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Introduction to Web Services


What is Service?, How Web Services differ from other services? Web Services Standard

What is Service?, How Web Services differ from other services? Web Services Standard

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  • Mr.Thanachart, would you be so kind to email me this presentation. email:

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  • Mr. Thanachart Numnonda

    Excelent presentation!, I´d like to get tutorials about theme, can you tel me please ¿where can I get more?, because I am going to traing some system programmers.

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  • good presentation
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  • Mr.Thanachart,

    Can you pls email me this presentation.
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  • 1. Topic 2 Introduction to Web Service Dr.Thanachart Numnonda Sun Microsystems (Thailand) Asst.Prof.Thanisa Kruawaisayawan KMITL
  • 2. Agenda  What is Service?  What/Why Web Services?  Web Services Specifications:  Web Services Demo 2
  • 3. What is Service? 3
  • 4. What is Service?  Primary goal of a service is to represent a “natural” step of business functionality  Technically, a service is a software component  a service is an interface for (multiple) messages that return information and/or change the state of an associate entity (backend)  The operations defines in the interface carry out business functions  Service is available across a network. 4
  • 5. Services in SOA • SOA is focused on business process • Services can be implemented by any technology on any platform (NOT only web services) • In fact, SOA has been around for quite a while • Other service components – EJB (Enterprise Java Bean), COM+, .NET Enterprise services, CCM (CORBA Component Models) 5
  • 6. Characteristics of Service 6
  • 7. Characteristics of Service (cont.) 7
  • 8. Types of Services • Entity Service – Represent one or more business entity – Features CRUD operations • Functional Service – Is a technology oriented service – Perform a given function; eg: sending mail, deposit • Process Service – Represents a series of related tasks – Can be represented as an orchestration invoked by ESB; eg: loan process 8
  • 9. What/Why Web Service? 9
  • 10. What is Web Service?  A Web service is a software module that has a URL or an Internet address so they can be called upon to perform a operation via the Internet.  One Web service makes a request of another Web service to perform its task or tasks and pass back an answer creating a highly distributed system.  using XML based messages via internet-based protocols  Web Services are latest distributed technology 10
  • 11. Web Services Conceptual Model 11
  • 12. Web Services Conceptual Model (cont.) 12
  • 13. Web Services Conceptual Model (cont.) 13
  • 14. Web Services Conceptual Model (cont.) 14
  • 15. Characteristics of Web Services  XML based everywhere  Message-based  Programming language independent  Could be dynamically located  Could be dynamically assembled or aggregated  Accessed over the internet  Loosely coupled  Based on industry standards 15
  • 16. How Web Services differ from Others? • Supported by all major software vendors; so fulfills the promose of universal interoperability • Operations of Web Services are based on the exchanged of XML format • Web Services utilize standard Internet protocols such as HTTP, SMTP, FTP 16
  • 17. Distributed Computing Evolution Servers Servers Clients PDA Cell Internet Phone Client-Server(C/S) silos Clients Workstation Server Web-based computing Kiosk Laptop Web Services/Peer-to-Peer 17
  • 18. Traditional C/S vs. Web Services Traditional C/S Web Service  Within enterprise  Between enterprises  Tied to a set of  Program language programming languages independent  Procedural  Message-driven  Usually bound to a  Easily bound to different particular transport transports  Tightly-coupled  Loosely-coupled  Efficient processing  Relatively not efficient (space/time) processing
  • 19. Web Application vs. Web Services Web Application Web Service  User-to-program  Program-to-program interaction interaction  Static integration of  Possibility of dynamic components integration of  Monolithic service components (in the future)  Possibility of service aggregation (in the future)
