1. St. Paul’s Catholic College
A2 Media Studies
Unit G324: Advanced Portfolio in Media –
Evidence of Planning & Research
2. Aims and Objectives
AO2 – Assess candidates’ application of knowledge and
understanding in evaluating their own work, showing
how meanings and responses are created.
AO3 – Assess candidates’ ability to plan and construct
media products using appropriate technical and creative
AO4 – Assess candidates’ ability to undertake, apply and
present appropriate research.
A 45 second – 1 minute 30 second trailer for a NEW Soap Opera
that will be exhibited on BBC 3 at 8:30pm (after Eastenders)
that will appeal to a Male and Female audience.
Soap Opera Codes & Conventions
Multi Strand Narrative
“..the home, the family, domestic tribulations and the strong woman, and as
such, it has long been said to appeal to the female viewer”
‘Masculinity and Popular television’ – Rebecca Feasey (2007)
Is this evident and how is this presented to the audience?
Purpose of a Trailer
Textual Analysis – Coronation Street and Hollyoaks
Deadlines – Production Work
Filming Dates: 22nd and 23rd October
Edited Trailer – Complete:
Promotional Poster – Complete:
Promotional Magazine Cover – Complete:
Evaluation – Complete:
Institution research – BBC Three
4. Soap Opera Codes & Conventions – Lesson 2
1) What are some of the Codes & Conventions of this genre?
You MUST demonstrate what you already know by completing a “Spider
Diagram” of what you know about OR expect from this genre:
It is a small community
This can include the themes of:
Adultery, violence, murder,
betrayal, crime and tragedy
Variety of different
There is a focus
Is it a small or big
on family life and
Small town or big town
Shops, cafes and houses
Is it the type of location
that suits the initial
planning for the set of the
conventions of the
Soap Opera genre
There are usually people
creates a twist in the
soap opera, therefore
intriguing to the
Most of the target audiences for
soap operas are females however
Features of this,
it can relate to (Katz) personal
identity and can be intriguing to a
everyday items in
Another typical feature noticed is
Different dialects and
there is always a variety of
idiolects(this can include
It is based on a
A vulnerable male or female
There is usually a multi stranded
in a particular
There is always a hero and
there is always an antagonist
who is the main character
There is also a
There can sometimes be a weak
Soap operas usually have
focus on working- sponsors – they are normally
male or female character
class communities funded by a product placement
There are also many groups of
or advertisement company
people who are similar ages.
All of these codes and conventions of the
soap opera genre, create realism, with the
use of diegetic sound, non-diegetic sound,
dialogue and other essential camera shots
5. 2) Codes & Conventions of the Soap Opera Genre
The Soap Opera genre can be categorized by the ‘repeated’
(Steve Neale) elements of:
Family relationships and conflict
Focus on working class communities
Eastenders (1985 – Present)
Key information regarding this text:
Exhibited on BBC1 and repeated on BBC Three
One of the UK’s highest rated programs (8mil per week)
Set in the ‘kitchen sink’ setting of fictional Walford, East London
Textual Analysis Task
6. You MUST complete the Table below whilst watching the TWO promotional
trailers for the BBC Soap Opera Eastenders.
You SHOULD aim to identify key examples (Verbal, Non-Verbal, Technical)
from each trailer that demonstrates your understanding.
You COULD apply relevant audience theory to explain what impact these key
examples would have on the target demographic.
In your opinion, according to Hartley’s Seven Subjectivities, what is the target
audience for Eastenders?
Mainly targeted at females
What is the Focus of this trailer?
Love triangle between Stacey, Max and Bradley.
Impact on the Audience
(Katz, Maslow, Hartley)
Verbal code ‘love you’
Non-verbal code of Max
and Stacey kissing.
There is a two shot
used and they both
have a very loving
expression their face.
-Tanya and bradely are
“boyfriend?” and “filthy
-There is also a tense
which supports the
scene, building on the
The focus is
particularly on one
Personal identification with Love – these
are people in a relationship.
Caregivers (Maslow): they are
sympathizing with Bradely and Tanya.
Survivors (Maslow): they feel that there is
hope that the situation may be resolved and
Max and Stacey’s secret does not get around
the community which would create a bigger
issue between them and their loved ones.
This particularly shows the working class,
the age and the gender of the characters.
7. working class
aspect which is setting:
this is the market, their
homes and the town
where everyone is
living a normal life
earning and living with
their partners. There is
a particular focus also
on the colloquial
language, and the
Also there is a strong
idiolect which show
that they are London
Max and Stacey have
“Multi-Stranded the affair, and with
their other partners it
is cheating and they do
not know this.
