Metabolic effects of diabetes mellitus

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Metabolic effects of diabetes mellitus

  1. 1. METABOLIC EFFECTS OF DIABETES MELLITUS Thamir Diab Alotaify
  2. 2. Metabolic changes in diabetes The metabolic abnormalities of diabetes mellitus result from a deficiency of insulin which profoundly affects metabolism in three tissues: liver, muscle, and adipose tissue
  3. 3. On CHO metabolism • Hyperglycemia and ketoacidosis: Elevated levels of blood glucose and ketones are the hallmarks of untreated Type 1 diabetes mellitus • Hyperglycemia is caused by increased hepatic production of glucose, combined with diminished peripheral utilization
  4. 4. On lipids  increased mobilization of fatty acids from adipose tissue,combined with accelerated hepatic fatty acid βoxidation and synthesis of Ketone bodies. * Hypertriacylglycerolemia: Not all the fatty acids flooding the liver can be disposed of through oxidation or ketone body synthesis. These excess fatty acids are converted to triacylglycerol, which is packaged and secreted in very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL). Chylomicrons are synthesized from dietary lipids by the intestinal mucosal cells following a meal .
  5. 5. ketogenesis Cholesterol synthesis
  6. 6. insulin↓ CVS diseases ↓CHO utilization atherosclerosis shift of energy production from CHO catabolism to another source fat oxidation↑ ↑ cholsterol synthesis ↑acetyl coA comma Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) ↑Ketone bodies synthesis
  7. 7. Major factors contributing to hyperglycemia observed in Type 2 diabetes. Progression of blood glucose and insulin levels in patients with Type 2 diabetes.
  8. 8. Typical progression of Type 2 diabetes.

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