  • 20. Why Web Services? Web Services:  Are platform neutral  Are accessible in a standard way  Are accessible in an interoperable way  Use simple and ubiquitous plumbing  Are relatively cheap  Simplify enterprise integration 20
  • 21. Why Web Services are a Hot Topic:  Interoperable – Connect across heterogeneous networks using ubiquitous web-based standards  Economical – Recycle components, no installation and tight integration of software  Automatic – No human intervention required even for highly complex transactions  Accessible – Legacy assets & internal apps are exposed and accessible on the web  Available – Services on any device, anywhere, anytime  Scalable – No limits on scope of applications and amount of heterogeneous applications
  • 22. Web Services Usage Example Distributor XML XML Manufacturing Supplier Internet Facility XML XML Logistics “Growing need for a standard lightweight infrastructure for data exchange in e-business applications.” 22
  • 23. Myth: Web Services is a New Concept  Web services is distributed computing all over again – only now it is based on the web Distributed Computing via Concept CORBA /Java Basic Web Services Interface Description CORBA IDL, Java interface WSDL RPC support ORBs, Idl2java compilers, rmic SOAP Service Registry CORBA naming service, JNDI UDDI Messaging support CORBA Event/Notification service, JMS WS-Reliable Messaging? Transaction support CORBA Transaction service, JTS WS-AtomicTransaction ? Secuity support CORBA Security service, Java security WS-Security ?
  • 24. Other Popular Myths Surrounding Web Services  Web services require only SOAP, WSDL, UDDI: − We need more high-level semantics  Web services are based on the RPC paradigm: − Document-driven model would be more popular communication model  Web services must be based on HTTP: − Other transports such as SMTP can be also used 24
  • 25. Myths about Web Services  Web Services cure cancer: Not for a very very long time!  Web Services are something completely new: Not True!  You have to write Web Services from scratch: Not True!  Java Platform does not support web services: Not True! 25
  • 26. State of Web Services  Technology/Standards are still evolving − SOAP, WSDL, UDDI are not enough  Business web services is the next big thing, but more works are needed in − Quality of Service, management − Security, transaction, state and user context − Work flow, Identity management, − Provisioning, Accounting  Will be adopted in phases 26
  • 27. Web Services Adoption Phases  1st phase (in the past)  Concerted deployment internally within an organization mainly for interoperability  SOAP over HTTP/S  2nd phase (current state)  Selective and non-aggregate deployment with trusted outside business partners  Private registry deployment  3rd phase (1 to 2 years)  Wider, more dynamic and aggregate deployment with outside business partners  Public registry deployment
  • 28. Web Services Adoption Phases (cont.)  1st Phase – Simple Web Services (Past)  Consumer-focused, stateless, SOAP over HTTP/S  2nd Phase – EAI Web Services (Now)  Deployed within organization boundaries to enable internal integration  3rd Phase – Business Web Services (1-2 Year)  Deployed on extranets to enable business transactions with trading partners, suppliers, and customers, ebXML & UBL
  • 29. Trends Towards Service Orientation  Evolution of EAI to web service standards  XML RPC => Asynchronous XML Messaging  Towards de-centralization  Componentized services − Composable and composite services − Data encapsulated within component − Data ownership follows component ownership  Brokered web services  Flexible relationships => Adaptive businesses 29
  • 30. Web Service Specifications? 30
  • 31. Web Services : Fundamental Specifiations  Service Invocation => SOAP  Service Description => WSDL  Service Registration (Publication) and Discovery => UDDI  SOAP, WSDL and UDDI are XML based
  • 32. XML 32
  • 33. XML Schema • XML is the lingua franca of SOA, used for message payloads • XML Schema provides data definition in XML format • XML Schemas are not object-oriented , are intended to capture a data model 33
  • 34. Example: Book.xsd 34
  • 35. SOAP 35
  • 36. SOAP  Simple Object Access Protocol  Wire protocol similar to − IIOP for CORBA − JRMP for RMI  XML is used for data encoding − “text” based protocol vs. “binary” protocol  Supports XML-based RPC 36