The verbal code in this
aspect are the
There is much guilt and
this can be seen
‘Disequilibrium’ through their facial
expressions and that
they have a guilty
This is because of
issues such as their
discontinuing. There is
It also relates to Hartley: this is because
many different variety of audience can
relate to this in certain ways, for example
adults can relate to this particular focus as
the female gender can relate to the status
and working class of the female characters.
Adults and other British national people can
relate to the scenes, due to the realistic aura
of the characters behavior and personality.
Caregivers (Maslow): the audience may feel
sympathy towards Bradley, this is purely
because he is shown as a friendly, caring and
kind person and he has been taken for
What is the Focus of this trailer?
This trailer particularly focuses on many of Max’s negatively influenced choices and
encounters, as well as other characters in the trailer, Tanya, Bradely and Jack who
is also in the trailer. The many themes that are included in this trailer has been
depicted of, death, betrayal, unftaithfullness and guilt.
Impact on the Audience
(Katz, Maslow, Hartley)
Stacey is portrayed as a
character who is
This relates to Hartley, (gender) because
it appeals to the young male gender as she
8. promiscuous and
seductive to Max, this is
because of her costume,
it is short and
revealing. This also
This is also encouraged
by the lipstick color she
is wearing to appear
bright and seductive
and at the same time
appearing to be
dangerous because of
the red color.
appears to be seductive with the uniform
she is wearing.
In the background there
is a strong voiceover
which says ‘he’s made his
bed’ connoting he’s made
the choices he has for a
reason, there is an enigma
created when the
voiceover continued, ‘’ but
will be lay in it?’’ denoting
that will he keep his
decision the way it is or
will he change that. This
intrigues the audience.
The relationships are
portrayed through the
non-verbal code as dark
low-key lighting and this
creates tension and a
This relates closely to the theory (Katz) as
the trailer portrays elements of life that
need to be considered and appreciated and
not taking things for granted. This relates to
At the beginning of the
trailer, Bradley is
wearing a security
depicting his status in
The men in the trailer
are dressed in suits and
smart clothing this
shows their working
This relates to Hartley as it links with
Gender, age and nationality. This
appeals to many of the variety and
nationalities of people, particularly British
people as it portrays their middle class
status in the community.
The narrative is in
“Multi-Stranded Max’s point of view and
this is because of the
focus from camera
shots and angles that it
is what he is seeing. As
he is the one who
Informing and Education of (Katz).
This narrative point of view particularly
relates to Katz – diversion and
entertainment, because it Is showing the
situation from different perspectives.
9. meets, Stacey, Bradley
Jack and Tanya.
There is a non-diegetic
voiceover, this says
‘Disequilibrium’ ‘’judgment day’’ this
portrays the making of a
decision and its
consequences of the
decisions that have been
There are song lyrics
which include ‘’ramblers
and gamblers’’ this
relates to the story that is
being showed in the
trailer, connoting that If
Max should have made
the decisions he did to
risk his relationship with
his son and his wife
There is also a focus on a
close up shot when Stacey
is pressing ‘’LG’’ which is
lower ground, it portrays
that Max is going further
down because of the
mistakes he made and
this relates to hell and
This relates closely to Diversion, which is
Katz. This creates a sense of tension and
enigma because of the excitement created
from all of the suspense portrayed to the
audience from the characters.
A Multi-stranded narrative can be defined as…..
Telling a story from another person’s point of view.
Or two stories of two different people that intervene
It is also the telling of many (multiple) stories about many
characters in an open narrative episode or trailer.
You MUST deconstruct the 10-minute extract from Eastenders and identify where
the following elements are presented to the audience:
Family relationships and/or conflict
Focus on working class communities
You SHOULD write down x1-2 examples for EACH of the elements above that are
10. Code & Convention
Focus on working
There is a variety of
people who are going
home from a night out
together. This is viewed
through the different
and there is many
different events occurring,
and the police being
There are different
camera angles and shots
including shot-reverseshot which shows the
violent racism with the
There is also a couple who
are walking outside at
There is a strong focus on
the working class
community and this is
identified through the
community seen as very
big and there are lots of
Impact on the audience
This has a big impact on
the audience, as there is a
bit community with many
different nationalities and
ethnicities that appear in
because the audience may
feel sympathy towards the
couple as there may not
be respect and honesty in
The setting that is used is
at a pub, which is the
‘Queen Victoria’ which
instantly gives a sense of
establishment and praise
as this is a place for
people to get together and
socialize, for people to get
away from the outside
world, their normal
working lives and issues
in their personal lives.
