lubricant amongst all groups except for MSM with the highest usage rate, at 59%.
  • Lubricant usage – what is used as lubricant?
    • Different types of products are used as lubricant, most popular types besides lubricated condoms include oil-based lubricant, vaseline.
      • 23% of lubricant users in MSM group use water-based lubricant.
      • A few mentioned “Sutra”.
  • Reasons to Use Lubricant
    • To these lubricant users, ease of penetration is the main driver of the category.
    • However, the secondary motivators for this product differ between target groups
      • While it is believed to help increase sensitivity to the male partners who have sex with female partners or female sex workers, it is also used by FSW and MSM to reduce discomfort when having sex.
  • Usage Interest among Non-Users of Lubricant
    • Reasons for not interested in using lubricant
    • “ Don’t like lubricant”
    • Think that “condoms are already lubricated”
    • Believed that “oneself has already had sufficient lubricant”
    Not interested 30% Interested 67% Base: Those who are not familiar with lubricant (n=1210)
    • Reasons for interested in using lubricant
    • “ Curious to know how it’s like/ how it feels”
    • “ Ease of penetration”
     The above indicates that “benefits of lubricant” must be effectively communicated to the targets to trigger trials with strong emotional benefits as ‘reasons to use’
  • Interest in lubricant bundled with condoms
    • Not many respondents showed interest in lubricant bundled with condoms.
        •  Suggest that lubricant sachets should be sold separately from condoms.
        •  Lubricant should be introduced slowly, probably to the MSM group first to test the target’s response to the product.
  • Interest in lubricant bundled with condoms – by targets
    • Again lubricant bundled with condom did not receive much support from most targets except for CM females, with 41% showing interest in such an idea.
  • How interested are they in our lubricant sachet?
    • The sachet received a more positive reaction than the ‘bundled product’ with 74% of respondents showing interest in using a sachet of lubricant prior to trying the sample.
    • Price willing to pay before having tried the product ranges from VND2,000 to as high as VND4,000 per sachet.
    Not interested 24% Interested 74% Base: Those who are not familiar with lubricant (n=1210)
  • Section 6 Summary - Lubricant
    • Comparatively, MSM are quite aware of lubricant.
    • Nearly 50% of the sample is unfamiliar with lubricant. Even among FSW, nearly a third are not aware of lubricant and its benefits.
      • As pleasure of sex is a strong barrier to condom usage, increased lubricant awareness and its benefits may provide a way to decrease non-usage for this reason.
    • The majority that do use lubricant do so with a lubricated condom.
    • Among all lubricant users in the sample, ‘ease of penetration’ is the key reason for using lubricant.
      • The second major reason for MSTC and CM (male) to use lubricant is to ‘increase sensitivity’.
      • The second major reason for FSW and MSM is that lubricant ‘avoids scratches and hurt’ during sex.
    • Nearly two-thirds of lubricant non-users showed some interest in it.
    • Interest in lubricant bundled with condoms only had some significant support among CM (female).
    • Separate lubricant sachets were better received among target groups overall.
  • Section 7: Feedback on samples
  • Overall ranking
    • Note: the lower the figure the more preferred the sample is.
    • Fiesta Strawberry is the best liked of all the tested samples, followed by Frenzy Mint.
    • There are some differences across study locations in terms of what flavour is liked best
      • Targets in HCMC, Cantho and Danang all went for Fiesta Strawberry
      • Whereas the targets in Quang Ninh ranked Frenzy Orange the first, then come Frenzy Mint and Frenzy Banana.
    • The least liked in the samples is in fact, our OK condoms.
    • Lubricant seems to have least potential in Danang.
        •  Consider launching a Strawberry flavoured condom.
        •  However, to add excitement and create interest in using condoms, other flavours should also be considered such as Mint and Orange.
  • Condom Samples Specifics Feedback on Tested Condoms and Price Expectation
  • Preferred samples – Partner’s feedback on Fiesta Strawberry
    • According to their trial-sex partners, Fiesta Strawberry is valued for its nice flavour.
    • In HCMC, some also showed interest in its “right size”
  • Preferred samples – Overall Impression on Fiesta Strawberry
    • Those who showed preference towards Fiesta Strawberry like it even more than their partners thanks to the following strengths
      • Pleasant strawberry flavour
      • The pleasure it brings to sex
  • Preferred samples – Partner’s feedback on Frenzy Mint
    • Frenzy Mint is liked mainly for its flavour which also adds “freshness” to sex performance.
