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Venice Flood
 

Venice Flood

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Venice – sustainability and the impacts of the flood protection barriers by Paul Linden & Cristina Nasci

Venice – sustainability and the impacts of the flood protection barriers by Paul Linden & Cristina Nasci

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    Venice Flood Venice Flood Presentation Transcript

    • Venice – sustainability and theimpacts of the flood protection barriers Paul Linden & Cristina Nasci P.F.Linden@damtp.cam.ac.uk, Cristina.Nasci@thetis.it DAMTP, University of Cambridge Thetis SpA, Venice IUGG June 29, 2011 – p.1/35
    • Venice and the Lagoon The historical city The industrial port IUGG June 29, 2011 – p.2/35
    • Historical lagoon 16th Century IUGG June 29, 2011 – p.3/35
    • Historical lagoon Vestri 1709 18th Century IUGG June 29, 2011 – p.4/35
    • Human intervention 19th – 20th CenturiesReclamation of the rivers Sile and Dese (1925-1930) Reopened fish farms (1907-1928)Airport (1958) Fish farms (since 1900)Bridge across the lagoonrailway 1846 highway 1931-1934First industrial zone (1917) Lido-Marittima-Marghera Canal (1919-1930)Second industrial zone (1950-1953) Lido jetties (1882-1910)Third industrial zone (1963-1964) • Malamocco-Marghera Canal (1960-1969)Fish farms (since 1900) Malamocco jetties (1840-1856)Romea highway (1965-1968) Chioggia jetties (1910-1934) IUGG June 29, 2011 – p.5/35
    • Local mean sea level Eustatic change and subsidence + 11 0 0 Total 10 1 reduction 10 9 2 2 in the difference 8 3 between 8 7 4 4 ground 6 5 level 6 5 Eustasy 6 6 and sea 4 7 level 4 3 8 8 (cm) 2 9 2 1 10 10 0.00 livello0.0 mare nelmedio del 1908 11mean Natural 12 12sea -2 2 subsidence 13level 3 14 14in 1908 -4 4 15 5 16 16 -6 6 17 7 18 18 -8 8 Man-induced 19 9 subsidence 20 20 -10 10 21 11 22 22 -12 12 23 – 13 24 perdita totale di quota del suolo (cm) 1908 1925 1952 1961 1975 1996 1970 -14 14 rispetto al livello medio 15 26 del mare nel 1908 1908 1925 1952 1961 1970 1975 1996 -16 16 trend naturale trend influenzato da sfruttamento artesiano rebound trend attuale 1900 1900 1910 1910 1920 1920 1930 1930 1940 1940 1950 1950 1960 1960 1970 1970 1980 1980 1990 1990 Natural trend Trend caused by the use of artesian wells Rebound Actual trend IUGG June 29, 2011 – p.6/35
    • Subsidence Canaletto (1730 ca) IUGG June 29, 2011 – p.7/35
    • Lagoon habitats Historical places - Fish farms Island of Torcello (year 900) The littorals – Barrier Island of PellestrinaWetlands IUGG June 29, 2011 – p.8/35
    • Intertidal habitatLoss due to subsidence and RSLR1930 1970 2000168 km2 105 km2 60 km2 IUGG June 29, 2011 – p.9/35
    • Lagoon becomes a bay Changes to morphologyMainland Lagoon Sea IUGG June 29, 2011 – p.10/35
    • Flooding 1 dicembre 2008…156 Flooding > 140 cmIncrease in the frequency of flooding > 110cm IUGG June 29, 2011 – p.11/35
    • Storm surgeNovember, 4th 1966 IUGG June 29, 2011 – p.12/35
    • FloodingVENICE, LAST HIGH WATER OF 01/12/2008 IUGG June 29, 2011 – p.13/35
    • Adaptation Range of safeguards cutting of creeks andProtected beach nourishment ponds Salt marshes restoration Pioneer vegetation Biodiversity: 7 species Dune management Mobile tidal barriers IUGG June 29, 2011 – p.14/35
    • Reinforcement of the litoral Intervention areas Works underway Works completed Eraclea Works completed Jesolo-Cortellazzo Cavallino Beach reconstruction Lido 45 km Dune restoration Pellestrina 8 km Reinforcement of jetty Sottomarina 11 km Isola verde IUGG June 29, 2011 – p.15/35
    • Reinforcement of the litoral Coastline reinforcement new groynes submerged artificial reef S. Pietro in Volta new beach lagoon-side embankments Pellestrina IUGG June 29, 2011 – p.16/35
    • Pellestrina littoral beforeBefore After IUGG June 29, 2011 – p.17/35
    • Recovery of morphologyIntervention areas North lagoonWorks completedChannel dredging Central lagoon180 kmReconstruction of mudflatsand salt marshes South lagoon1,430 hectaresEnvironmental restorationof islands12 islands IUGG June 29, 2011 – p.18/35
    • Environmental restoration RE-USE OF SEDIMENTS FOR SALT MARSHES IUGG June 29, 2011 – p.19/35
    • Environmental restoration Salt marsh evolution 1 year 9 years IUGG June 29, 2011 – p.20/35
    • MOSEModulo Sperimentale Elettromeccanicon Location of the Mose Flood Barriers IUGG June 29, 2011 – p.21/35
    • MOSE THE MOSE FLOOD BARRIERS • rows of gates installed in the bed of the inlets; 78 gates (Lido 21+20;Malamocco 19; Chioggia 18) •"mobile" gates because in normal tidal conditions they are full of water and rest in their housing structures "caissons" on the seabed; emission of compressed air empties the gates of water until they emergeEach gate• box-like metal structure lagoon seaattached to the concretecaisson in which it is housed bymeans of two hinges• 20 m wide with a variableheight and width according tothe depth of the inlet channel• average inlet closing time isfrom 4 to 5 hours IUGG June 29, 2011 – p.22/35