Disequilibrium’ (Todorov) There are technical codes The impact It has on the
such as a close up shot of a audience is that the
woman who is a mother
audience may feel as
waking up in another
though the woman Kat has
person’s bed. (This is Kat
no respect or faith in her
marriage and does not
There is also another
show any faithfulness to
verbal code, which
her husband who is
includes the dialogue
portrayed as a caring
used; it denotes a very
person, who cares and
deep meaning. For
loves her. She believes
example ‘watch him like a that he is wrong and this
shows to the audience that
she does not trust her
husband, because she
feels the need to have her
husband watched. But in
contrast, the husband had
returned home late, this
The dialogue, which is
part of verbal codes, is
used to portray meaning.
‘‘There is only one woman
makes the audience think
that they may just be
another person involved
in the issue.
This romantic, loving and
affectionate line depicts
how much he is interested
in the woman and he feels
that she is the only one for
him. This is the dialogue
that he is using, just by
using this essential verbal
code it has created a lot of
meaning and has a big
impact on the audience.
Soap Opera Codes & Conventions continued – Lesson 3
According to Rebecca Feasey in ‘Masculinity and Popular television’ (2007), the Soap
Opera genre tends to focus on:
The family, the home and the everyday life tribulations, it portrays a very strong
and confident woman and this encourages and strongly appeals to female viewers.
1) – Do you agree?
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F8_ApPT6isY (First 5 minutes)
You MUST deconstruct the opening 5 minutes of a sequence from the popular ITV
Soap Opera Coronation Street (1960 – Present) to identify examples of where this
ideology is presented to the target audience.
You SHOULD also try and identify, to demonstrate your knowledge and
understanding of the genre, any Codes & Conventions associated to the Soap Opera
12. Code & Convention
Impact on the audience
Rebecca Feasey (2007) Ideology:
The representation of the men asking the women for advice and guidance show the
men’s weakness and present the women as stronger characters. This portrayal of
masculinity on the extract from coronation street is essential because these
representations not only offer a reflection of the cultural realities of men which are
presented on TV. This is purely related to the Femme Fatale.
There is also a strong focus on the sisters arguing over a man which they found out
they were both together with.
Here there is a binary opposite as it contrasts Rebecca Feasey’s ideology as one of
the sisters said “I put everything into this relationship” which instantly goes against
the ideology as she is upset and sobbing. Due to this emotional scene, the audience
act as caregivers and feel sympathy for the character because her sister does not
understand the situation.
There is also another femme fatale which has been noticed as the mother of the
daughter is requesting the sisters to ‘calm down’ this takes the role of a leader, as
men are usually more dominant.
The characters (two
The impact on the
sisters) arguing about a
audience is that they have
man. They are using
a sense of tension
different narratives and
between the sisters; this
this is taking place inside
indicates to the audience
the pub and the house.
that they may always be
Technical codes used here arguing frequently, and
are the cut shots of the
this relates to real life
situations. Relates to
Hartley – nation.
There are verbal codes
This denotes how there is
that are included, for
a very strong comparison
example the dialogue ‘’you between the sisters as one
wouldn’t know the truth if of them is more dominant
it bit you In the backside’’ and intimidating, due to
Another verbal code is
the dialogue she is using
‘alright that’s enough’ this and the other sister is
dialogue uses dominant
very upset. This relates to
There is a significant focus This closely relates to
Focus on working
on the working class
Maslow – Social climbers.
people, such as the
women working in the
pub. There is also a focus
of a view of the city
community, this helps to
identify all individuals.
Disequilibrium’ (Todorov) The disequilibrium In this This relates specially to
13. trailer is the sisters
finding out they are with
the same man.
The sisters arguing over a
man shows romance
however it is portrayed in
a negative way.
Katz, as some audience
members can relate to the
situations happening for
example sister’s issue.
This allows the audience
to become far more
involved with the
narrative as they can
relate to the characters
and how they are feeling.
Katz relates to Diversion,
the audiences can escape
and relate to the situation
happening in the drama.
Soap Opera Codes & Conventions continued – Lesson 4
1) What is the purpose of a trailer?
The purpose of the trailer is to promote the drama and entice interests and needs of
the target audience. The submerging elements of the drama will intrigue the
viewer’s allowing them to watch more of the drama as it is entertaining and entices
both male and female gender audiences.
2) What are the benefits of Multi-Platform promotion of a media text?
Institutions can promote further in a variety of ways to reach a big variety of
audiences, and it allows the media to be accessed anywhere and at anytime.
Convergence (the coming together of media texts form two different
By being broadcasted (television, film or moving image) the viewer’s then
interpret it and then encouraged to view it.