  • Preferred samples – Overall Impression on Frenzy Mint
    • Similar to other preferred samples, Frenzy Mint is particularly liked for its fresh smell which is mainly provided by the mint flavour.
  • Preferred samples – Partner’s feedback on Frenzy Orange
    • Frenzy Orange is liked mainly for its pleasant flavour, which is believed to add more pleasure to sex, especially to the targets in Quang Ninh.
  • Preferred samples – Overall Impression on Frenzy Orange
    • Consistent with how the sex partners felt, Frenzy Orange is valued for its pleasant flavour, the pleasure it provides to sexual performance and also its provided “lubricant”.
  • Preferred samples – Partner’s feedback on Frenzy Banana
    • Frenzy Banana is liked also thanks to its flavour, though not as strong as “strawberry” and/or “mint”
  • Preferred samples – Overall Impression on Frenzy Banana
    • Key strengths of Frenzy Banana include
      • Pleasant banana flavour
      • Adding more pleasure to sex
      • Being thin and sufficient in lubricant
  • Price willing to pay for 3 most liked samples
    • There is no significant differences in price given to these three most-liked condom samples. The given price range from VND 1,900 to VND 2,000 as minimum price.
        • Suggested penetration price is around VND 2,000 a piece as above VND 2,000 the level of interest is dropping dramatically.
  • Lubricant Sachet Specifics Feedback and Price Expectation
  • Lubricant Sachet – Partner’s feedback
    • Half of those who tried Lubricant received positive feedback from their partners for it is believed to help avoid scratches or hurt during sexual performance.
    • While its flavour creates some interest to the targets in Hai Phong & Danang, those in Quang Ninh do not find this feature attractive. In fact, they felt less motivated using lubricant as it, to them, provides “no good feeling” and may be “too much” lubricant.
  • Price willing to pay for lubricant sample – after trial
    • After having tried the product, the expected price for a lubricant sachet dropped from the minimum price of VND 2,000 to VND 1,373.
    • The maximum price per lubricant sachet also drops from VND 4,065 to VND 2,444.
        • However, the chart above suggests around VND 1,200 – a lubricant sachet would have more potential in the market.
  • Section 7 Summary – Feedback on product samples
    • Groups sampled flavored condoms and lubricant sachets.
    • Among all groups, overall Fiesta Strawberry was the favorite flavored condom, followed by Mint and Orange. Frenzy Banana was also popular.
    • There were some clear preferences for areas in Vietnam. HCMC, Cantho and Danang all preferred Strawberry, while Quang Ninh favored Orange.
    • Fiesta Strawberry is valued for its nice flavor, while Mint is popular due to its freshness.
    • Suggested penetration price for these flavored condoms is VND2000.
    • Half of those that tried the lubricant received positive feedback from their partners as it helped avoid scratches or hurt during sex.
    • However, the minimum and maximum price willing to pay for these sachets dropped after the sample, and data suggests VND1200/sachet is a reasonable price.
  • Section 8: Brands Building
  • Condom Brand Health, Brands Strengths & Weaknesses
  • Brand & Ad Awareness
    • DKT brands, particularly OK, tops the list of brand awareness both at spontaneous and prompted level.
    • Yes and Hello are the runners-up on the list of aided awareness, suggesting that these two brands have a relatively strong presence in the market yet may not be in the consideration set (considered for usage) as TOM is quite low.
  • Brand Awareness by Locations
    • No significant differences across study locations
    • OK has the strongest presence in the market.
    • Hello and Yes have relatively high recognition / aided awareness, however, the target market has problems recalling the brands spontaneously, meaning they’re less likely to come to mind when considering their purchase.
  • Brand Awareness by Target Groups
    • Again, OK is the “condom” brand in Vietnam and it has a fairly high and consistent brand recognition among all targets.
  • Source of Awareness
    • TV is the main source of advertising awareness, especially for OK and Trust.
      • Again, there seems to be some confusion between Trust and Super Trust when it comes to advertising
    • Print and outdoor advertising also receive a fairly high amount of attention from the target groups.
        •  They may be effective tools to generate public awareness of HIV/AIDS prevention in order to increase usage of condoms.
  • Brand Usage
    • There is high correlation between last used and last purchased brands.