  • 37. What SOAP is Not  Not a component model − So it will not replace objects and components, i.e. EJB, JavaBeans  Not a programming language − So it will not replace Java  Not a solution for all − So it will not replace other distributed computing technologies such as RMI 37
  • 38. What does SOAP Define?  Message Envelope  Encoding Rules  RPC Convention  Binding with underlying protocols 38
  • 39. SOAP Message Format SOAP Message SOAP Envelope SOAP Header Primary MIME part (text/xml) Header Entry Header Entry Attachment SOAP Body Attachment Body Entry Body Entry Attachment 39
  • 40. SOAP Message Envelope  Encoding information  Header − Optional − Could contain context knowledge  Security  Transaction  Body − RPC methods and parameters − Contains application data 40
  • 41. SOAP Encoding • Rules of expressing application-defined data types in XML • Based on W3C XML Schema • Simple values – Built-in types from XML Schema, Part 2 (simple types, enumerations, arrays of bytes) • Compound values – Structs, arrays, complex types 41
  • 42. SOAP RPC Request Example <SOAP-ENV:Envelope xmlns:SOAP-ENV="…" SOAP-ENV:encodingStyle="…"> <SOAP-ENV:Header> <!-- Optional context information --> </SOAP-ENV:Header> <SOAP-ENV:Body>    <m:GetLastTradePrice xmlns:m=“some_URI">      <tickerSymbol>SUNW</tickerSymbol>    </m:GetLastTradePrice> </SOAP-ENV:Body> </SOAP-ENV:Envelope> 42
  • 43. SOAP RPC Response Example <SOAP-ENV:Envelope xmlns:SOAP-ENV="…" SOAP-ENV:encodingStyle="…"> <SOAP-ENV:Header> <!-- Optional context information --> </SOAP-ENV:Header> <SOAP-ENV:Body>   <m:GetLastTradePriceResponse xmlns:m=“some_URI">      <price>30.5</price>   </m:GetLastTradePriceResponse> </SOAP-ENV:Body> </SOAP-ENV:Envelope> 43
  • 44. SOAP RPC  Information needed for a method call: − The URI of the target object <SOAP-ENV:Body> <m:GetLastTradePrice xmlns:m=“"> <tickerSymbol>SUNW</tickerSymbol> </m:GetLastTradePrice> </SOAP-ENV:Body> 44
  • 45. SOAP RPC (cont.)  Information needed for a method call: − The URI of the target object − Method name <SOAP-ENV:Body> <m:GetLastTradePrice xmlns:m=“"> <tickerSymbol>SUNW</tickerSymbol> </m:GetLastTradePrice> </SOAP-ENV:Body> 45
  • 46. SOAP RPC (cont.)  Information needed for a method call: − The URI of the target object − Method name − Parameters <SOAP-ENV:Body> <m:GetLastTradePrice xmlns:m=“"> <tickerSymbol>SUNW</tickerSymbol> </m:GetLastTradePrice> </SOAP-ENV:Body> 46
  • 47. WSDL 47
  • 48. What is WSDL? • XML language for describing web services • Web service is described as – A set of communication endpoints (ports) • Endpoint is made of two parts – Abstract definitions of operations and messages – Concrete binding to networking protocol (and corresponding endpoint address) and message format • Why this separation? – Enhance reusability (as we will see in UDDI reference to WSDL document) 48
  • 49. Why WSDL? • Enables automation of communication details between communicating partners – Machines can read WSDL – Machines can invoke a service defined in WSDL • Discoverable through registry • Arbitration – 3rd party can verify if communication conforms to WSDL 49
  • 50. WSDL Document Example  Simple service providing stock quotes  A single operation called GetLastTradePrice  Deployed using SOAP 1.1 over HTTP  Request takes a ticker symbol of type string  Response returns price as a float 50
  • 51. WSDL Elements  Types  Message  Operation  Port Type  Binding  Port  Service 51
  • 52. WSDL Elements (cont.)  Types − Data type definitions − Used to describe exchanged messages − Uses W3C XML Schema as canonical type system 52
  • 53. WSDL Example: Types <definitions name="StockQuote" targetNamespace="" xmlns:tns="" xmlns:xsd1="" xmlns:soap="" xmlns="”> <types> <schema targetNamespace="" xmlns=""> <element name="TradePriceRequest"> <complexType> <all> <element name=”tickerSymbol" type="string"/> </all> </complexType> </element> <element name="TradePrice"> <complexType> <all> <element name="price" type="float"/> </all> </complexType> </element> </schema> </types> 53
  • 54. WSDL Elements  Messages − Abstract, typed definitions of data being exchanged  Operations − Abstract description of an action − Refers to an input and/or output messages  Port type − Collection of operations − Abstract definition of a service 54