Logos are shown, for social networking sites such as twitter and Facebook at
the end of the trailer to allow audience to access their products in different
It also gives more exposure and viewers can access it through different
devices to view it for example, YouTube clips on the internet and on their
phones and ipads due to the miniaturization of technology.
Ultimately, some form of Convergence is important when promoting a text to the
Textual Analysis –
You MUST make notes on the following areas when deconstructing this sequence
from Coronation Street:
‘Personal Identification’ (Katz)
Multi stranded narrative
People getting ready for their wedding.
There is a woman who is getting married.
Facial expression of the cake maker show that she is not happy that the two
people are marrying each other; however, the audience are trying to
question why that may be.
The groom appears nervous and not happy, this demonstrates he either does
not want to get married or that he is just nervous about his big day as
stereotypically some men can be.
This is an example of a binary opposition as the bride is happy while the
groom is the total opposite.
Non-verbal code when the characters are staring this creates tension
Another non-verbal code is when there is a contrast of the bride’s smile
which portrays her nervousness and happiness whereas the groom looks in
the mirror and does not look happy.
The date of Friday the 13th is very ironic and contrasts with the use of a
verbal code, dialogue “lucky”
It is a wedding day, and many members of the audience can relate to the
preparation of this big day.
There are also mixed feelings and emotions from all the characters for this
The above link will take you to some of the latest episodes of Hollyoaks.
1. What are the connotations of the Ident for the popular Channel Four Teen
Soap Opera Hollyoaks (1995 – Present)?
The connotations of Hollyoaks include the representation of the young female and
male gender. The pink color of part of the text denotes the feminine elements and
the blue connotes dominance and masculinity. By using this representation, it
indicates to the audience that this programme focuses on the young generation of
teenagers and young adults, issues including their friendship, relationships and
school life as well as the occasional sexual tension that is involved in the character’s
everyday life. The use of the pink letters in the first part of the name depicts a
stronger formality of the feminine representation, likewise with the blue after the
pink, it denotes the idea that the male characters could possibly be weaker in some
respect. In addition, the word Hollyoaks shows the joining of different communities
as well as portraying some sort of danger and real life elements.
Hollyoaks – “White Wedding Trailer” - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Bu2sWr9Vb4
2. You MUST make notes on the following areas when deconstructing this
sequence from Hollyoaks:
Binary opposition of the non-diegetic music
Symbolism of the non-verbal code of the tear
Representation of Pregnancy
Any other examples that would impact the audience
Binary opposition of the non-diegetic music
The use of the verbal code, the non-diegetic soundtrack, its lyrics ‘white
wedding’ is contradicted as everyone and everything in the trailer is in black,
and it is the opposite to what a wedding is really meant to look like, as black
represents danger and darkness whereas a ‘white wedding’ really is meant to
present happiness on the day two hearts become one.
16. Non-verbal code of tear
The tear from the bride is represented as a tear of guilt, sadness and sorrow
instead of a tear of happiness, so this also contradicts with what a wedding is
actually meant to be like, as everyone is meant to be happy and crying tears
of joy with happiness but instead, there is a good contrast as the black tear
represents the characters sorrow.
The portrayal of her pregnancy shows her guilt and that she is traumatized as
she is getting married. This closely relates to Katz – personal identification as
many people can relate to the character’s situation.
Representation of pregnancy
The representation of the pregnancy is portrayed through a woman standing
by the stalls dropping a doll and when it falls, it breaks which symbolizes
children and innocence, this also depicts pregnancy.
The presentation of some of the people who are present at the wedding look like
they are pretending to hide the truth that they know and putting on a fake smile for
her as it’s her wedding, but it shows that It is not the smile of happiness and joy but
rather a fake smile which represents dislike. Also one of the men who wave at the
bride, shows the significance of the glove he is wearing and the fake smile he gives,
and then his facial expression changes. This connotes that he is hiding something or
something dangerous will happen as he is wearing a glove which denotes the idea
that he may want to hide something.
1) What is the role of a Producer?
The role of the producer is to oversea the preproduction, production and
2) What is the role of a Director?
The director overseas the creative elements of the production process and
directs the people whilst filming
3) Institution research –
You MUST research the institution that your trailer will be exhibited on.
Tips: Programming, Target audience, Audience figures, History of the channel.
The target audience for BBC three is people aged16-35 year olds, because
there is a variety of different programs with different genres, such as family
guy who is targeted towards teenagers and Eastenders is targeted to
teenagers and young adults.
They have an annual service budget of 89.5 million
The channel runs from 19:00 – to 04:00 am
BBC was first known as BBC choice – BBC wanted to rebrand their two digital
Genre of shops include comedy, drama, soap and they also play repeats from
Reaches over11 million viewers in a week