    • OK is dominating the market with the highest market share (based on last-used brand)
    • It is again confirmed that there is some confusion between Trust and Super Trust – probably due to the similar brand names.
  • Brand ratios
    • OK has the highest trial rate across all targets and locations. It also maintains a fairly high adoption rate in the period of 6 and 3 months. Six out of ten who tried the brand stay with it – proven in their last used brand.
    • Some Japanese and US brands, while currently having small shares in the market, in fact have a fairly high brand adoption rate, i.e. almost half of those who ever tried them show loyalty to these brands over their last brand used.
  • Ad Message Take-out Less than half of the total sample got the message of HIV/AIDS prevention from previous OK communications  We need to see this figure increase in order to increase condom usage  requires a stronger, more direct message.  Potential to push on the threat of HIV/AIDS in conjunction with promoting DKT’s brands
  • Condom Brand Association
  • Brand Associations – DKT brands
    • Though it has some strong association, at the “basic category” level – purely functional, OK & the other two brands from DKT are almost identical in consumers’ mind.
  • Brand Associations – Competitive brands
    • Yes and Hello are almost identical and much weaker than our brands.
  • Brand Associations – DKT in Hanoi
    • Better distribution channel in Hanoi gives DKT some advantages over competitors.
    • Our brands are also negatively associated with “bad/clinical smell” which limits the brand appeal to some extent.
  • Brand Associations – Competitors in Hanoi
    • Again, Viva, Yes and Hello are far behind DKT’s brands in all attributes.
  • Brand Associations – DKT in Hai Phong
    • OK possesses a good position in Hai Phong, mainly thanks to its wide distribution, affordable price and the category’s generic attributes – protection against STD and undesirable pregnancy.
  • Brand Associations – Competitors in Hai Phong
    • No significant difference in terms of how these brands are perceived. In general – weak.
  • Brand Associations – DKT in Quang Ninh
    • OK is considered “good value for money” and its exciting brandname gives it a “cooler” image in Quang Ninh. The brand is also valued for “good protection”.
  • Brand Associations – Competitors in Quang Ninh
    • OK has no competitors in Quang Ninh as Hello, Viva and Yes have very weak brand image & association.
  • Brand Associations – DKT in HCMC
    • Fairly strong in HCMC too, OK has set the benchmark for the “condom” category in the city, especially in terms of good protection and affordability.
  • Brand Associations – Competitors in HCMC
    • In HCMC, OK has no direct competitors as Hello, Yes and Viva are all weak.
  • OK Brand Summary
    • Key weaknesses
    • Besides the category’s generic attributes, there is no clear image attached to the brand
    • Clinical smell, no flavour nor colour are the key drawbacks of OK
    • Key Strengths
    • High brand recognition and consideration / high brand share, no competitors
    • Strong category’s association
    • OK = condom in Vietnam
    • Threats
    • The launch of new flavours under a new brand name would potentially have negative impact on OK in the market
      • A potential number of OK fans would become OK lapsers
    • Opportunities
    • Create some ‘image’ for the brand besides the basic “protection against unwanted pregnancy and STDs”
    • Introduce new flavoured condoms to create ‘excitement’ which would lead to more use of condoms.
  • Section 8 Summary – Brand health & association
    • DKT brands were at the top of the list in terms of brand awareness at spontaneous and prompted level. ‘OK’ had the most awareness.
    • Hello and Yes are fairly high recognition, although, the targets were less able to recall these two spontaneously, meaning that they are less likely to come to mind at the time of purchase.
    • TV followed by print, and billboard advertising has created the most awareness for condom brands among the targets. Viva was the only exception where print ads were more well-known.
    • Among all of the targets, DKT’s brands were especially associated with protection against pregnancy and STD, and as being available everywhere. They were also considered among many as lubricated, and fitting comfortably, and priced reasonably.
    • A key drawback for OK was the perceived ‘clinical smell’, especially among Hanoians. The brand also has no clear image attached to it.
  • Appendix
  • Brand usage In different study locations
  • Brand Use in Hanoi
  • Brand Use in Hai Phong
  • Brand Use in Quang Ninh
  • Brand Use in HCMC
  • Brand Use in Can Tho
  • Brand Use in Danang
  • Brand Users Profile Demographics
  • Brand Users Profile – Demographics (1)
  • Brand Users Profile – Demographics (2)
  • Brand Users Profile – Demographics (3)
  • Thank You / Cam On!