    • MOSE Gates IUGG June 29, 2011 – p.23/35
    • MOSE Operation < 1.10 +1.10 +1.10 +2.00 -14.00 -14.00 -14.00a b c< Lagoon Sea >+1.10 +3.00 +1.10 -14.00 -14.00d e IUGG June 29, 2011 – p.24/35
    • MOSE Hinge systemThe male elementraised abovethe female element IUGG June 29, 2011 – p.25/35
    • MOSE Lido inlet - new constructionThe new lay-out lagoonafter realization Cavallino - Treportiof the Mose System 11 Refuge haven with lock2 Row of gates (Lido - Treporti) 23 New island between the 1 rows of gates 34 Row of gate (Lido - S. Nicolò)5 New configuration Lido - S. Nicolò 4 of the south bank6 Breakwater 5 sea 6 IUGG June 29, 2011 – p.26/35
    • MOSE Lido inlettitolo Venice new configuration of the south bank new island refuge haven (sea-side basin lock - temporary work site for the gate caissons) Cavallino - Treporti IUGG June 29, 2011 – p.27/35
    • ArsenaleControl centre IUGG June 29, 2011 – p.28/35
    • Arsenale Restoration IUGG June 29, 2011 – p.29/35
    • Climate change Sea level rise Seattleobservations of mean sea Sa San Francisco a c scoexhibit secular increase of San Diegoestimates of global sea level 2 cm/decade – consistent with estimates of global SLR IUGG June 29, 2011 – p.30/35
    • High tide + storms Winter 1983 Two high tides and two low daily tides, unequal in storms amplitude. Monthly tidal changes dominated by spring-neap cycle, with two periods of relatively high tides (springs) around full and new moon. One spring tide range per month is usually higher than the other on this coast. Th hi h t thl tid in the winter and summer months are higher than High tide levels vary by about 1 m g y y those in the s Highest storm-forced level = 28 cm as a result of lunar and solar declination effects. IUGG June 29, 2011 – p.31/35
    • Sea level rise predictions San Francisco hourly sea level cm mbUnder projected global warming, such as in the GFDL A2 simulation sea level rises considerably by 2100, in this scenario by approximately 0.9m. IUGG June 29, 2011 – p.32/35
    • Venice tides Punta Salute - December 1997 150 Observed Water LevelWater Level (cm) 100 Predicted Astronomical Tide 50 0 r -50 -100 5 10 15 20 25 30 150 Day of Month IUGG June 29, 2011 – p.33/35
    • Vulnerability chart A tool for assessing vulnerability IUGG June 29, 2011 – p.34/35
    • Science-based managementAssessment IUGG June 29, 2011 – p.35/35
    • Science-based managementAssessment monitoring of physical, chemical properties IUGG June 29, 2011 – p.35/35
    • Science-based managementAssessment monitoring of physical, chemical properties monitoring of biological components IUGG June 29, 2011 – p.35/35
    • Science-based managementAssessment monitoring of physical, chemical properties monitoring of biological componentsDecision map for MOSE operation IUGG June 29, 2011 – p.35/35
    • Science-based managementAssessment monitoring of physical, chemical properties monitoring of biological componentsDecision map for MOSE operation impacts on Lagoon IUGG June 29, 2011 – p.35/35
    • Science-based managementAssessment monitoring of physical, chemical properties monitoring of biological componentsDecision map for MOSE operation impacts on Lagoon public information IUGG June 29, 2011 – p.35/35
    • Science-based managementAssessment monitoring of physical, chemical properties monitoring of biological componentsDecision map for MOSE operation impacts on Lagoon public informationRe-assessment IUGG June 29, 2011 – p.35/35
    • Science-based managementAssessment monitoring of physical, chemical properties monitoring of biological componentsDecision map for MOSE operation impacts on Lagoon public informationRe-assessment commit to regular schedule IUGG June 29, 2011 – p.35/35
    • Science-based managementAssessment monitoring of physical, chemical properties monitoring of biological componentsDecision map for MOSE operation impacts on Lagoon public informationRe-assessment commit to regular schedule include ecosystem services IUGG June 29, 2011 – p.35/35
    • Science-based managementAssessment monitoring of physical, chemical properties monitoring of biological componentsDecision map for MOSE operation impacts on Lagoon public informationRe-assessment commit to regular schedule include ecosystem servicesImpacts of climate change on all of the above IUGG June 29, 2011 – p.35/35
    • Science-based management Assessment monitoring of physical, chemical properties monitoring of biological components Decision map for MOSE operation impacts on Lagoon public information Re-assessment commit to regular schedule include ecosystem services Impacts of climate change on all of the above The Venice Conference:Improving the capacity to assess and to adapt to climate change in urban coastal regions September 12 – 15, 2011 Venice, Italy IUGG June 29, 2011 – p.35/35