  • 55. Example: Messages, Operation, Port type <message name="GetLastTradePriceInput"> <part name="body" element="xsd1:TradePriceRequest"/> </message> <message name="GetLastTradePriceOutput"> <part name="body" element="xsd1:TradePrice"/> </message> <portType name="StockQuotePortType"> <operation name="GetLastTradePrice"> <input message="tns:GetLastTradePriceInput"/> <output message="tns:GetLastTradePriceOutput"/> </operation> <!-- More operations --> </portType> 55
  • 56. WSDL Elements  Binding − Concrete protocol and data format for a particular Port type − Protocol example: SOAP 1.1 over HTTP or SOAP 1.1 over SMTP  Port − Defines a single communication endpoint − Endpoint address for binding − URL for HTTP, email address for SMTP  Service − Aggregate set of related ports 56
  • 57. Example: Binding, Port, Service <binding name="StockQuoteSoapBinding" type="tns:StockQuotePortType"> <soap:binding style="document" transport=""/> <operation name="GetLastTradePrice"> <soap:operation soapAction=""/> <input> <soap:body use="literal" /> </input> <output> <soap:body use="literal" /> </output> </operation> </binding> <service name="StockQuoteService"> <documentation>My first service</documentation> <port name="StockQuotePort" binding="tns:StockQuoteBinding"> <soap:address location=""/> </port> </service> 57
  • 58. UDDI 58
  • 59. UDDI (Universal Description, Discovery and Integration)  “White pages” – address, contact, and known identifiers  “Yellow pages” – industrial categorizations  Industry: NAICS (Industry codes - US Govt.)  Product/Services: UN/SPSC (ECMA)  Location: Geographical taxonomy  “Green pages” – technical information about services 59
  • 60. Additional WS Specifications • WS-Security: Address transport of security context • WS-Coordination: Framework for achieving coordination between partners • WS Transaction Specifications: Standard for creating distributed transaction involving multiple Web Services – WS-AtomicTransaction – WS-BusinessActivity • WS-Realiable Messaging: Standards for reliable delivery of messages between partners 60
  • 61. Additional WS Specifications (cont.) • WS-Addressing: Defines end point communication • WS-Inspection: Specification uses for dynamic discovery of service documents • WS Policy: Specifics the policy of a web service provider • WS-Eventing: Defines event sources and consumers in the event model. 61
  • 62. Web Services and Standards 62
  • 63. RESTful Web Services • REST => REpresentational State Transfer • Resources (nouns) ->Identified by a URI, For example: • • Methods (verbs) to manipulate the nouns – Create, Read, Update, Delete • Representation is how you view the State – data and state transferred between client and server – XML, JSON... • Use verbs to exchange application state and representation 63
  • 64. Characteristics of REST • RESTful services are stateless – Each request from client to server must contain all the information necessary to understand the request • RESTful services have a uniform interface – GET, POST, PUT, and DELETE. • REST-based architectures are built from resources (pieces of information) that are uniquely identified by URIs – In a RESTful purchasing system, each purchase order has a unique URI
  • 65. REST vs “Traditional” Web Services • “Traditional” web service – Few URIs (nouns), many custom methods (verbs) • musicPort.getRecordings(“beatles”) – Uses HTTP as transport for SOAP messages • RESTful web service – Many resources (nouns), few fixed methods(verbs) • GET /music/artists/beatles/recordings – HTTP is the protocol
  • 66. SOAP Service and REST Resource • SOAP based web services is about services SOA – Stock quote service quoteService.purchas e(“sunw”, 2000, 6.0f); • Resource-Oriented Architecture (ROA) – Stock quote resource – Resources are manipulated by exchanging representations – Eg. purchasing stock • Manipulate my portfolio resource • Handle a POST in a stock resource that I own • POST /mystocks/sunw From
  • 67. Web Services : Demo 67
  • 68. Public Web Services • Web Service X ( • • • • Amazon Web Service • Google 68
  • 69. soapUI • Open source tool for web service testing • Iinspecting, invoking, monitoring, simulating/mocking and functional/load /compliance/surveillance testing • REST/WADL and SOAP/WSDL-based Web Services over HTTP. • 69
  • 70. soapUI 70
  • 71. Resources  Some contents are borrowed from the presentation slides of Sang Shin, Java™ Technology Evangelist, Sun Microsystems, Inc.  Business Process Execution Language for Web Services, Matjaz B. Juric  Java SOA Cookbook, Eben Hewitt  SOA in Practice, Nicolai M. Josuttis 71
  • 72. Thank you 72